كتاب Fluoropolymer Additives
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Fluoropolymer Additives

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Fluoropolymer Additives  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fluoropolymer Additives    كتاب Fluoropolymer Additives  Emptyالخميس 07 سبتمبر 2023, 2:00 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fluoropolymer Additives
Sina Ebnesajjad, PhD, President
Fluoro Consultants Group, LLC
Richard A. Morgan, PhD, President
Morgan Associates

كتاب Fluoropolymer Additives  F_l_a_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface . xiii
PART 1 Introduction . 1
1 Introduction 3
1.1 Introduction . 3
1.2 Uniqueness of Fluorine . 3
1.3 Fluorine Characteristics 5
1.3.1 Fluorination . 6
1.3.2 Reactivity e An Extreme Element . 6
1.3.3 Preparation of Fluorine . 6
1.3.4 Inorganic Chemistry 7
1.3.5 Organic Chemistry 8
1.3.6 Fluorine and Nature 9
References 9
2 Descriptions of Fluoropolymer Additives . 11
2.1 Introduction . 11
2.2 Polymeric Fluorinated Additives 11
2.2.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene Homopolymer Additives 11
2.2.2 Fluoroelastomer Additives (Polymer Processing Additives) . 11
2.2.3 Vinylidene Fluoride Polymer Additives (Polymer Processing Additives) 12
2.3 Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) Additives . 12
2.4 PTFE-Modified Waxes 13
2.5 Fluorinated Graphite . 13
2.6 Fluorination . 13
References 14
PART 2 Manufacturing and Properties . 15
3 Manufacturing and Properties of High-Molecular-Weight Fluoropolymer Additives . 17
3.1 Introduction . 17
3.2 Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) Preparation . 17
3.3 Properties of Tetrafluoroethylene 19
3.4 Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene . 20
3.5 Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers . 20
3.5.1 Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate (APFO, also C8) . 21
3.6 Polymerization Mechanism . 22
v3.7 Suspension Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene 23
3.7.1 Finishing Technologies of Granular PTFE . 25
3.8 Emulsion Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene . 27
3.8.1 Dispersion Products 28
3.8.2 Fine Powder (Coagulated Dispersion) Products . 28
3.9 Characterization of Polytetrafluoroethylene . 29
3.9.1 Granular PTFE Resins 29
3.9.2 Fine Powder PTFE Resins 31
3.9.3 Dispersions of PTFE . 32
References 34
4 Manufacturing and Properties of Low-Molecular-Weight Fluoropolymer Additives 37
4.1 Introduction . 37
4.2 Molecular Weight Reduction 37
4.3 Degradation of Polytetrafluoroethylene 37
4.4 Production Methods 39
4.4.1 Production of Fluoroadditives by Thermal Cracking (Pyrolysis) 39
4.4.2 Production of Fluoroadditives by Electron Beam Irradiation 39
4.4.3 Grinding Irradiated PTFE . 42
4.5 Direct Polymerization . 43
4.5.1 Dispersion Polymerization (Fine Powder) . 43
4.5.2 Suspension Polymerization (Granular) . 46
4.6 Other Manufacturing Methods 51
4.7 Commercial Products 51
References 51
5 Manufacturing and Properties of Fluoroelastomer-Based Additives . 53
5.1 Introduction . 53
5.2 Manufacturing Process 53
5.3 Emulsion Polymerization 54
5.3.1 Continuous Emulsion Polymerization 55
5.3.2 Semibatch Emulsion Polymerization 55
5.4 Suspension Polymerization . 56
5.5 Development of Polymeric Process Additives . 58
5.6 Commercial Products 64
Acknowledgment . 65
References 65
PART 3 Applications . 67
6 Applications of Fluorinated Additives for Lubricants 69
6.1 Introduction 69
6.2 Friction . 69
6.3 Wear Processes 69
vi CONTENTS6.4 Fluorinated Additive Types . 70
6.5 Lubrication Processes 70
6.6 Lubricant Base Oils . 71
6.7 Lubricant Additives e General . 72
6.8 Comparison of Solid Lubricant Additives 72
6.9 Polymeric Fluorinated Additives . 73
6.9.1 PTFE 73
6.9.2 Low-MW Fluorinated Additives . 75
6.10 Lubricant Application Categorization . 75
6.11 Low-Viscosity Lubricants 75
6.11.1 Test Methods for Low-Viscosity Lubricants 76
6.11.2 Literature Studies of Low-Viscosity Oil with PTFE Addition . 77
6.11.3 Dry-Film Lubricants 79
6.11.4 Release Agents 81
6.12 Engine Oil 82
6.12.1 Classification . 82
6.12.2 Engine Oil Anti-Wear Additives . 84
6.12.3 Development History of Use of PTFE in Motor Oil 88
6.13 Grease 90
6.13.1 Grease Compositions and Characterization 90
6.13.2 Technical Studies of Grease with Fluorinated Additives . 93
6.13.3 Grease Patent History 94
6.14 Suppliers of Lubricants Containing Fluorinated Additives 96
6.14.1 DuPont Company Products 96
6.14.2 3M/Dyneon Products 98
6.14.3 Daikin Industries Ltd/Daikin America Inc 98
6.14.4 Solvay Solexis . 99
6.14.5 Asahi Glass 100
6.14.6 Other Suppliers 100
References 102
7 Fluorinated Additives for Plastics . 107
7.1 Introduction 107
7.2 Types of Fluorinated Additives . 107
7.3 Friction and Wear Processes . 108
7.3.1 Friction Processes 109
7.3.2 Wear Processes 110
7.3.3 Countersurface Effects 113
7.4 Friction and Wear of High- and Low-MW PTFE 113
7.5 Role of PTFE Manufacturing Process and Particle Size on Wear and Friction
of Plastics . 116
7.6 Development of Fluoroadditive Use for Friction/Wear Enhancement of Thermoplastics 116
7.7 Plastic Wear Under Water . 118
7.8 Types of Non-Fluorinated Anti-Friction and Anti-Wear Additives . 118
CONTENTS vii7.9 Plastic Types 118
7.9.1 Polyamides (Nylons) . 119
7.9.2 Polyacetals . 121
7.9.3 Polycarbonates . 123
7.9.4 Polyesters (PEs) . 124
7.9.5 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) . 125
7.9.6 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) 128
7.9.7 Epoxy Resins . 128
7.9.8 Miscellaneous Thermoplastics 129
7.10 Fluorinated Additives for Improved Melt and Mechanical Properties . 129
7.11 Additives to Alter Plastic Surface Properties . 131
7.11.1 Theory and Background . 131
7.11.2 Type of Fluorinated Additives for Surface Tension Reduction . 132
7.11.3 Permeation . 134
7.11.4 Surface Properties of Irradiated PTFE . 134
7.12 Fluoropolymer Additives to Inhibit Melt Dripping in Fire Situations . 134
7.12.1 Characterization of Fire Retardancy . 135
7.12.2 Processes for Mixing High-MW PTFE into Other Resins 137
7.12.3 Commercial PTFE Products for Fire Retardants . 138
7.13 Compounding of Fluorinated Additives into Thermoplastics 138
7.13.1 Compounding with High-MW PTFE (Dispersion-Polymerization) 138
7.13.2 Compounding with Low-MW PTFE (and High-MW Suspension-Polymerized PTFE) . 140
7.13.3 Extrusion Compounding with PTFE Powders . 141
7.13.4 Other Fluorinated Additives . 142
References . 143
8 Addition of Fluoropolymers to Printing Ink 149
8.1 Introduction . 149
8.2 Printing Processes . 149
8.3 Inks 151
8.4 Fluoropolymer Addition to Ink . 151
8.4.1 Types of PTFE 152
8.4.2 Particle Size 152
8.5 Abrasion/Rub Resistance of Prints . 153
8.6 Blocking 154
8.7 Commercial Suppliers of Fluorinated Additives to the Ink Market 154
References 155
9 Use of Fluorinated Additives in Coatings 157
9.1 Introduction . 157
9.2 Purposes of Addition of Fluoropolymer Additives to Coatings 157
9.3 Thermoplastic Coatings 159
viii CONTENTS9.4 Thermosetting Coating Parameters . 159
9.4.1 Carriers 159
9.4.2 Resin Binder or Chemistry . 160
9.4.3 Crosslinking or Curing 161
9.5 Coating Processes 162
9.5.1 Preparing the Coating Formulation 162
9.5.2 Application of Coating . 162
9.5.3 Drying/Baking of Coating 162
9.6 Fluoropolymer Types Used in Coatings . 162
9.6.1 Perfluorinated Semi-Crystalline Resins 162
9.6.2 Partially Fluorinated Semi-Crystalline Resins . 166
9.6.3 Amorphous Fluoropolymers . 167
9.7 Perfluoropolymer/Metal Coatings by Electrolytic or Electroless Processes 168
9.8 Prevention of Staining of a Coating . 168
9.9 Commercial Fluoroadditive Products . 170
References 171
10 Fluorinated Additives for Rubber . 175
10.1 Introduction . 175
10.2 Rubber Compositions and Compounding . 175
10.3 Characterization of Rubbers . 177
10.4 Fluorinated Additive Types . 179
10.4.1 High-MW PTFE (Unmodified) . 179
10.4.2 Modified High-MW PTFE 180
10.4.3 Melt-Processable Fluorinated Copolymers 181
10.4.4 Low-MW PTFE Additives 182
10.4.5 Miscellaneous Fluorinated Additives . 184
10.5 Silicone and Fluorosilicone Rubbers 184
10.6 Addition of Fluorinated Additives to Fluoroelastomers 185
10.7 Addition of Fluorinated Additives to EPDM Rubber 186
10.8 Commercial Fluoroadditive Products for Elastomers 189
References . 189
11 Applications of Processing Aid Additives . 193
11.1 Introduction . 193
11.2 Low-Molecular-Weight Processing Aids 193
11.2.1 Stearates (Release Agents) . 193
11.2.2 Polymer Processing Additives (High MW) 194
11.2.3 Advantages of PPAs 194
11.2.4 Melt Fracture . 194
11.2.5 Die Drool 195
CONTENTS ix11.3 Important Applications of PPAs . 195
11.3.1 Blown and Cast Film 195
11.3.2 Cable and Tubing Extrusion . 195
11.3.3 Blow Molding . 196
11.3.4 Fiber Extrusion 196
11.3.5 Fluoropolymer PPAs . 196
11.3.6 How PPAs Work . 196
11.4 Select Applications of PPAs . 198
11.4.1 Blow Molding . 198
11.4.2 Film Manufacturing 201
References . 208
PART 4 Compliance and Economics 211
12 Compliance with Regulations and Standards 213
12.1 Introduction . 213
12.2 Food Contact and Medical Applications 213
12.3 FDA Requirements for Polytetrafluoroethylene Resins for Food Contact 213
12.3.1 Paragraph (d) Specifications . 213
12.3.2 Paragraph (e) Limitations . 213
12.3.3 Scope of ASTM D 4754-98 (2003) 214
12.3.4 Special Requirements of Polytetrafluoroethylene Micropowders 214
12.4 Compliance of Commercial Micropowder Products 214
12.4.1 Articles Intended to Contact Food (Reference: 21 CFR 177.1550
Perfluorocarbon Resins) 215
12.4.2 Processing Aids for Polyolefins (Reference: 21 CFR 177.1520 Olefin Polymers) . 215
12.4.3 Components of Resinous and Polymeric Coatings (Reference: 21 CFR 175.300
Resinous and Polymeric Coatings) . 215
12.4.4 Components of Paper and Paperboard (Reference: 21 CFR 176.170 Components of
Paper and Paperboard in Contact with Aqueous and Fatty Foods) . 215
12.4.5 Lubricant for Rubber Articles (Reference: 21 CFR 177.2600 Rubber Articles
Intended for Repeated Use) 216
12.4.6 Components of Adhesives (Reference: 21 CFR 175.105 Adhesives) . 216
12.4.7 Housewares Exemption (Reference: Food Drug Cosmetic Law Journal, Vol. 42,
No. 1, January 1987, p. 45) 216
12.5 Standards . 217
References . 217
13 Safety, Health, Environment, Disposal, Recycling, and Economics 219
13.1 Introduction . 219
13.2 Toxicology of Fluoropolymers . 219
13.3 Thermal Properties of PTFE . 219
13.4 Emission During Processing . 220
x CONTENTS13.5 Safety Measures 220
13.5.1 Ventilation of Degradation Products 221
13.5.2 Processing and Fabrication . 222
13.5.3 Spillage Cleanup . 224
13.5.4 Equipment Cleaning and Maintenance . 224
13.5.5 Protective Clothing . 224
13.5.6 Personal Hygiene 224
13.5.7 Fire Hazard 224
13.5.8 Material Incompatibility . 224
13.6 Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling 225
13.7 Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods 225
13.7.1 Packaging Disposal and Recycling 225
13.8 Economics . 226
References . 226
Appendix 1: Food and Drug Administration . 229
Appendix 2: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 233
Index . 287
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by t indicate tables.
0-9
3M/DYNEON products, 98
A
AAM, see Alliance of Automobile
Manufacturers
abrasion processes, 178
abrasion resistance, 153e154
abrasion tests, 157
abrasion-transfer granulation steps, 26e27
abrasive wear:
lubricants, 70
plastics, 110e111
high molecular weight micropowders,
115
low molecular weight micropowders,
115
polyetheretherketone, 126
ABS resin compositions, 137
ACM rubber, 183
acrylates, 160, 166e167
acrylic polymers, 138
additive definition, 3
adhesion forces, 158
adhesives, 216
adhesive wear:
lubricants, 70
plastics, 110, 126
adjustible ducting hoods, 221
AGC, see Asahi Glass Company
agglomerates:
emulsion polymerization, 28e29
lubricants, 86
suspension polymerization, 25e26
agriculture, 9
air mills, 25
air pollution, 159
alcohols, 170
Algoflon L PTFE, 93
aliphatic alcohols, 170
aliphatic di-ols, 124
aliphatic fluorine chemistry, 8
aliphatic polyester interfacial agents, 62
alkyds, 160
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
(AAM), 83
American Petroleum Institute (API), 71,
82e83
American Society for Testing Materials
(ASTM):
FDA food contact requirements, 214
lubricants, 77, 82e83, 91
plastics, 111
printing ink, 153e154
PTFE characterization, 29
dispersions, 32e34, 33t, 34t
fine powder resins, 31, 32t, 33t
granular resins, 29, 30t, 31t
rubber, 178
aminoplast curing agents, 167
amino resin binders, 161
ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO),
21e22
amorphous fluoropolymers, 162,
167e168, 171
anilox rolls, 150
anion exchange absorbents, 21e22
antiblocking additives:
fluoroelastomer-based additives,
59e61
low-molecular-weight PPAs, 193
processing aid additives, 203e204,
204t, 205t
anti-drip additives, 134e140
antifouling paints, 164e165
anti-friction additives, 118
anti-seize applications, 99e100
anti-wear additives:
lubricants, 71e73, 75, 84e88
plastics, 108, 118
APFO, see ammonium perfluorooctanoate
apparent viscosity tests, 92, 92t
aqueous-based coatings, 159
aqueous-based gravure printing, 150
aqueous dispersions:
coatings, 165
Daikin PTFE, 48t
printing ink, 154
aramid fibers, 128
aromatic polyamide fibers, 120
aromatic polycarbonates, 123
aromatics: fluorine characteristics, 8
aromatic thermosetting polyesters,
165e166
Asahi Chemical Industry Co.:
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 57
Asahi Glass Company (AGC):
coatings, 167e168
lubricants, 100
PTFE fluoroadditive powders, 47t
rubber, 189
asperities:
coatings, 158
plastics, 109
ASTM, see American Society for Testing
Materials
autoclaves, 48e51
azeotropic distillation, 160
B
baking: coatings, 162
ball on cylinder lubricity evaluators
(BOCLE), 79, 81t
Banbury internal mixers: rubber, 176
barrier constructions: plastics, 134
bimodal polymers: fluoroelastomer-based
additives, 57e58
bisphenol A (BPA), 123
bisphenol-curable compositions, 58
bisphenol-curable suspension products,
57e58
bisulfite initiators, 22e23
block copolymer thermoplastic elastomer,
175
blocking: printing ink, 154
block on ring tests:
grease, 92, 92t
low-viscosity lubricants, 76
blow-extruded polyolefin films, 195e196,
203
blow-fill-seal technology, 198
blow molding:
exhaust schemes, 221
plastics, 129e130
polymer processing additives, 196
blown films: polymer processing additives,
195, 201e208, 204t, 205t
BMW automobiles: engine oils, 86
287BOCLE, see ball on cylinder lubricity
evaluators
boron nitride (BN):
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 64
lubricants
grease, 95
low-viscosity lubricants, 76
low-viscosity oil literature studies, 79
motor oil, 88
solid lubricant additive comparisons,
72e73
supply, 102
bottle formation: polymer processing
additives, 199e200, 200t
boundary friction, 69
boundary lubrication conditions, 69, 78e79
boundary lubrication processes, 70e71
BPA, see bisphenol A
burnout hoods, 221
C
cable extrusion: polymer processing
additives, 195
CaF2, see fluorspar
capture velocities, 222
carbon black: rubber, 177e178
carbon dioxide (CO2): tetrafluoroethylene
properties, 19
carbon fiber thermoplastics:
polyacetals, 122, 122t
polycarbonates, 124, 124t
polyetheretherketone, 126, 128
carbonyl fluoride (COF2), 220, 221t
carriers:
coatings, 159e160
polymer processing additives, 196e197
cast films: polymer processing additives,
195, 201e202
catalysts:
grease, 94
motor oil, 89
polymerization mechanism, 22
see also enzymes
cavitation erosion, 70
Cefral: coatings, 167e168, 171
Cerflon: lubricants, 79, 80t, 81t,
100e102, 101t
chain transfer agents (CTA), 48e51
chalking: coatings, 165
char non-burning surfaces: plastics, 134
CHClF2, see chlorodifluoromethane
Chemical Manufacturers Association
(CMA), 88
chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2):
tetrafluoroethylene preparation,
17e18, 18t
chlorofluoromethanes: tetrafluoroethylene
properties, 19e20
chloromethanes: tetrafluoroethylene
properties, 19e20
chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE): rubber,
180e182
circular air mills, 25
Clariant International, Ltd., 100
CMA, see Chemical Manufacturers
Association
coagulated dispersion products:
tetrafluoroethylene emulsion
polymerization, 28e29
coatings, 157e174
commercial products, 170e171
curing, 167
electroless processes, 168
electrolytic processes, 168
fluoropolymer additives, purposes,
157e159
fluoropolymer types, 162e168
metal coatings, 168
perfluoropolymer coatings, 168
polymer processing additives, 197
processes, 162
application, 162
baking, 162
drying, 162
formulation preparation, 162
regulations compliance, 215
staining prevention, 168e170
tetrafluoroethylene copolymers, 166
thermoplastic coatings, 159
thermosetting coating parameters,
159e161
carriers, 159e160
crosslinking, 161
curing, 161
resin binders, 160e161
coefficients of friction (COF):
coatings, 158
lubricants, 69
low-viscosity oil literature studies, 79,
80t
polymeric fluorinated additives, 74
perfluoropropolyether additives, 12
plastics, 109, 114e115
polyamides, 120e121, 121t
polycarbonates, 124, 124t
polymer processing additives, 205
rubber, 188e189
cohesive wear: plastics, 110
cold-welding: plastics, 110
comonomers:
coatings, 163, 166e167
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 44e46
tetrafluoroethylene emulsion
polymerization, 28
compounding:
plastics, 138e143
rubber, 175e177
compression: rubber, 177
concentrates: plastics, 133e134
cone penetration tests, 92, 92t
consistency tests: lubricants, 91
continuous emulsion polymerization:
fluoroelastomer-based additives,
54e55
continuous polymerization modes:
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 53
continuous reactor operation:
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 54
continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs),
55e56
copolymers:
plastics, 117
polymer processing additives, 196, 200
countersurface effects: plastics, 113
critical shear rates, 59, 197, 200
crosslinking:
coatings, 159, 161
rubber, 175, 177
crushing granulation steps:
tetrafluoroethylene suspension
polymerization, 26e27
cryogenic grinding: coatings, 167
crystalline PTFE: characterization, 29
crystals: fluorine characteristics, 9
CTFE, see chlorotrifluoroethylene
cure-site monomers: suspension
polymerization, 58
curing:
coatings, 161, 167
rubber, 177e178
cyclone air-dryers, 25
D
Daikin:
lubricants, 92, 98e99
PTFE aqueous dispersions, 48t
PTFE powders, 48t
rubber, 186
Debby’s Cougar story: lubricants,
85e86
deflagration reactions, 19
deformation of asperities:
coatings, 158
plastics, 109
degradation:
homopolymer additives, 11
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 37e39
product ventilation, 221e222
Dexos oil product, 84
DFT, see dry-film thickness
Diafree products, 99, 99t
dialkyl dithiophosphoric acids, 90
di-carboxylic acids, 124
die drool phenomena, 195
di-hydroxy compounds, 123
diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate initiator,
57
dioxane opening reactions, 121e122
288 INDEXdirect polymerization:
coatings, 165
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 43e51
dispersion grade activities, 223
dispersion polymerization:
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 43e46
lubricants, 73
plastics, 107, 138e140
printing ink, 152
rubber, 186e188
dispersion-process-produced particles, 44
dispersions:
coatings, 165
lubricants, 97, 97t, 98t
polytetrafluoroethylene characterization,
32e34
printing ink, 154
tetrafluoroethylene emulsion
polymerization, 28e29
tetrafluoroethylene polymers, 21
dispersion-type PTFE:
lubricants, 75e76
plastics, 108
extrusion compounding, 141
friction, 116
melt dripping, 135
wear processes, 116
rubber, 179
disposal methods, 219e228
double extrusion processes, 126
dropping point tests, 92, 92t
dry agglomeration processes, 26
dry blending, 141
dry film 2000 dispersions: lubricants,
supply, 97, 97t
dry-film lubricants, 69, 75, 79e81,
96e97, 170e171
dry film LXE dispersions: lubricants,
supply, 97, 98t
dry film RA dispersions: lubricants,
supply, 97, 97t
dry-film thickness (DFT): coatings, 157
drying: coatings, 162
ducting hoods, 221
DuPont:
coatings, 164e165
lubricants
engine oils, 84
grease, 92e93
motor oil, 90
supply, 96e98
plastics, 108, 117
printing ink, 154
PTFE powders, 45t
Viton polymeric processing aids, 62t,
64e65
Dynamar: polymer processing additives,
198, 200
dynamic coefficients of friction:
coatings, 158
plastics, 109, 114e115
rubber, 188e189
dynamic friction: lubricants, 69
dynamic vulcanization, 175
DYNEON:
lubricants, 98
polymeric processing aids, 63t, 64e65
PTFE powders, 48t
E
economics, 219e228
EE, see electrical and electronic
applications
elastomers:
perfluoropropolyether additives, 12
polymeric process additive development,
60
rubber, 176, 185e186
see also fluoroelastomer additives
electrical and electronic (EE)
applications: plastics, 136e137
electroless processes: coatings, 168
electrolytic processes: coatings, 168
electron beam irradiation:
fluoroadditive production, 39e41
plastics, 114e115
emissions during processing, 220
emulsifiers: coatings, 159
emulsion polymerization:
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 54e56
continuous emulsion polymerization,
55
semibatch emulsion polymerization,
55e56
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 43e44
tetrafluoroethylene, 27e29
tetrafluoroethylene polymerization, 20
tetrafluoroethylene polymers, 21
see also dispersion polymerization
energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy,
198
engine oils, 75, 82e90
environmental protection, 219e228
enzymes: fluorine characteristics, 9
EPDM rubber, 186e189
epoxy resins, 128e129, 160
equilibrium reactions, 18
equipment cleaning/maintenance, 224
esters:
lubricant base oils, 71e72
plastics, 133e134
etchants, 9
ethylene copolymers, 117
European Committee for Electrotechnical
Standardization (CENELEC),
136e137
exhaust setups, 221
external lubricants, 81
extreme pressure additives: lubricants, 71
extreme pressure conditions: lubricants,
78
extrudable compositions:
fluoroelastomer-based additives,
61e62, 64
extruded plastic fibers: surface tension
reduction, 133
extruded rods: processing aid additives,
194e195
extruders: plastics, 126, 133, 141
extrusion:
fine powder PTFE resins, 31e32
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 59
plastics, 141e142
polymer processing additives, 59,
195e196, 200, 200t
extrusion blow-molding trials: polymer
processing additives, 200, 200t
extrusion compounding: plastics,
141e142
extrusion dies: processing aid additives,
195
F
Falex Pin and Vee Block tests, 76
Falex tests, 76, 92, 92t
fatigue wear: plastics, 110
FDA, see Food and Drug Administration
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 87
FEP, see fluorinated ethylene/propylene
copolymer
ferric chloride (FeF3): lubricants, 89
fiber extrusion: polymer processing
additives, 196
fillers: processing aid additives, 203e204
filling pipes for fuel tanks, 200
film blowing, see blown films
film casting, see cast films
film manufacture: processing aid
additives, 201
fine cut powders: suspension
polymerization, 25
fine cut resins: suspension
polymerization, 26
fineness of grind tests, 152e153
fine powder-based micropowders: lowmolecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 37
fine powder products: emulsion
polymerization, 28e29
fine powder PTFE, 21
characterization, 29, 31e32
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives
dispersion polymerization, 43e46
molecular weight reduction, 37
fire hazards, 224
fire-resistant compositions: plastics, 137
INDEX 289fire retardants, 134
characterization, 135e137
commercial products, 138
flexographic printing, 150e151
fluid energy mills, 42
fluid-film lubrication processes, 70e71
Fluon TL-801 polymeric processing aids,
64e65, 64t
fluorinated additives:
coatings, 157e174
lubricants
applications, 69e106
types, 70
plastics, 107e148
compounding, 138e143
mechanical properties, 129e131
melt properties, 129e131
surface property alterations, 131e134
surface tension reduction, 132e134
types, 107
rubber, 175e192
addition to fluoroelastomers,
185e186
EPDM rubber, 186e189
types, 179e184
fluorinated ethylene/propylene copolymer
(FEP):
coatings, 166
lubricants, 94e95
plastics, 115
rubber, 181e182
fluorinated graphite, 13
fluorination, 6, 13e14
fluorine characteristics, 5e9
fluorination, 6
fluorine nature, 9
fluorine uniqueness, 3e5
inorganic chemistry, 7e8
organic chemistry, 8e9
preparation, 6e7
reactivity, 6
fluoroadditives:
coatings, 170e171
description
PTFE homopolymer additives, 11
PTFE-modified, 13
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 37
commercial products, 51
direct polymerization, 43
lubricants, 72
production, 39e41
regulations compliance, 214e216
rubber, 189
fluoroalkyl phosphate, 99
fluoroelastomer additives, 11e12, 53e66,
185e186, 196
commercial products, 64e65
emulsion polymerization, 54e56
manufacturing process, 53e54
polymeric process additives, 58e64
suspension polymerization, 56e58
fluoroglycosides, 9
Fluoroguard, 117, 133, 133t, 142e143
Fluorolink:
plastics, 117, 142e143
rubber, 184
fluoro-silicone, 184e185
fluorspar (CaF2), 5e7, 17e18
food contact applications, 213e214
Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
213e214
football defects, 61
fortifiers, 90, 94e95
four-ball tests:
grease, 92e93, 92t
low-viscosity lubricants, 76, 78
free flow powders:
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 59
tetrafluoroethylene suspension
polymerization, 25
free radicals, 22e23
fretting:
coatings, 157
lubricants, 70
plastics, 110, 126
friction:
coatings, 158, 165
lubricants, 69, 71
plastics, 107e110
fluoroadditive use, 116e118
high molecular weight micropowders,
113e116
low molecular weight micropowders,
113e116
particle size, 116
polyacetals, 122
polycarbonates, 124
polyesters, 124e125, 125t
polyetheretherketone, 127, 127t
PTFE manufacturing, 116
thermoplastics enhancement,
116e118
types, 118e119
water wear, 118
rubber, 178, 183, 183t
see also coefficients of friction
fuel tank filling pipes, 200
functionalized organics, 142e143
G
GA-CAT tests, 153e154
gaseous monomer mixtures, 56
general purpose resins, 119
glass:
coatings, 167
plastics
polyacetals, 122, 122t
polycarbonates, 124, 124t
polyetheretherketone, 126
gloss:
coatings, 158e159
polymer processing additives, 200,
205
glow wire flammability indices (GWFIs),
136e137
glow wire ignition temperatures (GWITs),
136e137
glow wire tests, 136e137
granular-based micropowders: lowmolecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 37
granular PTFE:
characterization, 29e31
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 37, 46e51
tetrafluoroethylene suspension
polymerization, 23, 25e27
granular reactors, 23e24
graphite:
fluorinated, 13
lubricants
low-viscosity oil literature studies,
79, 80t
release agents, 82
solid lubricant additive comparisons,
72e73
supply, 102
plastics, 126
gravure printing, 150e151
grease:
lubricants, 90e96
application categorization, 75
characterization, 90e92
compositions, 90e92
patent history, 94e96
supply, 102
technical studies, 93e94
plastics, 108e109, 133
grind gage techniques: printing ink,
152e153
grinding of irradiated PTFE, 42e43
gums, 133
GWFIs, see glow wire flammability
indices
GWITs, see glow wire ignition
temperatures
H
Halar polyvinylidene fluoride, 171, 171t
halogen exchange reactions, 8
HAP, see hazardous air pollutants
hardness tests:
coatings, 157e158
rubber, 178
hard thermoplastic elastomer segments,
175
hazardous air pollutants (HAP), 159
h-BN, see hexagonal boron nitride
HDPE, see high-density polyethylene
290 INDEXhealth, 219e228
heat seal bond strength: polymer
processing additives, 205
heat tack strength: polymer processing
additives, 205
Henkel North America, 100e102, 101t
hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 59, 196,
200
hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), 64
HF, see hydrofluoric acid; hydrogen
fluoride
HFP, see hexafluoropropylene
high-density polyethylene (HDPE):
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 59,
64e65
polymer processing additives, 59, 197,
199e200, 200t
high-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives:
coatings, 163e164
commercial products, 170
staining prevention, 169e170
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additive manufacture, 51
lubricants, 70
grease, 93, 95
low-viscosity lubricants, 75e76
motor oil, 88
polymeric fluorinated additives,
73e74
suppliers, 96
supply, 98e100
manufacture, 17e36
plastics, 107
compounding of fluorinated additives,
138e141
fire retardant products, 138
friction, 113e116
mechanical properties, 129
melt dripping, 135e136
melt properties, 129
miscellaneous thermoplastics, 129
mixing into resins, 137e138
polyacetals, 122
polyamides, 120
surface tension reduction,
132e133
wear processes, 113e116
polymerization mechanism, 22e23
polytetrafluoroethylene characterization,
29e34
printing ink
addition to ink, 152
commercial suppliers, 154
properties, 17e36
rubber, 179e181, 186, 188t, 189
tetrafluoroethylene polymerization, 20
emulsion polymerization, 27e29
suspension polymerization,
23e27
tetrafluoroethylene polymers,
20e22
tetrafluoroethylene preparation,
17e19
tetrafluoroethylene properties,
19e20
high-molecular-weight high-density
polyethylene (HMW-HDPE),
199e200, 200t
high-molecular-weight processing aids:
applications, 194
high molecular-weight suspensionpolymerized PTFE: plastics,
140e141
high performance polymer (HPP), 138
high temperature engineering resins,
119
high temperature thermoplastics, 128
hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS),
205
homopolymer additives: description, 11
hot-melt inks, 151
housewares regulations exemptions,
216
HPP, see high performance polymer
hydrocarbon waxes, 151
hydrodynamic lubrication processes,
70e71
hydrofluoric acid/hydrogen fluoride (HF):
fluorine preparation, 6e8
processing emissions, 220, 221t
safety measures, 220
I
ILSAC, see International Lubricant
Standardization and Approval
Committee
infrared identification: FDA food contact
requirements, 213
initial seizure loads (ISL): low-viscosity
oil, 78
initiators:
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 57
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 44, 46
polymerization mechanism, 22e23
tetrafluoroethylene suspension
polymerization, 23e24
inorganic chemistry: fluorine
characteristics, 7e8
intaglio (gravure) printing, 150e151
interfacial agents, 61e62, 64, 204, 204t,
205t
interfacial wear: plastics, 110
internal lubricants, 81
International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC), 136e137
International Lubricant Standardization
and Approval Committee
(ILSAC), 83
ionic inorganic initiators, 23e24
irradiated PTFE:
grinding, 42e43
lubricants
grease, 93
polymeric fluorinated additives, 74
plastics, 108
friction, 114, 116e117
polyamides, 120e121
surface properties, 134
wear processes, 114, 116e117
irradiation:
coatings, 164, 169e170
fluoroadditive production, 39e41
plastics, 114e115
printing ink, 152
ISL, see initial seizure loads
iso-paraffins, 31e32
K
kinetic friction, 69, 205
L
LAOW, see low amplitude oscillating
wear
laser marking additives, 3
latexes, 60, 176e177
layering granulation steps, 26e27
LCPs, see liquid crystal polymers
LDPE, see low-density polyethylene
Le Chatelier’s principle, 18
legal exposure limits, 220, 221t
Limiting PV, 112
polyamides, 120
polyetheretherketone, 127e128
linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 61, 64e65, 195, 197,
202e203, 205
liquid crystal polymers (LCPs): plastics,
129e130
liquid crystals: fluorine characteristics, 9
lithium batteries, 13
lithography, 149e150
ink types, 151
particle size, 152
LLDPE, see linear low-density
polyethylene
low amplitude oscillating wear (LAOW),
126
low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 53,
61, 64e65, 195, 197, 202e203,
205
low flow powders, 25
low molecular mass fluorinated oils,
142e143
low molecular mass functionalized
organics, 142e143
low-molecular-weight fluorinated
aliphatic alcohols, 170
INDEX 291low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives:
coatings, 164e166, 169e170, 170t
commercial products, 51, 170, 170t
description, homopolymer additives, 11
direct polymerization, 43e51
lubricants, 70, 75
grease, 93, 95
motor oil, 88
polymeric fluorinated additives,
73e74
release agents, 82
suppliers, 96
supply, 96e100
manufacturing, 37e52
molecular weight reductions, 37
plastics
compounding of fluorinated additives,
138e141
friction, 113e117
mechanical properties, 129e130
melt dripping, 135
melt properties, 129e130
polyacetals, 122
polyamides, 120e121
polyetheretherketone, 126
surface tension reduction, 132e133
wear processes, 113e117
polytetrafluoroethylene degradation,
37e39
printing ink
abrasion resistance, 154
addition to ink, 152
ink types, 151
rub resistance, 154
production methods, 39e43
properties, 37e52
rubber, 182e184, 186, 188t, 189
low-molecular-weight processing aids:
applications, 193e195
low-viscosity lubricants, 75e82
low-viscosity oil, 77e79
lubricants, 69e106
application categorization, 75
engine oils, 82e90
fine powder PTFE resins,
characterization, 31e32
fluorinated graphite, 13
friction, 69
general, 72
grease, 90e96
low-viscosity lubricants, 75e82
lubricant base oils, 71e72
polymeric fluorinated additives, 73e75
processes, 70e71
regulations compliance, 216
solid lubricant additive comparisons,
72e73
suppliers, 96e102
wear processes, 69e70
Lubron PTFE powder, 98e99
Lumiflon, 167e168, 171
M
machining, 224
“mar” visual changes: coatings, 157e158
master batches: plastics, 133e134
mastication: rubber, 176
material incompatibilities, 224
matting additives, 3
mechanical blend thermoplastic
elastomers, 175
melt blending: coatings, 167
melt dripping: plastics, 134e138
melt fracture: processing aid additives,
194e195, 200, 200t, 202e204,
204t, 205t
melt indices: polymer processing
additives, 200
melt-processable polymers:
coatings, 166, 170
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 44
plastics, 117
polymeric process additive development,
59, 64
rubber, 181e182, 189
melt processing, 223
melt properties: plastics, 129e131
melt viscosity: FDA food contact
requirements, 213
metal catalysts, 89, 94
metal coatings, 168
metering rolls: printing ink, 150
methylene iodide, 57e58
micropowders, see fluoroadditives
Micropowders, Inc., 100
migratory packages: plastics, 125
milling of pigments, 152e153
mineral oil, 78
Miraflon fluoroelastomers, 58
mixing extruders: plastics, 126
modified PTFE, 13, 180e181
Moissan’s electrolysis, 7
mold-release additives:
low-molecular-weight PPAs, 193
lubricants, 96
processing aid additives, 195
molecular weight reductions:
low-molecular-weight
fluoropolymer additives, 37
molybdenum disulfide (MoS2):
dry-film lubricants, 79
low-viscosity oil literature studies, 79, 80t
lubricant supply, 102
release agents, 82
solid lubricant additive comparisons,
72e73
molybdenum dithiocarbamate: lubricants,
89e90
motor oil: lubricants, 88e90
motor vehicle fuel tank filling pipes, 200
multimodal fluorinated polymers, 60
N
NASA Lewis Research Center, 85
National Lubricating Grease Institute
(NLGI), 91
National Printing Research Institute
(NPIRI), 152e153
natural rubber, 175e176
networked structures, see crosslinking
Nevada Desert Research Center, 84e85
NiP, see phosphorus coatings
NLGI, see National Lubricating Grease
Institute
noise: friction, 113
non-fluorinated anti-friction/anti-wear
additives: plastics, 118
non-fluorinated melt-processable
polymers, 59, 64
nonionic surfactants, 28
non-lubricating fillers: plastics, 119
nonstick fluoropolymer coatings, 64e65,
64t
NPIRI, see National Printing Research
Institute
nucleation granulation steps, 26
nylons, 119e121
O
occupational exposure limits (OELs),
220, 221t
Occupational Safety and Health Act
(OSHA), 220
oil-repellent fluororubbers, 183
oils:
coatings, 158
lubricants, 71e72, 77e79
plastics, 108e109, 117, 133, 142e143
oil of turpentine fluorine reactivity, 6
olefinic polymers, see polyolefins
open feeder screws, 141e142
orange peel surface defects, 167
organic chemistry: fluorine
characteristics, 8e9
organic peroxides, 23e24
organosols, 160, 167
OSHA, see Occupational Safety and
Health Act
overprint-varnish, 151
oxygen, 19e20
P
packaging disposal, 225e226
paper, 215e216
paperboard, 215e216
parisons: polymer processing additives,
199
292 INDEXpartially fluorinated semi-crystalline
resins, 166e167
particle erosion: lubricants, 70
particle size:
plastics, 116
printing ink, 152e153
PAs, see polyamides
paste inks, 151
PAVE, see perfluoroalkylvinylether
PBT, see polybutyleneterephthalate
PCL, see polycaprolactone
PCTFE, see polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PDMS, see polydimethylsiloxane
PEEK, see polyetheretherketone
PEG, see polyethylene glycol
PELs, see permissible exposure limits
pencils, 157e158
perfluorinated semi-crystalline resins,
162e166
perfluoroalkylvinylether (PAVE), 181e182
perfluorocarbon resins, 215
perfluorodioxole, 167
perfluoro-isobutylene, 220, 221t
perfluoropolyethers, 72
perfluoropolymer coatings, 162, 168
perfluoropropolyether (PFPE) additives,
12e13
perfluoro propyl vinyl ether (PFPVE), 171
perfluorotetrafluoroethylene (PTFE):
lubricants, 70, 73e75
dry-film lubricants, 79
engine oils, 82, 84
grease, 90, 93e94
low-viscosity lubricants, 75
low-viscosity oil literature studies,
77e79
motor oil, 88e90
release agents, 82
suppliers, 96e100
permeation: plastics, 134
permissible exposure limits (PELs), 220,
221t
peroxide-curable fluoroelastomers, 57e58
peroxides, 23e24, 57e58
personal hygiene, 224
persulfate initiation, 22, 22t
PEs, see polyesters
PESs, see polyethersulfones
PET, see polyethyleneterephthalate
PETP, see polyethyleneterephthalate
Petrolon Technologies, 87
PFF, see polymer fume fever
PFPE, see perfluoropropolyether additives
PFPVE, see perfluoro propyl vinyl ether
phenolic resin binders, 161
phosgene, 123
phosphorus (NiP) coatings, 168
pigmented polymer compositions, 62e64
pigment milling, 152e153
pig tail screws, 141e142
Pin & Vee Block tests, 92, 92t
pin-on-disk tests:
coatings, 157
plastics, 111
planography, see lithography
plasma etching, 9
plastics, 107e148
compounding of fluorinated additives,
138e143
fire situations, 134e138
fluoroadditive use, 116e118
friction, 107e108, 113e118
friction processes, 109e110
melt dripping, 134e138
non-fluorinated anti-friction additives,
118
non-fluorinated anti-wear additives, 118
particle size, 116
polymer processing additives, 199
processing aid additives, 195
PTFE manufacturing, 116
surface property alterations, 131e134
background, 131e132
irradiated PTFE, 134
permeation, 134
surface tension reduction, 132e134
theory, 131e132
types, 118e129
epoxy resins, 128e129
miscellaneous thermoplastics, 129
polyacetals, 121e123
polyamides, 119e121
polycarbonates, 123e124
polyesters, 124e125
polyetheretherketone, 125e128
polyphenylene sulfide, 128
water wear, 118
wear processes, 107e108, 110e118
Platinum Research Organization, 89
plugged oil filters, 86
pollution, 159
polyacetals, 121e123
polyacrylates, 160, 166e167
polyamides (PAs), 119e121
polybutyleneterephthalate (PBT), 124
polycaprolactone (PCL), 203e204, 204t
polycarbonates, 123e124, 137
polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 94
polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 123
polyester oil, 78
polyesters (PEs), 124e125, 137, 160
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 125e128
polyethersulfones (PESs), 159, 165
poly(ethylene-butene-1), 59
polyethylene glycol (PEG), 203e204,
204t
polyethylene (PE):
coatings, 164
fluorination, 13
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 59
lubricants, 95
plastics, 120
processing aid additives, 59, 195, 198,
200, 200t, 202e203
see also high-density polyethylene;
linear low-density polyethylene; lowdensity polyethylene
polyethyleneterephthalate (PET/PETP),
124, 125t, 129, 137
Polyflon TFE low polymers, 98e99
polymer fume fever (PFF), 220, 224
polymerization:
fluoroelastomer-based additives
emulsion polymerization, 54e56
suspension polymerization, 56e58
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 43e51
dispersion polymerization, 43e46
suspension polymerization, 46e51
mechanism, 22e23
tetrafluoroethylene, 20
emulsion polymerization, 27e29
suspension polymerization, 23e27
polymer processing additives/aids (PPAs),
53, 58e64, 196
advantages, 194
applications, 193e210
high-molecular-weight processing
aids, 194
low-molecular-weight processing aids,
193e195
description, 11e12
function, 196e198
regulations compliance, 215
see also fluoroelastomer additives;
processing aid additives
polymer welding, 224
Polymist trade names, 99e100
polyolefins, 5, 5t
fluorine uniqueness, 5
plastics, 117
mechanical properties, 130
melt properties, 130
permeations, 134
surface tension reduction, 133e134
types, 118e119, 124
polymer processing additives, 59, 61,
195e196, 201e203
regulations compliance, 215
polyoxymethylene (POM), 121e122, 122t
polyphenylene, 165
poly(phenylene ether): plastics, 130, 137
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 128
polypropylene, 130
polystyrene-based resins, 130
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE):
characterization, 29e34
dispersions, 32e34
fine powder resins, 31e32
granular resins, 29e31
INDEX 293polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE):
(Continued)
coatings, 163e166
commercial products, 170
fluoropolymer additive addition, 158
staining prevention, 169e170
consumption volume, 226, 226t
description
homopolymer additives, 11
modified waxes, 13
dispersion grade activities, 223
disposal methods, 225
electroless processes, 168
electrolytic processes, 168
environmental protection, 225
fabrication, 222
fire hazards, 224
fluorine characteristics, discovery,
8e9
fluorine uniqueness, 3e5
fluoroadditive production
electron beam irradiation, 39e42
thermal cracking, 39
grinding, 42e43
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives
commercial products, 51
degradation, 37e39
dispersion polymerization, 43e46
other manufacturing methods, 51
production methods, 39e43
suspension polymerization, 46e51
market share gradings, 226, 226t
material incompatibilities, 224
melt processing, 223
plastics, 107, 113
compounding of fluorinated additives,
138e141
epoxy resins, 128
extrusion compounding,
141e142
fire retardant products, 138
friction, 113e116
high molecular weight micropowder
mixing, 137e138
mechanical properties, 129
melt dripping, 135
melt properties, 129
polyacetals, 121e122, 122t
polyamides, 119e120
polycarbonates, 124, 124t
polyesters, 124e125, 125t
polyetheretherketone, 126
polyphenylene sulfide, 128
surface properties, 134
water wear, 118
wear processes, 113e116
printing ink
abrasion resistance, 153e154
commercial suppliers, 154
particle size, 152
printing processes, 149
rub resistance, 153e154
types, 152
processing, 222
properties, 20e22
protective clothing, 224
recycling, 225
regulations compliance, 213e214
rubber, 179e189, 187t
safety measures, 220
sintering, 223
spillage cleanup, 224
thermal properties, 219
toxicology, 219
welding of polymers, 224
polyvinyl chloride, 130
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF):
coatings, 166, 168e169, 171, 171t
printing ink, 151
rubber, 182
POM, see polyoxymethylene
PPAs, see polymer processing additives/
aids
PPS, see polyphenylene sulfide
printing ink additives, 149e156
abrasion resistance, 153e154
blocking, 154
commercial suppliers, 154e155
ink types, 151
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 46
printing processes, 149e150
PTFE-modified waxes, 13e14
rub resistance, 153e154
processing aid additives, see polymer
processing additives/aids
processing emissions, 220
protective clothing, 224
PTFE, see perfluorotetrafluoroethylene;
polytetrafluoroethylene
PVDF, see polyvinylidene fluoride
PV Limits, see Limiting PV
pyrolysis:
fluoroadditive production, 39
tetrafluoroethylene preparation,
17e19, 18t
see also thermal cracking
Q
QMI: lubricants, 85e86, 88
R
radical addition reactions, 19e20
recommended exposure limits (RELs),
220, 221t
re-crystallization: tetrafluoroethylene
polymers, 20
recycling, 219e228
redux initiators, 23e24
regulations compliance, 213e218
commercial micropowders, 214e216
FDA food contact requirements,
213e214
food contact applications, 213e214
medical applications, 213
release agents:
coatings, 170e171
low-molecular-weight PPAs, 193e194
lubricants, 75, 81e82
RELs, see recommended exposure limits
resins:
ABS resin compositions, 137
coatings, 160e167, 215
epoxy resins, 128e129, 160
FDA food contact requirements,
213e214
fine cut resins, 26
fine powder resins, 31, 32t, 33t
food contact regulations, 215
general purpose resins, 119
granular resins, 29, 30t, 31t
high temperature engineering resins,
119
lubricants, 31e32
partially fluorinated semi-crystalline
resins, 166e167
perfluorinated semi-crystalline resins,
162e166
perfluorocarbon resins, 215
plastics, 119, 128e130, 137e138
polystyrene-based resins, 130
printing ink, 151
PTFE characterization, 29
regulations compliance, 215
resin binders, 160e161
rolling friction, 69
rotogravure (gravure) printing, 150e151
Roto-Jet grinding mills, 42e43
RTP Company, 117, 124, 124t, 127e128
rubber, 175e192
addition to fluoroelastomers, 185e186
characterization, 177e179
coatings, 166
commercial products, 189
compositions, 175e177
compounding, 175e177
EPDM rubber, 186e189
fluorinated additive types, rubber,
179e184
fluoro-silicone, 184e185
moduli, 177
regulations compliance, 216
silicone, 184e185
rub resistance, 153e154
S
SAE, see Society of Automotive
Engineers
safety, 219e228
294 INDEXSAN, see styrene/acrylonitrile polymer
blends
scanning electron microscopic (SEM)
analyses, 181
Schallamach waves, 178
scrapers: printing ink, 152e153
scrap fluoropolymers, 154, 225
scratches: printing ink, 153
scratch tests: coatings, 157e158
scrub resistance testing, 164e165, 165t
scuffing: plastics, 126
Selectfluour, 6
SEM, see scanning electron microscopic
analyses
semibatch emulsion polymerization:
fluoroelastomer-based additives,
55e56
semibatch polymerization modes:
fluoroelastomer-based additives,
53e55
semibatch reactor operation:
fluoroelastomer-based additives,
54e55
semi-crystalline resins, 162e167
set measurements: rubber, 178
Shamrock Technologies, 93, 100
shark skin surface defects, 202
shearing processes: rubber, 176
shear-thinning lubricants, 91
silicone:
processing aid additives, 195
rubber, 184e185
silicone oils:
lubricant base oils, 71
plastics, 117
single-screw extruders, 141
sintered polytetrafluoroethylene:
electron beam irradiation, 41, 42t
lubricants, 93
plastics, 116
printing ink, 152
sintering:
fabrication steps, 223
lubricants, 73e74
plastics, 107
printing ink, addition to ink, 152
processing steps, 223
PTFE characterization, 29
thermoplastic coatings, 159
Slick 50 lubricant, 86e87
sliding friction: lubricants, 69
slip agents: processing aid additives,
203e204
slip-stick sliding contact phenomena, 69,
109, 113, 125
snowballing granulation steps, 26e27
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),
82e83, 87
Society of Tribologists and Lubricating
Engineers (STLE), 83e84
soft thermoplastic elastomer segments,
175
Solef polyvinylidene fluoride, 171, 171t
solid lubricant additives, 72e73
Solvay Solexis:
lubricants, 92e93, 99e100
plastics, 108, 117
polymeric processing aids, 64e65, 64t
printing ink, 154
PTFE fluoroadditive powders, 49te50t
rubber, 184, 186
solvents:
coatings, 159
fluoroelastomer-based additives,
suspension polymerization, 57
gravure printing, 150
printing ink, 150e151
SouthWest Insitute, 83
Southwest Research Institute, 87
spillage cleanup, 224
SSG, see standard specific gravity
stain resistance:
coatings, 168e170
plastics, 133
standards compliance, 213e218
standard specific gravity (SSG):
fine powder polytetrafluoroethylene
resins, 31
granular PTFE resins, 29
static coefficients of friction:
coatings, 158
plastics, 109, 114e115
rubber, 188e189
static friction: lubricants, 69
stearates, 193e194
steel, 124, 124t
step polymerization, 60
stick-slip friction, 69, 109, 125
STLE, see Society of Tribologists and
Lubricating Engineers
Streptomyces cattleya bacteria, 9
styrene/acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer
blends, 130, 137e140
surface energies/tensions:
coatings, 158, 168e169, 169t, 170t
plastics, 131e134, 132t
polymer processing additives, 205e208
surface fatigue: lubricants, 70
surfactants:
ammonium perfluorooctanoate, 21e22
coatings, 168, 170
tetrafluoroethylene polymerization, 20,
27e28
suspension polymerization:
fluoroelastomer-based additives,
56e58
low-molecular-weight fluoropolymer
additives, 43, 46e51
lubricants, polymeric fluorinated
additives, 73
plastics, 107, 140e141
printing ink, 152
rubber, 186e188
tetrafluoroethylene, 23e27
suspension-polymerized PTFE, 163
suspension-type PTFE:
plastics, 135, 141
rubber, 179
Sutherland tests: printing ink, 153e154
synthetic rubbers, 176
see also elastomers
T
Taber abrasion tests, 157
TCTFE, see trichlorotrifluoroethane
tear resistance tests: rubber, 178
Techrobond, 89
Tecnoflon "Nano-PTFE-filled"
fluoroelastomers, 186
Teflon:
coatings, 167, 171
printing ink, 154
rubber, 181
telogen, 74
terpolymers: polymer processing
additives, 196
tetrafluoroethylene (TFE):
coatings, 166e167
emulsion polymerization, 27e29
fluorine characteristics, 8e9
lubricants, 95
polymerization, 20, 23e29
polymer processing additives, 196
polymers, 20e22
preparation, 17e19
processing emissions, 220, 221t
properties, 19e20
rubber, 180e182
suspension polymerization, 23e27
thermal properties, 219
see also polytetrafluoroethylene
textured surfaces: coatings, 158e159
thermal addition of PTFE: plastics,
116e117
thermal cracking, 39
thermal instability indices, 213
thermal transfer inks, 151
thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), 175, 182
thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), 133,
133t
thermoplastics:
coatings, 159
polymeric process additive development,
60
thermosetting coating parameters,
159e161
thickeners: lubricants, 90, 92e95
third body layers: plastics, 110
three-roller mills, 151
threshold limit values (TLVs), 220, 221t
INDEX 295thrust-washer tests:
coatings, 157
plastics, 111
TLVs, see threshold limit values
toners, 150
toughening agents: plastics, 117
toxicology, 219
TPEs, see thermoplastic elastomers
TPU, see thermoplastic polyurethane
transfer films:
plastics, 110, 113
rubber, 178
tribology studies, 108e109
trichlorotrifluoroethane (TCTFE):
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 57
lubricants, 93e94
tubing extrusion, 195
Tufoil, 86
tungsten disulfide, 79
twin-screw extruders, 133, 141
two-roll mills, 176
U
UL 94V Test: plastics, 135e136
ultraviolent (UV) light stabilizers, 205
University of Utah research: lubricants,
85e87
unmodified PTFE, 179e180
urethane, 133, 133t, 161
UV, see ultraviolet
V
van der Waals forces, 20
ventilation of degradation product,
221e222
Vespel polyimide products, 129
vinylidene fluoride (VDF):
coatings, 166e167
description, 12
fluoroelastomer-based additives, 55,
57, 59
polymer processing additives, 59, 196, 200
see also PVDF
virgin polytetrafluoroethylene, 225
Viton: polymer processing additives,
195e196
Viton A, see hexafluoropropylene
VITON formulations: rubber, 186, 187t
Viton polymeric processing aids, 62t,
64e65
volatile organic chemicals (VOC), 159
Vortex mills, 25e26
W
water:
lubricant washout tests, 92, 92t
plastics, 118
see also aqueous.
water-miscible solvents, 159
water/oil repellency: coatings, 158
water-reducible coatings, 159
waxes:
plastics, 108
printing ink, 151
PTFE-modification, 13
wear processes:
coatings, 157, 165
lubricants, 69e71, 78e79, 80t, 81t
plastics, 107e108, 110e113
fluoroadditive use, 116e118
high molecular weight micropowders,
113e116
low molecular weight micropowders,
113e116
particle size, 116
polyacetals, 122
polyamides, 120e121, 121t
polycarbonates, 124
polyesters, 124e125, 125t
polyetheretherketone, 127, 127t
PTFE manufacturing, 116
thermoplastics enhancement,
116e118
types, 118e119
rubber, 178, 183, 183t
welding of polymers, 224
wet agglomeration processes, 26
wetting: plastics, 131
X
xenon, 7
X-ray fluorescence (XRF), 198
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
analyses, 38
Y
Young and Dupre equations, 131
Z
zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), 72,
75, 78e79, 84, 89, 94
zinc oxide (ZnO) plastics, 129
Zonyl:
coatings, 164e166, 170
rubber, 181, 185e188, 185t, 187t


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