كتاب Small Unmanned Fixed-Wing Aircraft Design - A Practical Approach
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Small Unmanned Fixed-Wing Aircraft Design - A Practical Approach

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Small Unmanned Fixed-Wing Aircraft Design - A Practical Approach    كتاب Small Unmanned Fixed-Wing Aircraft Design - A Practical Approach  Emptyالخميس 07 سبتمبر 2023, 1:40 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Small Unmanned Fixed-Wing Aircraft Design - A Practical Approach
Andrew J. Keane
University of Southampton
UK
András Sóbester
University of Southampton
UK
James P. Scanlan
University of Southampton
UK

كتاب Small Unmanned Fixed-Wing Aircraft Design - A Practical Approach  S_u_m_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
List of Figures xvii
List of Tables xxxiii
Foreword xxxv
Series Preface xxxvii
Preface xxxix
Acknowledgments xli
PART I INTRODUCING FIXED-WING UAVS
1 Preliminaries 3
1.1 Externally Sourced Components 4
1.2 Manufacturing Methods 5
1.3 Project DECODE 6
1.4 The Stages of Design 6
1.4.1 Concept Design 8
1.4.2 Preliminary Design 10
1.4.3 Detail Design 11
1.4.4 Manufacturing Design 12
1.4.5 In-service Design and Decommissioning 13
1.5 Summary 13
2 Unmanned Air Vehicles 15
2.1 A Brief Taxonomy of UAVs 15
2.2 The Morphology of a UAV 19
2.2.1 Lifting Surfaces 21
2.2.2 Control Surfaces 22
2.2.3 Fuselage and Internal Structure 23
2.2.4 Propulsion Systems 24x Contents
2.2.5 Fuel Tanks 24
2.2.6 Control Systems 24
2.2.7 Payloads 27
2.2.8 Take-off and Landing Gear 27
2.3 Main Design Drivers 29
PART II THE AIRCRAFT IN MORE DETAIL
3 Wings 33
3.1 Simple Wing Theory and Aerodynamic Shape 33
3.2 Spars 37
3.3 Covers 37
3.4 Ribs 38
3.5 Fuselage Attachments 38
3.6 Ailerons/Roll Control 40
3.7 Flaps 41
3.8 Wing Tips 42
3.9 Wing-housed Retractable Undercarriage 42
3.10 Integral Fuel Tanks 44
4 Fuselages and Tails (Empennage) 45
4.1 Main Fuselage/Nacelle Structure 45
4.2 Wing Attachment 47
4.3 Engine and Motor Mountings 48
4.4 Avionics Trays 50
4.5 Payloads – Camera Mountings 51
4.6 Integral Fuel Tanks 52
4.7 Assembly Mechanisms and Access Hatches 54
4.8 Undercarriage Attachment 55
4.9 Tails (Empennage) 57
5 Propulsion 59
5.1 Liquid-Fueled IC Engines 59
5.1.1 Glow-plug IC Engines 62
5.1.2 Spark Ignition Gasoline IC Engines 62
5.1.3 IC Engine Testing 65
5.2 Rare-earth Brushless Electric Motors 66
5.3 Propellers 68
5.4 Engine/Motor Control 70
5.5 Fuel Systems 70
5.6 Batteries and Generators 71
6 Airframe Avionics and Systems 73
6.1 Primary Control Transmitter and Receivers 73
6.2 Avionics Power Supplies 76Contents xi
6.3 Servos 78
6.4 Wiring, Buses, and Boards 82
6.5 Autopilots 86
6.6 Payload Communications Systems 87
6.7 Ancillaries 88
6.8 Resilience and Redundancy 90
7 Undercarriages 93
7.1 Wheels 93
7.2 Suspension 95
7.3 Steering 95
7.4 Retractable Systems 97
PART III DESIGNING UAVS
8 The Process of Design 101
8.1 Goals and Constraints 101
8.2 Airworthiness 103
8.3 Likely Failure Modes 104
8.3.1 Aerodynamic and Stability Failure 105
8.3.2 Structural Failure 106
8.3.3 Engine/Motor Failure 107
8.3.4 Control System Failure 107
8.4 Systems Engineering 110
8.4.1 Work-breakdown Structure 110
8.4.2 Interface Deinitions 112
8.4.3 Allocation of Responsibility 112
8.4.4 Requirements Flowdown 112
8.4.5 Compliance Testing 113
8.4.6 Cost and Weight Management 114
8.4.7 Design “Checklist” 117
9 Tool Selection 119
9.1 Geometry/CAD Codes 120
9.2 Concept Design 123
9.3 Operational Simulation and Mission Planning 125
9.4 Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis Codes 125
9.5 Design and Decision Viewing 125
9.6 Supporting Databases 126
10 Concept Design: Initial Constraint Analysis 127
10.1 The Design Brief 127
10.1.1 Drawing up a Good Design Brief 127
10.1.2 Environment and Mission 128
10.1.3 Constraints 129xii Contents
10.2 Airframe Topology 130
10.2.1 Unmanned versus Manned – Rethinking Topology 130
10.2.2 Searching the Space of Topologies 133
10.2.3 Systematic “invention” of UAV Concepts 136
10.2.4 Managing the Concept Design Process 144
10.3 Airframe and Powerplant Scaling via Constraint Analysis 144
10.3.1 The Role of Constraint Analysis 144
10.3.2 The Impact of Customer Requirements 145
10.3.3 Concept Constraint Analysis – A Proposed Computational
Implementation 145
10.3.4 The Constraint Space 146
10.4 A Parametric Constraint Analysis Report 146
10.4.1 About This Document 146
10.4.2 Design Brief 147
10.4.3 Unit Conversions 149
10.4.4 Basic Geometry and Initial Guesses 151
10.4.5 Preamble 151
10.4.6 Preliminary Calculations 152
10.4.7 Constraints 154
10.5 The Combined Constraint Diagram and Its Place in the Design Process 162
11 Spreadsheet-Based Concept Design and Examples 165
11.1 Concept Design Algorithm 166
11.2 Range 169
11.3 Structural Loading Calculations 169
11.4 Weight and CoG Estimation 170
11.5 Longitudinal Stability 170
11.6 Powering and Propeller Sizing 171
11.7 Resulting Design: Decode-1 174
11.8 A Bigger Single Engine Design: Decode-2 177
11.9 A Twin Tractor Design: SPOTTER 182
12 Preliminary Geometry Design 189
12.1 Preliminary Airframe Geometry and CAD 190
12.2 Designing Decode-1 with AirCONICS 192
13 Preliminary Aerodynamic and Stability Analysis 195
13.1 Panel Method Solvers – XFoil and XFLR5 196
13.2 RANS Solvers – Fluent 200
13.2.1 Meshing, Turbulence Model Choice, and y+ 204
13.3 Example Two-dimensional Airfoil Analysis 208
13.4 Example Three-dimensional Airfoil Analysis 210
13.5 3D Models of Simple Wings 212
13.6 Example Airframe Aerodynamics 214
13.6.1 Analyzing Decode-1 with XFLR5: Aerodynamics 215
13.6.2 Analyzing Decode-1 with XFLR5: Control Surfaces 221Contents xiii
13.6.3 Analyzing Decode-1 with XFLR5: Stability 223
13.6.4 Flight Simulators 227
13.6.5 Analyzing Decode-1 with Fluent 228
14 Preliminary Structural Analysis 237
14.1 Structural Modeling Using AirCONICS 240
14.2 Structural Analysis Using Simple Beam Theory 243
14.3 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) 245
14.3.1 FEA Model Preparation 246
14.3.2 FEA Complete Spar and Boom Model 250
14.3.3 FEA Analysis of 3D Printed and Fiber- or Mylar-clad Foam Parts 255
14.4 Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity 265
14.4.1 Estimating Wing Divergence, Control Reversal, and Flutter Onset
Speeds 266
14.5 Summary of Preliminary Structural Analysis 272
15 Weight and Center of Gravity Control 273
15.1 Weight Control 273
15.2 Longitudinal Center of Gravity Control 279
16 Experimental Testing and Validation 281
16.1 Wind Tunnels Tests 282
16.1.1 Mounting the Model 282
16.1.2 Calibrating the Test 284
16.1.3 Blockage Effects 284
16.1.4 Typical Results 287
16.2 Airframe Load Tests 290
16.2.1 Structural Test Instruments 290
16.2.2 Structural Mounting and Loading 293
16.2.3 Static Structural Testing 294
16.2.4 Dynamic Structural Testing 296
16.3 Avionics Testing 300
17 Detail Design: Constructing Explicit Design Geometry 303
17.1 The Generation of Geometry 303
17.2 Fuselage 306
17.3 An Example UAV Assembly 309
17.3.1 Hand Sketches 311
17.3.2 Master Sketches 311
17.4 3D Printed Parts 313
17.4.1 Decode-1: The Development of a Parametric Geometry for the SLS
Nylon Wing Spar/Boom “Scaffold Clamp” 313
17.4.2 Approach 314
17.4.3 Inputs 314
17.4.4 Breakdown of Part 315
17.4.5 Parametric Capability 316xiv Contents
17.4.6 More Detailed Model 317
17.4.7 Manufacture 318
17.5 Wings 318
17.5.1 Wing Section Proile 320
17.5.2 Three-dimensional Wing 323
PART IV MANUFACTURE AND FLIGHT
18 Manufacture 331
18.1 Externally Sourced Components 331
18.2 Three-Dimensional Printing 332
18.2.1 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 332
18.2.2 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 335
18.2.3 Sealing Components 335
18.3 Hot-wire Foam Cutting 337
18.3.1 Fiber and Mylar Foam Cladding 339
18.4 Laser Cutting 339
18.5 Wiring Looms 342
18.6 Assembly Mechanisms 342
18.6.1 Bayonets and Locking Pins 345
18.6.2 Clamps 346
18.6.3 Conventional Bolts and Screws 346
18.7 Storage and Transport Cases 347
19 Regulatory Approval and Documentation 349
19.1 Aviation Authority Requirements 349
19.2 System Description 351
19.2.1 Airframe 352
19.2.2 Performance 355
19.2.3 Avionics and Ground Control System 356
19.2.4 Acceptance Flight Data 358
19.3 Operations Manual 358
19.3.1 Organization, Team Roles, and Communications 359
19.3.2 Brief Technical Description 359
19.3.3 Operating Limits, Conditions, and Control 359
19.3.4 Operational Area and Flight Plans 360
19.3.5 Operational and Emergency Procedures 360
19.3.6 Maintenance Schedule 360
19.4 Safety Case 361
19.4.1 Risk Assessment Process 362
19.4.2 Failure Modes and Effects 362
19.4.3 Operational Hazards 363
19.4.4 Accident List 364Contents xv
19.4.5 Mitigation List 364
19.4.6 Accident Sequences and Mitigation 366
19.5 Flight Planning Manual 368
20 Test Flights and Maintenance 369
20.1 Test Flight Planning 369
20.1.1 Exploration of Flight Envelope 369
20.1.2 Ranking of Flight Tests by Risk 370
20.1.3 Instrumentation and Recording of Flight Test Data 370
20.1.4 Pre-light Inspection and Checklists 371
20.1.5 Atmospheric Conditions 371
20.1.6 Incident and Crash Contingency Planning, Post Crash Safety,
Recording, and Management of Crash Site 371
20.2 Test Flight Examples 375
20.2.1 UAS Performance Flight Test (MANUAL Mode) 375
20.2.2 UAS CoG Flight Test (MANUAL Mode) 377
20.2.3 Fuel Consumption Tests 377
20.2.4 Engine Failure, Idle, and Throttle Change Tests 377
20.2.5 Autonomous Flight Control 378
20.2.6 Auto-Takeoff Test 380
20.2.7 Auto-Landing Test 380
20.2.8 Operational and Safety Flight Scenarios 381
20.3 Maintenance 381
20.3.1 Overall Airframe Maintenance 382
20.3.2 Time and Flight Expired Items 382
20.3.3 Batteries 383
20.3.4 Flight Control Software 383
20.3.5 Maintenance Record Keeping 384
21 Lessons Learned 385
21.1 Things that Have Gone Wrong and Why 388
PART V APPENDICES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND INDEX
A Generic Aircraft Design Flowchart 395
B Example AirCONICS Code for Decode-1 399
C Worked (Manned Aircraft) Detail Design Example 425
C.1 Stage 1: Concept Sketches 425
C.2 Stage 2: Part Deinition 429
C.3 Stage 3: “Flying Surfaces” 434
C.4 Stage 4: Other Items 435
C.5 Stage 5: Detail Deinition 435
Bibliography 439
Index 441List of Figures
Figure 1.1 The University of Southampton UAV team with eight of our aircraft,
March 2015. See also https://www.youtube.com/c/SotonUAV and
https://www.sotonuav.uk/. 4
Figure 1.2 The design spiral. 7
Figure 2.1 The Southampton University SPOTTER aircraft at the 2016 Farnborough
International Airshow. 19
Figure 2.2 University of Southampton SPOTTER UAV with under-slung payload
pod. 20
Figure 2.3 Integral fuel tank with trailing edge lap and main spars. 21
Figure 2.4 A typical carbon spar and foam wing with SLS nylon ribs at key locations
(note the separate aileron and lap with associated servo linkages). 22
Figure 2.5 A typical SLS structural component. 23
Figure 2.6 A typical integral fuel tank. 25
Figure 2.7 Typical telemetry data recorded by an autopilot. Note occasional loss
of contact with the ground station recording the data, which causes the
signals to drop to zero. 26
Figure 2.8 Flight tracks of the SPOTTER aircraft while carrying out automated takeoff and landing tests. A total of 23 fully automated lights totaling 55 km
of lying is shown. 26
Figure 2.9 A typical UAV wiring diagram. 28
Figure 2.10 The SkyCircuits SC2 autopilot (removed from its case). 29
Figure 2.11 University of Southampton SPOTTER UAV with under-slung maritime
light releasable AUV. 29
Figure 3.1 Variation of airfoil section drag at zero lift with section Reynolds number
and thickness-to-chord ratio. After Hoerner [9]. 35
Figure 3.2 A UAV with signiicant FDM ABS winglets (this aircraft also has Custer
ducted fans). 36
Figure 3.3 Wing foam core prior to covering or rib insertion –note strengthened
section in way of main wing spar. 36xviii List of Figures
Figure 3.4 Covered wing with spar and rib – in this case, the rib just acts to transfer
the wing twisting moment while the spar is bonded directly to the foam
without additional strengthening. 37
Figure 3.5 A SPOTTER UAV wing spar under static sandbag test. 38
Figure 3.6 SLS nylon wing rib with spar hole – note the extended load transfer
elements that are bonded to the main foam parts of the wing and also
lap hinge point. 39
Figure 3.7 Two wing foam cores with end rib and spar inserted – note in this case the
rib does not extend to the rear of the section, as a separate wing morphing
mechanism will be itted to the rear of the wing. 39
Figure 3.8 SPOTTER UAV wing under construction showing the two-part aileron
plus lap, all hinged off a common rear wing spar – note also the nylon
torque peg on the rib nearest the camera. 40
Figure 3.9 UAV that uses wing warping for roll control. 41
Figure 3.10 UAV that uses tiperons for roll control. 41
Figure 3.11 Fowler lap – note the complex mechanism required to deploy the lap. 42
Figure 3.12 Simple FDM-printed wing tip incorporated into the outermost wing rib. 43
Figure 3.13 UAV with pneumatically retractable undercarriage – the main wheels
retract into the wings while the nose wheel tucks up under the fuselage
(wing cut-out shown prior to undercarriage installation). 43
Figure 3.14 Integral fuel tank in central wing section for SPOTTER UAV. 44
Figure 4.1 SPOTTER SLS nylon engine nacelle/fuselage and interior structure. 46
Figure 4.2 Bayonet system for access to internal avionics (a) and fuselage-mounted
switch and voltage indicators (b). 46
Figure 4.3 Load spreader plate on Mylar-clad foam core aileron. 46
Figure 4.4 Commercially produced model aircraft with foam fuselage (and wings). 47
Figure 4.5 Space frame structure made of CFRP tubes with SLS nylon joints and
foam cladding. 47
Figure 4.6 DECODE aircraft with modular fuselage elements. 48
Figure 4.7 Wing attachment on SPOTTER fuselage. Note the recess for square
torque peg with locking pin between main and rear spar holes. 48
Figure 4.8 Typical engine and motor mounts for SLS nylon fuselages and nacelles.
Note the steel engine bearer in irst view, engine hours meter in second
image, and vibration isolation in third setup. 49
Figure 4.9 Frustratingly small fuselage access hatch. 50
Figure 4.10 Typical plywood avionics boards with equipment mounted. Note dual
layer system with antivibration mounts in last image. 50
Figure 4.11 SULSA forward-looking video camera. 51
Figure 4.12 SPOTTER payload pods with ixed aperture for video camera (a) and
downward and sideways cameras (b and c). 51List of Figures xix
Figure 4.13 Simple two axis gimbal system and Hero2 video camera mounted in front
of nose wheel. 52
Figure 4.14 Three-axis gimbal system and Sony video camera mounted in front of
the nose wheel. Note the video receiver system on the bench that links to
the camera via a dedicated radio channel. 53
Figure 4.15 SPOTTER integral fuel tank. Note internal bafle and very small breather
port (top left) in the close-up view of the iller neck. 53
Figure 4.16 Aircraft with SLS nylon fuselage formed in three parts: front camera
section attached by bayonet to rear two sections joined by tension rods.
Note the steel tension rod inside the hull just behind bayonet in the
right-hand image. 54
Figure 4.17 Example hatches in SLS nylon fuselages. Note the locking pins and location tabs on the right-hand hatch. 55
Figure 4.18 Metal-reinforced nose wheel attachment with steering and retract hinge
in aluminum frame attached to SLS nylon fuselage. Note the nose wheel
leg sized to protect the antenna. 56
Figure 4.19 Nylon nose wheel attachment. Note the signiicant reinforcement around
the lower and upper strut bearings. 56
Figure 4.20 Tails attached directly to the fuselage. The right-hand aircraft is a heavily
modiied commercial kit used for piggy-back launches of gliders. 57
Figure 4.21 Tails attached using CFRP booms, both circular and square in
cross-section. 57
Figure 4.22 All-moving horizontal stabilizer with port/starboard split to augment roll
control and provide redundancy. 57
Figure 4.23 SLS nylon part to attach tail surfaces to a CFRP tail boom. 58
Figure 5.1 UAV engine/electric motor/propeller test cell. Note the starter generator
on the engine behind the four-bladed propeller. 60
Figure 5.2 UAV engine dynamometer. 61
Figure 5.3 Typical maximum powers, weights, and estimated peak static thrusts of
engines for UAVs in the 2–150 kg MTOW range. 61
Figure 5.4 OS Gemini FT-160 glow-plug engine in pusher coniguration. Note the
permanent wiring for glow-plugs. 62
Figure 5.5 OS 30 cc GF30 four-stroke engine installed in a hybrid powered UAV.
Note the signiicant size of the exhaust system. 63
Figure 5.6 Saito 57 cc twin four-stroke engine in pusher coniguration. Note the pancake starter generator itted to this engine. 64
Figure 5.7 Twin 3W-28i CS single-cylinder two-stroke engines itted to 2Seas UAV.
Note again the signiicant size of the exhaust systems. 64
Figure 5.8 Twin OS 40 cc GF40 four-stroke engines installed in SPOTTER UAV,
with and without engine cowlings. 64
Figure 5.9 Raw performance data taken from an engine under test in our
dynamometer. 66xx List of Figures
Figure 5.10 Hacker brushless electric motor. 67
Figure 5.11 Outputs from JavaProp “multi analysis” for a propeller operating at ixed
torque. Note the differing horizontal scales. Note the design point: here a
typical cruise speed of 25 m/s is shown by the small circle and is slightly
below the peak eficiency for the design. Peak thrust occurs at about
4 m/s, ensuring a good ability to start the aircraft rolling on a grass ield. 69
Figure 5.12 Large UAV fuel tanks. Note clunks and fuel level sensor itting at rear
left-hand corner of one tank. 70
Figure 5.13 SPOTTER fuel tank level sensors. One sensor lies behind the central lap
in the upper wider part of the tank (just visible in the right-hand image),
while the second one lies at the bottom just above the payload interface. 71
Figure 5.14 Engine-powered brushless generators driven directly or by toothed belt. 72
Figure 6.1 Outline avionics diagram for SPOTTER UAV. 74
Figure 6.2 Outline avionics diagram for SPOTTER UAV (detail) – note switch-over
unit linking dual receivers and dual autopilots. 75
Figure 6.3 Typical avionics boards. Note the use of MilSpec connectors (the Futaba
receivers are marked 1, the switch-over unit 2, the SC2 autopilot and GPS
antenna 3, and the avionics and ignition batteries 4 and 5, respectively). 76
Figure 6.4 Fuselage with externally visible LED voltage monitor strips. Here, one
is for the avionics system and the second for the ignition system. 77
Figure 6.5 Aircraft with twin on-board, belt-driven generators as supplied by the
UAV Factory and a close-up of UAV Factory system. 77
Figure 6.6 On-board, belt-driven brushless motor used as generators. 78
Figure 6.7 Aircraft with a Sullivan pancake starter–generator system. 78
Figure 6.8 A selection of aircraft servos from three different manufacturers. 79
Figure 6.9 Variation of servo torque with weight for various manuafcturers’ servos. 80
Figure 6.10 SPOTTER aircraft showing multiple redundant ailerons and elevators. 81
Figure 6.11 Servo cut-out in wing with SLS nylon reinforcement box. 81
Figure 6.12 Typical servo linkage. Note the servo arm, linkage, and servo horn
(with reinforcing pad). 82
Figure 6.13 SPOTTER “iron bird” test harness layout. Note the full-size airframe
drawing placed under the wiring. 83
Figure 6.14 Generator and drive motor for “iron bird” testing. 83
Figure 6.15 SPOTTER “iron bird” with resulting professionally built harness in place. 84
Figure 6.16 Decode-1 “iron bird” with harness that uses simple aero-modeler-based
cable connections. 85
Figure 6.17 Baseboard with mil spec connections on left- and right-hand edges. Note
SkyCircuits SC2 autopilot itted top right with GPS antenna on top and
switch-over unit in the center with very many wiring connections. 85
Figure 6.18 Laser-cut plywood baseboards. 86List of Figures xxi
Figure 6.19 Components located directly into 3D SLS nylon printed structure. The
servo is screwed to a clip-in SLS part, while the motor is bolted directly
to the fuselage. 86
Figure 6.20 Basic Arduino Uno autopilot components including GPS module on
extension board, and accelerometer, barometer and three-axis gyro on
daughter boards. 87
Figure 6.21 Pixhawk autopilot. 87
Figure 6.22 The SkyCircuits SC2 autopilot (removed from its case (a), and with
attached aerials and servo connection daughter board (b). See also
Figure 6.3, where the SC2 is itted with its case and a GPS aerial
on top). 88
Figure 6.23 A selection of professional-grade 5.8 GHz video radiolink equipment:
(front) transmitter with omnidirectional antenna in ruggedized case,
and (rear left to right) receiver, directional antenna, and combined
receiver/high intensity screen unit. 89
Figure 6.24 A hobby-grade 5.8 GHz video radiolink: (a) receiver with omnidirectional antenna and (b) transmitter with similar unclad antenna and
attached mini-camera. 89
Figure 6.25 Futaba s-bus telemetry modules:(clockwise from left) temperature sensor, rpm sensor, and GPS receiver. 90
Figure 7.1 Some typical small UAV undercarriages. 94
Figure 7.2 An aircraft with spats itted to its main wheels to reduce drag. 94
Figure 7.3 Nose wheel and strut showing suspension elements, main bearings, control servo, and caster. 95
Figure 7.4 Tail wheel showing suspension spring. 96
Figure 7.5 Nose wheel mechanism with combined spring-coupled steering and vertical suspension spring. 96
Figure 7.6 UAV with a pneumatic, fully retractable undercarriage system. Note also
the nose camera that has been added to the aircraft shown in the image
with undercarriage retracted. 97
Figure 7.7 Details of fully retractable undercarriage system. 97
Figure 8.1 Explosion of information content as design progresses. 102
Figure 8.2 2SEAS aircraft with redundant ailerons and elevators. 109
Figure 8.3 Autopilot system on vibration test. 109
Figure 8.4 Treble isolated engine mounting. 110
Figure 8.5 Typical military UAV work-breakdown structure interface deinitions,
from MIL-HDBK-881C for UAVs. 111
Figure 8.6 Example military system requirements lowdown [13]. Defence Acquisition University. 114
Figure 8.7 Systems engineering “V” model. 114
Figure 8.8 Weight prediction of SPOTTER UAV. 115xxii List of Figures
Figure 8.9 Pie chart plots of SPOTTER weight. 116
Figure 8.10 Example weight and cost breakdown. 117
Figure 9.1 Outline design worklow. 121
Figure 9.2 Analysis tool logic. 122
Figure 9.3 Mission analysis using the AnyLogic event-driven simulation
environment. 126
Figure 10.1 On May 14, 1954, Boeing oficially rolled out the Dash-80, the prototype of the company’s 707 jet transport. Source: This photo, by John
M. ‘Hack’ Miller, was taken during the rollout (Image courtesy of
the Museum of History & Industry, Seattle https://creativecommons.
org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ – no copyright is asserted by the inclusion of
this image). 131
Figure 10.2 Four semi-randomly chosen points in an immense space of unmanned
aircraft topologies: (starting at the top) the Scaled Composites Proteus,
the NASA Prandtl-D research aircraft, the AeroVironment RQ-11 Raven,
and the NASA Helios (images courtesy of NASA and the USAF). 134
Figure 10.3 Minimum mass cantilever designed to carry a point load. 135
Figure 10.4 NASA oblique-wing research aircraft (images courtesy of NASA). Could
your design beneit from asymmetry? 138
Figure 10.5 Multifunctionality: the 3D-printed fuel tank (highlighted) of the SPOTTER unmanned aircraft does not only hold the fuel (with integral bafles)
but also generates lift and it has a structural role too, see also Figures 2.3,
2.6, and 3.14. 140
Figure 10.6 Typical constraint diagram. Each constraint “bites” a chunk out of the
P versus W∕S space; whatever is left is the feasible region, wherein the
design will have to be positioned. 163
Figure 11.1 Decode-1 in the R.J. Mitchell wind tunnel with wheels and wing tips
removed and electric motor for propeller drive. 175
Figure 11.2 Decode-1 in light with nose camera itted. 175
Figure 11.3 Decode-1 spreadsheet snapshot – inputs page. 178
Figure 11.4 Decode-1 spreadsheet snapshot – results summary page. 179
Figure 11.5 Decode-1 spreadsheet snapshot – geometry page. 180
Figure 11.6 Decode-1 outer geometry as generated with the AirCONICS tool suite. 180
Figure 11.7 Decode-2 spreadsheet snapshot. 183
Figure 11.8 Decode-2 in light with nose camera itted. 183
Figure 11.9 Decode-2 outer geometry as generated with the AirCONICS tool suite. 184
Figure 11.10 SPOTTER spreadsheet snapshot. 186
Figure 11.11 SPOTTER in light with payload pod itted. 187
Figure 11.12 SPOTTER outer geometry as generated with the AirCONICS tool suite. 187
Figure 12.1 Basic AirCONICS airframe geometry for a single tractor engine,
twin-boom, H-tail design. 191List of Figures xxiii
Figure 12.2 AirCONICS model of complete Decode-1 airframe with control surfaces,
undercarriage, and propeller disk. 192
Figure 13.1 Cp and streamline plot for the NACA0012 foil at 16∘ angle of attack as
computed with XFoil. 197
Figure 13.2 Results of XFoil analysis sweep for the NACA 64–201 foil at Mach 0.17
as computed with XFLR5. 199
Figure 13.3 Results of XFLR5 analysis sweep for a wing generated from the NACA
64–201 foil sections at Reynold’s number of 4.4 million and Mach 0.17. 201
Figure 13.4 Convergence plot of two-dimensional k-� SST RANS-based CFD
analysis. 203
Figure 13.5 Pathlines and surface static pressure plot from Fluent RANS based CFD
solution. 203
Figure 13.6 Section through a coarse-grained 3D Harpoon mesh for typical
Spalart–Allmaras UAV wing model and close-up showing a boundary
layer mesh. 206
Figure 13.7 Histogram of y+ parameter for typical boundary layer mesh using the
Spalart–Allmaras one-parameter turbulence model. 207
Figure 13.8 Histogram of y+ parameter for typical boundary layer mesh using the
k − � SST turbulence model. 207
Figure 13.9 Lift versus drag polar for NAC0012 airfoil from XFoil and experiments.
Note that when plotted in this way, both lift and drag coeficients may
be found at a given angle of attack or, for a given lift coeficient, drag
coeficient and angle of attack may easily be read off. 208
Figure 13.10 Low-resolution NASA Langley 2D mesh around the NACA0012 foil. 209
Figure 13.11 Middle-resolution NASA Langley 2D mesh around the NACA0012 foil. 209
Figure 13.12 ICEM 2D mesh around the NACA0012 foil (courtesy of Dr D.J.J. Toal). 210
Figure 13.13 Experimental and 2D computational lift and drag data for the NACA0012
airfoil (using the k − � SST turbulence model). Adapted from Abbott and
von Doenhoff 1959. 210
Figure 13.14 Computed two-dimensional low past the NACA0012 foil when almost
fully stalled. 211
Figure 13.15 Section through a ine-grained Harpoon 3D mesh around the NACA0012
foil suitable for the k − � SST turbulence model. Note the wake mesh
extending from the trailing edge. 211
Figure 13.16 Experimental and 3D computational lift and drag data for the NACA0012
airfoil (using the Spalart–Allmaras and k − � SST turbulence models).
NASA. 212
Figure 13.17 Experimental [20, 22] and computational lift and drag data for the NACA
64–210 section. 213
Figure 13.18 Pathlines from a RANS k − � solution for the NACA 64–210 airfoil at
12∘ angle of attack. Note the reversed low and large separation bubble
on the upper surface. 214xxiv List of Figures
Figure 13.19 Experimental and computational lift and drag data for the Sivells and
Spooner [21] wing and y+ for the k − � SST Harpoon mesh. NASA. 215
Figure 13.20 XFLR5 model of the Sivells and Spooner wing. 216
Figure 13.21 Experimental and computational lift and drag data for the Sivells and
Spooner [21] wing with enhanced k − � SST Harpoon mesh of 76 million
cells and y+ for the enhanced mesh. 217
Figure 13.22 Pathlines and static pressure around the Sivells and Spooner [21] wing
with enhanced k − � SST Harpoon mesh at 11∘ angle of attack. NASA. 218
Figure 13.23 XFLR5 model of Decode-1 airframe as generated by AirCONICS with
main wing setting angle of 0∘ and elevator setting angle of −2.85∘, at an
angle of attack of 2.6∘ and 30 m/s. Note the use of cambered sections
for the main wing and symmetrical proiles for the elevator and ins. The
green bars indicate the section lift, with the tail producing downforce to
ensure pitch stability. 218
Figure 13.24 XFLR5-generated polar plot for Decode-1 airframe as generated by AirCONICS with main wing setting angle of 0∘ and elevator setting angle
of −2.85∘, showing speed variations from 15 to 30 m/s. The black circles
indicate light at an angle of attack of 2.53∘ at which Cm is zero. 219
Figure 13.25 XFLR5-generated polar plot for Decode-1 airframe as generated by AirCONICS with main wing setting angle of 2.53∘ and elevator setting angle
of −0.34∘, showing speed variations from 15 to 30 m/s. Note that Cl is
0.28 and Cm is zero at an angle of attack of 0∘ as required in the cruise
condition. 220
Figure 13.26 XFLR5-generated polar plot for Decode-1 airframe at 30 m/s with main
wing setting angle of 0∘, showing variations in center of gravity position
by 100 mm, reduction in tail length by 300 mm, and elevator set at an
angle of 0∘. 222
Figure 13.27 Time-domain simulation for XFLR5-generated eigenvalues at 30 m/s
taken from Table 13.2 showing �R for the roll mode and T2 for the spiral
mode. 228
Figure 13.28 University of Southampton light simulator. 229
Figure 13.29 Decode-1 mesh shown inside Harpoon along with wake surfaces and
reinement zones. 230
Figure 13.30 Fluent mesh on the center plane for the Decode-1 airframe k − � SST
analysis at 30 m/s, together with resulting y+ histogram. 231
Figure 13.31 Fluent convergence plot for Decode-1 whole aircraft model at 30 m/s. 232
Figure 13.32 Polar plot for Decode-1 airframe at 30 m/s showing both Fluent and
XLFR5 results for lift and drag. Those for Fluent include results for
just the lifting surfaces and with the complete airframe fuselage, control
surfaces, and undercarriage gear; those for XFLR5 show also the impact
of adding a ixed parasitic drag coeficient of 0.0375. 232
Figure 13.33 AirCONICS model of Decode-1 lifting surfaces. 233List of Figures xxv
Figure 13.34 AirCONICS model of complete Decode-1 airframe with control surfaces,
undercarriage, and propeller disk. 233
Figure 13.35 Streamlines colored by velocity magnitude around the complete
Decode-1 airframe with delected ailerons. 234
Figure 14.1 Typical composite Vn diagram for gust and maneuver loads on a small
UAV (here for Decode-1 assuming maneuver load factors of +5 and −2,
9.1 m/s gust velocity, and a dive speed of 160% of the cruise speed). 238
Figure 14.2 Breakdown of Decode-1 outer mold line model into individual components for structural modeling. 240
Figure 14.3 Decode-1 components that will be produced by 3D printing or made from
laser-cut ply. 242
Figure 14.4 Delection and slope variations for the Decode-1 main spar when lying at
30 m/s and an angle of attack of 2.53∘ using loading taken from XFLR5,
a load factor of 4, and simple beam theory analysis. The spar is assumed
to be made from a circular CFRP section of outer diameter 20 mm, wall
thickness 2 mm, Young’s modulus of 70 GPa, and extending the full span
of the aircraft, being clamped on the center plane. 245
Figure 14.5 Preliminary spar layout for Decode-1. Here the linking parts are taken
directly from AirCONICS without being reduced to either thick-walled
or thin-walled rib-reinforced structures. 246
Figure 14.6 Simpliied Abaqus® main spar model with solid SLS nylon supports for
Decode-1, showing subdivided spar and boundary conditions for a 4g
maneuver loading. 247
Figure 14.7 Deformed shape and von Mises stress plot for Decode-1 main spar under
4g light loads using a uniform spar load. The tip delection is 189.7 mm. 248
Figure 14.8 Abaqus loading for full Decode-1 spar model under wing light loads
taken from XFLR5 together with a load factor of 4 plus elevator and in
loading based on Cl values of unity. 251
Figure 14.9 Deformed shape and von Mises stress plot for full Decode-1 spar model
under wing light loads taken from XFLR5 together with a load factor
of 4 plus elevator and in loading based on Cl values of unity. The main
spar tip delections are 143.9 mm, the elevator spar tip delections are
10.8 mm, and the in spar tip delections are 11.1 mm. 252
Figure 14.10 Further details of the deformed shape and von Mises stress plot for full
Decode-1 spar model under wing light loads taken from XFLR5 together
with a load factor of 4 plus elevator and in loading based on Cl values
of unity. 253
Figure 14.11 Deformed shape and von Mises stress plot for nylon support part in full
Decode-1 spar model under wing light loads taken from XFLR5 together
with a load factor of 4 plus elevator and in loading based on Cl values
of unity. 255xxvi List of Figures
Figure 14.12 Deformed shape and von Mises stress plot for full Decode-1 spar model
with locally reined mesh under wing light loads taken from XFLR5
together with a load factor of 4 plus elevator and in loading based on Cl
values of unity. 256
Figure 14.13 Deformed shape and von Mises stress plot for full Decode-1 spar model
with fully reined mesh and reduced boundary conditions under wing
light loads taken from XFLR5 together with a load factor of 4 plus elevator and in loading based on Cl values of unity. 257
Figure 14.14 Simpliied Abaqus thick-walled structural model for Decode-1 SLS
nylon part. The mesh for this part contains 25 000 elements. 257
Figure 14.15 Deformed shape and von Mises stress plot for thick-walled nylon part in
full Decode-1 spar model with fully reined mesh and reduced boundary
conditions under wing light loads taken from XFLR5 together with a
load factor of 4 plus elevator and in loading based on Cl values of unity. 258
Figure 14.16 Deformed shape and von Mises stress plot for 2 mm thick-walled nylon
part in full Decode-1 spar model with fully reined mesh and reduced
boundary conditions under wing light loads taken from XFLR5 together
with a load factor of 4 plus elevator and in loading based on Cl values
of unity. 259
Figure 14.17 Abaqus model of foam core created with CAD shell and illet commands
and meshed with brick hex elements. 260
Figure 14.18 Abaqus model of glass-iber wing cover created with CAD shell commands and meshed with continuum shell hex elements. Note the wedge
elements used for the sharp trailing edge. 260
Figure 14.19 Abaqus assembly with foam parts added, highlighting the tie constraint
between the foam and the SLS nylon support. 261
Figure 14.20 Pressure map on Decode-1 foam part under wing light loads taken from
XFLR5. 261
Figure 14.21 Resulting delections and stresses in foam core and cover for wing under
light conditions. 263
Figure 14.22 Resulting delections and stresses in SLS nylon part with foam mounting
lug for wing under light conditions. 264
Figure 14.23 Two-degrees-of-freedom model of wing aeroelasticity. 267
Figure 14.24 Truncated Abaqus contour plot of a irst twist mode revealing the nodal
line and hence the elastic axis. 270
Figure 14.25 Abaqus plots of irst lap and twist modes for Decode-1 wing. 271
Figure 15.1 Channel wing aircraft being weighed after inal assembly. 278
Figure 16.1 Decode-1 and channel wings on wind tunnel mounting rig. Note the circular boundary plate that stands in for the absent fuselage. 283
Figure 16.2 AirCONICS model of Decode-1 airframe in a representation of the R.J.
Mitchell 11’ × 8’ wind tunnel working section at Southampton University, illustrating degree of blockage. 285List of Figures xxvii
Figure 16.3 AirCONICS half-model of Decode-1 airframe in the R.J. Mitchell 11’ ×
8’ wind tunnel prior to mesh preparation. 286
Figure 16.4 Section through Fluent velocity magnitude results and Harpoon mesh for
Decode-1 airframe in the R.J. Mitchell 11’ × 8’ wind tunnel.
Note the extent of the boundary layer on the tunnel walls and the ine
boundary layer mesh needed to resolve this, along with the reinement
zone near the wing tip. 286
Figure 16.5 Decode-1 baseline wind tunnel results (control surfaces in neutral positions) under varying wind speed. (a) Lift coeficient. (b) Drag coeficient.
(c) Side coeficient. (d) Pitch coeficient. (e) Roll coeficient. (f) Yaw
coeficient. 288
Figure 16.6 Decode-1 elevator effectiveness with varying delection angles and wind
speed. (a) Lift coeficient at 15 m/s. (b) Drag coeficient at 15 m/s. (c)
Pitch coeficient at 10 m/s. (d) Pitch coeficient at 15 m/s. (e) Pitch coeficient at 24 m/s. 289
Figure 16.7 Decode-1 rudder effectiveness with varying delection angle. (a) Lift
coeficient at 24 m/s. (b) Drag coeficient at 24 m/s. (c) Side coeficient
at 24 m/s. (d) Pitch coeficient at 24 m/s. (e) Roll coeficient at 24 m/s.
(f) Yaw coeficient at 24 m/s. 291
Figure 16.8 Dial gauge in use to measure aiframe delection during static test in the
lab. 292
Figure 16.9 Lab-quality force transducer, piezoelectric accelerometers, and electromagnetic shakers. 293
Figure 16.10 Flight-capable piezoelectric accelerometer and data-capture system. 293
Figure 16.11 Mounting system for wing and main spar assembly under sandbag load
test. 294
Figure 16.12 Clamping system for main spar. 294
Figure 16.13 Wing assembly under sandbag load test. 295
Figure 16.14 Partial failure of SLS nylon structural component during sandbag load
test. Note the signiicant cracks and large deformations. 296
Figure 16.15 Load testing of an undercarriage leg and associated SLS nylon mounting
structure. Note the dummy carbon-iber tubes present to allow the SLS
structure to be correctly set up. 296
Figure 16.16 Ground vibration test of a Decode-1 wing showing support and mounting
arrangements. 297
Figure 16.17 Ground vibration test of a Decode-1 wing ((a) accelerometer on starboard
wing tip: (b) shaker and force transducer near wing root). 298
Figure 16.18 Frequency response from ground vibration test of a Decode-1 wing:
accelerometer on port wing tip and cursors on irst lap mode. 298
Figure 16.19 Frequency response from ground vibration test of a Decode-1 wing: lapping mode accelerometer placement (upper) and twisting mode placement (lower), cursors on irst twist mode. 299xxviii List of Figures
Figure 16.20 SPOTTER iron-bird being used to test a complete avionics build-up: note
motors to spin generators in a realistic manner. 301
Figure 16.21 Avionics board under vibration test. Note the free-free mounting simulated by elastic band supports. In this case, a force transducer has been
placed between the shaker and the long connecting rod that stimulates
the board. The in-built accelerometer in the light controller is used to
register motions. 301
Figure 16.22 Typical Servo test equipment: (front left to right) simple low-cost tester,
large servo, motor speed tester with in-built power meter, and servo control output; (rear) avionics battery and standard primary receiver. 302
Figure 17.1 Detail design process low. 304
Figure 17.2 The structure of well-partitioned concept design models. 305
Figure 17.3 Example coniguration studies. 306
Figure 17.4 Example 3D models of Rotax aircraft engine and RCV UAV engine.
Courtesy of Chris Bill and RCV Engines Ltd. 307
Figure 17.5 Example of images used to create realistic looking 3D Solidworks geometry model. 308
Figure 17.6 2D side elevations of Rotax aircraft engine and RCV UAV engine. Courtesy of Chris Bill and RCV Engines Ltd. 308
Figure 17.7 Scaling dimension added to drawing (mm). Courtesy of Chris Bill. 308
Figure 17.8 “Spaceframe” aircraft structure. 309
Figure 17.9 Illustrative student UAV assembly. 310
Figure 17.10 UAV assembly model can be modiied by changing design table
parameters. 310
Figure 17.11 Plan and side view hand sketches. 311
Figure 17.12 Hand sketch scaled and positioned orthogonally in Solidworks. 312
Figure 17.13 Exact, dimensioned sketch being created on hand-sketch outline. 312
Figure 17.14 The “master” driving sketches in the assembly. 313
Figure 17.15 Design table for example UAV. 313
Figure 17.16 Input reference geometry. 314
Figure 17.17 The input geometry modeled as partitioned parts. 315
Figure 17.18 The assembly generated from reference geometry. 315
Figure 17.19 “Debugging” the detailed model. 316
Figure 17.20 Trimming of boom tube fairing. 317
Figure 17.21 Final detailed model. 318
Figure 17.22 Multipanel wing of PA-28. Photo courtesy Bob Adams
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ – no copyright is
asserted by the inclusion of this image. 319
Figure 17.23 NACA four-digit section coordinate spreadsheet. 320
Figure 17.24 Curve importing in Solidworks. 321List of Figures xxix
Figure 17.25 Use of “convert entities” in Solidworks. 321
Figure 17.26 Closing the 2D aerofoil shape. 322
Figure 17.27 Deleting sketch relationship with reference geometry. 322
Figure 17.28 Reference geometry. 323
Figure 17.29 Constraining curve to reference “scaffold” geometry. 323
Figure 17.30 “3D” scaffold to deine the relative positions in space of two independently scalable wing sections. 324
Figure 17.31 Wing surface with span, twist, taper, and sweep variables. 324
Figure 17.32 Multipanel wing. 325
Figure 17.33 Example of a double-curvature composite wing. 325
Figure 17.34 Fabricated wing structures. 326
Figure 17.35 Simple wooden rib and alloy spar structure. 326
Figure 17.36 Parametric wing structure. 327
Figure 18.1 3D SLS nylon parts as supplied from the manufacturer. 332
Figure 18.2 3D SLS stainless steel gasoline engine bearer after printing and in situ. 333
Figure 18.3 3D SLS nylon manufacturing and depowdering. 333
Figure 18.4 Small ofice-based FDM printer. Parts as they appear on the platten and
after removal of support material. 335
Figure 18.5 FDM-printed ABS fuselage parts. 336
Figure 18.6 Aircraft with FDM-printed fuselage and wing tips. 336
Figure 18.7 In-house manufactured hot-wire foam cutting machine. This cuts blocks
of foam up to 1400 mm × 590 mm × 320 mm. 338
Figure 18.8 Large hot-wire foam cutting machine. 338
Figure 18.9 Hot-wire-cut foam wing parts: (Left) The original material blocks with
and without cores removed; (right) with FDM-manufactured ABS joining parts. 339
Figure 18.10 Foam wings after cladding: glass iber, Mylar, and illed glass iber. 340
Figure 18.11 Aircraft with wings fabricated from laser-cut plywood covered with
aero-modeler ilm. 341
Figure 18.12 Avionics base board and servo horn reinforcement made from laser cut
plywood. 341
Figure 18.13 Foam reinforcement ribs made from laser-cut plywood. 341
Figure 18.14 Logical wiring diagram (detail). 343
Figure 18.15 Iron bird for building wiring looms. 344
Figure 18.16 Soldering station (note the clamps, heat-resistant mat, and good
illumination). 344
Figure 18.17 Female and male bayonet produced in SLS nylon with quick-release
locking pin. 345xxx List of Figures
Figure 18.18 Quick-release pin itting used to retain a wing to a fuselage (note lug on
wing rib). 345
Figure 18.19 SLS nylon clamping mechanisms. 346
Figure 18.20 Cap-screws and embedded retained nuts, here on an undercarriage ixing
point. 347
Figure 18.21 Transport and storage cases. 347
Figure 19.1 Typical take-off performance. 356
Figure 19.2 Typical wiring schematic. 357
Figure 20.1 Typical light log. 370
Figure 20.2 Typical pre-light checklist. 372
Figure 20.3 Typical light procedures checklist. 373
Figure 21.1 Our irst student-designed UAV. 386
Figure 21.2 Not all test lights end successfully! 386
Figure 21.3 Aircraft with variable length fuselage. (a) Fuselage split open. (b) Spare
fuselage section. 387
Figure 21.4 Student-designed lying boat with large hull volume forward and
insuficient vertical tail volume aft. 389
Figure 21.5 Aircraft with split all-moving elevator. (a) Without dividing fence. (b)
With fence. 389
Figure 21.6 Autopilot on vibration test. 390
Figure 21.7 Student UAV with undersized wings. The open payload bay also added
to stability issues. 390
Figure 21.8 2SEAS aircraft after failure of main wheel axle. 391
Figure A.1 Generic aircraft design lowchart. 396
Figure C.1 Vans RV7 Aircraft. Cropped image courtesy Daniel Betts https://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ – no copyright is asserted by
the inclusion of this image. 426
Figure C.2 Concept sketches of an aircraft. 426
Figure C.3 Side elevation hand sketch imported and scaled. 426
Figure C.4 Plan, side, and front view imported and scaled. 427
Figure C.5 Tracing the outline of the hand sketch to capture the “essential” geometry. 427
Figure C.6 Dimensioned parametric geometry sketch. 428
Figure C.7 View of all three of the dimensioned parametric geometry sketches. 428
Figure C.8 Center fuselage part, with side elevation parametric geometry sketch in
the background. 429
Figure C.9 Underlying geometry for the center fuselage. 429
Figure C.10 Completion of center fuselage. 430
Figure C.11 Rear fuselage synchronized with center fuselage at shared interface. 430
Figure C.12 Fully realized fuselage geometry. 431List of Figures xxxi
Figure C.13 Two-panel wing and wing incidence and location line in side elevation. 431
Figure C.14 All the major airframe surface parts added. 431
Figure C.15 Checking against original sketch. 432
Figure C.16 Addition of propeller disk and spinner so that ground clearance can be
checked. 432
Figure C.17 Engine installation checking cowling clearance and cooling (note:
lightweight decal engine geometry). 433
Figure C.18 Checking the instrument panel it (again use of decal for instruments). 433
Figure C.19 Checking the ergonomics of crew seating and canopy clearance/view. 433
Figure C.20 Hand sketches–to parameterized sketches–to solid assembly. 434
Figure C.21 Whole aircraft parametric variables. 436
Figure C.22 Wing geometry used to calculate lift centers for static margin calculations. 437
Figure C.23 Final parametric aircraft design with all major masses added. 437
Figure C.24 Final detailed geometry. Courtesy of Vans Aircraft, Inc. 438List of Tables
Table 1.1 Design system maturity. 9
Table 2.1 Different levels of UAV autonomy classiied using the Wright–Patterson
air force base scheme. 16
Table 5.1 Typical liquid-fueled IC engine test recording table (maximum rpms are
of course engine-dependent). 66
Table 5.2 Typical IC engine BMEP values taken from various sources. 67
Table 6.1 Typical primary transmitter/receiver channel assignments. 76
Table 6.2 Typical servo properties. 79
Table 8.1 Example responsibility allocation matrix for a maintenance team. 113
Table 9.1 Concept design requirements. 124
Table 11.1 Typical ixed parameters in concept design. 167
Table 11.2 Typical limits on variables in concept design. 168
Table 11.3 Estimated secondary airframe dimensions. 168
Table 11.4 Variables that might be used to estimate UAV weights. 171
Table 11.5 Items for which weight estimates may be required and possible dependencies. 172
Table 11.6 Other items for which weight estimates may be required. 173
Table 11.7 Design brief for Decode-1. 176
Table 11.8 Resulting concept design from spreadsheet analysis for Decode-1. 176
Table 11.9 Design geometry from spreadsheet analysis for Decode-1 (in units of mm
and to be read in conjunction with Tables 11.3 and 11.8). 177
Table 11.10 Design brief for Decode-2. 181
Table 11.11 Estimated secondary airframe dimensions for Decode-2. 181
Table 11.12 Resulting concept design from spreadsheet analysis for Decode-2. 181
Table 11.13 Design geometry from spreadsheet analysis for Decode-2 (in units of mm
and to be read in conjunction with Tables 11.11 and 11.12). 184
Table 11.14 Design brief for SPOTTER. 184
Table 11.15 Estimated secondary airframe dimensions for SPOTTER. 185xxxiv List of Tables
Table 11.16 Resulting concept design from spreadsheet analysis for SPOTTER. 185
Table 11.17 Design geometry from spreadsheet analysis for SPOTTER (in units of mm
and to be read in conjunction with Tables 11.15 and 11.16). 186
Table 13.1 A summary of some of the Fluent turbulence models based on information
provided in ANSYS training materials. 202
Table 13.2 Decode-1 eigenvalues as calculated from XFLR5 stability derivatives
using the formulae provided by Phillips [24, 25] and the estimated inertia
properties for a light speed of 30 m/s and MTOW of 15 kg. 227
Table 14.1 Shear forces (Q), bending moments (M), slopes (�, in radians), and delections (�) for Euler–Bernoulli analysis of uniform encastre cantilever
beams. 243
Table 14.2 A selection of results from various Abaqus models of the Decode-1
airframe. 254
Table 14.3 Natural frequency results (Hz) using Abaqus modal analysis for the
Decode-1 airframe. 271
Table 15.1 Typical weight and LCoG control table (LCoG is mm forward of the main
spar). 274
Table 18.1 Typical properties of carbon-iber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) tubes. 332
Table 18.2 Typical properties of SLS nylon 12. 334
Table 18.3 Typical properties of closed-cell polyurethane loor insulation foam. 337
Table 18.4 Typical properties of glass-iber-reinforced plastics. 340
Table 19.1 Typical small UAS operations manual template part Ai. 351
Table 19.2 Typical small UAS operations manual template part Aii. 352
Table 19.3 Typical small UAS operations manual template part Bi. 353
Table 19.4 Typical small UAS operations manual template parts Bii, C, and D. 354
Table 19.5 Typical summary airframe description. 355
Table 19.6 Typical engine characteristics. 355
Table 19.7 Typical aircraft performance summary in still air. 356
Table 19.8 Radio control channel assignments. 358
Table 19.9 Risk probability deinitions (igures refer to light hours). 361
Table 19.10 Accident severity deinitions. 361
Table 19.11 Risk classiication matrix. 362
Table 19.12 Risk class deinitions. 362
Table 19.13 Typical failure effects list (partial). 363
Table 19.14 Typical hazard list (partial). 364
Table 19.15 Typical accident list (partial). 365
Table 19.16 Typical mitigation list (partial). 366
Table 19.17 Typical accident sequences and mitigation list (partial). 367
Index
2SEAS, 391
3D printing, 313, 332
Abaqus, 240, 247
accelerometer, 297
acceptance tests, 352, 358, 368
Access Hatches, 54
Accident List, 364
Accident Sequences and Mitigation, 366
ACIS, 191, 242
ACSYNT, 123
ADS, 123
aero-elasticity, 265, 297
aerocalc, 147
aerodynamics, 125
airframe, 214
codes, 125
lifting surfaces, 21
RANS, 228
simple wing theory, 33
ailerons, 22, 40, 80, 221, 269
air trafic, 353, 368
AirCONICS, 189
designing Decode-1, 192
example code for Decode-1, 399
structural modeling, 240
airfoil, 191
three-dimensional analysis, 210
two-dimensional analysis, 208
Airframe Load Tests, 290
airworthiness, 103, 349, 375
Anaconda, 147
Ancillaries, 88
ANSYS Fluent, 196, 200
AnyLogic, 125
Apache, 126
approach speed, 145, 149, 180, 376
approval, see Regulatory Approval
Arduino, 86
aspect ratio, 21, 34, 162, 167, 170, 206, 266
Assembly Mechanisms, 54, 342
auto landing, see Flight Tests
auto take-off, see Flight Tests
autonomous light, 4, 357, 378
autopilot, 73, 84, 86
data capture, 368
failure, 108
radio channels, 357
testing, 378
Aviation Authority Requirements, 349
avionics, 73
diagram, 73
placement, 47
power supplies, 76
System Description, 356
testing, 300
trays, 50
batteries, 71, 383
bayonets, 345
beam theory, 239, 243
beyond line of sight, see BLOS
blockage, see wind tunnels tests
BLOS, 108, 359
bolts, conventional, 346
Boxer, 204
Breguet range equation, 125, 169
bulk modulus, 334
CAD Codes, 120
camera mountings, 51
carbon iber, 332
Cases, Storage and Transport, 347
cell height
boundary layer, 203
Centaur, 204
Center of Gravity, see CoG
CFD, 11, 119, 195
CFRP, 332
chopped strand, 340
chord, 177, 319
Clamps, 346
climb performance, 148, 167, 174, 224, 375
coeficient
lap hinge moment, 221
of drag, 35, 151, 167, 202, 216, 285
of friction, 167
of lift, 33, 35, 41, 124, 149, 167, 176,
198, 202, 230, 268
of parasitic drag, 167, 232
of pitching moment, 35, 221, 223, 268
of roll, 223
of thrust, 174
of yaw, 223
tail volume, 221
CoG, 124, 176, 273, 310
control, 279
Estimation, 170
typical table, 273
UAS CoG light test, 377
compliance testing, 113
components, externally sourced, 4, 331
composites, 340
Computational Fluid Dynamics, see CFD
constraint analysis, 144
the constraint space, 146
Constraints, 101
contingency
planning, 371
weight, 278
control reversal, 265, 297
estimating onset speeds, 266
control surface, 22, 82, 262, 272, 290, 352,
382
failure, 108
inputs, 370
control system, 24, 73, 356
software management, 368
costs, 125
management, 114
covers, 37
cruise performance, 148
data-bases, 126
database, 352
databases, 363
decision making, 7
decision support, 123, 125
DECODE, 6
Decode-1
AirCONICS, 192
AirCONICS code, 399
analysis with Fluent, 228
analysis with XFLR5
Aerodynamics, 215
Control Surfaces, 221
Stability, 223
control surfaces, 221
detail design, 313
FEA, 245
Fluent, 228
ground vibration test, 297
lifting surfaces, 230
spar delections, 244
spar layout, 246
spreadsheet, 174
stability, 223
Vn diagram, 238
wind tunnel testing, 284
XFLR5, 215
Decode-2
spreadsheet, 177Index 443
design
algorithm, 146
checklist, 117
concept, 8, 123
initial constraint analysis, 127
managing the process, 144
constraints, 129
computational implementation, 145
constraint analysis report, 146
detail, 11
Decode-1, 313
fuselage, 306
hand sketches, 311
master sketches, 311
wings, 318
drivers, 29
in-service and de-commissioning, 13
manufacturing, 12
preliminary, 10
aerodynamic and stability analysis,
195
geometry, 189
structural analysis, 237
requirements, 145
responsibility allocation, 112
the brief, 113, 127
the process of, 101
the stages of, 6
topology, 130
detail design, see design
Digital DatCom, 229
dihedral, 191
divergence, 265, 297
estimating onset speeds, 266
Documentation, 349
drag
induced, 42
Dutch roll, 223
electric motors
see motors, 66
elevators, 22, 80, 139, 221, 269, 287
structure, 240
XFLR5, 200
Emergency Procedures, 360
empennage, 45
endurance, 15, 62, 72, 77, 89, 102, 129,
166, 355
engines
control, 70
failure, 107
glow-plug IC, 62
IC Liquid Fueled, 59
mountings, 48
servicing, 382
spark ignition gasoline IC, 62
testing, 65
environment, 128
epoxy, 340
ESDU, 229
Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, 243
EVLOS, 359
Experimental Testing and Validation, 281
Expired Items
Time and Flight, 382
extended visual line of sight, see EVLOS
failure modes, 104
aerodynamic and control, 105
autopilot, 108
control surface, 108
effects, 362
engine, 107
motor, 107
primary Tx/Rx, 108
safety case, 350
structural, 106
FDM, 335
ABS, 335
FEA, 11, 245
analysis of 3D printed parts, 255
analysis of iber or Mylar clad foam
parts, 255
complete spar and boom model,
250
model preparation, 246
Finite Element Analysis, see FEA
laps, 22, 41, 221, 269
Flight Control Software, 383
light envelope, 369
Flight Planning Manual, 368
light simulators, 227444 Index
light tests
auto landing, 380
auto take-off, 380
Autonomous Flight Control, 378
Engine Failure, Idle and Throttle
Change, 377
Fuel Consumption, 377
Operational and Safety Flight Scenarios,
381
safety, 361
UAS CoG (MANUAL mode), 377
UAS performance (MANUAL mode),
375
Fluent, see ANSYS Fluent
lutter, 265, 297
estimating onset speeds, 266
foam, 337
cladding
iber, 339
Mylar, 339
hot-wire cutting, 337
Fuel Systems, 70
fuel tanks, 24
integral, 44, 52
Fused Deposition Modeling, see FDM
fuselage, 23, 45
detail design, 306
generators, 71
Geometry Codes, 120
glass iber, 340
glow-plug, see engines
Goals, 101
GPS, 25
Gridgen, 204
ground control system, see control
system
ground vibration test, see structural
testing
gust load, 238
Hazards
Operational, 363
health monitoring, 17, 90
hinge moment, 221
horseshoe vortex, 198
IGES, 191, 242
induced drag, see drag
inertia
stability, 226
structural dynamics, 265
XFLR5, 198
Instrumentation and recording of light test
data, 370
interface deinitions, 112
iron bird, 342
ISA, 128
Javaprop, 68, 166
Jupyter, 145, 146
k-� , 205
k-� SST, 200
landing gear, 27, 191
Laser Cutting, 339
laser sintering
see SLS, 332
Lessons Learned, 385
lifting line, 198
Lifting Surfaces, 21
LiPo see batteries, 71
locking pins, 345
Longitudinal Stability, 170
Maintenance, 381
Overall Airframe, 382
Record Keeping, 384
Schedule, 360
maneuver load, 238
Manufacture, 331
Manufacturing Methods, 5
Maximum Take-Off Weight, see MTOW
Meshing, 204
mission, 128
Mission Planning, 125
mode shape, 269, 296
morphology, 7
motors
brushless, 66, 77
control, 70
failure, 107
mountings, 48Index 445
MTOW, 15, 60, 146, 166, 247, 310
Mylar, 339
NACA airfoil, 197, 230, 320
nacelle structure, 45
NASA, 134, 196
natural frequency, 269, 296
OpenFoam, 196
OpenVSP, 123
Operational Simulation, 125
Operations Manual, 358
Brief Technical Description, 359
Maintenance Schedule, 360
Operating Limits, Conditions, and
Control, 359
Operational and Emergency Procedures,
360
Operational Area and Flight Plans, 360
Organization, 359
Team Roles, 359
Oswald span eficiency, 153, 170
PaceLab, 123
panel method, 196, 198, 262
XFoil and XFLR5, 196
parasitic drag, 226
Parasolid, 191, 242
payload, 20, 27, 51
Payload Communications Systems, 87
phugoid, 223
pitch, 172
Pitot static, 87, 369, 384
Pixhawk, 87
Plane Maker, 228
Poisson’s ratio, 248, 334
polyester, 340
polyurethane, 337
Powering, 171
preliminary design, see design
Primary Control Transmitter and Receivers,
73
Primary Tx/Rx Failure, 108
propeller, 20, 68
actuator disc, 193, 233
data, 166
diameter, 172, 177
sizing, 171
Propulsion, 24, 59
Python, 147, 190
radio links, 73, 87
range, 15, 89, 102, 129, 169
RANS, 196
Solvers – Fluent, 200
receiver, 24, 358
GPS, 90
primary control, 73
video, 53
Record Keeping
Maintenance, 384
Regulatory Approval, 349, 368, 383
reliability, 65, 107, 377
requirements, see design
requirements lowdown, 112
Resilience and Redundancy, 90
Rhinoceros CAD package, 190
ribs, 38
ring vortex, 198
Risk Assessment Process, 362
roll control, 40
roll damping, 223
rudders, 22, 139, 221, 269, 290
safety case, 361
Schrenk approximation, 240
screws, conventional, 346
sealing, components, 335
Selective Laser Sintering, see SLS
sense and avoid, 27
servos, 78
testing, 302
shear modulus, 334
short period modes, 223
SIMPLE solution method, 200
simulators
see light simulators
SLS, 332
metal, 334
nylon, 334
sealing, 335
SolidWorks, 120, 303446 Index
Spalart-Allmaras, 200, 205
spar delections, 244, 250
spars, 21, 37, 190, 221
FEA, 250
sizing, 169
testing, 293
spats, 95
spiral mode, 223
SPOTTER, 20
avionics diagram, 73
design brief, 184
engines, 64
fuel tank sensors, 71
geometry, 187
integral fuel tank, 53
nacelle, 46
payload pod, 51
spreadsheet, 182
wing, 37
Spreadsheet Based Concept Design, 165
stability derivatives, 224
stall, 34, 195, 281, 355
Star-CD, 196
static margin, 170
Steering, 95
STEP, 191, 242
structural analysis, 119, 125
codes, 125
preliminary, 237
using simple beam theory, 243
structural dynamics, 265
structural failure, 106
structural loading calculations, 169
structural mounting and loading, 293
structural testing
dynamic, 296
instruments, 290
static, 294
structure
internal, 23
SULSA, 51, 93
Suspension, 95
SVN, 126
sweep, 191, 319
synthesis, 7
System Description, 351
Airframe, 352
Flight Data, Acceptance, 358
Ground Control System, 356
Performance, 355
systems engineering, 110
tail, 45, 57
take-off, 68
auto, 380
performance, 148, 356
run, 375
taxonomy, 7
telemetry, 25, 88
Test Flight
examples, 375
planning, 369
Tgrid, 204
Three-Dimensional Printing, see 3d printing
thrust, 124, 172
thrust to weight ratio, 146, 154, 176
Tool Selection, 119
topologies, 133
TortoiseSVN, 126
transmitter, 358
payload, 87
primary control, 73
transponders, 27
TRIZ, 136
turbulence model, 196, 200
choice, 204
turn performance, 148
twist, 191, 319
UAVs
A Brief Taxonomy, 15
morphology, 19
UIUC database, 59, 166, 198
undercarriage, 27, 93
attachment, 55
load test, 295
retractable
wing housed, 42
retractable systems, 97Index 447
V-tail, 58, 139
validation, 281
value driven design, 6
viscous sublayer, 209
visual line of sight, see VLOS
VLOS, 359
Vn diagram, 238, 352
weight, 125
control, 273
estimation, 170
management, 114
Wheels, 93
wind tunnels tests, 282
blockage effects, 284
calibrating the test, 284
elevator effectiveness, 287
mounting the model, 282
rudder effectiveness, 290
typical results, 287
wing, 33
attachment, 47
covers, 37
divergence, see divergence
fuselage attachments, 38
loading, 146, 154, 177
morphing, 15, 40, 137
ribs, 38
span, 177, 319
tips, 42
Wiring Looms, 342
Wiring, Buses and Boards, 82
work-breakdown structure, 110
woven rovings, 340
X-Plane, 227
XFLR5, 195
XFoil, 195
y+, 203
Young’s modulus, 244, 334


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