كتاب ERP Systems and Organisational Change - A Socio-technical Insight
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب ERP Systems and Organisational Change - A Socio-technical Insight

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب ERP Systems and Organisational Change - A Socio-technical Insight    كتاب ERP Systems and Organisational Change - A Socio-technical Insight  Emptyالخميس 14 سبتمبر 2023, 1:44 am

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ERP Systems and Organisational Change - A Socio-technical Insight
Bernard Grabot , Anne Mayère , Isabelle Bazet
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كتاب ERP Systems and Organisational Change - A Socio-technical Insight  E_r_p_10
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Contents
1 The Mutual Influence of the Tool and the Organisation . 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Integration Versus Communication . 2
1.3 Unification Versus Interpretation 7
1.4 Alignment Versus Adaptability . 8
1.5 New Developments in ERP Integration . 9
1.6 References 10
2 ERP Systems in the Extended Value Chain of the Food Industry 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Research Methodology 15
2.3 Integrating the Extended Value Chain with ICT 16
2.3.1 Integrated Information Infrastructures 16
2.3.2 Information Infrastructures in the Extended Value Chain 16
2.4 The Food Industry as Extended Value Chain 17
2.4.1 The Swedish Food Industry 17
2.4.2 Milk Flow . 18
2.4.3 Pork Flow . 19
2.4.4 Sugar Flow . 19
2.4.5 Pea Flow . 20
2.4.6 Retailers and Grocery Chains Information Flow 20
2.4.7 Summary 21
2.5 Key Criteria for Integration Choices 22
2.6 Conclusions 2
2.7 References 24
3 Integrative Technologies in the Workplace: Using Distributed Cognition
to Frame the Challenges Associated with their Implementation 27
3.1 The Integrative Logic of ERP Systems 27
3.2 Distributed Cognition: A Framework to Study Integrative
Technologies 29
3vi Contents
3.3 Mutating Artefacts, Mutating Work: The Case of Billing Services in a
Hospital Environment . 31
3.3.1 Some Methodological Points of Reference and a Description
of the Visited Site . 31
3.3.2 The Computerisation of Account Billing: The Evolution of
Documents and of Clerical Work . 32
3.4 From Paper to Screen: Analysing the Change that Organisational
Members Experienced 37
3.4.1 Articulating Regularities Within the Artefacts Themselves . 37
3.5 The Contribution of Distributed Cognition to the Study of Integrative
Technologies in the Workplace 42
3.5.1 The Nature of Regularities Circulating in Artefacts Used in the
Workplace . 42
3.5.2 The Syntactic Organisation of Regularities Within Integrative
Technologies . 43
3.5.3 Artefacts and Situations Are Mutually Defined Through Human
Decisions . 44
3.6 References 45
4 ERP Implementation: the Question of Global Control
Versus Local Efficiency 47
4.1 Introduction 47
4.2 ERP and Information Production Design . 48
4.2.1 The “Scientific Organisation of Labour” Applied to “Ordinary”
Information and Knowledge 48
4.2.2 A Focus on Information which Can Be Formalised, and on Basic
Exchange of Information 48
4.2.3 Logic Priorities and Questions of Sense-making 50
4.2.4 Inter-changeability of Information Producers . 51
4.3 ERP Combined with Business Process Re-engineering and Business
Process Outsourcing: Re-designing the Organisation While Transforming
its Information System . 51
4.3.1 Value-adding Versus Non-value-adding Activities 51
4.3.2 Re-engineering, Outsourcing, and the Robustness of Information
Processes . 52
4.4 Contradictory Dynamics Relying on Local Employees and on Project
Teams 53
4.4.1 Project Teams Dealing with Local Versus Global Contradictory
Dynamics . 53
4.4.2 The Selection of “Expert Users” 53
4.4.3 The “Expert Users”: the Gap Between First Hopes and Final
Results 54
4.5 Back to the Definition of Information and Knowledge Associated
with ERPDesign . 55
4.5.1 Knowledge Management Renewed Through ERP Projects . 55
4.5.2 The Need for Going Back to Definition: Data, Information and
Knowledge 56Contents vii
4.6 Conclusion . 56
4.7 References 57
5 Why ERPs Disappoint: the Importance of Getting the Organisational
Text Right 59
5.1 Introduction 59
5.2 What Is an Organisation (and What Is Its Basis in Communication)? . 64
5.3. The Case Study 66
5.4 A Reconciliation of Texts? 72
5.4.1 Are Conversation and Text Different Modalities of
Communication, or Merely Different Perspectives on it? . 73
5.4.2 Buying, Procuring or Purchasing? Whose Categories? 74
5.4.3 The Organisation as Text 78
5.4.4 The Role of Conversation . 81
5.5 Conclusion . 82
5.6 References 83
6 Contradictions and the Appropriation of ERP Packages 85
6.1 Introduction 85
6.2 Views of Information and Communications Technology Appropriation
Processes . 86
6.3 Coping with Contradictions and ERP Packages 88
6.3.1 The Idealisation of ERP Packages 89
6.3.2 The Myth of the Perfect ERP Service . 90
6.3.3 Contradictions and Relevant Social Groups . 91
6.4 Discussion 92
6.5 Conclusion . 95
6.6 References 96
7 Exploring Functional Legitimacy Within Organisations:
Lessons to Be Learnt from Suchman’s Typology.
The Case of the Purchasing Function and SAP Implementation . 101
7.1 Introduction: Revisiting Weber’s Bureaucratic Organisation.
Challenging the Power of Functions and Their Quest for Legitimacy
Within Organisations 101
7.2 Suchman’s Contribution and Suchman’s Typology in the Debate
on the Nature of Legitimacy . 103
7.2.1 Suchman’s Theoretical Framework and his Definition
of Legitimacy. . 103
7.2.2 The Contribution of Suchman’s Typology to the Understanding
of the Concept of Legitimacy 107
7.3 Putting Suchman’s Typology into Practice: an Analysis of the
Legitimisation Process of a Purchasing Department During the
Implementation of an ERP System . 109
7.3.1 Presentation of the Case Study . 109viii Contents
7.3.2 Application of Suchman’s Typology and Discussion . 113
7.4 References 116
8 How to Take into Account the Intuitive Behaviour of the Organisations
in the ERP? 119
8.1 The Enterprise: a Complex Mix of Various Trades Organised
in Business Processes 119
8.2 Enterprise Resource Planning to Support Business Processes . 121
8.3 EDME Company: a Real Industrial Example 122
8.4 Which Requirements for Business Processes in a Changing
Environment? 125
8.5 Autonomy and Competition: the Performance Weight 127
8.6 Towards a Tool to Manage the Decision Processes Environment . 129
8.7 How to Transform Authority in Performance Drivers . 132
8.8 How to Take into Account the Intuitive Behaviour of the
Organisations in the ERP? . 133
8.9 References 136
9 Process Alignment or ERP Customisation: Is There a Unique Answer?. 139
9.1 Introduction 139
9.2 The ERP as a Tool for Change Management . 140
9.2.1 Process Re-engineering, Change Management and Industrial
Culture 141
9. 2.2 Global Versus Local Performance 142
9.2.3 Interaction with the ERP Package 143
9.3 ERP Implementation and Business Process Alignment . 144
9.3.1 The Problem of Business Process Alignment . 144
9.3.2 Industrial Problems Linked to Alignment 146
9.4 Customisation of the ERP Package 148
9.4.1 Parameterisation, Configuration and Customisation 148
9.4.2 Customisation as a Means to Adapt the System to Specific
Requirements 150
9.5 Can Standard Processes or Customisation Bring a Competitive
Advantage? 152
9.6 Conclusion . 154
9.7 References 154
10 Process Alignment Maturity in Changing Organisations . 157
10.1 Introduction 157
10.2 ERP: After the Project, the Post-project 158
10.2.1 The “Post-project” Phase in Academic Literature 158
10.2.2 The Tool and Its Use 159
10.3 Synthesis of ERP Surveys 161
10.3.1 Investigations into ERP Projects 161
10.3.2 Investigations into ERP Optimisation Strategies 164
10.4 Towards a Maturity Model for ERP “Good Use” 165
10.4.1 Model Characteristics . 167Contents ix
10.4.2 Towards a Guideline for ERP Use Improvement . 168
10.5 Organisational and Temporal Heterogeneousness of an Information
System . 169
10.5.1 The Organisational Heterogeneousness 169
10.5.2 The Temporal Heterogeneousness 171
10.5.3 Dependences in the Model of Maturity . 172
10.6 Towards the Construction of a Learning Path 176
10.7 Conclusion . 178
10.8 References 178
11 A Cross-cultural Analysis of ERP Implementation by US and Greek
Companies 181
11.1 Introduction 181
11.2 Literature Review 182
11.2.1 Prescriptive Literature on ERP . 182
11.2.2 Cultural Studies on ERP . 183
11.2.3 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions and Propositions . 184
11.3 Methodology 186
11.4 Case Analysis: Implementation and Discussion 186
11.4.1 US Case Study Company: US Global Energy Corporation 187
11.4.2 Greek Case Study Company: Greek Coating Corporation . 187
11.4.3 Discussion 188
11.5 Conclusions 190
11.6 References 198
Appendix – Utilisation of Suchman’s Paper . 201
Index 213
Index
ABB, 170
accounting, 27, 31–33, 35, 36, 39–
44, 45, 56, 109–111, 121, 147,
151, 163
adaptability, 8
adoption, 1, 8, 9, 28, 85, 86, 89–95,
139–142, 144–146, 148, 151–153,
158, 159, 162, 182, 183, 186, 188,
197, 208, 210
alignment, 8, 139, 144, 146, 157
appropriation, 1, 9, 53, 85–88, 92,
94, 95, 139, 161, 163, 167
APS, 2, 6
ARIS, 5, 129
artefact, 1, 29–31, 37, 38, 40–44, 87
authority, 14, 101, 128–130, 132,
143, 189
BAAN, 170
best practice, 152
business intelligence, 16, 166
business process, 14, 51, 125, 144,
145, 168
centralisation, 4, 5, 151, 170
change management, 139–141, 144,
150, 173, 176, 191, 194, 195
cognition, 27, 29, 42
collaboration, 29, 32
competence, 4, 8, 9, 140, 143, 150,
152, 166, 167, 171, 187
configuration, 148, 192
constraint, 53, 144, 167
contradiction, 91, 93
coordination, 2, 3, 14, 16, 123, 126–
128, 130, 131, 133, 172, 173, 176
CPFR, 176
CRM, 16, 18, 19, 165
culture, 7–9, 43, 50, 140–142, 160,
164, 181–185, 190, 193, 195–197,
209
customisation, 139, 148, 150, 152
decision, 139, 148, 150, 152
decision, 2–5, 21, 44, 55, 92, 101,
112, 121, 124, 126–133, 158, 161,
165, 171, 173, 177, 184, 188, 189,
191, 192, 194, 197
distribution, 19, 22, 133, 160, 163,
170, 187
e-business, 165, 176
hospital, 31
human science, 9
implementation, 5, 8, 9, 13, 14, 27–
31, 43, 44, 47–50, 52, 54, 55, 57,
85, 89, 90, 95, 102, 109, 110, 112,
113, 119, 121, 124, 128, 129, 133,
139–146, 148, 150, 152–154,
157–166, 169–171, 182, 183,
185–192, 194–197, 209
indicator, 132
information system, 1, 2, 4, 13, 27,
47, 49–52, 55, 56, 88, 90, 110,214 Index
147, 151, 157–160, 162, 164–
169, 171–177
innovation, 86, 91, 92, 95, 191, 201,
204
integration, 1–6, 8, 9, 13–15, 17, 18,
20–23, 27, 28, 35, 120, 145, 148,
149, 164, 167–169, 172–176, 187
interpretation, 7, 8
IT, 19–21, 28, 88, 89, 158, 159, 163,
165, 168, 175, 181, 186, 187, 192,
195, 196
knowledge, 4, 7–9, 17, 48, 51–56,
90, 93, 120, 121, 133, 146–148,
151, 152, 158, 159, 166, 171, 172,
190, 192–195
learning, 17, 140, 158, 161, 171,
176, 177, 195
legitimacy, 101, 103, 104, 107, 110,
207
legitimisation, 101, 103, 105, 108,
109, 115, 202, 203, 205, 207
maturity, 9, 150, 157–159, 161, 165,
167, 168, 170–172, 176, 177, 196
mobilisation, 201–211
Movex, 18, 20
MRP, 88, 123, 147, 150, 168
ontologies, 7
optimisation, 127, 129, 159, 161,
165–169, 172, 178
parameterisation, 148
Peoplesoft, 93, 143
perception, 53, 104, 113, 203
performance, 1, 9, 32, 50, 119, 126–
130, 132, 133, 139, 140, 142, 144,
150, 151, 153, 157, 158, 162, 164,
167–169, 171, 174, 176, 189, 194
power, 101, 182, 184, 185, 188
PRODSTAR, 170
regularities, 30, 31, 37–40, 42– 44
responsibility, 106, 128, 168
SAP, 19, 20, 85, 86, 89–91, 93, 101,
102, 109–113, 144, 146, 150, 170,
187, 195
SCOR, 2, 174
simulation, 130, 133
skill, 90
standardisation, 6, 9, 47, 119, 145,
153, 160, 162
supply chain, 6, 16
survey, 91, 146, 148, 151, 157, 161,
162, 165, 196
syntactic, 43
transaction, 37, 38, 40–43, 112
trust, 50, 106
uncertainty, 23, 119, 133, 182


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