كتاب Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

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كتاب Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems    كتاب Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems  Emptyالثلاثاء 19 سبتمبر 2023, 2:58 am

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Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems
Hoda A. ElMaraghy

كتاب Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems  C_a_r_10
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Editor
Contents
Part I Definitions and Strategies
1 Changeability – An Introduction
H. ElMaraghy and H.-P. Wiendahl . 3
1.1 Motivation 3
1.2 Evolution of Factories . 7
1.3 Deriving the Objects of Changeability . 8
1.4 Elements of Changeable Manufacturing 10
1.5 Factory Levels . 11
1.6 Changeability Classes . 12
1.7 Changeability Objectives 13
1.7.1 Manufacturing Level . 14
1.7.2 Assembly Level . 14
1.7.3 Factory Level . 15
1.8 Changeability Enablers 15
1.8.1 Manufacturing Level . 16
1.8.2 Assembly Level . 17
1.8.3 Factory Level . 17
1.8.4 Reconfigurable Process Planning Level 18
1.8.5 Production Planning and Control Level 19
1.9 Changeability Process . 19
1.10 Conclusion 22
References . 23
2 Changing and Evolving Products and Systems – Models
and Enablers
H.A. ElMaraghy 25
2.1 Introduction and Motivation 26
2.2 The Hierarchy of Parts and Products Variants . 27
2.3 Evolving and Dynamic Parts and Products Families 32
xixii Contents
2.4 Modeling Products Evolution – A Biological Analogy 34
2.5 Design of Assembly Systems for Delayed Differentiation
of Changing and Evolving Products . 35
2.6 Process Planning – The Link Between Varying Products
and their Manufacturing Systems . 37
2.6.1 Existing Process Planning Concepts . 37
2.6.2 Process Plans Changeability . 38
2.6.3 Reconfiguring Process Plans (RPP) and Its Significance 40
2.6.4 Process Planning for Reconfigurable Machines . 41
2.7 Discussion and Conclusions 42
References . 44
3 Focused Flexibility in Production Systems
W. Terkaj, T. Tolio and A. Valente 47
3.1 The Importance of Manufacturing Flexibility
in Uncertain Production Contexts . 47
3.1.1 Focused Flexibility Manufacturing Systems – FFMSs 48
3.2 Literature Review 50
3.3 Proposal of an Ontology on Flexibility . 51
3.4 Analysis of Real Systems 55
3.4.1 Lajous Industries SA Case Study . 55
3.4.2 Riello Sistemi Case Study . 58
3.5 Using the Ontology on Flexibility to Support System Design 60
3.6 Conclusions and Future Developments . 63
References . 64
Part II Physical Enablers
4 Control of Reconfigurable Machine Tools
G. Pritschow, K-H. Wurst, C. Kircher and M. Seyfarth . 71
4.1 Introduction . 71
4.1.1 Basic Idea for Reconfigurable Machine Tools and Systems . 72
4.1.2 Initial Situation in Machining Systems and Machine Tools 72
4.2 State of the Art . 75
4.3 Configurable and Reconfigurable Machine Tools 77
4.3.1 Development of (Re)configurable Machine Tools . 77
4.3.2 Conception of a Reconfigurable Machine Tool 80
4.4 Field Bus Systems Requirements . 81
4.5 Configurable Control Systems 83
4.5.1 Middle-Ware 84
4.5.2 Configuration . 85
4.5.3 Adjustment Mechanisms for Control Systems 85
4.5.4 Configuration Procedure 87
4.5.5 Development of a Control Configuration Tool 90Contents xiii
4.5.6 Configuration of a Control System by an Expert 90
4.6 Self-Adapting Control System for RMS 91
4.6.1 Elements of a Self-Adapting Control System . 91
4.6.2 Extensions of Self-Adapting Control Systems 92
4.6.3 Method for Reconfiguration
of the Self-Adaptable Control System . 96
4.7 Summary and Conclusions . 98
References . 99
5 Reconfigurable Machine Tools for a Flexible Manufacturing System
M. Mori and M. Fujishima 101
5.1 Introduction . 101
5.2 Reconfigurable Machine Tools Development 102
5.3 Application Examples . 107
5.4 Summary . 109
References . 109
6 Reconfigurable Machine Tools and Equipment
E. Abele and A. Wörn 111
6.1 Introduction . 111
6.2 Flexibility Requirements 113
6.3 Reconfigurable Multi-Technology Machine Tool (RMM) . 116
6.3.1 Machine Tool Design . 116
6.3.2 Modules 117
6.3.3 System Interfaces 121
6.3.4 Expert Tool for System Configuration . 122
6.4 Summary . 124
References . 124
7 Changeable and Reconfigurable Assembly Systems
B. Lotter and H-P. Wiendahl 127
7.1 Introduction . 127
7.2 Flexible Manual Assembly Systems . 129
7.2.1 Single Station Assembly with Set-Wise Assembly Flow 130
7.2.2 Single Station Assembly According
to the One-Piece-Flow Principle 131
7.2.3 Multi-Station Assembly According
to the One-Piece-Flow Principle 132
7.3 Flexible Automated Systems . 134
7.4 Hybrid Assembly Systems . 136
7.4.1 Characteristics 136
7.4.2 Example of a Hybrid Assembly System . 136
7.4.3 Analysis of the Results for Automated and Hybrid
Assemblies . 140xiv Contents
7.5 Conclusion 141
References . 141
Part III Logical Enablers
8 Unified Dynamic and Control Models for Reconfigurable Robots
A.M. Djuric and W.H. ElMaraghy 147
8.1 Design of Reconfigurable Modules for the Reconfigurable
Robotics, Automation and Intelligent Systems Industry . 147
8.1.1 Description of a Robot Model 148
8.1.2 Reconfigurable Aspects of Industrial Robotic Systems . 148
8.1.3 Reconfigurable Kinematic and Dynamic Modules . 149
8.2 Design of Reconfigurable Control Platform (RCP) . 152
8.2.1 DC Motor Reconfigurable Position Control Design 152
8.3 Design of Reconfigurable Robot Platform (RRP) 157
8.4 Reverse Modeling of Reconfigurable Robot Meta-Model . 158
8.5 Conclusions . 159
References . 160
9 Reconfigurable Control of Constrained Flexible Joint Robots
Interacting with Dynamic and Changeable Environment
Y. Cao, H. ElMaraghy and W. ElMaraghy . 163
9.1 Introduction . 163
9.2 Dynamic Model of Flexible Joint Robot
in Contact with Different Environment . 166
9.3 Decoupled Controller Design . 167
9.3.1 Contact with Rigid Surface 167
9.3.2 Contact with Stiff Environment 169
9.3.3 Contact with Dynamic Environment 169
9.4 Reconfigurable Control Scheme 171
9.5 Simulation Study . 172
References . 176
10 Reconfiguring Process Plans: A New Approach to Minimize Change
A. Azab, H. ElMaraghy and S.N. Samy 179
10.1 Introduction . 180
10.2 Related Work 181
10.3 Conceptual Basis . 183
10.4 Mathematical Modeling and Programming . 184
10.5 A New Criterion in Process Planning 186
10.6 Computational Time Complexity . 187
10.7 Application and Verification 187
10.7.1 Reconfigurable Assembly Planning
of a Family of Household Products . 187Contents xv
10.7.2 Reconfigurable Process Planning for Machining
of a Front Engine Cover Part Family 190
10.7.3 Concluding Remarks . 192
10.8 Summary . 192
References . 193
11 Adaptive Production Planning and Control – Elements
and Enablers of Changeability
H-H. Wiendahl . 197
11.1 Introduction . 197
11.2 The PPC Framework 199
11.2.1 Design Aspects of a Socio-Technical PPC System . 200
11.2.2 PPC Design Matrix 201
11.3 Changeability of PPC Tools 202
11.3.1 Change Elements of PPC 203
11.3.2 Enablers of PPC Changeability . 203
11.3.3 Building Blocks of PPC Changeability 204
11.4 Adaptive PPC Solutions . 204
11.4.1 Functional Models . 205
11.4.2 Planning and Control Methods . 206
11.4.3 Data Models 207
11.4.4 Data Interfaces 208
11.5 Change Process in PPC 209
11.6 Summary and Further Research . 210
References . 211
12 Component Oriented Design of Change-Ready MPC Systems
M.A. Ismail and H.A. ElMaraghy 213
12.1 Introduction . 213
12.2 Related Review 215
12.3 The New MPC System Characteristics . 216
12.3.1 Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE) . 218
12.3.2 Component-Oriented Versus Object-Oriented Programming 219
12.4 Mini-Case Study: Component-Based Aggregate Production
Planning System Framework . 219
12.4.1 System Architecture 219
12.4.2 Change-Ready MPC Framework . 220
12.5 Discussion and Conclusions 224
References . 225
13 Dynamic Capacity Planning and Modeling Its Complexity
A. Deif and H. ElMaraghy 227
13.1 Introduction . 227
13.1.1 The Dynamic Capacity Problem 227xvi Contents
13.1.2 Complexity vs. Uncertainty 228
13.1.3 Complexity in Dynamic Capacity Planning 229
13.2 Literature Review 229
13.3 System Dynamic Model for Multi-Stage Production . 231
13.3.1 Multi Stage Production System . 231
13.3.2 Model Nomenclature . 232
13.3.3 Mathematical Model . 233
13.4 Numerical Simulation of Industrial Case Study 236
13.4.1 Overview of the Multi-Stage Engine Block Production Line 236
13.4.2 Input Data 236
13.4.3 Numerical Simulation Results 238
13.5 Conclusions . 243
References . 244
Part IV Managing and Justifying Change in Manufacturing
14 Design for Changeability
G. Schuh, M. Lenders, C. Nussbaum and D. Kupke . 251
14.1 Production Trends in High-Wage Countries . 252
14.2 Introduction of a Target System for Complex Production Systems 253
14.2.1 Holistic Definition of Production Systems 253
14.2.2 Target System for Complex Production Systems 254
14.2.3 Differentiation Between Complicated Systems
and Complex Systems 256
14.3 Approach to Mastering Complexity in Production Systems 257
14.3.1 Object-Oriented Design . 257
14.3.2 Object-Oriented Management of Production Systems 258
14.4 Case Studies . 261
14.4.1 A: Object-Oriented Production Design 262
14.4.2 B: Release-Engineering in the Automotive Industry . 263
14.5 Summary . 265
References . 266
15 Changeability Effect on Manufacturing Systems Design
T. AlGeddawy and H. ElMaraghy 267
15.1 Introduction . 267
15.2 Synthesis of Manufacturing Systems 268
15.2.1 Enabling Changeability in Systems Frameworks 268
15.2.2 Effect of Changeability Enablers
on the Factory Level Design . 271
15.2.3 Changeability Effect on Machine Level Design . 273
15.2.4 Product Design Directions . 274
15.3 Changeability Integration into the Design Process . 276
15.3.1 The System-Product Changeability Design Loop 276Contents xvii
15.3.2 Biological Evolution/Co-Evolution Analogy . 278
15.4 Final Remarks . 279
References . 280
16 Managing Change and Reconfigurations of CNC Machine Tools
R. Hedrick and J. Urbanic 285
16.1 Introduction . 285
16.1.1 Reconfiguration Considerations 287
16.2 The Change or Reconfiguration Management Methodology . 289
16.3 Pneumatic Flow Control Valve Case Study . 294
16.4 Summary and Conclusions . 299
References . 300
17 Economic and Strategic Justification of Changeable, Reconfigurable
and Flexible Manufacturing
O. Kuzgunkaya and H.A. ElMaraghy . 303
17.1 Introduction . 303
17.2 Literature Review 304
17.3 Proposed RMS Justification Model 305
17.3.1 Financial Objective 308
17.3.2 System Complexity 309
17.3.3 System Responsiveness . 310
17.3.4 Overall Model . 310
17.4 Illustrative Example 313
17.4.1 Comparison of Reconfigurable and Flexible Scenarios
over the System Life Cycle 315
17.4.2 FMS and RMS Comparison Through Life-Cycle Simulation 317
17.5 Conclusions . 318
References . 319
18 Quality and Maintainability Frameworks for Changeable
and Reconfigurable Manufacturing
W.H. ElMaraghy and K.T. Meselhy . 321
18.1 Introduction . 322
18.2 Quality and the Manufacturing System Design 322
18.3 Changeable Manufacturing and Quality 325
18.4 Effect of Reconfigurable Manufacturing System Design on Quality . 328
18.5 The Changeability and Maintainability Relationship . 330
18.6 Conclusion 333
References . 334xviii Contents
19 Maintenance Strategies for Changeable Manufacturing
A.W. Labib and M.N. Yuniarto . 337
19.1 Introduction . 337
19.2 Recent Developments . 338
19.3 Current Research and Trends . 338
19.3.1 Model of Integration Between Intelligent Manufacturing
Control System and Intelligent Maintenance System . 339
19.3.2 Fuzzy Logic Controller I and II (FLC I and II) 341
19.3.3 Fuzzy Maintenance and Decision Making Grid . 344
19.4 Case Study 348
19.5 Conclusions and Future Research . 349
References . 350
Part V Future Directions
20 The Cognitive Factory
M.F. Zäh, M. Beetz, K. Shea, G. Reinhart, K. Bender, C. Lau,
M. Ostgathe, W. Vogl, M. Wiesbeck, M. Engelhard, C. Ertelt, T. Rühr,
M. Friedrich and S. Herle 355
20.1 Introduction . 356
20.2 Intelligence in Automated Systems 356
20.3 Cognitive Technical Systems . 359
20.4 The Cognitive Factory 360
20.4.1 Vision and Goals 360
20.4.2 Core Aspects to Achieve the Cognitive Factory . 362
20.5 Summary and Outlook 368
References . 369
21 Migration Manufacturing – A New Concept
for Automotive Body Production
T.P. Meichsner 373
21.1 Initial Situation 373
21.2 Development of the Basic Concept 376
21.3 Operating Phases of the Migration Concept . 380
21.4 Practical Evaluation and Implementation . 382
21.5 Conclusion and Outlook . 385
References . 387
22 Changeable Factory Buildings – An Architectural View
J. Reichardt and H-P. Wiendahl 389
22.1.1 The Factory Planners View 390
22.1.2 The Challenge: Multi-User, Changeable
and Scalable Buildings 392
22.2 Performance and Constituent Components of Factory Buildings 394Contents xix
22.2.1 Form Follows Performance 394
22.2.2 Building Components 395
22.3 Synergetic Planning of Processes, Logistics and Buildings 397
22.4 Industrial Example of a Transformable Factory 398
22.5 Conclusion 400
References . 401
Index . 403
Index
A
Adaptability 3, 26, 71, 73, 75, 115, 198, 205,
206, 210, 268, 305, 355, 356, 359, 361,
379, 394, 395, 397
Adjustability 18, 19
Aggregate Planning 213
Agile Manufacturing 213, 214
Architecture 49, 63, 84, 91, 92, 97–99, 113,
116, 215, 218, 219, 228, 270, 271, 274,
357, 358, 360, 362, 368, 389, 390, 394,
397
Assembly 6, 7, 11–15, 17, 25, 27, 29, 30,
36–39, 41, 43, 76, 77, 91, 116, 121, 123,
182–185, 187–190, 192, 236, 270, 271,
323, 326, 365, 366, 374, 377, 390, 391,
399
Assembly System 26, 35
Assembly System Design 26
Automated Assembly 182
Automotive Manufacture 373
B
Biological 25, 34, 275, 278, 279
Body-in-White Production 373
C
Capacity Planning 227, 229, 234, 241, 271
Change Management 285
Changeability 3, 8–13, 15–22, 26, 38, 40,
51, 54, 63, 75, 180, 193, 197, 201–205,
207–210, 213–217, 227, 267–269, 271,
273–280, 304, 321, 326, 330, 337, 349,
356, 368, 373, 376, 389, 391, 393, 394
Changeability Enablers 3, 15, 202, 273, 275,
376, 389
Changeability Objects 3, 19
Changeability Strategy 3
Changeable Manufacturing 10, 13, 16, 27,
32, 179, 213–216, 222, 224, 227–229,
243, 244, 303, 304, 322, 323, 331, 337,
341
Cladistic 25, 34–36, 43
Classification 14, 25, 26, 32, 35, 50, 63, 87,
94, 148, 149, 275, 330, 361, 363
CNC Machine 285
CNC Machine Tool 101, 285
Co-evolution 43, 279
Code 56, 89, 218, 297, 309, 346, 349, 364,
366
Cognition 355, 359, 368
Cognitive 330, 355, 356, 359–363, 368
Compatibility 32, 121, 217, 275, 287–294,
296–300, 376, 377, 382
Competitiveness 3, 390
Complexity 187, 218, 227–229, 240, 241,
303, 309, 315, 316, 321, 333
Component-Based MPC System 213
Computer Integrated Manufacturing 213
Concurrency 84
Configurable Control System 71, 83
Configuration 18, 27, 48, 60, 63, 71–77, 80,
83, 85–91, 93–97, 99, 101, 103–106,
115, 121–124, 181, 191, 205, 209, 210,
270–272, 275, 276, 280, 285–288,
290–292, 294–296, 299, 300, 303, 304,
307–310, 313–315, 317–319, 321, 324,
327–329, 331, 334, 358, 377, 382
Configuration Procedure 71, 124
403404 Index
Control 11, 14, 19, 71, 83, 85, 88, 90–92, 96,
99, 147, 152, 159, 160, 197, 199, 206,
213, 216, 234, 235, 271, 294, 339, 341,
360, 362
Convertability 325, 327
Customization 4, 16, 25, 30, 31, 33, 43, 48,
49, 179, 180, 214, 268, 373
D
Decision Theory 47, 337
Design 35, 51, 52, 60–63, 109, 116, 147,
152, 157, 187, 200, 201, 213, 215,
267–269, 271, 273, 274, 276–280, 346,
389, 391–393, 395
Design Field 389
Design Synthesis 267
Differentiation 4, 25, 30, 31, 33, 37, 38, 43
Dynamics 147, 230
E
Economic Justification 303
Enablers 3, 4, 9, 14, 16–19, 22, 25–27, 44,
54, 197, 202–204, 216, 228, 272, 273,
276, 280, 356
Equipment 7, 111, 304, 374
Evolution 7, 33, 34, 278
Evolving Family 25, 32, 275
Evolving Part 26
Evolving Parts 32, 34, 43, 181
Evolving Parts and Products Families 26
F
Family 7, 13, 25–27, 29–40, 43, 48, 49, 56,
64, 117, 179, 183, 187, 190, 274, 275,
280, 290
Feature 12, 50, 90, 105, 113, 117, 184–187,
203, 218, 222, 227, 229, 243, 323, 364,
365, 378
Field-bus Systems 71
Flexibility 13, 14, 47–55, 57, 60–63, 101,
111, 113, 269, 355
Focused Flexibility Manufacturing Systems
(FFMSs) 47, 49
Framework 8, 36, 50, 51, 54, 95, 182, 197–
199, 201, 210, 213, 215, 216, 219, 220,
228, 244, 267–271, 273, 274, 277–280,
321, 323, 328–330, 333, 334, 338, 349
Functionality 52, 53, 57, 60, 63
Fuzzy Logic 183, 338–342, 345, 346, 348,
349, 357
G
Granularity 18
Group 29, 32, 36, 85, 274
Group Technology 275
H
Hard- and Software Interface 71
Hierarchy 26, 27, 43, 305, 345
I
Industrial Robot 147, 149
Integrability 16, 17, 214
Intelligent Automation 355
Intelligent Manufacturing System 337, 340,
350
L
Laser 72, 73, 87, 99, 114, 362
Logistic 6, 13, 26, 197, 230, 285, 390
M
Machining Center 101, 295
Maintainability 321, 330, 333
Maintenance 81, 102, 122, 321, 323–326,
330–334, 337–341, 344–350, 361, 384,
386
Maintenance Strategies 337
Manual Assembly 189
Manufacturing Planning 213
Manufacturing System Design 47, 279
Manufacturing System 4, 6, 13, 14, 16, 17,
25–27, 30–35, 37, 38, 40, 42–44, 48–51,
63, 71, 72, 74, 95, 109, 112, 192, 213,
214, 216, 218, 228, 230, 231, 267–270,
274, 276, 279, 285, 291, 303–305, 318,
319, 337, 338, 356–358, 361, 368, 385,
391
Mathematical Programming 40, 179
Mechatronic Components 71, 94
Metal Cutting, Assembly 179
Metrics 22, 25, 53, 315, 323
Migration 373, 375–378, 380, 382–386
Mobility 17, 18, 53
Modular Design 71, 80, 267, 273, 275
Modularity 9, 16, 17, 22, 29, 30, 32, 75, 116,
214, 273–275, 280, 325–327, 376
Multi-criteria Decision Making 303Index 405
N
Neutrality 19
Niche Products 31
Niche Vehicles 373
O
Object Oriented MPC System 213
Ontology 47, 51, 54, 55, 60, 62
Ontology on Flexibility 47, 51, 54, 55, 60, 62
P
Platform 30, 31, 83–86, 88, 89, 99, 102, 116,
158, 270, 274, 279, 292, 375–377, 385
Portfolio 12, 13, 15, 31, 391
(PPC) Production Planning and Control
197–199, 229
Precedence 36, 37, 39–42, 182, 184–186,
189, 190
Process Planning 11, 18, 32, 33, 37, 38,
40–42, 179, 183, 184, 186, 190, 193, 216,
275, 285, 364
Process Plans 11, 18, 25–27, 30, 34, 37–44,
179–181, 183, 186, 192, 193, 275, 285,
304, 327, 331, 364, 367
Product Evolution 26, 34, 179
Product Families 26, 27, 30, 32, 34, 43, 181
Production Planning 11, 19, 52, 57, 60, 63,
197, 199, 216, 219
Q
Quality 19, 321–323, 325, 326, 328,
331–334
R
Real Options 63, 373
Reconfigurability 13–15, 26, 49, 51, 72, 75,
109, 268, 272, 273, 275, 276, 279, 305
Reconfigurable Machine Tool 80, 111, 191,
273
Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems 49,
63, 111, 115, 181, 214, 304, 321, 334,
356, 385
Reconfigurable Modules 147
Reconfigurable Robots and Machine Tools
71
Reconfiguration 40, 96, 97, 101, 186, 191,
285–287, 289, 303, 307, 312, 314, 315
Reconfiguration Management 285, 289
Reconfiguring Process Plans 25, 26, 40, 41,
43, 179
Reliability 308, 321
Responsiveness 240, 303, 310, 315, 316
Robot 147
S
Scalability 9, 16, 22, 48, 102, 214, 216, 218,
221, 229–231, 233, 234, 237, 238, 241,
243, 244, 272, 274, 280, 305, 325, 327,
349, 376, 382
Self Adapting Control System 71
Self-adaptable 91, 93
Species 33, 34, 64, 278, 279
Supply Chain 12, 32, 37, 180, 183, 199, 230,
270, 279, 384
Sustainability 390, 398
Synergetic Factory Planning 398
Synthesis 267, 268
T
Transformability 13, 15, 19, 21, 272,
398–400
Transformable Factory 273, 391, 399, 400
Turbulence 50, 58, 197, 391
U
Uncertainty 227, 228
Universality 17
V
Variability 36, 62, 234, 237, 327, 333
Variant 39, 181, 187–190, 367, 375, 386
Variation 4, 25–27, 29–33, 37–39, 41, 43, 44,
214, 230, 237, 240, 303


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