كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook
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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook

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كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook    كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook  Emptyالثلاثاء 12 سبتمبر 2023, 1:36 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Adhesives Technology Handbook
Third Edition
Sina Ebnesajjad, PhD
President, FluoroConsultants Group, LLC
Arthur H. Landrock

كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook  A_t_h_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of contents
Preface to Third Edition
Preface to Second Edition
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1. Introduction and Adhesion Theories
1.1 Definition of Adhesives and Adhesive Bonding
1.2 Functions of Adhesives
1.3 Classification of Adhesives
1.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Joining Using Adhesives
1.5 Requirements of a Good Bond
1.6 Introduction to Theories of Adhesion
1.7 Definition of Failure Modes
1.8 Mechanisms of Bond Failure
References
Chapter 2. Surface Tension and Its Measurement
2.1 Introduction
2.2 What is an Interface?
2.3 Surface Tension
2.4 Surface Free Energy
2.5 Contact Angle (Young’s Equation)
2.6 Effect of Temperature on Surface Tension
2.7 Surface Tension Measurement
References
Chapter 3. Material Surface Preparation Techniques
3.1 Introduction
3.2 General Considerations
3.3 Surface Treatment of Metals
3.4 Cleaning (Degreasing) Metals
3.5 Priming
3.6 Sol–Gel Process
3.7 Surface Treatment of Plastics
3.8 Methods for Evaluating Effectiveness of Surface Preparation
3.9 Surface Exposure Time
References
Chapter 4. Classification of Adhesives and Compounds
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Adhesive Composition Formulation
4.3 Classification of Adhesives
4.4 Other Classifications
References
Chapter 5. Characteristics of Adhesive Materials
5.1 Acrylics
5.2 Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (CR-39)
5.3 Alloyed or Modified (Two-Polymer) Adhesives
5.4 Anaerobic Adhesives/Sealants
5.5 Aromatic Polymer Adhesives (Polyaromatics)
5.6 Asphalt
5.7 Butyl Rubber Adhesives
5.8 Cellulose Ester Adhesives
5.9 Cellulose Ether Adhesives
5.10 Conductive Adhesives
5.11 Cyanoacrylate Adhesives
5.12 Delayed-Tack Adhesives
5.13 Elastomeric Adhesives
5.14 Epoxy Adhesives
5.15 Epoxy-Phenolic Adhesives
5.16 Epoxy-Polysulfide Adhesives
5.17 Film and Tape Adhesives (See also Section 5.3)
5.18 Furane Adhesives
5.19 Hot-Melt Adhesives
5.20 Inorganic Adhesives (Cements)
5.21 Melamine-Formaldehyde Adhesives (Melamines)
5.22 Microencapsulated Adhesives
5.23 Natural Glues
5.24 Neoprene (Polychloroprene) Adhesives
5.25 Neoprene-Phenolic Adhesives
5.26 Nitrile-Epoxy (Elastomer-Epoxy) Adhesives
5.27 Nitrile-Phenolic Adhesives
5.28 Nitrile Rubber Adhesive
5.29 Nylon Adhesives
5.30 Nylon-Epoxy Adhesives
5.31 Phenolic Adhesives
5.32 Phenoxy Adhesives
5.33 PBI Adhesives
5.34 Polyester Adhesives
5.35 PI Adhesives
5.36 Polyisobutylene Adhesives
5.37 Polystyrene Adhesives
5.38 Polysulfides (Thiokols)
5.39 Polysulfone Adhesives
5.40 Polyurethane Adhesives
5.41 Polyvinyl Acetal Adhesives
5.42 Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesives
5.43 Polyvinyl Alcohol Adhesives
5.44 Polyvinyl Butyral Adhesives
5.45 Premixed Frozen Adhesives
5.46 Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives
5.47 Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Adhesives
5.48 Rubber-Based Adhesives
5.49 Solvent-Based Systems
5.50 Thermoplastic Resin Adhesives
5.51 Thermoplastic Rubber (For Use in Adhesives)
5.52 Thermosetting Resin Adhesives
5.53 UV-Curing Adhesives
5.54 Urea-Formaldehyde Adhesives (Ureas)
5.55 Vinyl-Epoxy Adhesives
5.56 Vinyl-Phenolic Adhesives
5.57 Polyvinyl Formal-Phenolics
5.58 Polyvinyl Butyral-Phenolics
5.59 Vinyl-Resin Adhesives
5.60 Water-Based Adhesives
References
Chapter 6. Adhesives for Special Adherends
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Metals
6.3 Thermoplastics
6.4 Thermosetting Plastics (Thermosets)
6.5 Reinforced Plastics/Composites
6.6 Plastic Foams
6.7 Rubbers (Elastomers)
6.8 Ceramics and Glass
References
Chapter 7. Joint Design
7.1 Basic Principles
7.2 Types of Stress
7.3 Methods of Improving Joint Efficiency
7.4 Joint Design Criteria
7.5 Typical Joint Designs
7.6 Peeling of Adhesive Joints
7.7 Stiffening Joints
7.8 Cylindrical Joints
7.9 Angle and Corner Joints
7.10 Joints for Plastics and Elastomers
7.11 Stress Analysis of Adhesive Joints
7.12 Optimizing Adhesive Bonding Through Joint Design—A Practical Approach
References
Chapter 8. Adhesive Applications and Bonding Processes
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Adhesive
8.3 Adhesive Preparation
8.4 Adhesive Dispensers
8.5 Methods of Adhesive Application
8.6 Joint-Assembly Methods
8.7 Curing
8.8 Bonding Equipment
8.9 Weldbonding
References
Chapter 9. Solvent Cementing of Plastics
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Background
9.3 Solvents for Specific Polymers
9.4 Solvent Cementing—A Commercial Perspective
References
Chapter 10. Adhesives for Medical and Dental Applications
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Natural Adhesives
10.3 Synthetic and Semisynthetic Adhesives
10.4 Cyanoacrylic Adhesives
10.5 Test Methods to Characterize Strength of Tissue Adhesives
10.6 Medical and Dental Applications of Adhesives
10.7 Bone Adhesives
10.8 Dental Applications of Adhesives
References
Chapter 11. Durability of Adhesive Bonds
11.1 Introduction
11.2 High Temperature
11.3 Low and Cryogenic Temperatures
11.4 Humidity and Water Immersion
11.5 Saltwater and Salt Spray
11.6 Weathering
11.7 Chemicals and Solvents
11.8 Vacuum
11.9 Radiation
11.10 Biological Organisms
11.11 Test Methods
11.12 Adhesive Bond Durability—A Commercial Perspective
References
Chapter 12. Testing of Adhesive Bonds
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Tensile
12.3 Shear
12.4 Peel
12.5 Cleavage
12.6 Creep
12.7 Fatigue
12.8 Impact
12.9 Durability
12.10 Compilation of Test Methods and Practices
References
Chapter 13. Quality Control
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Incoming Material Control
13.3 Final Inspection
13.4 Nondestructive Tests
13.5 Weldbonding
References
Chapter 14. Safety, Environmental, and Economic Aspects, and Future Trends
14.1 Safety
14.2 Environmental Considerations
14.3 Economics
14.4 Future Trends
References
Glossary
Index
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and table, respectively.
A
Ablation, 50
Acetal copolymer
adhesives for, 168169
solvents for, 241243
Acetal homopolymer
adhesives for, 169
solvents for, 243
Acidbase theory, 1213
Acid-catalyzed phenolics, 131132
Acrylic acid (AAc) monomer, 55
Acrylics, 8586, 249250
Acrylonitrilebutadienestyrene (ABS)
adhesives for, 169
solvents for, 243
4-Acryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride
(4-AETA), 289
Adherends, adhesives for, 160
ceramics and glass, 179180
metals. See Metals, adhesives for
plastic foams, 177178
reinforced plastics/composites,
176177
rubbers (elastomers), 178
thermoplastics. See Thermoplastics,
adhesives for
thermosetting plastics (thermosets).
See Thermosetting plastics (thermosets)
Adherend-to-organic material, 36
Adhesion, 19, 24, 48, 235
environmental considerations, 380
surface treatment of materials
to enhance, 36t
theories of. See Theories of adhesion
The Adhesive and Sealant Council, Inc. (ASC),
381
Adhesive bond, 12. See also Weldbonding
advantages of, 3
for ceramics, 180
disadvantages of, 4
durability of. See Durability of adhesive bonds
failure modes, 14f
joints for. See Joint design
of nickel-based alloys, 165
nonstructural, 1
operation, 207f
quality control system for, 354f
requirements for, 45
appropriate process, 5
choice of adhesive, 4
cleanliness, 5
good joint design, 4
wetting, 5
structural, 1
testing of. See Testing of adhesive bonds
Adhesive failure, 14, 16
Adhesiveadherend interactions, 6, 8
Adhesives, defined, 1
Advancing angle, 24
Advancing contact angle, 24
Aerospace structures, 2
Aging, 343344
Air spray technique, 211
Airless spraying, 211
AK-225 T, 42t
Alcoa Corp, 162, 334335
Aliphatic amine, 111
Aliphatic polyamine hardeners, 111
Alloy adhesives, 73, 73t
Alloyed/modified (two-polymer) adhesives,
8691
Allyl diglycol carbonate, 86
Alumina, 13, 104
Aluminium Vehicle Technology (AVT), 334335
Aluminum and alloys, adhesives for, 160162
Aluminum oxide. See Alumina
Amylaceous matter, 344
Anaerobic adhesives/sealants, 9192
Angle joints, 194, 194f
Anhydride hardeners, 112
Animal glues, 126127
Animal origin, glues of, 126128
Application method, 206207
bonding equipment, 220227
adhesive thickness, 227
heating equipment, 222226
pressure equipment, 220222
ultrasonic activation, 226227
399Application method (Continued)
curing, 220
dispensers, 209210
small-portion mixer dispensers, 209210
joint-assembly methods, 218219
heat activation, 219
pressure-sensitive and contact
bonding, 219
solvent activation, 219
wet assembly, 218
storage, 206207
techniques, 210218
films, 216
hot melts, 216218
liquid adhesives, 210214
pastes, 214
powders, 215216
weldbonding, 227232
adhesive choice, 230231
configuration, 228230
surface preparation, 230
techniques, 232
tooling for, 231
Application mode and setting
classification of adhesives by, 75, 76t
Aromatic polyamine hardeners, 112
Aromatic polymer adhesives, 9394
ARP 1524, 350
ARP 1610, 344
Artificial latex, 153
Arvin acoustic analysis system, 363
Asahiklin AE3000, 42t
Asahiklin AE3000AT, 42t
Asahiklin AE3000ATE, 42t
Asahiklin AE3100E, 42t
Asahiklin AK-225 AES, 42t
Ash content of adhesives, 344
Asphalt, 70, 94
ASTM B117, 312, 348
ASTM C813-90 (2009), 28t
ASTM D724-99 (2003), 28t
ASTM D816, 348
ASTM D896, 327, 345
ASTM D897, 339, 351
ASTM D898, 350
ASTM D899, 350
ASTM D903, 342, 348
ASTM D904, 348
ASTM D905, 341, 349
ASTM D906, 349
ASTM D950, 343, 347
ASTM D1002, 341, 349
ASTM D1062, 345
ASTM D1084, 351
ASTM D1144, 349351
ASTM D1146, 344
ASTM D1151, 345
ASTM D1183, 343
ASTM D1184, 346
ASTM D1304, 346
ASTM D1337, 350
ASTM D1338, 352
ASTM D1344, 351
ASTM D1382, 344
ASTM D1383, 344
ASTM D1488, 344
ASTM D1489, 347
ASTM D1490, 347
ASTM D1579, 346
ASTM D1581, 344
ASTM D1582, 347
ASTM D1583, 347
ASTM D1584, 351
ASTM D1713, 344
ASTM D1780, 345
ASTM D1781, 342, 348
ASTM D1828, 346
ASTM D1875, 345
ASTM D1876, 348
ASTM D1877, 344
ASTM D1879, 329, 348
ASTM D1916, 348
ASTM D2093, 350
ASTM D2094, 349
ASTM D2095, 351
ASTM D2182, 341, 349
ASTM D2183, 346
ASTM D2293, 342343, 345
ASTM D2294, 345
ASTM D2295, 347, 349
ASTM D2339, 349
ASTM D2556, 351
ASTM D2557, 345, 347, 349
ASTM D2651, 350
ASTM D2674, 350
ASTM D2739, 351
ASTM D2918, 346, 348
ASTM D2919, 346, 349
ASTM D2979, 351
ASTM D3111, 346
ASTM D3121, 351
ASTM D3163, 341, 349
ASTM D3164, 349
ASTM D3165, 341, 349
ASTM D3166, 343, 346, 349
ASTM D3167, 342, 348
ASTM D3236, 351
ASTM D3310, 345
ASTM D3433, 347
ASTM D3482, 346
400 IndexASTM D3528, 349
ASTM D3632, 344
ASTM D3658, 351
ASTM D3762, 343, 352
ASTM D3807, 345
ASTM D3808, 350
ASTM D3929, 350
ASTM D3931, 347, 349
ASTM D3933, 349350
ASTM D4027, 349
ASTM D4299, 344
ASTM D4339, 348
ASTM D5725-99(2008), 28t
ASTM D5946-09, 28t
ASTM E229, 341, 348
ASTM F2255-05 Standard Test Method, 269
ASTM F2256-05 Standard Test Method, 269
ASTM F2258-05 Standard Test Method, 269
ASTM F2458-05 Standard Test Method, 269
ASTM G85, 348
ASTM-D5040, 344
Attractive forces, 1920
Autoclave bonding, 221
B
Bare roll, 52
Base, 6768
Basic salts, 122
Benzyl cellulose, 100
Beryllium, adhesives for, 162163
Beveled double strap joint, 186f
Beveled lap joints, 186f, 191
Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film,
5455
Binders, 67
Biodeterioration, 344
Biological organisms, 333334
Biological tissue adhesives. See Tissue adhesives
Biomimetic adhesives, 258
Bitumin, 70
380 Black Maxs, 262263
Blocking point, 344
Blood albumen, 126
Bond failure, mechanisms of, 1617
Bonding, process control of, 358360
adhesive application, 359
assembly, 359
curing, 360
prefit, 358359
standard test specimen, 360
Bonding equipment, 220227
adhesive thickness, 227
heating equipment, 222226
direct heating curing, 222223
electric resistance heaters, 224225
high-frequency dielectric (radio frequency)
heating, 225
induction heating, 225226
low-voltage heating, 226
radiation curing, 223224
pressure equipment, 220222
ultrasonic activation, 226227
Bonding techniques, for latex adhesives,
153154
Bone adhesives, 283284
Boron nitride, 104
Boron trifluoride hardeners, 112
Brass, adhesives for, 163
Bronze, adhesives for, 163
Brushing, 210
Bubble pressure method, 26t
Butt joint, 189190, 203
Butyl cyanoacrylate, 263
Butyl rubber, 95, 96t, 99t
C
Cadmium, adhesives for, 163
Carriers/reinforcements, 68
Casein glue, 126
Cationic epoxies, 223
Cellulose acetate, 99
Cellulose ester adhesives, 95101
properties and advantages of, 100t
Cellulose nitrate, 99
Cellulosics
adhesives for, 169170
solvents for, 243246
cellulose acetate, 243
cellulose acetate butyrate
(CAB), 244245
cellulose nitrate, 245
cellulose propionate, 245
ethyl cellulose, 246
Ceramics and glass, 179180
Chemat Technology, 47
Chemical atmosphere, corona treatment under,
5455
Chemical bonding, 1013
Chemical composition, classification of
adhesives by, 7173
alloy adhesives, 73, 73t
elastomeric adhesives, 72, 73t
thermoplastic adhesives, 7172, 71t, 72t
thermosetting adhesives, 71
Chemical reagents, 345
Chemical treatment, 45, 50
Chemically reactive types, 77
Chip-bonding adhesives, 102103
Index 401Choice of adhesive, 4, 230231
Clad aluminum, 316
Classification of adhesives, 3, 6982
by chemical composition, 7173
alloy adhesives, 73, 73t
elastomeric adhesives, 72, 73t
thermoplastic adhesives, 7172, 71t, 72t
thermosetting adhesives, 71
by function, 7374
nonstructural adhesives, 74
structural adhesives, 7374, 74t
by mechanical properties of adhesives, 82
by mode of application and setting, 75, 76t
natural adhesives, 6970
asphalt and bitumin, 70
gelatine, 70
natural rubber, 70
resins, 70
shellac, 70
starch and dextrin, 70
one-component adhesives, 83
by physical form, 7475
liquid adhesives, 74
paste adhesives, 75
powder/granule adhesives, 75
tape and film adhesives, 75
by Rayner, 7981
thermoplastic resin adhesives, 80t
thermosetting resin adhesives, 79t
two-polymer adhesives (alloys), 81t
society of manufacturing
engineering, 7779
chemically reactive types, 77
delayed-tack adhesives, 79
evaporative/diffusion adhesives, 78
hot-melt adhesives, 78t
pressure-sensitive adhesives, 79
tape and film adhesives, 79t
by specific adherends/applications, 7576
synthetic adhesives, 70
two-component adhesives, 83
by type of cure that occurs in adhesive, 82
Cleaner technologies substitute assessments
(CTSAs), 380
Cleaning (degreasing) metals, 3945
chemical treatment, 45
intermediate cleaning, 4445
grit blasting, 45
solvent cleaning, 4044
safety, 44
ultrasonic cleaning with liquid rinse, 43
ultrasonic vapor degreasing, 4142
vapor degreasing, 4041
Cleanliness, 5
Cleavage stress, 342, 345
Cleavage/peel strength, 345. See also Peel
strength
Closure of hernia incisions, tissue adhesives for
(case study), 278283
Cohesion force, 19
Cohesive energy density (CED), 8, 236
Cohesive failure, 14, 16
Collagen-based adhesives, 259
Colloidal method, 47
Composition formulation, of adhesives, 6769
adhesive base/binder, 67
carriers/reinforcements, 68
diluents, 68
fillers, 68
hardener, 6768
solvents, 68
Conductive adhesives, 102104
electrically, 102103
heat cure conductive adhesives, 103
room temperature cure adhesives, 103
snap cure conductive adhesives, 103
two-component conductive adhesives, 103
thermally, 103104
Contact angle (Young’s equation), 2325, 23f
Contact bonding, 153154, 219
Contact charging theory. See Electrostatic theory
Contact-angle test, 6162
Copolymeric hydrogels, 271
Copper and copper alloys, adhesives for, 164
Corner joints, 194, 194f
Corona treatment, 5055
three-dimensional, 5354
under chemical atmosphere, 5455
Corrosivity, 345
Covalent bonds, 1112
Creep tests, 342343, 345
Critical surface tension, 27t, 29, 31, 6162
Cryogenic temperatures, 303305, 345
Curing, 220, 360
direct heating, 222223
electron beam, 223224
radiation, 223224
UV, 149150, 223
Cyanoacrylate adhesives, 105108, 275277
Cyanoacrylate glue, 271
Cyanoacrylate pitfalls and pearls, 281t
Cyanoacrylic acid butyl ester, 269271
Cyanoacrylic adhesives, 259269
aging properties, 262
benefits and limitation, 263t
commercial grades, 266269
medical grade, 263266
polymerization, 261262, 261f
structures, 260f
Cylindrical joints, 192193
402 IndexD
Dado joint, 194
Dead-weight loads, 220221
Definition of adhesives and adhesive bonding,
12
Delayed-tack adhesives, 79, 108109
Density, test method for, 345
Dental applications of adhesives, 284289, 287t
4-acryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride
(4-AETA), 289
hydroxy ethyl methacrylate, 288
methacrylic acid (MA), 286
10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen
phosphate (10-MDP), 289
4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitic acid, 288
methyl methacrylate, 286287
Dermabonds, 266, 268269
Design for Environment (DfE) program, 380
Dextrins, 70, 125
Di-2-hydroxyethyl methacryl hydrogen
phosphate (Di-HEMA-phosphate), 289
Diallyl phthalate, adhesives for, 175
Dicyandiamide (DICY), 164
Diffusion, 67
Diffusion adhesives, 78
Diffusion theory, 89
Diluents, 68
Di-methacrylates, 289
Dip coating, 213
Dipole, 11
Dipoledipole forces, 11
Direct heating curing, 222223
Dispersion component, 20
Double butt lap joint, 186f
Double dielectric, 52
Double lap joint, 186f, 191
Double strap joint, 186f
Drop volume method, 26t
Du Nouy ring method, 26t, 2729, 28f
Dual element transducer, 367
Durability of adhesive bonds, 297299
adhesive bond durability, 334336
ASTM tests, 334, 343, 345346
biological organisms, 333334
chemicals and solvents, 326327
high temperature, 299302
epoxies, 300
modified phenolics, 300301
polyaromatics, 302
polysulfone, 301302
silicones, 302
humidity and water immersion, 305312
fatigue-life data, 311312
hot-water-soak test, 308311
moisture exposure, effects of surface
preparation on, 306308
stressed temperature/humidity test, 308
low and cryogenic temperatures, 303305
radiation, 329333
saltwater and salt spray, 312316
Boeing/Air Force studies, 316
saltwater immersion, 315316
seacoast weathering environment, 313315
vacuum, 327329
weathering, 317326
outdoor weathering, 317326
simulated weathering/accelerated testing,
317
Dynamic surface tension measurement methods
for liquids, 26t
Dynamic Wilhelmy method, 27t
Dyne liquids, 61
E
Eastman Chemicals, 259
Economics, 380382
Eddy-sonic test method, 363
Elastomer-epoxies, 87, 129
Elastomeric adhesives, 72, 73t, 109110
Elastomeric polymers in nonstructural
applications, 96t
Electric resistance heaters, 224225
Electrical properties, 346
Electrically conductive adhesives, 102103
heat cure conductive adhesives, 103
room temperature cure adhesives, 103
snap cure conductive adhesives, 103
two-component conductive adhesives, 103
Electrolytic corrosion, 346
Electron beam (EB) curing, 223224
Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
(ESCA), 1415, 357
Electrostatic theory, 8
Emulsion, 153
Enhanced adhesion, 78
EnSolv, 42t
EnSolv-GCS, 42t
Environmental considerations, 380
Epoxy adhesives, 110112, 175, 300, 326, 331
hardening agents for, 111112
Epoxy-nylons, 314315
Epoxy-phenolic adhesives, 87, 112, 300301
Epoxy-polyamides, 87, 113, 171, 304305
Ethyl cellulose, 100, 246
Ethyl cyanoacrylate, 106
Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene.
See Fluoroplastics, adhesives for
Index 403Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyolefin
resins, 118
Evaporative/diffusion adhesives, 78
Extrusion of adhesives, 214
F
Failure modes, definition of, 1315
Fatigue, 343, 346
Fatty polyamides, 111112
Federal Test Method Std. 175B, Method 1081,
346
Federal Test Method Std. 175B, Method 4041.1,
347
FiberTites, 94, 95t
Fibrin, 270
sealants, 259
Filler content, 346
Fillers, 16, 68, 102
Film adhesives, 75, 113115, 216
Film corona treatment system, 52f
“First-generation acrylic adhesives,” 85
Fish glues, 127
“Flame throwers,” 5657
Flame treatment, 50, 5660, 57f
Flange joints, 192f
Flexible adhesives, 2
Flexible materials, joints for, 194195, 196f
Flexural strength, 346
Flow brush, 210211
Flow properties, 346
Flowing, 210211
Fluorinated-ethylene propylene (Teflons).
See Fluoroplastics, adhesives for
Fluorine-to-carbon (F/V) ratio, 59
Fluoroplastics, adhesives for, 170
Foamable hot-melt adhesives, 118
Fokker Bond Tester, 368
Fokker Test method, 355
Fracture strength in cleavage, 347
Function, classification of adhesives by, 7374
nonstructural adhesives, 74
structural adhesives, 7374, 74t
Functions of adhesives, 23
Furane adhesives, 116117
Future trends, 382383
G
Gap-filling adhesive bonds, 347
Gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures, tissue
adhesive applications in (case study),
276277
bleeding from other sources, 277
closure of fistula, 277
esophageal variceal bleeding, 277
gastric variceal bleeding, 276277
peptic ulcer bleeding, 277
Gelatine, 70
General Electric, 170171
Gibbs free energy, 2324
Glass matte-reinforced thermoplastic (GMT), 58
Global Industry Analysts, Inc., 383
Glubran 2, 278282
Gluing, 272
GluStitchs, 263
Goland and Reissner theory, 202203
Gold, adhesives for, 164
Granule adhesives, 75
Graphite, 224225
Grit blasting, 45
Grit content, 347
Guggenheim’s equation, 2526
H
Hardeners
for epoxy adhesives, 111112
for thermosetting adhesives, 6768
Hazard Communication Standard
(HCS), 375
Hazardous Material Identification System
(HMIS), 376377, 376f
Heat activation, 219
Heat cure conductive adhesives, 103
Heat reactivation, 154
Heating equipment, 222226
direct heating curing, 222223
electric resistance heaters, 224225
high-frequency dielectric (radio frequency)
heating, 225
induction heating, 225226
low-voltage heating, 226
radiation curing, 223224
Hexafluoroacetone sesquihydrate, 168, 241243
HFE-7100, 42t
High-temperature-resistant adhesives, 299302
epoxies, 300
modified phenolics, 300301
polyaromatics, 302
polysulfone, 301302
silicones, 302
High temperature effects, 347
High-frequency dielectric (radio frequency)
heating, 225
Hildebrand solubility parameter, 236
Histoacryls Blue, 263
History, of adhesive development, 84
“Holding adhesive,” 1, 74
Holography, 368369
404 IndexHot melts, 216218
melt-reservoir systems, 216217
progressive-feed systems, 217218
Hot presses/platens, 222223
Hot-melt adhesives, 78t, 117120, 212
ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyolefin
resins, 118
foamable hot-melt adhesives, 118
polyamide (Nylon) and polyester resins, 119
Hot-setting phenolics, 132
Hot-water-soak test, 308311
Humidity and water immersion, 305312
fatigue-life data, 311312
hot-water-soak test, 308311
moisture exposure, effects of surface
preparation on, 306308
stressed temperature/humidity test, 308
Hydrogen bonding, 11, 13
Hydrogen ion concentration, 347
Hydrophobic recovery, 55
Hydroxy ethyl cellulose, 100
Hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 286, 288
2-Hydroxyethyl methacryl dihydrogen phosphate
(HEMA-phosphate), 289
Hysol EA 9614, 171
Hysteresis, 24
I
Impact strength, 347
Impact tests, 343
Incoming material control, 356360
adhesives, 356357
mechanical properties, 357
miscellaneous properties (including creep), 357
bonding, process control of, 358360
adhesive application, 359
assembly, 359
curing, 360
prefit, 358359
standard test specimen, 360
surface preparation control, 357358
Induction heating, 225226
Infrared lamps, 223
Inorganic adhesives (cements), 120123
basic salts (sorel cements), 122
litharge cements, 122
phosphate cements, 122
Sauereisen’s adhesives, 123
soluble silicates (potassium and sodium
silicate), 121122
sulfur cements, 122123
Interface, defined, 19
Intermediate cleaning, 4445
grit blasting, 45
Intermolecular interactions, 1112
Ionic bonds, 11
Ionomer (Surlyns), adhesives for, 170
J
JAN cycling, 319
Joggle lap joints, 186f, 191
Joint design, 4, 183
adhesive joints, peeling of, 191192
angle and corner joints, 194
basic principles, 183
butt joints, 189190
common joint styles, 203f
criteria, 187189
cylindrical joints, 192193
efficiency, methods of
improving, 185187
lap joints, 190191
beveled lap joints, 191
double lap joints, 191
joggle lap joints, 191
strap joints, 191
optimizing adhesive bonding through,
203204
for plastics and elastomers, 194196
flexible materials, 194195
rigid plastics, 196
stiffening joints, 192
stress, types of, 183185
cleavage, 185
compression, 184
peel, 185
shear, 184
tension, 185
stress analysis, 196203
experimental analyses, 197201
failure analyses, 201202
methods of, 202203
theoretical analysis, 196197
Joint-assembly methods, 218219
heat activation, 219
pressure-sensitive and contact bonding, 219
solvent activation, 219
wet assembly, 218
K
Knife coating, 212
L
“L” angle joints, 194
Lap joints, 190191, 203204
beveled, 191
Index 405Lap joints (Continued)
double, 191
joggle, 191
strap joints, 191
Latex, 153154
Lead, adhesives for, 164
Lewis acid and base, 12
Liquid adhesives, 74, 114, 133, 210214
application by extrusion, 214
brushing, 210
dip coating, 213
flowing, 210211
knife coating, 212
oil can and squeeze bottle, 213
roll and knife method, 213
roll coating, 212
silk screening, 212213
spraying, 211212
Liquid baths, 222
Liquid crystals, 368
Liquid homolog series, 27t, 2934
Liquidliquid interface, 20f, 2728
Liquids
dynamic surface tension measurement
methods for, 26t
static surface tension measurement methods
for, 26t
surface tension measurement for, 26
Litharge cements, 122
Loctite Corporation, 107108, 262263
Locus of failure, 13
London dispersion forces, 11
Low and cryogenic temperature, 347
Low-voltage heating, 226
M
Magnesium, 39
and magnesium alloys, adhesives for,
164165
Magnesium oxychloride, 122
Manufacturing engineering,
society of, 7779
chemically reactive types, 77
delayed-tack adhesives, 79
evaporative/diffusion adhesives, 78
hot-melt adhesives, 78t
pressure-sensitive adhesives, 79
tape and film adhesives, 79t
Material safety data sheet (MSDS), 375, 378, 379t
Material surface preparation techniques, 35
cleaning (degreasing) metals, 3945
chemical treatment, 45
intermediate cleaning, 4445
solvent cleaning, 4044
general considerations, 3536
methods for evaluating effectiveness of
surface preparation, 6162
contact-angle test, 6162
dyne liquids, 61
water-break test, 61
priming, 46
solgel process, 4647, 47f
surface exposure time (SET), 6264
surface treatment of metals, 3639
surface treatment of plastics, 4860
corona treatment, 5155
effect of treatment on plastic surfaces,
4850
flame treatment, 5660
mechanical treatment (surface
roughening), 51
surface cleaning, 51
Maximum acceptable concentrations (MACs), 44
Mechanical theory, 78
Medical grade cyanoacrylate adhesives, 263266
Medicine and dentistry, adhesives in, 258259
applications, 269283
case studies, 272283
skin closure, adhesives for, 271272
bone adhesives, 283284
cyanoacrylic adhesives, 259269
commercial grades, 266269
medical grade, 263266
dental applications, 284289
10-Methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen
phosphate (10-MDP), 289
4-acryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride
(4-AETA), 289
4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitic
acid, 288
hydroxy ethyl methacrylate, 288
methacrylic acid (MA), 286
methyl methacrylate, 286287
monomers, 289
natural adhesives, 259
synthetic/semisynthetic adhesives, 259
tissue adhesives
test methods to characterize
strength of, 269
Medline, 266
Melamine-formaldehyde adhesives (melamines),
123, 164, 175
Melt-reservoir systems, 216217
Metal oxides, 13
Metals, adhesives for, 160167, 161t
aluminum and alloys, 160162
beryllium, 162163
brass and bronze, 163
cadmium (plated on steel), 163
406 Indexcopper and copper alloys, 164
gold, 164
lead, 164
magnesium and magnesium
alloys, 164165
nickel and nickel alloys, 165
plated metals, 165
platinum, 166
silver, 166
stainless steel, 166
steel, mild, carbon (iron), 166
surface treatment of, 3639
tin, 166
titanium and titanium
alloys, 166167
tungsten and tungsten alloys, 167
uranium, 167
zinc and zinc alloys, 167
Methacrylate-based adhesives, 270271
Methacrylic acid (MA), 286
11-Methacryloyloxy-1,10-undecanedicarboxylic
acid (MAC-10), 289
10-Methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate
(10-MDP), 289
2-(Methacryloyloxyethyl) phenyl hydrogen
phosphate (Phenyl-P), 289
4-Methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitic acid
(4-MET), 288
Methyl cellulose, 100
Methyl chloroform, 44
Methyl methacrylate
(MMA), 85, 286287
Methyl nonafluorobutyl ether, 42t
Methyl nonafluoroisobutyl ether, 42t
Methyl-2-cyanoacrylate, 106
Methylene chloride, 41, 247
Microencapsulated adhesives, 123124
MIL-STD-304 conditioning, 318t
Miniaturization trend, in electronics, 383
“Modified acrylics,” 85
Modified nylons, 130
Moisture exposure, 305
effects of surface preparation on, 306308
N
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA),
378
Natural adhesives, 3, 6970, 259
asphalt and bitumin, 70
gelatine, 70
natural rubber, 70
resins, 70
shellac, 70
starch and dextrin, 70
Natural glues, 124128
animal origin, glues of, 126128
vegetable glues, 124126
Natural latex, 153
Natural rubber, 70, 96t, 142
Neoprene (polychloroprene) rubber adhesives,
96t, 128, 168169
Neoprene-phenolic adhesives, 87, 128129
Net force on surface molecule, 19
Neutron radiography, 370371
NFPA 704, 378
Nickel and nickel alloys, adhesives for, 165
Nitrile rubber adhesive, 96t, 130
Nitrile-epoxy (elastomer-epoxy) adhesives, 129
Nitrile-phenolic adhesives, 8788, 9091,
129130, 300, 332
Nonchromate corrosion inhibitors, 47
Nondestructive tests, 360371
holography, 368369
liquid crystals, 368
neutron radiography, 370371
penetrant inspection, 371
radiography, 370
radioisotope methods, 370
scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), 371
sonic methods, 362363
arvin acoustic analysis system, 363
eddy-sonic test method, 363
pulsed eddy-sonic test method, 363
sonic resonator, 363
sweep-frequency resonance method, 367368
thermal image inspection, 369
thermal infrared inspection (TIRI), 369370
ultrasonic methods, 363367
ultrasonic multiple transducer, 366367
ultrasonic pulse echo contact impedance
testing, 365, 365f
ultrasonic pulse echo immersion, 365366,
366f
X-ray techniques, 370
Nonstructural adhesives, 1, 74
Nonvolatile content, 347
Noryls. See Phenylene-oxide-based resins
Nylon adhesives, 130
Nylon-epoxy adhesives, 87, 131
Nylons (polyamides)
adhesives for, 170
modified, 130
solvents for, 246
O
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA), 375
Octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (2-OCA), 266
Index 407Octylcyanoacrylate, 266, 268
Odor, 348
Oil can, 213
Open pediatric urological procedures
tissue adhesive as dressing (case study), 275276
Open-time bonding, 153
Organosilanes, 12
Outdoor weathering, 317326
Oven heating, 222
Oxidizing flame, 58
P
Paste adhesives, 75, 114, 214
knives, 214
spatulas, 214
trowels, 214
Peel strength, 348
Peel tests, 62, 341342
Pendent drop method, 26t
Penetrant inspection, 371
Penetration, 348
Perchloroethylene, 44, 247
Perfluoroalkoxy resins. See Fluoroplastics,
adhesives for
Personal protective equipment (PPE), 376377
pH. See Hydrogen ion concentration
Phased array transducer, 367
Phenol-formaldehyde (phenolics), 176, 331
Phenolic adhesives, 131132
acid-catalyzed phenolics, 131132
hot-setting phenolics, 132
Phenolics, modified, 300301
epoxy-phenolic, 300301
nitrile-phenolic, 300
Phenoxy adhesives, 133
Phenylene-oxide-based resins (Noryls),
170171, 250252
Phosphate cements, 122
Physical form, classification of adhesives by,
7475
liquid adhesives, 74
paste adhesives, 75
powder/granule adhesives, 75
tape and film adhesives, 75
Plain butt joint, 186f
Plasma treatment, 50
Plastic bottle, 3D treatment of, 54f
Plastic film treater, 52, 53f
Plastic foams, 177178
Plastics, surface treatment of, 4860, 49f
corona treatment, 5155
three-dimensional, 5354
under chemical atmosphere, 5455
effect of treatment on plastic surfaces, 4850
flame treatment, 5660
mechanical treatment (surface roughening), 51
surface cleaning, 51
Plastics adhesion substrates, treatment values
for, 63t
Plastics and elastomers, 194196
flexible materials, 194195
rigid plastics, 196
Plastilocks, 88
bond strength of, 89t
properties of, 88t
Plated metals, adhesives for, 165
Platinum, adhesives for, 166
Polarizability, 11
Poly(t-butylmethacrylate) (PtBMA), surface
energies of, 32t
Polyamide (Nylon) and polyester resins, 119
Polyamide-6,6 (PA-66), surface energies of, 32t
Polyamide-12 (PA-12), surface energies of, 32t
Polyaromatics, 9394, 302
Polyaryl ether (Arylon T), adhesives for, 171
Polyaryl ether ketones, 93
Polyaryl sulfone, adhesives for, 171
Polyarylates, 93
Polybenzimidazoles (PBI), 133135, 163, 302
Polybutylene terephthalate, 249
Polybutylmethacrylate (PBMA), surface energies
of, 32t
Polycarbonates (PCs), 93, 171
surface energies of, 32t
Polychloroprene adhesives. See Neoprene
(polychloroprene) rubber adhesives
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTrFE)
adhesives for, 171
surface energies of, 32t
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), surface energies
of, 32t
Polyesters, 135
thermoplastic polyester, 172
thermosetting polyester, 176
unsaturated, 331
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)
adhesives for, 172
surface energies of, 32t
Polyetherimide, 93
adhesives for, 172
solvents for, 254
Polyethersulfone, 93, 172
Polyethylacrylate (PEA), surface energies
of, 32t
Polyethylene, 13, 56
adhesives for, 172173
-branched PE, surface energies of, 32t
-linear PE, surface energies of, 32t
Zisman plot for, 30f
408 IndexPolyethyleneoxide (PEO), surface energies
of, 32t
Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), surface
energies of, 32t
Polyethylmethacrylate (PEMA), surface
energies of, 32t
Polyhexylmethacrylate (PHMA), surface
energies of, 32t
Polyimides (PIs), 93, 135136, 176, 302, 331
Polyisobutylene (PIB), 136
properties of, 96t
surface energies of, 32t
Polyisobutylmethacrylate (PIBMA), surface
energies of, 32t
Polymeric (alkoxide) route, 47
Polymers
aromatic, 9394
elastomeric, 95, 96t
solubility parameters for, 240t
solubility parameters for, 240t
solvents for, 241254
surface tension of, 20
two-polymer adhesives, 8691
urethane, 138
welding of, 235
Polymethyl methacrylate, 249250
Zisman plot for, 31f
Polymethylacrylate, surface energies of, 32t
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
adhesives for, 173, 283284
bone cement, 283284
Polymethylpentene (TPXss), adhesives for, 173
Polyoxymethylene (POM), 168
Polyphenylene sulfide (Rytons), adhesives
for, 173
Polyphenylquinoxaline, 167
Polypropylene, 56
adhesives for, 173
-isotactic PP, surface energies of, 32t
Polystyrene, 136137
adhesives for, 173
solvents for, 247249
Polystyrene PS, surface energies of, 32t
Polysulfides, 96t, 137
Polysulfones, 93, 138, 301302, 330
adhesives for, 173174
solvents for, 249
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 39
adhesives for, 174
surface energies of, 32t
Zisman plot for, 30f
Polytetrahydrofurane (PTHF), surface energies
of, 32t
Polytetramethylene oxide (PTME), surface
energies of, 32t
Polytrifluoroethylene (P3FEt/PTrFE),
surface energies of, 32t
Polyurethane, 138140, 305, 331, 333
adhesives for, 176
manufacture of, 383
Polyvinyl acetal adhesives, 140
Polyvinyl acetate adhesives, 140141
Polyvinyl alcohol adhesives, 141
Polyvinyl butyral adhesives, 141
Polyvinyl butyral-phenolics, 151152
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
adhesives for, 174
chlorinated, 254
solvents for, 252254
surface energies of, 32t
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF)
adhesives for, 174
surface energies of, 32t
Polyvinyl formal-phenolics, 151152
Polyvinylacetate (PVA), surface energies of, 32t
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), surface
energies of, 32t
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), surface energies
of, 32t. See also Fluoroplastics, adhesives
for
Polyvinyltoluene (PVT), surface energies of, 32t
Poly-α-methyl styrene (PMS), surface energies
of, 32t
Powder adhesives, 75, 215216
Powder contact angle, 27t
Premature adhesive failure, 16
Premixed frozen adhesives, 141142
Preparation of adhesives, 207208
Pressure equipment, 220222
Pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA), 79, 104,
142143, 177
Pressure-sensitive and contact bonding, 219
Priming, 37, 46
Progressive-feed systems, 217218
Proper choice of adhesive, 4
Properly treated polychlorotrifluoro-ethylene
(PCTFE), 171
Pull-force methods, 2728
Pulsed eddy-sonic test method, 363
Q
Quality control, 353
adhesive-bonded joints, defects in, 361t
final inspection, 360
flow chart of, 354f
incoming material control, 356360
adhesives, 356357
process control of bonding, 358360
surface preparation control, 357358
Index 409Quality control (Continued)
nondestructive tests, 360371
holography, 368369
liquid crystals, 368
neutron radiography, 370371
penetrant inspection, 371
radiography, 370
radioisotope methods, 370
scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), 371
sonic methods, 362363
sweep-frequency resonance method,
367368
thermal image inspection, 369
thermal infrared inspection (TIRI),
369370
ultrasonic methods, 363367
X-ray techniques, 370
weldbonding, 372373
R
Radiation, 329333
Radiation curing, 223224
Radiation exposure, 348
Radiography, 370
neutron, 370371
Radioisotope methods, 370
Rayner, classification of
adhesives by, 7981
thermoplastic resin adhesives, 80t
thermosetting resin adhesives, 79t
two-polymer adhesives (alloys), 81t
Reactive adhesives, 85
“Reactive-fluid adhesives,” 85
Receding angle, 24
Receding contact angle, 24
Recessed double strap joint, 186f
Reclaim rubber, properties of, 96t
Reinforced plastics/composites, 176177
Requirements for good adhesive
bond, 45
adhesive bonding process, 5
cleanliness, 5
good joint design, 4
proper choice of adhesive, 4
wetting, 5
Resins, 70
anaerobic, 329
phenylene oxide-based, 250252
thermoplastic, 147148
thermosetting, 149
Resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives, 143
Rho-Tron 225 TM, 42t
Right-angle butt joints, 194
Rigid plastics, 196
Rio Tinto Alcan, 334336
Roll and knife method, 213
Roll coating, 212
Room temperature cure adhesives, 103
Room-temperature-vulcanizing (RTV) silicones,
303
Rosin adhesive, 125126
Rubber, 70, 178
butyl, 95
joints under stress, 195f
nitrile, 130
thermoplastic, 148
Rubber cement tests, 348
Rubber phenolics, 305
Rubber-based adhesives, 143146
silicone adhesives, 143146
Rubberized asphalt adhesives, 99t
S
Safety factors, 375379
in solvent cleaning operations, 44
Saint-Gobain boron nitride, 104
Salt spray (fog) testing, 348
Salt spray, 312316
Saltwater and salt spray, 312316
Boeing/Air Force studies, 316
saltwater immersion, 305312, 315316
seacoast weathering environment, 313315
Sauereisen’s adhesives, 123
Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), 371
Scanning acoustic tomography. See Scanning
acoustic microscopy (SAM)
Scarf butt joint, 186f
Scarf joints, 195, 203
Scotch-Weldt, 88, 88t
properties test results for, 89t
tensile shear test results for, 89t
Sealants, 259
Sealing, 23
“Second-generation acrylics,” 85
primary benefits of, 85
Self-adhesive bandages, 269
Sessile drop method, 27t
Shear strength, 348349
Shear tests, 124, 340341
Shellac, 70, 128
Shurtronic Harmonic Bond Tester, 363
Silane primers, 171
Silicone, 96t, 142146
Silicone resins, adhesives for, 176
Silicones, 302
Silk screening, 212213
Silver, 102
adhesives for, 166
410 IndexSingle fiber Wilhelmy method, 27t
Single lap joint, 186f, 188, 188f
Single strap joint, 186f
Skin closure, adhesives for, 271272
Skin closure in plastic surgery, tissue adhesive
for (case study), 283
Small and medium vessels, sutureless
anastomoses of (case study), 274275
Small-portion mixer dispensers, 209210
Snap cure conductive adhesives, 103
Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, 100
Solgel process, 4647, 47f
Solids
defined, 22
measurement for, 2934
surface energy of, 22
surface tension measurement methods for, 27t
Soluble nylons, 87
Soluble silicates, 121122
Solutions, 153
Solvent activation, 219
Solvent bonding, factors affecting, 237241
solubility, 237
stress cracking, 237241
Solvent cementing of plastics, 235
background, 235241
factors affecting adhesive and solvent
bonding, 237241
solubility parameter, 236237
in cold temperatures, 255256
commercial perspective, 254255
in high temperatures, 255
polymerization, 235
specific polymers, solvents for, 241254
acetal copolymer, 241243
acetal homopolymer, 243
acrylonitrilebutadienestyrene, 243
cellulosics, 243246
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, 254
nylons (polyamides), 246
phenylene oxide-based resins, 250252
polybutylene terephthalate, 249
polyetherimide, 254
polymethyl methacrylate, 249250
polystyrene, 247249
polysulfone, 249
polyvinyl chloride, 252254
styreneacrylonitrile, 249
Solvent cleaning, 4044
safety, 44
ultrasonic cleaning with liquid rinse, 43
ultrasonic vapor degreasing, 4142
vapor degreasing, 4041
Solvent reactivation, 154
Solvent wiping, 43
Solvent-based systems, 78t, 146147
Solvents, 68
Sonic methods, 362363
arvin acoustic analysis system, 363
eddy-sonic test method, 363
pulsed eddy-sonic test method, 363
sonic resonator, 363
Sorel cements, 122
Soybean glue, 125
Spatulas, knives, trowels, 214
Specific surface area (SSA), 67
Specimen preparation, 349
Spinning drop method, 26t
Spot adhesion test, 350
Spraying, 211212
Spreading coefficient, 2425
Squeeze bottle, 213
Stainless steel, adhesives for, 166
Starch adhesives, 124125
Starch and dextrin, 70
Static surface tension measurement methods for
liquids, 26t
Step lap joint, 186f, 201
Stiffening joints, 192, 201
Stoichiometric volume, 58
Storage life, 350
Straight joints
for solid bars, 193f
for tubular forms, 193f
Strap joints, 191
Strength development, 350
Stress, types of, 183185
cleavage, 185
compression, 184
peel, 185
shear, 184
tension, 185
Stress analysis of adhesive joints, 196203
experimental analyses, 197201
failure analyses, 201202
methods of, 202203
theoretical analysis of stresses and strains,
196197
Stress cracking, 237241
Stress-cracking resistance, 350
Stressed temperature/humidity test, 308
Stressed-bond joint durability, 316
Stripping strength. See Peel strength
Structural adhesives, 1, 7374, 74t
Styreneacrylonitrile
adhesives for, 175
solvents for, 249
Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), 96t
Styrene-butadiene-styrene (S-B-S), 148
Styrene-isoprenestyrene (S-I-S), 148
Index 411Sulfur cements, 122123
Superglues (cyanoacrylates), 12
Surface cleaning, 51
Surface energy, 19
of solid, 22
Surface exposure time (SET), 6264
Surface free energy, 2023
of select plastics, 30t
surface energy of solids, 22
work of adhesion, 2223
Surface preparation, 350, 357358
effectiveness of, 6162
on moisture exposure, 306308
Surface roughening, 51
Surface tension, 1920
of liquids, 29, 31t
measurement, 2634
for liquids, 2729
for solids, 27t, 2934
of polymers, 20
of solid plastics, 2934
temperature effect on, 25
Surface treatment of materials to enhance
adhesion, 36t
Surface treatment of metals, 3639
Surgical adhesives, 259
Suture and tissue adhesive, effects of
on bacterial counts, 272274
Sweep-frequency resonance method, 367368
Synthetic adhesives, 3, 70, 259
Synthetic latexes, 153
Synthetic/semisynthetic adhesives, 259
T
“T” angle joint, 194
Tack, 351
delayed-tack adhesives, 108109
Tandem method, 366367
Tank-type applications, 216217
Tape adhesives, 75, 104, 113115
Tape and film adhesives, 75, 79t, 115, 299300
TAPPI T458, 28t
Temperature effect on surface
tension, 25
Tensile strength, 351
Tensiles, 339340
Testing of adhesive bonds, 339
cleavage, 342
creep, 342343
durability, 343
fatigue, 343
impact, 343
methods and practices, compilation of, 343352
aging, 343344
amylaceous matter, 344
ash content, 344
biodeterioration, 344
blocking point, 344
characterization, 344
chemical reagents, 345
cleavage, 345
cleavage/peel strength, 345
corrosivity, 345
creep, 345
cryogenic temperatures, 345
density, 345
durability, 345346
electrical properties, 346
electrolytic corrosion, 346
fatigue, 346
filler content, 346
flexural strength, 346
flow properties, 346
fracture strength in cleavage, 347
gap-filling adhesive bonds, 347
grit content, 347
high temperature effects, 347
hydrogen ion concentration, 347
impact strength, 347
low and cryogenic temperature, 347
nonvolatile content, 347
odor, 348
peel strength, 348
penetration, 348
pH, 348
radiation exposure, 348
rubber cement tests, 348
salt spray (fog) testing, 348
shear strength, 348349
specimen preparation, 349
spot adhesion test, 350
spread, 350
storage life, 350
strength development, 350
stress-cracking resistance, 350
stripping strength. See Peel strength
surface preparation, 350
tack, 351
tensile strength, 351
torque strength, 351
viscosity, 351
volume resistivity, 351
water absorptiveness, 351
weathering, 351
wedge test, 352
working life, 352
peel, 341342
shear, 340341
tensiles, 339340
Theories of adhesion, 513, 6f, 7t
acidbase theory, 1213
412 Indexchemical bonding, 1013
diffusion theory, 89
electrostatic theory, 8
mechanical theory, 78
weak boundary layer theory, 13
wetting theory, 910
Thermal image inspection, 369
Thermal infrared inspection (TIRI), 369370
Thermally conductive adhesives, 103104
Thermids IP-600, 93
chemical structure of, 94f
Thermoplastic adhesives, 7172, 71t, 72t, 299
Thermoplastic resin adhesives, 80t, 147148
Thermoplastic resins, 80, 235
Thermoplastic rubber, 94, 148
Thermoplastics, adhesives for, 168175
acetal copolymer, 168169
acetal homopolymer, 169
acrylonitrilebutadienestyrene (ABS), 169
cellulosic plastics, 169170
ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene.
See Fluoroplastics, adhesives for
fluorinated-ethylene propylene (Teflons).
See Fluoroplastics, adhesives for
fluoroplastics, 170
ionomer (Surlyns), 170
nylons (polyamides), 170
perfluoroalkoxy resins. See Fluoroplastics,
adhesives for
phenylene-oxide-based resins (Noryls),
170171
polyaryl ether (Arylon T), 171
polyaryl sulfone, 171
polycarbonate, 171
polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 171
polyester, 172
polyetheretherketone, 172
polyetherimide, 172
polyethersulfone, 172
polyethylene, 172173
polymethylmethacrylate, 173
polymethylpentene (TPXss), 173
polyphenylene sulfide (Rytons), 173
polypropylene, 173
polystyrene, 173
polysulfone, 173174
polytetrafluoroethylene, 174
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 174
polyvinyl fluoride, 174
polyvinylidene fluoride. See Fluoroplastics,
adhesives for
styrene-acrylonitrile, 175
Thermosetting adhesives, 71, 299
Thermosetting plastics (thermosets), adhesives
for, 175176
diallyl phthalate, 175
epoxies, 175
melamine-formaldehyde (melamines), 175
phenol-formaldehyde (phenolics), 176
polyester (thermosetting polyester), 176
polyimide, 176
polyurethane, 176
silicone resins, 176
urea-formaldehyde, 176
Thermosetting resin adhesives, 79t, 149
Thickness of adhesives, 227
Thiokols. See Polysulfides
Threshold limit values (TLVs), 44
Through-transmission techniques, 366
Time of flight diffraction technique, 367
Tin, adhesives for, 166
Tissue adhesives, 258, 266
case studies, 272283
closure of hernia incisions, 278283
comparison of effects of suture
and tissue adhesive on bacterial counts,
272274
gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures,
276277
sutureless anastomoses of small and
medium vessels, 274275
tissue adhesive as dressing after open
pediatric urological procedures, 275276
tissue adhesive for skin closure in plastic
surgery, 283
topical skin wounds, tissue adhesives in,
277278
cyanoacrylate, 266269
test methods to characterize strength of, 269
Titanium and titanium alloys, adhesives for,
166167
Tongue-and-groove joints, 186f, 189190
Topical skin wounds, tissue adhesives in (case
study), 277278
Torque strength, 351
Transdermal patch technology, 270
Trends in adhesives industry, 380, 381t
1,1-Trichloroethane, 41
Trichloroethylene, 44
Tungsten and tungsten alloys, adhesives for, 167
Two-component conductive adhesives, 103
Two-polymer adhesives (alloys), 81, 81t, 8691
U
Ultem, 93
properties of, 93t
Ultrasonic activation, 226227
Ultrasonic cleaning with liquid rinse, 43
Ultrasonic multiple transducer, 366367
Ultrasonic pulse echo contact impedance testing,
365, 365f
Index 413Ultrasonic pulse echo immersion, 365366, 366f
Ultrasonic vapor degreasing, 4142
Uranium, adhesives for, 167
Urea-formaldehyde adhesives, 150151, 176
Urethane adhesives, 326
UV-curing adhesives, 149150, 223
V
Vacuum, 327329
Vacuum bags, 221222
Van der Waals forces, 9
Vapor degreasing, 4041
Ultrasonic, 4142
Vegetable glues, 124126
Vertrel CMS, 42t
Vertrel SMT, 42t
Vinyl acetal-phenolic adhesives, 304305
Vinyl-epoxy adhesives, 151
Vinyl-phenolics, 87, 151
Vinyl-resin adhesives, 152
Viscosity, 351
Volkersen’s model, 202
Volume resistivity, 351
W
Water absorptiveness, 351
Water-based adhesives, 152154, 152t
Water-based systems, 78t
Water-break test, 61
Weak boundary layer theory, 13, 35
Weathering, 317326, 351
outdoor weathering, 317326
seacoast environment, 313315
simulated weathering/accelerated testing, 317
Wedge-test method, 316, 343, 352
Weldbonding, 227232, 372373
adhesive choice, 230231
configuration, 228230
advantages and limitations, 230
surface preparation, 230
techniques, 232
tooling for, 231
Welding of polymers, 235
Wet assembly, 218
Wet bonding, 153
Wettability, 6162
Wetting, 5
Wetting theory, 910
Wilhelmy plate method, 26t, 2729, 28f
Wonder adhesives. See Cyanoacrylic adhesives
Work of adhesion, 2223
Working life, 352
Wound closure devices, 277278, 279t
X
X-ray techniques, 370
Y
Young’s equation, 2325
YoungDupre’s equation, 25
Z
Zinc and zinc alloys, adhesives for, 167
Zisman plot
for polyethylene, 30f
for polymethyl methacrylate, 31f
for polytetrafluoroethylene, 30f


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