كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
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 كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO

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Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO
Second Edition
Michael Tolinski  

كتاب Additives for Polyolefins - Getting the Most out of Polypropylene, Polyethylene and TPO  A_f_p_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface to the Second Edition . xi
SECTION I OVERVIEW OF POLYOLEFINS AND ADDITIVES
1 Introduction . 3
1.1 Importance of Polyolefins . 3
1.2 Importance of Polyolefin Additives 4
1.3 Recent Issues in Using Additives . 4
1.3.1 Matching Property Requirements with Additive Type and Amount .5
1.3.2 Doing More with Less Material 5
1.3.3 New Properties for New Markets .6
1.3.4 Unintended Additive Interactions .6
1.3.5 Faster Processing .7
2 Trends in Polyolefin and Additives Use . 8
2.1 Polyolefin Market Trends . 8
2.1.1 Growth Versus Volatility 8
2.1.2 Future Resin Growth and Prices .9
2.2 Overall Trends in Additives Production and Use 9
2.3 Trends in Resin Compounding . 10
2.4 Trends in Specific Polyolefin Applications 10
2.4.1 Packaging Trends 11
2.4.2 Automotive Trends for Polyolefins 13
2.4.3 Construction and Infrastructure Application Trends 14
SECTION II ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE
3 Antioxidants and Heat Stabilization . 19
3.1 Importance of AOs and Stabilizers for Polyolefins . 19
3.2 Primary and Secondary AOs . 21
3.2.1 Primary AOs (Radical Scavengers) 22
3.2.2 Secondary AOs (Peroxide Decomposers) .23
3.3 Factors Determining AO Selection . 24
3.3.1 Thermal and Color Requirements in Melt Processing and in Service 26
3.3.2 AO Selection by Polyolefin Type and Finished Product Form .28
3.3.3 AO Physical Forms and Handling 28
v3.3.4 Synergies and Antagonistic Interactions 30
3.3.5 Costs 30
3.3.6 Environmental, Food Contact, and Health and Safety Considerations 31
4 Ultraviolet Light Protection and Stabilization 32
4.1 UV Degradation of Polyolefins 32
4.2 UV Blockers, Screeners, and Absorbers . 34
4.2.1 UV-Blocking and -Absorbing Fillers and Pigments 34
4.2.2 Organic UV Absorbers 36
4.3 Quenchers and Peroxide Decomposers . 36
4.4 HALS: Free-Radical Scavengers 37
4.4.1 Overview of HALS .37
4.4.2 Interactions of HALS and Other Additives 37
4.5 Factors Determining Stabilizer Selection . 40
4.5.1 General Factors .40
4.5.2 Light Stabilizers for Specific Polyolefin Applications 40
5 Flame-Retarding Additives 44
5.1 Overview: The Need for FR Formulations . 44
5.1.1 Trends in Flame-Retarding Additives 44
5.1.2 Mechanisms of Burning 45
5.2 Halogen-Based FRs . 45
5.2.1 Composition of H-FRs 45
5.2.2 Concerns About Halogenated FRs 48
5.3 Mineral-Based FRs 49
5.3.1 ATH and MDH .49
5.3.2 Other Mineral Fillers’ FR Effects .50
5.4 Intumescent and Phosphorous-Based FRs 50
5.4.1 Mechanisms of Phosphorous FRs .51
5.4.2 Issues in Improving Phosphorous FRs .51
5.5 Factors Determining the Selection of FR Additives 51
5.5.1 Cost, Risk, and Performance .53
5.5.2 Property Effects and Co-additive Interactions .53
5.5.3 FR Density and Form 54
5.5.4 Halogen-Free Benefits (and Costs) .55
6 Additives for Modifying Electrical Properties 57
6.1 Antistatic and ESD Additives . 57
6.1.1 Migrating Chemical Antistats .58
6.1.2 Nonmigrating Polymers as Permanent Antistatic/ESD Additives .61
6.1.3 Conductive Fillers as Antistatic/ESD Additives 62
6.2 EMI Shielding . 65
6.2.1 Conductive Fillers for EMI Shielding 65
6.2.2 Conductive Fibers for EMI Shielding 65
vi CONTENTS6.3 Choosing Antistat/ESD/EMI Additives 65
6.3.1 Antistat Selection Factors .65
6.3.2 Design Considerations for EMI Shielding 67
SECTION III MECHANICAL PROPERTY ENHANCEMENT
7 Overview of Fillers and Fibers 71
7.1 Importance of Fillers and Fibers for Polyolefins . 71
7.2 Common Inorganic Fillers 72
7.2.1 Calcium Carbonate 72
7.2.2 Talc 73
7.2.3 Wollastonite .74
7.2.4 Mica .74
7.2.5 Silica 75
7.2.6 Glass Flour and Spheres 75
7.2.7 Other Microfillers 76
7.3 Nanofillers . 76
7.3.1 Potential of Nanofillers .77
7.3.2 Platy Nanofillers 77
7.3.3 Nanotubes 78
7.3.4 Nanocellulose 79
7.3.5 POSS Nanomaterials .79
7.4 Impact Modifiers and TPOs 79
7.4.1 Impact Modification for Thick Products 80
7.4.2 Impact Modification for Film and Sheet 81
7.5 Fiber Reinforcement 82
7.5.1 Short Glass Fibers .82
7.5.2 Long Glass Fibers .83
7.5.3 Plant-Based Fibers .85
7.5.4 Other Kinds of Fiber Reinforcement 87
8 Factors Determining the Selection of Fillers and Fibers . 89
8.1 Cutting Costs and Improving Properties with Fillers . 89
8.2 Impact Modification: Balancing Stiffness with Toughness . 91
8.3 Mechanical Reinforcement: Properties Create Opportunities 93
8.4 Processing Pitfalls and Hidden Costs . 95
8.5 Questions When Choosing Fillers and Fibers 98
SECTION IV APPEARANCE ENHANCEMENT
9 Colorants 103
9.1 Coloring Strategies 103
9.1.1 White Colorants .104
9.1.2 Black Colorants .104
9.1.3 Full Spectrum Colorants .105
9.1.4 Metallic Colorants .107
9.1.5 Pearlescent Colorants and Color-Enhancing Additives .109
CONTENTS vii9.2 Colorant Delivery and Processing 110
9.2.1 Colorant Delivery . 110
9.2.2 Processing Issues with Colorants . 111
9.3 Factors That Affect the Choice of Colorant 112
9.3.1 General Factors 112
9.3.2 Additive/Colorant Interactions . 114
9.3.3 External Coatings Versus Internal Colorants 115
10 Nucleation and Clarity . 117
10.1 Nucleating Agents: Overview . 117
10.1.1 Nucleating Agent Effects on Processing and Properties 118
10.1.2 Clarifying Agents 121
10.2 Factors in Choosing Nucleating/Clarifying Agents . 122
10.2.1 Applications and Resins 122
10.2.2 Practical Use Factors .124
SECTION V PROCESSING AIDS
11 Processing Aids for Molding . 129
11.1 Melt Flow Modification and Mold Release . 129
11.1.1 Melt Flow-Enhancing Lubricants and Modifiers .129
11.1.2 Mold Release Additives 132
11.2 Special Cases for Processing Aids in Molding 133
11.2.1 Aids for Molding Highly Filled Compounds .133
11.2.2 Aids for Injection Stretch Blow Molding .134
11.2.3 Aids for Rotational Molding .134
12 Processing Aids for Extrusion . 135
12.1 Requirements of Extrusion-Based Processes 135
12.2 Slip Agents 135
12.3 Antiblocking Agents . 137
12.3.1 Inorganic Antiblocks .137
12.3.2 Organic Antiblocks .138
12.3.3 Clarity/Slip Antiblocks 140
12.4 Additives for Reducing Melt Fracture and Die Buildup 141
12.4.1 Fluoropolymer Processing Aids 141
12.4.2 Reducing Die and Screen Pack Fouling .142
12.5 Processing Aids for Specific Extrusion Situations . 142
12.5.1 High-Throughput Extrusion 143
12.5.2 LLDPE Blown Film Stability .143
12.5.3 Oriented PP Slit Tape Fibrillation 143
12.5.4 Thin PP Fibers .143
12.5.5 Highly Filled Masterbatch Production 143
12.5.6 Wood-Plastic Composites .144
viii CONTENTSSECTION VI OTHER MODIFICATIONS OF FORM AND FUNCTION
13 Reducing Density: Polyolefin Foams 147
13.1 Blowing Foams: Chemical Agents Versus Physical Agents 147
13.1.1 Physical Foaming Agents 148
13.1.2 Chemical Foaming Agents 148
13.2 Product Sectors Requiring CFAs 149
13.2.1 Molded Packaging and Consumer Products .149
13.2.2 Automotive Moldings .149
13.2.3 Extruded Construction Products .151
13.2.4 Foaming in Rotational Molding 152
13.3 Factors in Blowing Better Foams . 152
14 Coupling and Compatibilizing 153
14.1 Coupling Fillers and Fibers with the Polyolefin Matrix 153
14.1.1 Traditional Coupling Agents .153
14.1.2 Alternative Coupling Agents 155
14.1.3 Coupling Agents: Special Situations 155
14.2 Compatibilizers for Integrating Regrind and Recycled Materials . 156
15 Cross-Linking 159
15.1 Cross-Linked PE: Advantages and Applications 159
15.2 Cross-Linking Agents . 160
15.2.1 Peroxide-Based Agents .160
15.2.2 Silane-Based Agents .160
15.2.3 Radiation-Induced Cross-Linking .161
15.3 Factors in Choosing Cross-Linking Agents 162
16 Sterilization and Radiation Resistance . 163
16.1 Sterilization Effects on Polyolefin Products . 163
16.1.1 Effects of Irradiation Sterilization 163
16.1.2 Effects of EtO Sterilization .164
16.1.3 Effects of High Temperature Sterilization .164
16.2 Additive Solutions for Sterilization-Resistant Polyolefins . 164
17 Aesthetics Enhancement and Surface Modification . 166
17.1 Antiscratch Additives 166
17.1.1 Conventional Antiscratch Approaches .166
17.1.2 Evaluating Antiscratch Additives .167
17.1.3 Alternative Antiscratch Additives .167
17.2 Antifogging Agents . 168
17.3 Antimicrobials and Biocides . 169
17.4 Odor-Modifying Additives 170
CONTENTS ix18 Gas Barrier Properties Enhancement 171
18.1 Polyolefin Additives as Barriers to Water Vapor Transmission 171
18.2 Oxygen Transmission and the Scavenging Effects of Additives . 171
18.2.1 Additives as Oxygen Barriers .171
18.2.2 Oxygen-Scavenging Additives 172
18.3 Additives for Controlling Other Gases . 173
SECTION VII CONCLUSION: INCORPORATING ADDITIVES
19 Adding Additives to Resin . 177
19.1 Handling Additives . 177
19.1.1 Practical Handling Issues 177
19.1.2 Health and Safety Issues .178
19.2 Mixing and Dispersing Additives into Resin . 178
19.2.1 Screw-Processing Developments 178
19.2.2 “Lean” Compounding .179
19.3 Blending and Feeding Additives . 179
19.4 Choosing the Best Form of an Additive . 180
20 Choosing Additives for Sustainability 183
20.1 Factors That Make Polyolefins Sustainable . 183
20.2 Characteristics of Sustainable Polyolefin Additives 184
20.3 Examples of “Green” Uses of Additives in Polyolefin Materials . 185
20.4 Additives for Promoting Polyolefin Biodegradability: Questions and Concerns 186
20.4.1 Background and Examples 186
20.4.2 Arguments Related to Biodegradability Additives .188
20.5 Lessons to Learn for Choosing Sustainable Additives for Polyolefins . 189
References . 191
Index . 215
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f,” “t,” and “b” refer to figures, tables, and boxes, respectively.
A
Abaca fiber, 87
Absorbers, UV light, 36
Acid scavengers and neutralizers, 22,
2930
hydrotalcite antacids, 22, 30
metal stearates, 2930. See also
Stearates, metal
Additive interactions, 6, 28, 30, 3740,
97
Additives
faster processing, 7
growth of, 910
handling of, 2830, 177178
health and safety issues. See Health,
safety, and the environment
importance of, 4
issues with, 47
matching property requirements, 5
mixing and feeding of. See Tooling and
equipment, process
new properties for new markets, 6
physical forms of, 2830, 177178.
See also Masterbatches
prices of, 10
sustainability of, 183
trends in uses of, 10
unintended interactions, 6
volume in products, 56
Aesthetics enhancement and surface
modification. See also
Antiscratch additives
by antifogging agents, 168169
by antimicrobial agents/biocides,
169170
odor-modifying additives, 170
Agave plant, 87
Agricultural film, case, 15b
Aluminum trihydrate, 49
Amines, ethoxylated (EA), 60
Antiblocking additives, 185186
blocking force, measuring, 137
calcium carbonate. See Calcium
carbonate (CaCO3)
clarity/slip antiblocks, 140141
diatomaceous earth (DE), 137138
nepheline syenite, 138
organic antiblocks, 138140
pyrophyllite, 138
recycled glass powder, 138
silica, synthetic, 137138. See also
Silica
talc. See Talc
Antifogging agents, 168169
evaluating effectiveness of, 168
migrating agents, 168169
Antimicrobial and antifungal agents,
169170
growth and use of, 12, 14, 169170
hospital acquired infections and, 169
pest repellents, 170
silver-ion based, 169170
Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3), 4647
Antioxidants (AOs) and heat stabilization,
10, 1920, 163
acid scavengers. See Acid scavengers
and neutralizers
biological-based, case, 31b
degradation mechanisms.
See Autoxidation
factors determining selection of, 2431
costs, 3031
environmental effects, 31
food contact approvals, 31
health and safety, 31
physical forms and handling, 2830
polyolefin type and finished product
form, 28
synergies and antagonistic
interactions, 30
thermal and color requirements,
2628
gas fading, 27, 30
melt processing stabilization, 21f
metal deactivators, 30
oxidative induction time (OIT), 26, 29
primary AOs (radical scavengers),
2124
commercial AO, examples, 25t
hindered amine light stabilizers
(HALS) as, 2223, 27, 30, 164.
See also Ultraviolet (UV) light
stabilization
hindered phenols, 22
sulfurbridged, 29
hydroxylamines, 23
lactones (benzofuranones), 23
phenol-free AOs, 2223, 27, 164
vitamin E (α-tocopherol), 22, 31
secondary AOs (peroxide decomposers)
commercial, examples, 26t
phosphite-based, 23
thioester-based, 24
tris(nonylphenyl) phosphite (TNPP),
2324
stabilizer packages for pressure pipe,
case, 28b
synergies of, 30
wire and cable, usage in, case, 29b
Antiscratch additives
conventional, 166167
evaluation of, 167
micronized talc, 167
migratory, 167
nonmigratory, 167
polymerization processes, 168
Antistatic additives, 10, 5764. See also
Electrostatic discharge/
dissipation (ESD)
approaches used for, 58t
conductive fillers as, 6264, 63f
external agents, 5860
factors in selecting, 6566
food use restrictions for, 66
migrating, 5861, 6567
amides (lauric diethanolamide,
LDA), 6061
amines, ethoxylated (EA), 60
glycerol esters, 66
glycerol monostearate, GMS),
61
polyglycerol esters (PGEs), 61
215Antistatic additives (Continued)
nonmigrating (permanent), 5862
carbon nanotubes and graphenes,
64
conductive fillers (carbon black),
5860, 6264
inherently conductive polymers
(ICPs), 62
inherently dissipating polymers
(IDPs), 61
percolation threshold, 6263
representative property values for, 59t,
60t
resistivity of, 5758
selection factors for, 6566
Artificial turf stabilization, 38b
Automotive trends
engineering composite, 13
lighter weights, 13
lower costs, 13
paint-free colored surfaces, 13
recyclability and sustainability, 13
stiffness and low temperature impact,
13
Autoxidation, 1920, 3233
chain scission caused by, 20, 32
cross-linking caused by, 20, 32
Azodicarbonamide (ADCA), 148
B
Bamboo, 8687
Barium sulfate (barytes, blanc fixe),
7677
Barrier properties. See Gas barrier
additives
Basalt mineral fibers, 87
Benzophenones, as UV absorbers,
36
Benzotriazoles, as UV absorbers,
36
Biocides. See Antimicrobial and
antifungal agents
Biodegradability, 186189
arguments related, 188189
“d2w” additive, 188
Evive’s “P-Life,” 188
hurdle, 187
ironic molecules, 186
lightweighting parts and improving
recyclability, 186
oxodegradability, 187188
phoenix plastics, 188
suppliers and converters, 187
Black colorants, 104105
Blockers, UV light, 3436
Blow molding, 111
Blowing agents. See Foams and foaming
agents
Blue pigmentation, 105
Boron nitride, 76
C
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), 910, 40,
50, 7273, 89, 185
as an antiblock, 138
combined with other fillers, 50
as a nucleating agent, 121
Carbon black (CB), 6364, 98. See also
Antistatic additives
Carbon fibers, 65, 87
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 64
Carbon-based platy nanofillers, 78
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), 79
Chain scission. See Autoxidation
Chemical foaming agents, 148149
automotive moldings, 149151
in cork design, 150b
cost savings, 150b
endothermic/inorganic, 149
exothermic/organic, 149
extruded construction products, 151
microcapsule foams, 149
molded packaging and consumer
products, 149
rotational molding, 152
Clarifiers. See Nucleating agents
(nucleators) and clarifiers
Clarifying agents/clarified PP (cPP)
DMDBS alternatives, 122
evaluating new clarifying agents, 123b
factors in choosing for
applications and resins, 122124
cost, 124125
organoleptic side effects, 125
processing side effects, 125
regrind/recycling reuse, 125
organophosphate, 122
Colorants, 101
black pigments, 104105
carbon black, 104
mineral pigments, 105
delivery and form of, 110111
dyes, 105, 107, 110
factors in selecting
additive/colorant interactions,
114115
color evaluation, 112
external vs. internal colorants,
115116
gloss, 113
interactions, 114115. See also
Additive interactions
metamerism, 112
organic versus inorganic pigments,
112
paints and coatings, 115
pigment particle size, 113
pigments versus properties, 112113
pigment versus filler/fiber, 112
product thickness, 114
regulatory issues, 114
thin colored films, 115116
weatherability, 113
fluorescent, 109
full spectrum colorants, 105107
granite, 110
laser marking, 116
“liquid color,” 110
metallic colorants, 107109
aluminum, 108109
stainless steel, 107108
organic and inorganic, 106t
pearlescent and special effects
colorants, 109110
mica flakes, 107110. See also Mica
for pharmaceutical packaging, 114b
phosphorescent, 110
pigments, 6, 105107
inorganic, 105
organic, 105107
processing of, 111112
testing of color, 112
white pigments, 104
barium sulfate, 104. See also Barium
sulfate
titanium dioxide, 104. See also
Titanium dioxide (TiO2)
zinc sulfide, 104
wood grain, 110
Commodity plastics. See Polyolefins
(polyethylene and
polypropylene)
Compatibilizers, 153, 156158
in automotive moldings, 157b
copolymers (olefin block) as, 157
coupling agents as, 157158. See also
Coupling agents
mixed polymer scrap, 158
for recycling, 156158
Compounding, 95, 111
“Lean” compounding, 179
trends in, 10. See also Direct extrusion
and compounding
Construction and infrastructure
higher throughputs and quality, 14
high temperatures and flame retardance,
14
longer lifespans, 14
Controlled rheology polypropylene.
See Processing aids
Coupling agents, 14, 49, 153156
alternative agents, 155
compatibilization. See Compatibilizers
for glass fibers, 82, 154
for impact modification, 81
in long glass fiber polypropylene, 154b
maleic anhydride (MA), 153
maleic anhydride-grafted, 86, 153
for mineral fillers, 72, 7475
for nanocomposites, 71, 155
organosilane coupling agents, 154
216 INDEXfor plant based fibers, 7276, 155
quaternary ammonium, 78, 155156
silane-based agents, 49, 7274, 155
titanates and zirconates, 49, 152, 155,
158
for wood-plastic composites (WPC)
processing, 155
Cross-linking, 19, 29b, 159. See also
Autoxidation
crosslinking PP, 161
factors in processing, 162
interactions, 160. See also Additive
interactions
organic peroxide agents, 160
peroxide agents, 160
polyethylene (PE), 159160
properties of cross-linked PE, 159160
radiation-induced, 161162
silane based agents, 160161
Curaua plant, 86
Cyclic olefin copolymers (COCs)
for barrier applications, 172
as processing aid, 136137
for retortable packaging, 165b
D
Degradation, 19
Dense fillers, 76
Design of experiments (DoE), 5, 98,
140141
Diatomaceous earth (DE). See Silica
Dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS), 122
1,2,3,4-Di-para-methylbenzylidene
sorbitol (MDBS), 122
Direct extrusion and compounding
of long glass fibers, 84
of wood fiber and flour, 85
E
Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
shielding, 58t, 65
additives for
carbon black, 65. See also Antistatic
additives
conductive fibers, stainless steel and
carbon, 65
conductive fillers, 65
coupling agents, use of, 65. See also
Coupling agents
metal fillers, 65
design considerations for, 67
factors in selecting, 6566
Electron beams (E-beams), 161162
Electrostatic discharge/dissipation (ESD)
additives for. See Antistatic additives
definition of, 57
Environmental issues. See Health, safety,
and the environment; Recycling
Ethyl diamine phosphate (EDAP), 51
Ethylene oxide, 164
F
Fatty acid primary amides, 135136
Fiber reinforcement, 69, 8288
carbon fiber, 87
coupling agents for. See Coupling agents
direct extrusion (inline compounding)
of. See Direct extrusion and
compounding
factors determining selection of
costs or benefits, 96
formulation and processing
parameters, 98
handling and mixing challenges,
9597
interactions with other additives, 97
material properties, 96
quality check, 96
recyclability, 98
glass fiber, 4, 8285, 89, 95, 184185
glass mat thermoplastic (GMT),
8485
long fibers, 8385, 94b
molding with, 84
orientation of fibers, 8384
short fibers, 8283, 94b
importance of, 7172
Kevlar, 87
metal, 87
mineral and metal fibers, 87
plant-based fibers, 56, 8587.
See also Wood-plastic
composites (WPCs)
polymer based fibers, 88
polyvinyl alcohol, 88
self-reinforced PP, 88
UV light stabilizer, 40
Fillers, 69
barium sulfate. See Barium sulfate
conductive. See Antistatic additives
factors determining selection of, 89
costs or benefits, 96
cutting costs and improving
properties, 8991
formulation and processing
parameters, 98
handling and mixing challenges,
9597
impact modification, 9193
interactions with other additives, 97
material properties, 96
mechanical reinforcement, 9395
quality check, 96
recyclability, 98
flame retarding. See Flame
retardants (FR)
importance of, 7172
inorganic
boron nitride, 76
calcium carbonate, 7273
dense fillers, 76
glass flour, 75
glass spheres, 75
magnetite, 76
metal flake pigments, 76
mica, 74
silica, 75
synthetic mineral filler, 76
talc, 7374, 73t
wollastonite, 74
metallic, 76. See also Colorants
metal oxides, 76. See also Titanium
dioxide
mica. See Colorants; Mica
mineral fillers (micron scale), 72, 76,
185
nanofillers, 3940, 7679, 95
exfoliation and dispersion of, 77
graphenes, 78
health and safety questions about, 77
nanocellulose, 79
nanotubes, 7879
plate-like, 7778
POSS nanomaterials, 79
potential of, 77
nucleating, 121
Flame retardants (FR), 14, 44
ammonium polyphosphate, 51
cost of, 53
EDAP (ethyl diamine phosphate), 51
flammability test standard, 46t
FR types comparison, 52t
halogen-based, 45
chlorinated paraffin, 47
combustion reaction prevention, 45
composition, 4547
concerns about and regulation of,
4549, 52t, 55b, 56b, 184185
decaBDE (decabromodiphenyl ether),
4546, 48
FR/HALS alternative, 48b
FR products, 47t
human health, 48
regulators, 48
interactions with, 4849, 52. See also
Additive interactions
issues and improvement of, 51
low halogen FR, 56b
markets and growth of, 4445
mechanisms of, 45, 51
melamine, 51
mineral based, 4950
antimony oxide synergists, 4647,
50, 55b
ATH (aluminum trihydrate), 4950,
54, 98
combinations of mineral fillers, 50
huntite, 50
hydromagnesite, 50
MDH (magnesium (di)hydroxide),
4950, 54
INDEX 217Flame retardants (FR) (Continued)
nanocomposites, flame retardance of,
5455
pentaerythritol, 51
phosphorous-based (intumescent),
5051
PP fiber and H-FR color issues, case,
55b
selection of, 5156
FR density and form, 5455
halogen-free benefits and costs,
5556
property effects and co-additive
interactions, 5354
risk versus performance, 52
smoke, 53
smoke suppression of, 53
testing of, 46t, 53
trends in, 4445
Fluorescent whitening agents, 109
Fluoropolymer polymer processing aids
(PPAs), 141142
Foams and foaming agents, 13, 99b, 145
blow molding, 149
chemical (internal) foaming agents,
148149
azodicarbonamide (ADCA),
148149, 152
inorganic endothermic agents, 149
microcapsule foams, 149
organic exothermic agents, 149
sodium bicarbonate, 149
costs, 150b, 152
expanded polypropylene, 151
extruded foamed products, 151
factors in foaming, 152
injection molding and, 149
nanoclay effects, 152
physical foaming agents, 148
rotational molding and, 152
structural foam, 149
G
Gas barrier additives, 1112, 123, 171
oxygen barrier additives, 171172
cyclic olefin copolymers, 172.
See also Cyclic olefin
copolymers (COCs)
nanofillers as, 172
oxygen scavenger additives, 172173
water/moisture barrier additives,
171
nucleating agents, 171
talc, 171
Gas fading. See Antioxidants (AOs) and
heat stabilization
Glass additives
fibers. See Fiber reinforcement
flour, 75
spheres, 7576, 99b
Glass-mat thermoplastics (GMT), 8485
Glycerol monostearate (GMS), 61
Granite colorants, 110
“Green Chemistry,” principles of, 13, 184
Green phenol-free stabilizer, 165b
Green pigmentation, 105
H
Halogen-based FR additives
combustion reaction prevention, 45
composition, 4547
FR/HALS alternative, 48b
FR products, 47t
human health, 48
regulators, 48
HALS (hindered amine light stabilizers),
2223. See also Ultraviolet
(UV) light stabilization
degradation, 37
interactions with additives, 3740
acidic coatings/foreign materials, 39
antioxidants and, 39
flame retardants, 39
nanofillers, 3940
with pigments, 39
with titanium dioxide, 39
with UVAs, 3739
molecular structure, 37
with UVAs, 3739
Health, safety, and the environment, 6, 31,
4449, 5556, 169, 177, 181,
184, 189
Heat stabilizers, 142
long-term heat aging effects of, 21f
Heat-based sterilization, 164
Hemp plant, 86
High-density PE (HDPE), 9
Highly filled masterbatch production,
143144
High-throughput extrusion, 143
Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS).
See HALS
Hindered phenol AOs, 22
Hydrogen bromide (HBr), flamesuppressing, 4647
Hydrophilicity, 169
Hydrotalcite antacids. See Acid
scavengers and neutralizers
Hydroxylamines, 23
I
Impact modifiers, 13, 54, 7982, 9193
EPDM rubber, 81
ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), 81,
9293
for film and sheet, 8182
plastomers, metallocene (polyolefin
elastomers, POEs), 8081, 9293
styrenic copolymer, 92
for thick products, 8081
for TPO, 93f. See also Thermoplastic
olefin (TPO)
TPVs (thermoplastic vulcanizates), 81
Injection molding, 111
Injection stretch blow molding, 134
In-line compounding. See Direct extrusion
and compounding
Inorganic fillers, 910
boron nitride, 76
calcium carbonate, 7273
dense fillers, 76
glass flour, 75
glass spheres, 75
magnetite, 76
metal flake pigments, 76
mica, 74
silica, 75
synthetic mineral filler, 76
talc, 7374, 73t
wollastonite, 74
Insect and rodent repelling agents,
170
J
Jute plant, 86
K
Kenaf plant, 86
Kevlar, 87
L
Lactones, 23
Lambert-Beer equation. See Ultraviolet
(UV) light stabilization
Life cycle assessment, 13
Light stabilizing factors
automotive coatings, 41, 41b
building and construction, 42
fibers, 40
films, 4243
food contact use, 40
migration and extraction, 40
part thickness, 40
pipes, 41
tapes and yarns, 41
tested UV weatherability, 40
wood-plastic composites, 42
Long glass fibers, 8385, 96b
Low-density PE (LLDPE), 9
blown film stability, 143
film, 97b
Lubricants. See under Processing aids
M
Magnesium (di-)hydroxide, 49
Magnetite, 76
Market trends, of polyolefins
growth versus volatility, 89
resin growth and prices, 9
218 INDEXMasterbatches, 10, 180181
Melt flow modification, processing aids
for
controlled rheology PP, 132
excerex metallocene olefin oligomer,
131132
internal processing lubricants, 129
silicone-based materials, 131
Metal fibers, 87
Metal flake pigments, 76
Metal stearates, 142
Metallic colorants, 107109
Metallocene LLDPE (mLLDPE) film, 92b
Mica, 74. See also Colorants
Mineral-based FR additives
ATH and MDH, 4950
mineral fillers, 50
Mold release additives, processing aids for
amides, 132
evaluating the effectiveness of,
132133
external mold releases, 133
fatty acids, 132
hydrocarbon microcrystalline waxes,
132
postmolding benefits of lubricants, 133
Molding, processing aids for. See under
Processing aids
Montmorillonite (MMT), 7778
N
nanoclays, 7778, 97b
nanotubes, 7879, 95
POSS, 79
silica. See Silica
synthetic mineral fillers, 76
talc. See Talc
wollastonite. See Wollastonite
Nanocomposites. See Fillers
Nanofillers
nanocellulose, 79
nanotubes, 7879
plate-like, 7778
POSS nanomaterials, 79
potential of, 77
Nanoscale additives. See Fillers
Nepheline syenite, 138
“No dust blends” (NDBs), 2830, 178.
See also Additives: physical
forms of
Nonmigrating slip agents, 136137
Nucleating agents (nucleators) and
clarifiers, 7, 117
β-phase nucleators, 120
clarifying agents, 121122
mechanism, 121122
nonsorbitol, 121f, 122
sorbitol based, 121122
cost of, 124125
effects of, 118121
on clarity, 121125
on crystallization, 118125
on organoleptics (odor), 123, 125
on warpage/shrinkage, 118120,
124125
factors in selecting, 122125
evaluation of, 123b
fillers as nucleators, 121
interactions with, 125. See also
Additive interactions
mechanism of, 119f
melt sensitive vs. melt insensitive, 117
phosphate esters, 118
sodium benzoate, 118
trisamide, 120, 122
Nucleating fillers, 121
O
Odor and scent modifying agents, 11,
170
Odor-modifying additives, 170
Organic and inorganic colorants, 106t
Organic peroxide agents, 160
Organosilane coupling agents, 154
Oxygen transmission
additives as oxygen barriers for,
171172
oxygen-scavenging additives, 172173,
173b
P
Packaging, 34, 1113, 91b, 168
“active,” 12
enhanced barrier properties, 1112
food, 12, 40, 42b, 149, 164, 171173
improved aesthetics, 11
medical, 12, 163
polyolefins, 3
recyclability, 13
retortable, 12, 164165
safer food-contact materials, 12
thinner, 11
Paramethylbenzylidene sorbitol
(DMDBS), 122
Pearlescent, 109
Peroxide decomposers, 36
Phenol-free stabilizers, 2223
Phenyl/aryl esters, as UV absorbers, 36
Phosphite-based AOs, 23
Phosphorescent effect, 110
Phosphorous-based FR additives
issues in improving, 51
mechanisms of, 51
Pigments. See Colorants
Plant-based additives. See Fiber
reinforcement
Plant-based fibers, 8587
Polyglycerol ester (PGE), 61
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane
(POSS), 79
Polyolefins (polyethylene and
polypropylene). See also
Thermoplastic olefin (TPO)
additives
amount in products, 56
faster processing, 7
importance of, 4
matching property requirements, 5
new properties for new markets, 6
unintended interactions, 6
applications for, 1014
agricultural films, 1415, 39,
4243, 187
automotive, 5, 1314, 41, 94,
149151, 157b
blow molding, 111, 123124,
141142, 149
blown film, 111, 142143
construction and infrastructure, 14,
42, 151. See also Wood-plastic
composites (WPCs)
fibers, tapes, and yarns, 11, 27,
3941, 55, 9394, 143
film and sheet (extrusion), 11, 40,
111, 124
injection molding, 41, 111, 123124,
131132, 149
medical (non-packaging), 31, 163
packaging. See Packaging: polyolefin
pipe and profile extrusion, 11, 14, 28,
41, 90, 141142, 159
rotational molding, 111112, 152
thermoforming, 11, 111
wire and cable, 14, 159160
biodegradability, 186189
feedstocks for, 9
growth of (production/consumption),
34, 89
prices of, 89, 147
production of, 34
recycling of. See Recycling
rigid containers, 184
structures of, 3
sustainability of, 183184
total volume and growth of, 3
Polypropylene (PP) raffia tapes, 92b
Polyvinyl alcohol, 88
Processing aids, 7, 15t, 39, 127, 135
antiblocks. See Antiblocking additives
applications
for extrusion processes, 135
for filled compounds, 49, 131,
133134, 143144
for film and sheet, 135
for injection molding, 131
for injection stretch blow molding,
134
for masterbatch production, 143144
for rotational molding, 134
for wood-plastic composites, 144
INDEX 219Processing aids (Continued)
die buildup reduction, 142
fluoropolymer based aids, 141142
interactions with. See Additive
interactions
lubricants, internal, 129, 144b
amides, 129
glycerol monostearate, 130, 132
polymeric, 130t
silicone based, 131, 133
melt fracture reduction, 142b
mold release, 132133
evaluation of, 132133
external, 133
nucleators as processing aids, 134.
See also Nucleating agents
(nucleators) and clarifiers
peroxide agents, 132, 143, 144b
rheology controlled polypropylene, 132
slip agents. See Slip agents
stearates. See Stearates, metal
waxes, 132, 143144
Production and pricing trends. See Market
trends, of polyolefins
Pyrophyllite, 138
Q
Quenchers, UV light, 36
in agricultural films, 43b
R
Radiation resistance in sterilization
treatments. See Sterilization
treatment resistance
Recycling, 13, 56, 98, 156158, 186
Red and brown pigmentation, 105
Resin
blending and feeding, 179180
compounding, 10
factors for selecting
blending and handling equipment
investment, 181
compounding vs. masterbatch/
concentrates, 180
consistency and credibility operation,
182
health and safety regulations and
concerns, 181
mixing and dispersion issues,
181182
process flexibility and control, 180
transportation and logistics, 180181
volumes and inventory, 181
handling additives
health and safety issues, 178
practical issues, 177178
mixing and dispersing
lean compounding, 179
screw-processing developments,
178179
Retort sterilization, 164
Rotational molding, 111112, 134
Rubber modifiers. See Impact modifiers
S
Safety issues. See Health, safety, and the
environment
Scratch resistance additives
effect of talc, 166
scratch tests, 167
silicone lubricants, 166167
slip agents, 167168. See also Slip
agents
Screws. See Tooling and equipment,
process
Self-reinforced PP, 88
Short glass fibers, 8283
Silane agents, 160161
higher temperature peroxides, for
XLPE, case, 161b
silane/moisture-cured XLPE, 161
traditional silane-XLPE processes, 161
XLPE-type method, 161
Silica, 75, 77, 137
diatomaceous earth (DE), 75. See also
Antiblocking additives
Sisal plant, 86
Slip agents
as antiscratch additives, 167
as film processing aids, 135137
migrating, 135136
nonmigrating, 136137
interactions with other additives, 136.
See also Additive interactions
Stainless steel fibers, 65
Stearates, metal
as acid scavengers, 2930. See also
Acid scavengers and neutralizers
as processing lubricants, 129, 143144.
See also Processing aids:
lubricants, internal
Stearyl erucamide, 136
Stearyl stearamide, 136
Sterilization treatment resistance, 12, 163
additive formulations for, 164165
ethylene oxide treatment, effects, 164
heat sterilization, effects, 164
irradiation sterilization, effects, 163164
and polyolefins, 163164
retortable packaging, 165b
role of stabilizers, 164, 165b
Sustainability, choosing additives for, 183
atom economy, 184
degradation design, 184
polyolefins, 183184
biodegradability, 186189
green uses, 185186
learning for, 189
polymers, 183184
rigid containers, 184
renewable feedstocks use, 184
syntheses and designing safer
chemicals, 184
Synthetic mineral filler,
76
Synthetic silica, 137138
T
Talc, 10, 40, 50, 7374, 7778, 8991,
91b, 131, 171
as antiblock, 137141
combined with other fillers, 50, 74
as nucleating agent, 121
Thermoforming of extruded sheet,
111
Thermoplastic olefin (TPO), 3, 56, 11,
1314, 41, 41b, 7374, 7982,
89, 9293, 124, 131, 151, 157b,
166
Thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV), 81
Thin PP fibers, 143
Thioester-based AOs, 24
Thiosynergists (thioesters).
See Antioxidants (AOs) and heat
stabilization: secondary AOs
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 910, 34
interactions with antioxidants, 30.
See also Additive interactions
interactions with nanofillers, 97b.
See also Additive interactions
as a pigment, 104, 114115
in UV stabilization, 3436, 39
TNPP (tris nonylphenyl phosphite).
See Antioxidants (AOs) and heat
stabilization: secondary AOs
Tooling and equipment, process
blending and feeding of additives,
179180
extruders, compounding, 178179,
181b
screw design, 178179
Triazines, as UV absorbers, 36
Tris(nonylphenyl) phosphite (TNPP),
2324
Turf stabilization, artificial, 38b
U
Ultraviolet (UV) light stabilization, 6, 10,
14, 28b, 32
chromophores, 3234, 36
degradation cycle, 3234
factors determining selection of
stabilizer, 4043
HALS (hindered amine
light stabilizers), 27, 3643,
164. See also Antioxidants
(AOs) and heat stabilization
interactions with other additives,
3740, 48, 54, 115. See also
Additive interactions
220 INDEXmechanism of, 37
NOR based, 37
Lambert-Beer equation, 36
UV absorbers (UVAs), 34, 35t, 3639
benzoates, 36, 39
benzophenones, 36
benzotriazoles, 36
triazines, 36
UV blockers and screeners, 3436
carbon black, 34, 41. See also
Carbon black (CB)
inorganic oxides, 34
UV quenchers, 36, 43
V
Vitamin E. See Antioxidants (AOs) and
heat stabilization
W
Wacker Chemie’s Monosil process, 161
Water vapor transmission, additives as
barrier for, 171
Weatherability, testing of, 38b, 41
Weathering test methods, for woven PP
tapes, 38b
Wettability, 169
White colorants, 104
Wollastonite, 74
combined with glass fiber,
89
Wood-plastic composites (WPCs), 14, 42,
8586, 144, 151, 153, 181
direct extrusion (in-line compounding)
of. See Direct extrusion and
compounding
Woven PP tapes, weathering test methods
for, 38b
Y
Yellow and orange pigmentation, 105
INDEX 221


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