كتاب Energy Conversion - Second Edition
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Energy Conversion - Second Edition

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عدد المساهمات : 18717
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Energy Conversion - Second Edition  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Energy Conversion - Second Edition    كتاب Energy Conversion - Second Edition  Emptyالخميس 07 سبتمبر 2023, 2:07 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Energy Conversion - Second Edition
Edited by
D. Yogi Goswami and Frank Kreith

كتاب Energy Conversion - Second Edition  E_c_s_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface .ix
Contributors xi
1. Global Energy Systems 1
D. Yogi Goswami and Frank Kreith
Section I Energy Resources
2. Fossil Fuels .33
Robert Reuther, Richard Bajura, and Philip C. Crouse
3. Biomass Properties and Resources . 61
Mark M. Wright and Robert C. Brown
4. Municipal Solid Waste 73
Shelly H. Schneider
5. Nuclear Resources 81
James S. Tulenko
6. Solar Energy Resources .85
D. Yogi Goswami
7. Wind Energy Resource 137
Dale E. Berg
8. Geothermal Energy 177
Joel L. Renner and Marshall J. Reed
Section II Energy Conversion
9. Steam Power Plant 191
John Kern
10. Gas Turbines 209
Richard H. Bunce
11. Internal Combustion Engines 223
David E. Klett, Elsayed M. Afify, Kalyan K. Srinivasan, and Timothy J. Jacobs
12. Hydraulic Turbines 257
Roger E.A. Arndt and Leonardo P. Chamorroviii Contents
13. Advanced Fossil Fuel Power Systems . 281
Seyfettin C. (John) Gülen
14. Stirling Engines 447
Frank Kreith
15. Nuclear Power Technologies through Year 2035 455
Kenneth D. Kok and Edwin A. Harvego
16. Nuclear Fusion . 491
François Waelbroeck
17. Energy Storage Technologies . 497
Jeffrey P. Chamberlain, Roel Hammerschlag, and Christopher P. Schaber
18. Solar Thermal Energy Conversion 525
T. Agami Reddy and Jeffrey H. Morehouse
19. Concentrating Solar Thermal Power 655
Manuel Romero, Jose Gonzalez-Aguilar, and Eduardo Zarza
20. Photovoltaics Fundamentals, Technology and Application 765
Roger Messenger, D. Yogi Goswami, Hari M. Upadhyaya, Senthilarasu Sundaram,
Aruna Ivaturi, Stephan Buecheler, and Ayodhya N. Tiwari
21. Wind Energy Conversion 851
Dale E. Berg
22. Biomass Conversion Process for Energy Recovery 897
Mark M. Wright and Robert C. Brown
23. Geothermal Power Generation 931
Kevin Kitz
24. Waste-to-Energy Combustion 985
Charles O. Velzy and Leonard M. Grillo
25. Fuel Cells 1033
Xianguo Li
26. Direct Energy Conversion . 1085
Mysore L. Ramalingam, Jean-Pierre Fleurial, and George Nolas
Appendix A: The International System of Units, Fundamental Constants,
and Conversion Factors . 1103
Appendix B: Solar Radiation Data . 1109
Appendix C: Properties of Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids . 1137
Appendix D: Ultimate Analysis of Biomass Fuels . 1151
Index . 1153
1153
“Atoms for Peace” speech, 457
1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, effect of on
transportation of coal, 46–47
2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1017
3PRH bottoming cycles, 315, 319, 359
40 CFR Part 60, 1011–1012
450 scenario, 14–15, 28
A a
-Si cells, 800, 806–807
configurations, 810–811
deposition techniques for, 808
fabrication of, 777–778
flexible, 814–816
stability and recombination issues in,
809–810
a-Si:H cells
configurations for, 808–809
deposition techniques for, 808
ABAQUS, 872
Abengoa, 674, 724
Absolute efficiency, 276
Absorber pipes
enhancing heat transfer in, 704
flow in, 700–701
Absorbers
compound parabolic concentrators, 539–540
design of, 731
design of for flat-plate collectors, 530
flat-plate solar collectors, 662–664, 667
ideal temperatures of, 663–664
reducing losses from, 537–538
use of in tubular receivers, 732–734
use of in volumetric receivers, 734–739
Absorption carbon capture, 295
Absorption charge mode, 781
Absorption effects, 666
Absorptivity, 683
AC solar array systems, 782
Acceptance angle, 681–682
Acid electrolyte fuel cell, 1035, 1071. See also
PEMFCs
Acid rain, combustion of coal and, 48
Acoustic flow meters, 277
ACPR nuclear reactors, 467
Active length factor, 683
Active pitch control rotors, 875
Active solar systems, 551
closed-loop, 554–557
controls for, 557–562
design recommendations and costs, 578–579
Active space heating, design approach for,
570–573
AD process, microbial phases in, 915
ADAMS, 872
Additive manufacturing, use of to reduce inlet
temperature gaps, 352
Adiabatic saturators
definition of, 221
use of with gas turbines, 218
Adsorption carbon capture, 295
Advanced boiling water reactors (AWBRs), 465
Advanced fossil fuel power systems.
See AFFPS
Advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR), 460
Advanced heavy-water reactor (AHWR), 468
Advanced power systems, categories of, 283
Advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR),
466–467
Advanced thermal reactors, 465–466. See also
Generation III nuclear reactors
Aeroderivative gas turbines, air standard cycle
calculations for, 317–318
Aerodynamic loading, 869–870
Aerodynamic models of wind turbines,
860–868
AES nuclear reactors, 467
AFFPS, 435
cogeneration, 364–367
combustion technologies, 335–345
determinants for, 296–301
fuel cell hybrid system, 305–306
fuel flexibility, 369–372
GTCC high performance cycles, 355–360
GTCC technology, 351–355
indirectly fired gas turbines, 361–362
operational flexibility, 367–369
repowering, 362–364
thermodynamics of, 308–319
USC power plants, 345–351
use of GTCC system for benchmark, 319
Agricultural residues, 66
Air
use of as a working fluid, 527–528
use of to cool gas turbines, 220
Index1154 Index
Air gasification, 902
Air heat transfer, 630–631
Air mass ratio, 102–103
Air pollution
control of from MSW combustion, 996–997
emission requirements, 1011–1012
gaseous emission control, 1014–1016
organic compound control, 1016–1019
particulate control, 1012–1013
trace metals from MSW residue, 1019–1022
Air quality control, 286, 417–423
Air quality control systems. See AQCS
Air separation unit (ASU), 290, 392–393, 434
Air solar collectors, 552
Air staging, 339
Air standard power cycles, 230
calculations for heavy duty GTs, 317–318
idea Diesel cycle, 232–233
ideal Otto cycle, 230–232
Air temperature, transient thermal analysis of,
630–631
Air throttling, 234
Air-blown gasifiers, 904–905
Air-cooled volumetric receivers, 735
Air–fuel mixture
SI engine emissions levels and, 242–243
SI engines, 236–238
Airfoils, 855. See also Wind turbines
performance characteristics, 866
Alcohols
butanol, 922
cellulosic ethanol, 921–922
corn ethanol, 918–921
mixed, 924
Algae, 69
Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs), 1067–1069
All-or-nothing auxiliary heaters, 555–556
Allam cycle, 299
Alloy steels, 381–382
Alloying elements, 383
Alpha iron, 383
Altitude angle, 91, 635, 779
American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity
scale. See API gravity
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air-Conditioning Engineers. See
ASHRAE
American Society of Testing and Materials. See
ASTM
Amine-based absorption/stripper process, 296
Ammonia
leakage of from SCR converters, 243
production of from biomass, 916
Ammonia–water binary power plants, 976
Amorphous silicon PV cells. See a-Si cells
Anaerobic digestion. See also AD process
conversion of biomass to biogas using,
914–915
Anaerobic digestors, 916
ANDASOL, 678
ANDASOL-I plant, 712
Anemometers, 159–160
selection of, 160
Aneutronic fusion, 492
Angle of incidence, 106
Angström-Page regression equation, 113–114
Angular dependence, 534
Anisotropic of diffuse solar radiation,
118–119
Annual lighting energy saved, 635
Annual normal incident radiation, 656
Anodes in fuel cells, 1035
Anthracite, 34–36
reserves of, 39–40
Antiknock index, 245
Aora, 724
Aperture-area-weighted SSF, 615
API gravity, 59
definition of, 60
AQCS, 286
use of in FFPS, 295
Archimede Solar, 677
ARDISS, 703
Area–velocity measurements, 276
AREVA, 715
Areva-EdF-CGNPC nuclear reactor, 467
Ash content of coal, 36–39
Ash discharge facilities, 1010
Ash fusibility, 39
ASHRAE
clear sky model, 103–105
Standard 93-77, 533
Asphalt, 55
ASTM
alloy steel specifications, 382
coal property analysis, 36–39
coal rank classification scheme of, 34–36
Standard D975, 246
Standard D976, 246
Standards Part 47, 244–245
Atmea1 nuclear reactor, 467
Atmospheric IGFC, 307–308
ATS heliostat, 724
Attached sunspace, 586–587
Ausra, 715
Austenite, 383Index 1155
Australia
evolution of LF reflector systems in, 714–715
hot fractured rock development in, 936
use of linear Fresnel systems in, 673–674
Autoignition, 228
Autoignition temperature, 370
Automatic generation control (AGC), 368
Automotive storage technologies, 501
energy density, cycle life, and efficiency
of, 503
Auxiliary heaters, 555–556
designs for closed-loop multipass systems,
573–575
Auxiliary power, 287
Auxiliary technologies, 284
Azimuth angle, 91, 635, 779
B
Baghouses
use of in gaseous emission control, 1015
use of in organic compound control, 1019
Balance of plant (BOP), 293
Balance of the system (BOS) costs, 767
Ball joints, use of in connecting PTCs, 679–681
Bandgap
effect of on solar cell efficiency, 767
semiconductor materials used in solar
cells, 799
tailoring for a-Si, 807
Bang-bang control, 555
Barometric pressure, determination of air
density using, 161
Barrel swirl, 236
Base load, 320
Baseloaded, 944
Bat fatalities, impact of wind facilities, 150
Batch feeding of MSW, 995
Batteries
capacity of in PHEVs, 8
flow, 509–511
lead-acid, 506
lithium ion, 506–507
nickel metal hydride, 507–508
nickel-cadmium, 507
secondary, 505–506
sodium-sulfur, 508
zebra, 509
Beam radiation, 101
Beam solar radiation, measurement of, 126–127
Belgium, nuclear power capacity in, 461
Berjelius, 82
Best Available Control Technology (BACT), 1027
Betz limit, 863
Binary power plants, 938, 947
advantages of, 973–974
integration of steam turbines in, 977–980
pressurized geothermal brine, 976–977
types of, 975–976
Bio-oil upgrading, 925–926
Biodiesel, 918
production of from biomass, 922–924
Biofuels, 8, 918
drop-in, 927
ethanol, 918–922
production of, 19–21
properties of, 926–927
world production of, 20–21
Biogas, 914–915
Biomass
analysis of, 64–65
co-firing, 902
conversion of to heat and power, 897–898 (See
also Biomass conversion)
definition of, 61
demand for, 4
land use for production of, 69–71
physical and thermochemical properties
of, 63
potential of, 19–21
productivity data, 63
role of in future energy mix, 27–28
solar energy conversion to, 61–63
torrefied, 913–914
total energy potential of, 14
Biomass conversion, 898
biofuel properties, 926–927
combustion equipment, 901–902
direct combustion, 898–901
facility efficiency and capacity comparison,
899
gaseous fuels, 914–917
gasification, 902–904
gasification equipment, 904–907
gasification equipment types, 905
heat and power cycles, 907–912
liquid fuels, 917–926
processes of solid fuel combustion, 900
solid fuels, 913–914
Biomass crops
nominal annual yields of, 69
primary productivity and solar efficiency
of, 520
Biomass energy systems, 898
Biomass fuels, thermal performance of, 64
Biomass gasification, 8981156 Index
Biomass properties, plant composition, 63–64
Biomass resources, 66
algae, 69
energy crops, 67–68
waste materials, 66–67
Biomass solids, thermochemical energy storage
by, 519–520
Biomass storage technologies
biodiesel, 521
ethanol, 520–521
syngas, 521–522
Biorenewable resources, 66–67
Bipolar fuel cell connections, 1064–1066
Bird fatalities, impact of wind facilities,
149–150
Bituminous coal, 35–36
analysis of, 38–39
reserves of, 39–40
Blade cooling, 219–220
Blade element momentum (BEM), 864
Blade stall control, 874
BLADED, 872
Blades for steam turbines, 199–200
Blast furnace gas (BFG), 289–290
Blocking losses, 721
Blowdown, wastewater from, 296
Blowers, capacity of in MSW furnaces, 1007
BN-series of fast neutron reactors, 469–470
Boiler feed pump (BFP), 204
Boilers, 901
design of in WTE facilities, 988
mass-fired water wall units, 1008–1009
RDF-fired water wall systems, 1009
refractory furnace with waste heat, 1008
steam, 196–198
suitable alloys for construction of, 383–384
tube corrosion in, 1011
Boiling water reactors (BWRs), 457, 459
Boost pressure, 247–250
Bottom ash, 1010
Bottom dead center (BDC)
four-stroke SI engines, 225
two-stroke SI engines, 227
Bottoming cycles, 196
use of in waste energy recovery, 250–252
Boudouard reaction, 903–904
Boundary Dam Power Station CCS project, 407
Box turbines, 854
Brake mean effective pressure (bmep),
calculation of, 235
Brake work, 234–235
Brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc),
calculation of, 235
Brayton cycle, 209, 213–215, 292, 297, 909–910
impact of constant-volume heat addition on,
341–342
supercritical CO2, 376–379
Brayton gas turbine cycles, state-of-the-art, 297
Brayton–Rankine combined cycle. See also
GTCC
calculating thermal efficiency of, 311–314
Breeder reactors, 478
BREST nuclear reactor, 469
BrightSource, 674, 724, 743
Bubbly flow, 701
Building integrated PV (BIPV), 17, 799
use of a-SI think film technology for, 815
Building-attached photovoltaics (BAPV), 815
Buildings, effect of on wind speed, 154–155
Bulb turbines, 260
Bulk segment, 781
Buoyant force pressure difference, 583
Buried contact cells, 778
Burning velocity, 371
Butane (C4H10). See Hydrocarbons
Butanol, 922
C
C-P&R correlation, 115–118
model of, 119–122
c-Si technology, 796–797, 806–807
C4 plants, conversion of solar energy by, 62
Cadmium, environmental concerns,
835–836
Cadmium telluride solar cells. See CdTe solar
cells
California
geothermal power transmission in, 940
use of geothermal energy in, 933
Calorific values, use of in coal property
analysis, 37–38
Campbell–Stokes sunshine recorder, 128–129
Canada
installed wind power capacity in, 852
nuclear power reactors in, 459–460
use of heavy-water reactors in, 468
CANDU reactor, 459–460, 480
EC6, 468
CAP1000 nuclear reactor (China), 465
Capital charge factor, 320
Capital costs
CRS plants, 718
estimating for FFPS, 319–323
geothermal power plants, 946–947
learning curve for FOAK technologies, 322Index 1157
minimization of for geothermal
development, 952–954
nuclear power, 488–489
PTC systems, 711
STP plants, 659, 672
wind turbines, 886–890
WTE facilities, 1023–1025
Carbon, combustible portion of in MSW,
995–996
Carbon capture and sequestration. See CCS
Carbon capture systems, types of, 295–296
Carbon fiber, use of for wind turbines, 882
Carbon fixation pathways, 62
Carbon monoxide
combustion conditions and production
of, 900
emissions from IC engines, 240–241
emissions of from MSW incineration,
1014–1016
emissions of in flue gas, 295
production of from MSW combustion, 997
reduction of in coal combustion, 339–340
Carbon sequestration, 10
Carbon–oxygen reactions, 903–904
Carbon–water reactions, 903–904
Carbonization, 898, 914
Carburetors, 236
Carnot cycle, 308
comparison of with Rankine cycle,
193–194
efficiency of, 662
Carnot efficiency
equivalency of with reversible efficiency,
1049–1050
fuel cells, 1048–1049
Carnot factor
characterization of bottoming cycles using,
310–311
contemporary heat engines, 316–317
Carnot limit, 305
Carnot target, 309
Cascaded HAT (CHAT), 359–360
Case studies, initial wind farm development in
New Mexico, 171–173
Catalytic combustor, reduction of emissions
using, 339
Catalytic converters, emission control using,
243
Catalytic gasifiers, 308
Catalytic hydromethanation, 399
Cathodes in fuel cells, 1035
Cavitation of hydraulic turbines, 270
Cavity receivers, 729, 731
CCS, 284. See also Post-combustion carbon
capture system
proposed technologies for, 298–300
use of with IGCC power plants, 391–392
CdTe PV modules, 796–797, 800
environmental concerns, 835–836
CdTe solar cells
absorber layer, 819
deposition techniques for, 820–821
device structure, 817
electrical backcontact and stability issues,
819–820
flexible, 821
junction activation treatment, 819
material and properties of, 816
n-type window layer, 818
schematic of, 817
TCO front electrical contact configuration,
817–818
Cellulose, 64
Cellulosic ethanol, 921–922
Cellulosic material, characteristics of in
MSW, 989
Center-feed configuration of solar fields, 693
Central receiver systems. See CRSs
Centrifugal blower, 248
Centrifuge uranium enrichment, 480–481
Ceramic materials
use of for gas turbine coatings, 220
use of for thermal energy storage, 698
Ceramic matrix composites, 389–390
potential use of with reheat combustion, 357
use of to reduce inlet temperature gaps, 352
CESA-1, 733
Cetane index, 246
Cetane number, 240, 246, 918
CFD models, 866–867
Chalcopyrites, 821–823. See also CIGS solar cells
Chalder Hall nuclear power plant, 462
Champion thin-film social cell efficiencies, 798
Chaplecross nuclear power plant, 462
Char, 899–900
oxidation of, 900–901
production of in gasification process, 903
Charge cooling, 250
Chemical looping combustion (CLC), 299,
416–417
Chemical spraying (CS), 819
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 777–778, 808
China
CAP1000 nuclear reactor, 465
coal use in, 10–11
energy use in, 2–41158 Index
HTR-PM nuclear reactor, 468
increase in electricity-generating capacity, 6
power capacity of, 4
power production in, 4
production of c-Si modules in, 796
solar collectors in, 17–18
use of nuclear power in, 12
Chinooks, 138
Chisholm’s model, 703
Chlorinated hydrocarbons, combustion
conditions and production of, 900
Chromium, 383
CI engines, 224
basic operation of, 228–229
combustion in, 239–240
compression ratio, 231–232
emission reduction, 243
fuels for, 245–246
knock in, 240
particulate emissions from, 241–242
power output control in, 234
supercharging, 247–248
turbocharging, 248–250
CIGS solar cells, 797, 800, 812
absorber layer, 823
alternative growth processes for, 826–827
buffer layer, 823–824
coevaporation process, 825–826
configurations, 817–818, 823–825
cost estimates for, 805
electrical backcontact, 823
environmental concerns, 835–836
flexible, 827–829
front electrical contact, 824
material and properties, 821–823
potassium incorporation in, 825
selenization of precursor materials,
825–827
sodium incorporation in, 824
Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion,
339–341
Circumsolar radiation, 118–119
Clean Air Act Amendments (1990), effect of on
transportation of coal, 46–47
Clean coal technology, 10
Clear sky illuminance, 642
Clear sky radiation model, 103–105
Climate change, 7, 27–28
Cloncurry, 724
Closed heaters, 203–204
Closed-cycle gas turbines, 217
use of in FFPS, 292
Closed-cycle reprocessing, 478
Closed-loop multipass systems
design of with auxiliary heater in parallel,
573–574
design of with auxiliary heater in series,
574–575
Closed-loop solar systems, 552–553
description of, 554–557
Closed-loop steam cooling. See also H-System
use of to reduce TIT–RIT temperature loss,
355–357
Closed-space sublimation. See CSS
Cloud cover, 780
Cloud point, 246
Co-firing, 902
CO2 emission factor, 333–334
CO2 emissions, 295, 333. See also Hydrocarbons
coal combustion and, 48
combustion conditions and production
of, 900
flash-steam power plants, 980–981
increasing electricity-generating capacity
and, 6
transportation sources of, 6
use of renewable energy sources to
decrease, 5
CO2 sequestration, 27
Coal, 289
analysis and properties of, 36–39
average properties of, 333
combustion of, 332–334
composition and classification, 33–36
conversion processes, 39
demand for, 4
effect of quality of on plant
performance, 349
emissions from, 5
environmental aspects of, 47–48
global reserves of, 10–11
maceral groups, 34
oxy-fuel combustion of, 408–410
rank classification scheme, 34–36
reserve to production ratio (R/P), 10–11
reserves of, 39–40
resources, 40
role of in future energy mix, 27–28
spot prices for, 324
terminology, 40–41, 49–50
transportation of, 41, 46–47
type of, 33–34
world recoverable reserves of, 44–46
Coal combustion, technology to limit emissions
from, 339–340
Coal gasification, 391–397Index 1159
Coal-fired steam power plants, 191–192
potential conversion efficiency
improvements, 345–348
Coalification, 34
definition of, 49
Coatings, use of in gas turbines, 220
Code predictions for turbine design, 867–868
COE
standard formulation of, 319
wind turbines, 855, 886–890
Coefficient of performance (COP)
definition, 1099
thermoelectric refrigeration, 1095–1098
Coevaporation processes, 825–826
use of for CZTS deposition, 832
Cogeneration, 291, 364–367. See also Combined
heat and power
measuring effectiveness of, 365–367
Coke oven gas (COG), 289
Coking properties, 38
Collares-Pereira and Rabl correlation. See
C-P&R correlation
Collector fields, 719–727
Collector time constant, 536
COLON SOLAR, 723–724, 741
Combined collector-heat exchanger
performance, 559–561
Combined cycle system, 217
definition of, 221
fuels used in, 289
power generation by, 910–912
Combined heat and power (CHP), 291, 364–367.
See also Cogeneration
measuring effectiveness of, 365–367
Combined-cycle gas turbine power plant. See
GTCC power plants
Combined-cycle power plants, integration of
power towers into, 741
Combined-cycle steam power plants, 192
Combustible portion of MSW, ultimate analysis
of, 989
Combustion
calculations for biomass fuels, 65
chemical looping, 299, 416–417
chemical reactions of, 997
coal, 332–334
elements and compounds encountered in, 996
emission limits for, 1012
equipment, 901–902
heat of, 998
methane, 332
principles of in WTE facilities, 995–1003
properties of transportation fuels, 919
Combustion cycles, four-stroke SI engine, 224
Combustion dynamic instability, 371
Combustion efficiency, 211
definition of, 222
Combustion flame, 899–900
Combustion of MSW, 76–78
Combustion process
abnormal, 238–239
CI engines, 228–229
four-stroke SI engines, 225
normal, 237–238
two-stroke Si engines, 225, 227–228
Combustion reaction, 330–334
Combustors, gas turbines, 221
Commercial geothermal power production,
934–947. See also Geothermal power
Commercial solar systems, 551–552
Compact steam generators, 688
Composting, recovery of materials from MSW,
76–78
Compound parabolic concentrators. See CPCs
Compressed air energy storage (CAES), 513–514
Compressed natural gas (CNG), 58. See also
Natural gas
Compression ignition engines. See CI engines
Compression ratio, 230
CI engines, 231–232
SI engines, 231–232
Computational fluid dynamics models. See CFD
models
Concentrating collectors, 528–529
Concentrating photovoltaic technologies. See
CPV technologies
Concentrating reflectors, beam quality of,
668–670
Concentrating solar collectors, 17
Concentrating solar power. See CSP
Concentrating solar power plants. See CSP
systems
Concentrating solar thermal power
outlook for, 752–755
research and development, 714
Concentrating solar thermal power plants
(CSP), 17
Concentration ratio, 529
Concrete, use of for thermal energy storage, 698
Concurrent gasifiers, 905–906
Condensate heaters, 203–204
Condensate pumps, 205
Condenser gas-removal systems, 972–973
Condensing steam turbines, 968–971
Condensors for steam turbines, 204–205
Cone optics, 6671160 Index
CONSOLAR, 717
Constant-pressure heat addition, 340–341
ideal Diesel cycle, 232–233
Constant-pressure turbocharging, 248–249
Constant-volume heat addition, 341
ideal Otto cycle, 230–232
Constrained exogenous parameters, 566
Containers and packaging, recovery of from
MSW, 74–76
Control systems
design of for solar thermal applications,
557–562
parabolic trough collectors, 675–676
Controlled circulation boilers, 197
Controlled retractable injection point. See CRIP
underground coal gasification
Convective heat loss, 728–729
Convective losses, reduction of in solar
collectors, 537
Conversion of uranium, 83
Cooling systems, load reduction using
daylighting controls, 648–651
Cooling tower makeup water, 296
Copper-indium gallium diselenide thin films.
See CIGS solar cells
Coriolis forces, 138
Corn, conversion of solar energy by, 62
Corn ethanol, 918–921. See also Ethanol
Corrosion, 381
Cost, solar add-on, 582
Cost of energy. See COE
Costs
geothermal power plants, 946–947
solar thermal systems, 578–579
WTE facilities, 1023–1025
Countercurrent gasifiers, 905–906
CPCs, 528, 539–540
CPRG model, 120–122
CPV technologies, 845–848
energy payback, 848–849
market for, 848
qualification standards, 849
Creep, 380–381
CRIP underground coal gasification, 397–398
Criteria pollutants, 295
Crop yields, 69
Cross-flow turbines, 259
CRSs, 670–672, 674, 727–742
control of, 726–727
experience with, 739–740
heliostat and collector field technology,
719–727
investment cost breakdown for, 718
molten-salt systems, 744–747
solar thermal power plants, 716–717
technology description, 718–719
tubular receivers, 732–734
volumetric receivers, 734–739
water–steam plants, 740–744
Crucible growth method, 775
Crude oil, 244
classification of, 51
world refining capacity, 55
Cryogenic separation, 406
Crystalline silicon PV cells, manufacture of,
774–777
Crystalline silicon thin films. See c-Si
technology
Crystalline silicon thin films on glass. See CSG
thin films
CSG thin films, 797–798
CSP
collectors, 670–672 (See also specific
collectors)
electricity production with, 658
reasons for using, 661–665
technologies, 671–672
CSP systems, 656
characteristics of, 673
environmental advantages of, 659
CSS, 819
use of for CdTe deposition, 820
Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. See CIGS solar cells
Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells. See CZTS solar cells
Cup anemometers, 159
Curtis, Charles, 210
Cut-off ratio, 233
Cycle efficiency, Diesel, 233
Cycle life, 503
Cycle variants, gas turbine efficiency and,
355–360
Cyclic fatigue, 882
Cyclone furnaces, 339
Cylinder volume, 231
Cylindrical external receivers, 729
Czochralski method, 774
CZTS solar cells, 829
configuration, 830
deposition and growth of absorber, 830–833
material and properties, 829–830
D
D-T reaction, 491–492
energy conversion and transport, 493–494
Daily solar energy storage, 552Index 1161
Daily utilizability fraction, 546–548
Dangling bonds, 806–807, 810
Darrieus turbines, 854
structural dynamics of, 872
Data
collection and handling of, 166
processing and reporting,
169–171
protection and storage of, 167
retrieval frequency, 167
screening of, 168–169
solar radiation, 129–131
validation of, 167–168
verification of, 169
Data loggers, 162–164
Data sensors
sampling rates and statistical quantities,
164–165
towers and mounting, 165–166
Daylighting
controls and economics, 648–651
definition of, 581
design approach, 633–634
design fundamentals, 633
design methods, 635–648
sun-window geometry, 634–635
DC solar array systems, 780–781
DC-to-AC inverters, 1036
Deadbands, 558
Deaerators (DA), 204
Declination, 91, 779
Decommissioning costs, nuclear power
plants, 488
Dedicated energy crops, 61
Degraded sunshape, 667
Degree of recuperation, 379
Delivered power, price of from geothermal
resources, 942–943
Demonstrated reserve base (DRB), 41
U.S., 42–43
Demonstrated resources, 41
Dendritic web growth, thin-film production
by, 777
Densified RDF, 1008
Department of Energy (US). See DOE
Depleted uranium, 481
Deposition techniques
a-Si solar cells, 808
CdTe absorber layer, 819
CdTe solar cells, 820–821
CIGS absorber, 825–827
CZTS absorber, 831–833
thermal barrier coatings, 390–391
Depressions, effect of on wind speed, 155–156
Depth of discharge (DOD), 501
Deriaz hydraulic turbines, 267
Design cooling load, reduction of using
daylighting, 648–651
Design methods
active solar space heating, 570–573
classification of for solar systems, 568–569
domestic solar hot water heating, 573
IPH applications of active solar heating,
573–578
recommendations for active solar
applications, 578
Design point parameters, 691
Design specific speed, 263
Desuperheating, 203–204
Detailed design methods, 569
Detonation combustion, 344
Deuterium-deuterium reaction
(D-D reaction), 492
Deuterium-tritium reaction. See D-T reaction
Diesel cycle, 232–233, 292, 297
Diesel engines. See also CI engines
combustion chamber design for, 228–229
combustion in, 239–240
Diesel fuel, 245–246, 918
Diesel knock, 240
Differential temperature controllers, 558
Diffuse radiation, 633
anisotropic of, 118–119
Diffusion coatings, 390
Diffusion combustors, 335
Diffusion flame design of gas turbines, 221
fuels for, 289
Diffusion flame lift-off length (FLoL),
239–240
Dimensionless figure of merit (ZT)
definition, 1099
magnitude of in thermoelectric materials,
1092–1098
Dimethyl ether (DME), production of from
biomass, 916
DIN EN 10020, alloy steel specifications,
381–382
Dioxins
combustion conditions and production of,
900
control of from MSW combustion,
1016–1019
Direct combustion, 898–901
Direct electric storage
SMES, 512
ultracapacitors, 511–5121162 Index
Direct gain systems, 586
Direct heat, use of geothermal energy for, 934
Direct heating air-blown gasifiers, 904–905
Direct injection (DI) engines, 225, 228
Direct methanol fuel cells. See DMFCs
Direct radiation, 101
Direct solar radiation, measurement of, 126–127
DIrect Solar Steam project. See DISS project
Direct steam generation. See DSG
Direct thermal storage, 515
latent heat, 517–519
sensible heat, 515–517
Direct-coupled DC PV array system, 780–781
Direct-drive generators, 876–877
Direct-return piping configuration, 692
Directional solidification (DS) superalloys,
388–389
Directly coupled systems, 557
Directly irradiated receivers, 729
Discovered oil resources, 51
definition of, 60
Discovery of geothermal resources, 949–950
Dish-Stirling systems, 674, 747
concentrators, 748–749
description of, 747–748
developments in, 750–752
receiver, 749
use of Stirling engines, 749–750
Dish/engine collectors, 670–672, 674
DISORT, 122
Dispersion effects, 666
DISS project, 676, 702–704
Distillate fuel oil, 54
Distributed grid technologies, 501
Distributed photovoltaic systems. See
Photovoltaics
DLN combustion, 295
estimation of CO and NO
x from, 334–339
DLN combustors, reducing pollutants from,
335–339
DMFCs, 1073–1074
acceptable contamination levels, 1074
applications of, 1075
basic operating principle, 1074
major technological problems, 1074–1075
technological status, 1075
DOE
Biomass Feedstock and Property Database, 65
Energy Information Administration (EIA)
(See EIA)
Domestic solar hot water heating
design method for, 573
use of closed-loop systems for, 554–557
Double-reheat cycle, 297
Double-tank solar systems, 556–557
Downdraft gasifiers, 905–906
Dowtherm-A, 676
DPT550, 743
Draft tubes
importance of for flow stability, 266
numerical modeling of, 273–274
Drag devices, 855
power coefficients for, 860
translating, 857
Drain cooler approach (DCA), 203
Drain-back systems, 557
Drain-down systems, 557
Dresden Nuclear Power Plant, 457
Drop-in fuels, 927
Drum-type boilers, 197
Dry grind ethanol, 920–921
Dry low NOx combustion. See DLN combustion
Dry natural gas, world production of, 55–56, 58
DSG, 676, 690–691
advantages of, 700
research and development for, 713–714
use of in PTC plants, 699–707
DSSCs, 800, 833
Dual catalytic converters, 243
Dual-axis tracking, 528
Dual-medium storage systems, 698–699
Dufay, Charles, 1086
DUKE, 707
Durable goods, recovery of from MSW, 74–76
Dusseldorf System, 1005
Dye dilution test method, 276
Dye-sensitized solar cells. See DSSCs
E
E class gas turbines, air standard cycle
calculations for, 317–318
Earth, thermal energy within, 177–178
Earth contact cooling, 629–632
Earth-sun geometric relationship, 86–87, 90–92
shadow-angle protractor, 95–98
solar time and angles, 92–93
sun-path diagram, 93–94
East-west sun-tracking axis orientation, 679
Easterlies, 138–139
ECN Phyllis database, 65
Economic access for geothermal resources
electricity transmission, 939–941
power plant costs, 946–947
viable market, 941–946
wellhead energy cost, 938–941Index 1163
Economic and Simplified boiling water reactor
(ESBWR), 466
Economic considerations, elements of for
passive solar systems, 581–582
Economics, daylighting controls and, 648–651
Economizer, 197
Eddystone 1 (AEP), 303
Edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) process,
776
Edison, Thomas, 1086
Efficiency
energy storage, 502
engine fuel conversion, 235
gas turbines, 211–212
hydraulic turbines, 262
measures of, 276
Otto cycle, 230–232
parabolic trough collectors, 686–688
volumetric, 235–236
Effusion cooling, 352
EGR
use of in CI engines, 240
use of in two-stroke engines, 227
EGR system, development of for use with DLN
combustors, 337–338
EIA, crude oil classification and estimated
world reserves, 51–54
Eisenhower, President Dwight D., 457
Electric generators for FFPS, 292
Electric power generation
economic analysis of, 319–330 (See also LCOE)
U.S. capacity by generator/cycle type, 907
Electric storage, direct, 511–512
Electric vehicles, 8
energy storage with, 501
Electrical backcontact, 819–820
CIGs solar cells, 823
Electrical energy, price of delivered geothermal
power, 942–943
Electrical energy storage technologies, 498–499
Electrical power generation subsystem, 875–878
Electricity, 6
demand for, 5–6
production, 6
transmission of geothermal power, 939–941
Electricity generation, use of PTCs for, 693–695
Electricity-generating capacity, addition to 2040,
6
Electro-hydraulic governors, 269
Electrochemical energy storage
batteries, 505–509
electrolytic hydrogen, 511
flow batteries, 509–511
Electrodeposition (ED), 819, 827
Electrodes, processes of in fuel cells, 1062–1063
Electron cyclotron resonance reactor (ECR)
deposition, 808
Electron motive, 1087
definition, 1100
Electron saturation current, 1088–1089
Electron–hole pair (EHP), creation of, 771
Electrostatic precipitators, 1012–1013
Elemental analysis, 63–64
combustible portion of MSW, 989, 999
Elling, Jens William Aegidius, 210
Emissions. See also specific pollutants
air pollution control requirements, 1011–1012
carbon monoxide, 240–241
control of from IC engines, 242–243
NO
x, 241
unburned hydrocarbons, 241
Endogenous parameters, 566
Energy
availability of from wind, 141–151
forecast of future mix, 27–28
global needs and resources, 2–4
per capita consumption, 22–24
production of from geothermal wells,
938–939
Energy balance, parabolic trough collectors,
686–688
Energy conservation
distinction of from passive solar systems,
581
role of, 22–26
Energy consumption, global, 2–3, 51–53
Energy conversion efficiency
definition, 1046
fuel cell, 1047
heat engines, 1048–1049
irreversible, 1057–1058
Energy crops, 67–68
Energy density, 503
Energy losses
irreversible, 1054–1056
reversible, 1052–1054
Energy payback period
CPV technologies, 848–849
PV cells, 775
thin-film PV cells, 798–799
wind power, 886
Energy policies, potential for renewable energy,
14–15
Energy Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT),
885
Energy saving potential, 25–261164 Index
Energy storage
devices for, 501–503
electrochemical, 505–509
electrolytic hydrogen, 511
flow batteries, 509–511
mechanical, 512–515
specifications for fuels, 504–505
thermochemical, 519–522
Energy storage technologies
applications of, 500–501
electrical, 498–499
Engine efficiency, 211
Engine fuel conversion efficiency, 235
Enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM)
technology, 408
Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), 936
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application, 298,
407–408
Enrichment facilities for uranium, 83–84,
480–481
Enthalpy, reversible cell potentials, 1043
Entrained flow gasifiers, 905–906
Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs), 390
Environmental concerns, wind facilities,
149–151
Enzymatic hydrolysis, 921
Equatorial doldrums, 138–139
Equivalence ratio, 237, 331
ERSATZ, 130
eSolar, 724, 743
ESTELA, 713
ET-100 PTC, 706
ET-150 parabolic trough collector, parameters
of, 678
Ethane (C2H6). See Hydrocarbons
Ethanol, 918
cellulosic, 921–922
corn, 918–921
world production of, 20–21
yields of from biorenewable resources, 921
EuroDish project, 749, 752
Europe
energy use in, 2–3
MEXICO wind project of, 868
nuclear fuel reprocessing in, 478
nuclear power plant licensing in, 465
per capita energy consumption, 22–23
use of volumetric receivers in, 737–738
European pressurized water reactor (EPR), 465
European Solar Thermal Electricity
Association. See ESTELA
EuroTrough, 678, 703
Evacuated tubular collector, 538–539
Evaporative cooling, 627
use of for GT inlet conditioning, 354
Evolutionary pressurized water reactor (EPR),
465
Excess air ratio, 331
Excitation systems, 208
Excitonic solar cells, 833
Exergy, 310
Exhaust emissions
control of from IC engines, 242–243
harmful constituents, 240–242
Exhaust gas clean-up systems, 198
Exhaust gas recirculation. See EGR
Exhaust heat, recovery of from gas turbines, 216
Exhaust waste energy recovery, 250–252
Exinite, 34
Exit velocity head, 262
Exogenous parameters, 522
Expanders, 209. See also Gas turbines
Expansion process
definition of, 222
turbine efficiency in, 211
Exploration of geothermal resources, 949–950
risk of, 950–951
Extended Zel’dovich mechanism, 334
External combustion engines (XCE)
gas turbines, 210
use of in FFPS, 292
External cylindrical tubular receiver, 732
External receivers, 729
External tubular receivers, 732
Extraterrestrial solar radiation, 99–100
spectral distribution, 98
Extratropical cyclones, 138
F F
-chart design method, 570–573
Fabric filters, 1013
Failure mechanisms, 380–381
Fast breeder reactors (FBR), 469
FAST code, 872
Fast neutron reactors, 469–470
Fast pyrolysis, 898
Feed-in tariffs (FIT)
construction of STPs in Spain due to, 658
solar thermal power plants, 711
Feedstocks
organic composition of, 64
waste materials as, 67
Feedwater booster pump, 205
Feedwater heaters, 203–204
Fermi level, 1087Index 1165
Ferrite, 383
FFPS
air quality control systems, 417–423
auxiliary equipment, 294–296
combustion in, 330–345
design objectives, 316
expected advances in, 298
future technologies, 305–308 (See also
AFFPS)
impact of CCS on performance of,
402–404
impact of renewable technologies on duty
cycle of, 367–369
main equipment, 292–294
materials used for components in, 380–387
past technologies, 302–303
present technologies, 304–305
schema for, 290–291
suitable alloys for boiler construction,
383–384
system components, 291–292
wastewater treatment, 429–430
water treatment systems, 424–429
zero liquid discharge wastewater treatment,
430–433
Field tests of hydraulic turbines, 276277
Finished petroleum products, 54
Finite-element modeling, VAWTs, 872
Finland
European pressurized water reactor, 465
nuclear power capacity in, 461
Firing temperature, 352. See also RIT
First-of-a-kind technologies. See FOAK
technologies
Fiscal incentives
necessity of for solar power plants, 711
new STP plant construction, 673
Fischer–Tropsch liquids (FTLs), 289, 917
synthesis of from biomass, 924–925
Fission products, 84
Fixed carbon content, 34–36
definition of, 49
Fixed O&M costs, rule-of-thumb for GTCC,
323–324
Fixed wake models, 865
Fixed-speed turbine orientation, 877
Flame lift-off length (FLoL), 239–240
Flame speed, 371
Flame temperature, 331–332
reduction of in combustors, 335
Flammability ratio, 370
Flash-steam systems, 689–690
Flat absorbers, 662–664, 667
Flat-plate collectors, 529
daily utilizability, 546–548
description of, 529–531
incidence angle modifier, 534–535
individual hourly utilizability, 541–545
modeling, 531–534
performance improvements, 537–538
pressure drop across, 536
stagnation temperature of, 536
stationary, 528
time constant of, 536
Flexible a-Si solar cells, 814–816
Flexible CdTe solar cells, 821
Flexible CIGS solar cells, 827–829
Flexible joints, use of in connecting PTCs,
679–681
Float voltage, 781
Float zone method, 774
Flooded lead–acid batteries, 781
Flow batteries, 509–511
Flow control, use of for speed regulation of
hydraulic turbines, 268
Flow rate, field tests to measure, 276277
Flue gas
methods of treatment, 1014–1016
pollutant emissions in, 295
recirculation of in MSW combustion,
1007–1008
Fluid inlet temperature, 531
Fluidized bed combustion (FBC), 339–341, 902,
1022, 1026
Fluidized bed gasifiers, 905–906
Flux-line trackers, 676
Fly ash, 1010
Flywheel energy-storage systems, 514
FOAK technologies, estimating project costs
for, 322–323
Foehn winds, 138
Food waste, percentage of in municipal solid
waste, 73
Forest residues, 66
Fossil fuel power systems. See FFPS
Fossil fuel reserves, 11. See also specific sources
Fossil fuel steam power plants. See also Steam
power plants
efficiencies of, 192
Fossil fuels, demand for, 4
Four-stroke IC engines
indicator diagram for, 234
volumetric efficiency, 235–236
Four-stroke SI engines, 224
basic operation of, 224–226
Fracking, 2881166 Index
Fracture permeability, 935
Frame machines, 351. See also J class gas
turbines
France
installed wind power capacity in, 852
nuclear power reactors in, 461
Francis hydraulic turbines, 260
efficiency of, 267
performance characteristics, 266–267
Free electrons
definition of, 1100
electron saturation current and, 1088
Free energy conversion efficiency, 1058
Free swelling index, 38
Free-wake model, 865
Frequency-domain calculations, 871
Fresnel concentrators, 847–848
Fresnel reflectors. See Linear Fresnel reflectors
Friedel model, 703
Fuel cell hybrid system, 305–306
Fuel cell systems, 1036–1037
power generation by, 910
thermodynamic model of, 1038
Fuel cell utilization factor (UF), 306
Fuel cells, 1034–1035
alkaline, 1067–1069
Carnot efficiency, 1048–1049
connection and stack design considerations,
1063–1066
direct methanol, 1073–1075
efficiency loss in, 1059–1061
efficiency of, 1050–1052
efficiency of and energy loss mechanisms,
1052–1056
electrode processes, 1062–1063
energy conversion efficiency of, 1046
equivalency of Carnot and reversible
efficiency, 1049–1050
irreversible energy losses, 1054–1056
molten carbonate, 1076–1079
operational characteristics and technological
status of, 1067
performance of, 1037–1038
phosphoric acid, 1076–1077
polymer electrolyte membrane, 1069–1073
principle of operation for, 1035–1036
reversible cell potential, 1038–1042
reversible energy conversion efficiency for,
1047
solid oxide, 1079–1082
types of, 1066–1067
use of as power generation systems, 305–306
waste heat generation by, 1056–1057
Fuel chargeable to power (FCP), 367
Fuel conversion efficiency (FCE), use of waste
energy recovery to increase, 250–252
Fuel cycle for nuclear power systems, 478–484
fuel fabrication and use, 481
mining and milling of uranium, 480
reprocessing, 481, 483–484
spent fuel storage, 484
spent fuel transportation, 484
uranium and thorium resources, 478–479
uranium conversion and enrichment,
480–481
Fuel electrodes, 1035
Fuel flexibility, 369–372
Fuel injection systems, 236
Fuel moisturization, 338–339
Fuel saver scheme, 660
Fuel staging, 339
Fuel synthesis, 917
Fuel systems for FFPS, 294–295
Fuel utilization factor, 365
Fuel-capacity factor, 944
Fuel-rich catalytic combustion, 339
Fuel–air ratio, 237
SI engine emissions levels and, 242–243
Fuels
energy storage specifications, 504–505
properties of, 370, 504
Fukushima nuclear accident, effect of on
growth of nuclear power, 461
Furans
combustion conditions and production
of, 900
control of from MSW combustion, 1016–1019
Furnaces
design of in WTE facilities, 988
factors affecting design of, 997
solid waste combustion in, 1003–1008
Fusion
confinement, 492
energy conversion and transport, 493–494
Fusion power plants, potential of, 491
Fusion reactions, 491–492
Future energy mix, forecast of, 27–28
G
Gadolinium zirconate (GdZ) coatings, 391
Gamma iron, 383
Garbage, moisture content of, 989
Gas. See also Oil; Petroleum
classification of, 54–55
resource base, 53Index 1167
Gas centrifuges, uranium enrichment using,
480–481
Gas engines, 372. See also IC engines; Recips
emissions from, 374
low-quality waste heat recovery from,
375–377
Gas turbine Brayton cycles
calculating efficiencies of, 311–313
cycle pressure ratios of, 297
Gas turbine combined cycle power systems. See
GTCC power plants
Gas turbine combustors, use of in FFPS, 293
Gas turbine-based repowering options, 364
Gas turbine–modular helium reactor
(GT-MHR), 469
Gas turbines, 209
combustors, 221
comparison of with recips, 372–375
cycle analysis, 211
cycle configurations, 213–215
cycles, 212–213
efficiency of, 211–212, 222
evolution of, 304–305
fuel and firing, 210–211
fuel flexibility of, 369–372
fuels used in, 288
history of, 210
materials, 220
mechanical product features, 221
NOx production in combustors of, 334–339
state-of-the-art, 283, 352–353
steam-cooled, 297
thermal barrier coatings for, 390–391
three-pressure reheat bottoming cycles (See
3PRH bottoming cycles)
upper temperature limit, 219–220
use of exhaust from to power steam
turbines, 217
use of for power generation, 909–910
use of in FFPS, 291–293
use of superalloys for, 388
Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) system, 472–473
Gas-cooled reactors, 460
high-temperature, 468–469
Gas-phase reactions, 904
Gas-turbine combined-cycle plants, efficiencies
of, 209
Gas–solid reactions, 903–904
Gaseous diffusion, uranium enrichment using,
481
Gaseous emission control, 1014–1016
Gaseous fuels, 288
biomass conversion to, 914–917
Gasification, 289, 294–295, 391–397, 902–904
equipment, 904–907
equipment types, 905
MSW, 1026
production of light gases from biomass,
915–916
Gasoline, 244–245, 918
additives, 245
Fischer–Tropsch liquids (FTLs), 924–925
GAST project, 730
Gemasolar plant, 674, 717, 724, 733–734, 746–747
Generalized solar load ratio, 620
Generation III nuclear reactors, 462, 464–465
fast neutron reactors, 469–470
heavy-water reactors, 468
high-temperature gas-cooled reactors,
468–469
light-water reactors, 465–468
Generation IV International Forum (GIF), 471
Generation IV nuclear reactors, 471–472
gas-cooled fast reactor system, 472–473
lead-cooled fast reactor, 475–477
molten salt reactor, 477
sodium-cooled fast reactor, 474–476
supercritical-water-cooled reactor,
473–475
very-high-temperature reactor, 472–474
Generators
auxiliaries, 207–208
excitation, 208
turbine, 875–878
use of in steam power plants, 206–208
ventilation, 207
Geometric concentration ratio, 681
Geometric correction factors (GCFs), 125–126
Geometrical losses, 684–685
Geostrophic winds, 138
Geothermal combined-cycle steam power
plants, 968, 978–979
Geothermal condenser gas-removal systems,
972–973
Geothermal energy, 177
definition and use of, 933–934
renewability of, 937
Geothermal energy systems, types of, 178
Geothermal power
binary power plant technologies, 973–977
contract provisions for new development,
945–946
contract provisions for operation, 944–945
environmental impact of, 980–982
market for, 941–946
price of delivered power, 942–9431168 Index
requirements for commercial production of,
934–947
steam turbine technologies for production
of, 967–973
Geothermal resources
barriers to management of, 957–959
characterization of, 959–962
chemistry of, 956–958
definition of, 934–936
economic access, 938–947
exploration and assessment of, 948–951
improving through human intervention, 936
management of for power production, 951–957
temperature of, 946–947
Geothermal steam supply, 963–967
Geothermal systems
costs of, 946–947
design parameters for, 960–962
emissions from, 980–982
enhancing steam production in, 955–957
operating costs of, 947
residual brine management in, 954–955
Geothermal turbines, design of, 971
Geothermal wells, capital limitations on
placement of, 958–959
Germany
installed wind power capacity in, 852
phase out of nuclear power in, 462
Geysers The, 933
use of EGS at, 936
GFDI devices, use of in solar arrays, 785
Gibbs free energy, conversion of solar heat to, 656
Gibbs function, reversible cell potentials, 1043
Gieseler plastometer test, 38
Glass
percentage of in municipal solid waste, 73
transmittances of, 639
Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP)
composites, use of for wind turbines,
882
Glazing area, values for, 593–597
Global climate change, 7, 27–28
Global commercial reprocessing capacity, 483
Global crude oil refining capacity, 55
Global efficiency, 687
Global energy figures
electricity-generating capacity, 6
energy consumption, 2–3, 51–53
energy demand, 5–6
land use for biomass production, 70–71
natural gas reserves, 57
new construction of nuclear power plants,
462–464
nuclear power plants, 457–458
uranium enrichment facilities, 482
wind power potential, 149
Global wind patterns, 139
Glow discharge CVD, 808
Glow plugs, 229
GOES, 131–132
Governors, use of for speed regulation of
hydraulic turbines, 268–270
Grate systems, use of in MSW furnaces,
1003–1007
Grate-fired systems, 901
Gray–King assay test, 38
Greenhouse effect, 529
Grid integration, wind power, 884–885
Grid-connected solar systems, 782
Grid-tied inverters, 784
Griggs–Putnam index of deformation, 154
Gross calorific value, 34–36
definition of, 49
measurement of, 38
Gross output, 287
Ground fault detection and interruption
devices. See GFDI devices
Ground illuminance, 643
Ground reflectivities, 626
Ground-coupled geothermal heat pump
systems, 934
GTCC, 351–355
calculating thermal efficiency of, 311–316
comparison of high performance
cycles, 360
comparison of with recips, 372–375
efficiency improvement parameters, 355
net cycle efficiency map, 354
outage factors, 325
power augmentation options, 353
rule-of-thumb O&M costs estimates,
323–324
startup curves, 369
GTCC power plants, 294–295
auxiliary power for, 287
bottoming cycle steam conditions in, 297
comparison of with USC power plants,
350–351
efficiency wall of, 304
exhaust temperatures, 390
fuels used in, 288–289
operational flexibility of, 367–369
use of fuel moisturization technology in,
338–339
use of intercooling in, 357
GUDE, 703Index 1169
H
H class gas turbines, 283
estimating O&M costs for, 323–324
H turbines, 854
H-System, 297
use of to reduce TIT–RIT temperature loss,
355–357
H
2S emissions from geothermal power plants,
981
Haber process, 916
Hahn, Otto, 81
HAWC2, 872
HAWTs, 852–854
CFD models for, 866–867
classification of, 854
momentum models of, 860–864
peak performance coefficients for, 863
structural dynamics, 870–872
vortex models for, 864–866
yaw control systems, 878
Haynes 263, 387
Head, 258
availability of to impulse turbines, 265–266
Heat
biomass conversion to, 897–898, 907–912
geothermal, 934
Heat addition
constant-pressure, 232–233, 340–341
constant-volume, 230–232
irreversibility of, 310, 318
natural gas combustion, 330–332
Heat engines
Carnot factor of, 316–317
crucial nature of for FFPS, 305
reversible energy conversion efficiency for,
1048–1049
thermodynamic cycles, 296–297
use of Kelvin–Planck statement to
analyze, 308
Heat exchangers, use of in steam power plants,
203–204
Heat flow, 177–178
Heat loss coefficient, 684
Heat pipe collectors, 530–531
Heat rate (HR), 286
cost analyses and, 327–329
Heat recovery repowering, 364
Heat recovery steam generators. See HRSGs
Heat removal factor, 532
Heat sinks for FFPS, 292
Heat source, definition of for thermoelectric
applications, 1100
Heat sources for FFPS, 292
Heat transfer
air and pipe, 630
analysis of, 630–631
soil, 630–631
Heat transfer fluid technology. See HTF
technology
Heat-rejection systems, 971–972
Heaters for steam power plants, 203–204
Heating load, 590
Heavy-duty industrial gas turbines, 351. See also
J class gas turbines
use of reheat combustion with, 357
Heavy-water reactors, 468
Height layers, 159
HELIOS, 721
Heliostat drives, 724–725
characteristics of, 725
Heliostat field control system (HFCS), 726
Heliostat fields, 716–717, 719–727
Hemicellulose, 64
Herbaceous energy crops (HECs), 67
Heterojunction with intrinsic thin-film layer
cells. See HIT cells
Heterojunctions, 800
HHV, 287, 504
biomass, 64–65
combustible portion of MSW, 989
combustion of MSW, 997–999
efficiency measures of gas turbines
using, 211
High fogging, 354
High vacuum evaporation. See HVE
High-cycle fatigue, 882
High-enthalpy wells, 939
High-level wastes (HLW), 486
managing from spent fuel, 486
waste management of, 487–488
High-performance power systems. See HIPPS
High-pressure steam conditions, 297
High-temperature gas-cooled reactors, 468–469
Higher heating value. See HHV
Hill diagram, 263–264
HIPPS, 361–362
HIT cells, 813
HiTRec project, 737–738
Holocellulose, 67
Holzwarth turbine, 343
Homogeneous combustion process, four-stroke
SI engines, 225
Honeycomb material, use of to reduce losses
from collectors, 537
Horizontal sky and sun illuminances, 6451170 Index
Horizontal skylights, 644–648
Horizontal solar radiation, models based on
long-term measures of, 113–123
Horizontal-axis machines, 853
Horizontal-axis wind turbines. See HAWTs
Hot dry rock (HDR), 936
Hot fractured rock (HFR), 936
Hot gas cleanup, 391
Hot gas path (HGP)
parts, 297
temperatures, 352
use of superalloys for component
manufacturing, 388–389
Hot reheat (HRH) steam, 297
Hot wire CVD (HWCVD), 808
Hottel–Whillier–Bliss (HWB) equation, 531
Hour angle, 91
HRSGs, 218
controlled warming of, 368–369
effectiveness of, 315
exergy destruction in, 358–359
increasing effectiveness of, 376
use of in FFPS, 294
HTF technology, 689
use of in SEGS plants, 707
Human Development Index (HDI), relationship
to per capita energy use, 23–24
Humid air turbine (HAT) cycle, 218, 283,
359–360
definition of, 222
Humming, 371
Hurricanes, 138
HUTYIN, 677
HVE, 819
use of for CdTe deposition, 820
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), energy storage
with, 501
Hybrid gas turbine fuel cell, 305–306
Hybrid models for wind turbines, 867
Hybrid power plants, 656–657, 740–741
integration of CRS technologies in, 717
Hybrid solar cells, 812–813, 833
Hybrid vehicles, 8
Hydraulic fracturing, 288. See also Fracking
Hydraulic turbines
cavitation and setting of, 270
classification of, 258
description of, 258–261
efficiency of, 262
field tests of, 276277
model testing of, 271
numerical simulations of, 271–275
performance characteristics, 265–267
performance comparisons, 267
performance of, 262–264
power available, 261–262
scaling formulae for, 263–264
speed regulation, 268–270
Hydrocarbons
combustion conditions and production of,
900
emissions of from MSW incineration,
1014–1016
physical properties of, 58–59
unburned, 241
Hydrodynamic loading, modeling of, 869
Hydrogasification, 915–916. See also Gasification
Hydrogen, 288
combustible portion of in MSW, 995–996
use of as a fuel, 295, 399–401
use of as a transportation fuel, 8
Hydrogenation reaction, 903–904
production of biodiesel using, 923
Hydrokinetic turbines, 277–278
Hydropower
numerical simulations of facility
components, 271–275
total energy potential of, 14
typical installation, 258
Hydrothermal processing, 926
I I–
V curves for ideal PV cells, 772
IC engines
air standard power cycles, 230–233
carbon monoxide emissions from, 240–241
combustion in, 236–240
control of emissions from, 242–243
exhaust waste energy recovery, 250–252
fuels for, 244–246
gas turbines, 210
intake pressurization, 247
open mechanical energy cycles in, 233–236
supercharging, 247–248
turbocharging, 248–250
types and basic operation of, 224–229
use of in FFPS, 291
Ideal Carnot cycle, 309
Ideal Diesel cycle, 232–233
Ideal Otto cycle, 230–232
IGCC power plants, 10, 283, 295, 391–397,
910–912
blocks, 392
capital cost estimates for, 322
emissions from, 396–397Index 1171
IGFCs, 307
atmospheric, 307–308
pressurized, 308
Ignition delay period, 228
Ignition properties of transportation
fuels, 919
Ignition quality, 245–246. See also Cetane
number
Illuminance, 633
Illuminances
clear sky, 642
ground, 643
horizontal sky and sun, 645
incident direct sky and sun, 636
incident ground reflected, 636–638
overcast sky, 641
work-plane, 633, 639–640, 644
Illuminated p–n junction, 770–772
Impulse turbines, 258–259
control of flow in, 262
performance characteristics, 265–266
performance comparison with reaction
turbines, 267
Incidence angle, 679, 685–686
modifiers for flat-plate collector, 534–535
Incident radiation, 656
Inconel 617, 387
Independent power producers (IPPs), 942
Index tests of flow, 277
India
coal use in, 10–11
electricity-generating capacity of, 6
energy use in, 2–3
fast breeder test reactor in, 469
installed wind power capacity in, 852
use of heavy-water reactors in, 468
Indicated mean effective pressure (imep),
calculation of, 234
Indicated resources, 41
Indicated work, 234
Indicator diagram, 234
Indirect gain systems, 586
Indirect heating gasifiers, 905
Indirect injection (IDI) engines, 228
Indirectly coupled systems, 553
Indirectly fired gas turbines, 361–362
Indirectly heated receivers, 729–730
INDITEP project, 705–706
Individual hourly utilizability, 541–545
Indonesia, electricity-generating capacity of, 6
Induction generators, 876
Industrial process compressors, use of
intercoolers with, 216
Industrial process heat applications. See IPH
applications
Industrial sector
applications for PTCs in, 688
use of direct steam generation in,
690–691
use of flash steam systems in, 699–690
use of unified boiler systems in, 689
Industrial solar systems, 551–552
Industrial Solar Technology (IST), 678
Inertial CO2 extraction system (ICES), 405
Inertial fusion confinement, 492
Inferred resources, 41
Injection process, 702
Inlet air fogging, 218
Inlet foggers, 354
Insolation, 99
effect of day-to-day changes in, 540–541
Installed nameplate capacity, 852
Intake pressurization, IC engines, 247–250
Integral optimization of heliostat fields, 722
Integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC)
plants. See IGCC power plants
Integrated gasification fuel cells. See IGFCs
Integrated solar combined-cycle system plants.
See ISCCS plants
Intercept factor, 682–683
Intercooled recuperated (ICR) machines,
216, 357
Intercoolers, 216
definition of, 222
use of in turbochargers, 249–250
Intercooling, use of in gas turbine power
plants, 357
Interelectrode motive distribution, 1087–1088
Intermediate-level wastes (ILW), 485
Intermittent flow, 701
Internal combustion engines. See IC engines
Internal reformation, use of in NGFC system,
308
Internal resistance, 505
International Organization of Standardizations.
See ISO
International Solar Radiation Data Base, 131
International Thermonuclear Experimental
Reactor (ITER), 492–493
Intertinite, 34
Inverted cavity receivers, 716
Inverters, DC-to-AC, 783–784, 1036
IPH applications
closed-loop multipass system design,
573–575
design methods for, 573–5781172 Index
open-loop single pass system design,
575–578
use of closed-loop systems for, 556
use of parabolic trough collectors for, 678
IRIS pressurized water reactor, 467
Iron, 383
Iron plates, use of for thermal energy storage, 698
Irradiance, mitigation of fluctuation in, 656
Irreversible energy conversion efficiency, forms
of, 1057–1058
Irreversible energy losses, 1054–1056
ISCCS plants, 657, 673, 712–713
Islanding condition, 784
ISO
coal classification, 36
COE calculations, 320
Iso-octane, 245
Isolated gain systems, 586, 588
Italy
installed wind power capacity in, 852
use of geothermal energy in, 933
use of tubular receivers in, 732
Ivanpah, 658, 674
J
J class gas turbines, 283, 351–355
air standard cycle calculations for, 317–318
estimating O&M costs for, 323–324
Japan
advanced boiling water reactor in, 465
advanced pressurized water reactor in, 466
development of Generation III nuclear
reactors in, 465
nuclear fuel reprocessing in, 478
nuclear power reactors in, 461
use of tubular receivers in, 732
Jet fuel, 54, 918
Jevons, W.S., 302
Joint European Torus (JET), 492
Junction activation treatment, 819
K
K class gas turbines, air standard cycle
calculations for, 317–318
Kalina cycle, 283, 358–359
Kaplan hydraulic turbines, 260
efficiency of, 267
use of index testing for, 277
Kazakhstan
BN-350 nuclear reactor in, 469
VBER-300 nuclear reactor in, 468
Kelvin–Planck statement of 2nd law of
thermodynamics, 308
Kerena nuclear reactor, 467
Kerosene, 54
Kewaunee nuclear power plant, 462
Kinematic engines, 453


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