كتاب An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints

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كتاب An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints   Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints    كتاب An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints   Emptyالأربعاء 06 سبتمبر 2023, 2:46 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints
Thiad Edition, Aevised and Expanded
John H. Iic~foad
Consultant, Bidwell Industrial Group, Inc.
Middletown, Connecticut

كتاب An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints   A_i_t_21
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface to the Third Edition
Acknowledgments
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Part I INTRODUCTION TO THE BOLTED JOINT
1 Basic Concepts
I. Two Types of Bolted Joint
II. The Bolt's Job
III. The Challenge
IV. Failure Modes
V. Design
VI. The Layout of the Book
2 Stress and Strength Considerations
I. Types of Strength
II. The Bolt in Tension
III. The Strength of a Bolt
IV. The Strength of the Joint
V. Other Types of Load on a Bolt
VI. Combined Loads on a Bolt
References
Threads and Their Strength
I. Thread Forms
II. Thread Profiles
III. Thread Series
IV. Thread Allowance, Tolerance, and Class
v. Inspection Levels
VI. Thread Nomenclature
VII. Coarse vs. Fine vs. Constant-Pitch Threads
VIII. The Strength of Threads
IX. Other Factors Affecting Strength
References
4 Materials
I. Properties Which Affect the Clamping Force
II. Fastener Standards
III. Selecting an Appropriate Standard
IV. Material Property Nomenclature
V. Bolting Materials
VI. Material Sets
VII. Metric Fasteners
VIII. Equivalent Materials
IX. Material Properties
References
5 Stiffness and Strain Considerations
I. Bolt Deflection and Stiffness
II. The Joint
III. Gasketed Joints
IV. An Alternate Way to Compute Joint Stiffness
V. The Joint Stiffness Ratio or Load Factor
VI. Stiffness-Some Design Goals
References
Contents
Contents xxiii
Part II TIGHTENING THE JOINT: ESTABLISHING THE
CLAMPING FORCE
6 Introduction to Assembly 175
I. Initial vs. Residual Preload 176
II. Starting the Assembly Process 176
III. Bolt Preload vs. Clamping Force on the Joint 182
IV. Continuing the Snugging Pass 189
v. Short-Term Relaxation of Individual Bolts 190
VI. Elastic Interactions Between Bolts 200
VII. The Assembly Process Reviewed 208
VIII. Optimizing Assembly Results 210
References 211
7 Torque Control of Bolt Preload 213
I. The Importance of Correct Preload 213
II. Torque vs. Preload-The Long-Form Equation 217
III. Things Which Affect the Torque-Preload
Relationship 221
IV. Torque vs. Preload-The Short Form Equation 226
v. Torque Control in Practice 233
VI. Tools for Torque Control 245
VII. Fasteners Which Limit the Applied Torque 258
VIII. Is Torque Control No Good? 261
IX. Breakaway Torque 262
X. The Influence of Torque Control on Joint Design 264
References 267
8 Torque and Turn Control 269
I. Basic Concepts of Turn Control 269
II. Turn vs. Preload 272
III. Friction Effects 276
IV. Torque and Turn in Theory 277
v. Turn-of-Nut Control 281
VI. Control of Production Problems 287
VII. Computer-Controlled Systems 292
VIII. Monitoring the Results 301
IX. Torque-Turn Case Histories 302
X. Problems Reduced by Torque-Turn Control 308
XI. How to Get the Most Out of Torque-Turn Control 308xxiv Contents
XII. Using Torque-Turn Data to Estimate Joint Stiffness 309
References 311
9 Stretch Control 312
I. The Concept 312
II. The Problems 314
III. Stretch Measurement Techniques and Problems 325
IV. Torque-Turn Considerations 333
V. How Much Stretch? 336
VI. Problems Reduced by Stretch Control 337
VII. How to Get the Most Out of Stretch Control 338
References 339
10 Preload Control 340
I. Present Measurement Techniques 341
II. Theoretical Possibilities 349
III. Bolt Tensioners 350
IV. Other Types of Tensioner 361
V. Bolt Heaters 362
VI. Problems Reduced by Direct Tension Control 363
VII. Getting the Most Out of Direct Preload Control 365
References 367
11 Ultrasonic Measurement of Bolt Stretch or Tension 369
I. Basic Concepts
II. The Instruments
III. Calibration of a Transit Time Instrument
IV. Accuracy of Transit Time Instruments
V. Usage Factors Affecting Accuracy of
Measurement and Control
VI. Case Histories
VII. Problems Reduced by Ultrasonics
VIII. Getting the Most Out of Ultrasonic Control
References
Part Ill THE JOINT IN SERVICE: IMPORTANCE AND
STABILITY OF THE CLAMPING FORCE
12 Theoretical Behavior of the Joint Under Tensile
Loads
I. The Joint Diagram
II. Loading Planes
442 Contents XXV
III. Dynamic Loads on Tensile Joints 454
IV. The Joint Under a Compressive Load 456
v. A Warning 456
References 457
13 Behavior of the Joint Loaded in Tension: A Closer
Look 458
I. The Effect of Prying Action on Bolt Loads 460
II. The Mathematics of Prying 468
III. Other Nonlinear Factors 477
IV. Flange Rotation 481
v. Thermal Effects 483
VI. Joint Equations Which Include the Effects of
Eccentricity and Differential Expansion 496
References 502
14 In-Service Behavior of a Shear Joint 504
I. Bolted Joints Loaded in Axial Shear 504
II. Factors Which Affect Clamping Force in Shear
Joints 510
III. Response of Shear Joints to External Loads 510
IV. Joints Loaded in Both Shear and Tension 511
References 513
15 Joint Failure 514
I. Mechanical Failure of Bolts 515
II. Lost Bolts 515
III. Loose Bolts 516
IV. Bolts Too Tight 516
v. Which Failure Modes Must We Worry About? 517
VI. The Concept of "Essential Conditions" 517
VII. The Importance of Correct Preload 519
VIII. Load Intensifiers 520
IX. Failure of Joint Members 522
X. Galling 523
References 526
16 Self-Loosening 527
I. The Problem 527
II. How Does a Nut Self-Loosen? 528xxvi Contents
III. Loosening Sequence 532
IV. Junker's Theory of Self-Loosening 532
v. Other Theories of Self-Loosening 537
VI. Testing for Vibration Resistance 540
VII. To Resist Vibration 543
References 562
17 Fatigue Failure 565
I. The Fatigue Process 565
II. What Determines Fatigue Life? 569
III. Other Types of Diagram 573
IV. The Influence of Preload and Joint Stiffness 580
v. Minimizing Fatigue Problems 588
VI. Predicting Fatigue Life or Endurance Limit 595
VII. The Fatigue of Shear Joint Members 596
VIII. Case Histories 598
References 600
18 Corrosion 602
I. The Corrosion Mechanism 603
II. Hydrogen Embrittlement 609
III. Stress Corrosion Cracking 615
IV. Other Types of Stress Cracking 632
v. Minimizing Corrosion Problems 633
VI. Fastener Coatings 635
References 647
19 Gasketed Joints and Leaks 650
I. Why Does a Joint Leak? 651
II. Mechanical Behavior of a Gasket 652
III. Mechanical Behavior at Elevated Temperature 668
IV. Leakage Behavior of a Gasket 674
v. Testing and Evaluating Gaskets 690
VI. Gasket Quality Factors 694
VII. Selecting a Gasket 699
VIII. Selecting Assembly Stress for a Gasket 703
IX. Suggestions for the Field 719
X. A Case History 721
References 726Contents xxvii
Part IV USING THE INFORMATION
20 Selecting Preload for an Existing Joint 733
I. How Much Clamping Force Do We Want? 734
II. Simple Ways to Select Assembly Preloads 742
III. Estimating the In-Service Clamping Force 747
IV. Relating Desired to Anticipated Bolt Tension 758
v. Which Variables to Include in the Analysis? 761
VI. The Bolting Technology Council 763
VII. A More Rigorous Procedure 764
21 Design of Joints Loaded in Tension 773
I. A Major Goal: Reliable Joints 773
II. Typical Design Steps 775
III. Joint Design in the Real World 779
IV. The VDI Joint Design Procedure 779
v. An Example 789
VI. Other Factors to Consider When Designing a
Joint 792
References 795
Bibliography on Bolted Joint Design 796
22 The Design of Gasketed Joints 798
I. The VDI Procedure Applied to Gasketed Joints 799
II. An Example, Using the VDI Procedure 802
III. ASME Code Flanged Joint Design Rules 809
IV. Example, Using ASME Code Rules 812
v. Example, Using the Proposed PVRC Procedure 817
VI. Some Alternate Procedures 828
References 839
23 The Design of Joints Loaded in Shear 840
I. An Overview 840
II. The VDI Procedure Applied to Shear Joints 842
III. How Shear Joints Resist Shear Loads 845
IV. The Strength of Friction-Type Joints 848
v. The Strength of Bearing-Type Joints 856
VI. Eccentrically Loaded Shear Joints 862
VII. Allowable Stress vs. Load and Resistance Factor
Design 869
References 870xxviii Contents
APPENDICES
A Units and Symbol Log 875
B Glossary of Fastener and Bolted Joints Terms 888
c Sources of Bolting Specifications 899
D Sources of Bolting Tools and Specifications 901
E English and Metric Conversion Factors 904
F Tensile Stress Areas for English and Metric Threads
with Estimated "Typical" Preloads and Torques for
As-Received Steel Fasteners 906
G Basic Head, Thread, and Nut Lengths 924
H Key Equations in Calculator/Computer Formats 936
Index 943
Index
Accuracy (see also Assembly):
direct preload control, 341-344,
348, 354
stretch control, 316-317, 319-321,
328-329, 333-336
torque control, 222, 228, 249, 251,
253-254, 256-258
torque-turn control, 282, 293, 297,
302-307
ultrasonic control, 391, 394-410
Aerospace bolting, 183-185,
343-344, 346-348
Aluminizing, 640
Angularity, see Perpendicularity
Area, cross sectional, see Tensile
stress area
Area, tensile stress, see Tensile
stress area
Area, thread stripping, see Threads,
stripping of
ASME Code, 674-676, 704-711,
809-817
Assembly (see also Procedure,
Torque control, Torque-turn
control, Preload control):
[Assembly]
energy consumed during, 5, 6, 35,
44, 148-149, 168-171, 176, 178
gasketed joint, 274-275, 703-719
optimizing results, 210-211,
308-309
optimizing, 210-211
overview of, 175-212
picking a torque for, 733-772, 775,
783-789, 795
procedure, 177-178, 210-211
process summarized, 7-9
production problems, 287
Automotive bolting (see also
Preload, Torque control,
Torque-turn control), 584,
595-596, 610, 633, 643
Basic concepts, 3-14
Bearing strength of joint, 95
Behavior of bolted joints see Joint
behavior
Belleville springs, 195
Bending of bolt, 42-43, 320-323, 593
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,
see ASME Code
943944
Bolt Gage, see Ultrasonics
Bolt heaters, 362-363, 365, 367
Bolts:
alternate design, 345-347, 364-366
load indicating, 347-348
main purpose of, 4-6
selection of, 777, 782, 789
stiffness of, see Stiffness of bolt
strain gage, 341
strength of, see Strength of bolts
stresses in, see Strength of bolts,
Stress in bolts
stretch controlled, 360-361
torque control, 258-261
twist off, 258-259, 345-346
Brittle fracture of bolts, 102-104
Cadmium plate, substitutes for, 643,
647
Calibration of bolting tools, 254-256
Centroid of bolt pattern, 863-866
Change in length, computing, for
bolt, 139-143, 312-313
Change in length control, see
Stretch control
Clamping force (see also Preload,
Joint diagrams):
amount required, 734-742,
774-775, 778-779, 781-782, 785
based on stored energy, 175
estimating it, 747-758
factors which affect it, 80-84, 175,
178-179, 182-189
importance of, 5
instability of, 483-496
minimum, 439-440, 449
shear joint, 509-511
variations in, 38-39, 766-768
vs. preload, 176, 180, 182-189
Coatings (see also Plating); 614,
630-631, 634-647, 851-852
Code, Boiler and pressure Vessel,
see ASME Code
Coefficient of thermal expansion,
(see also Thermal effects,
differential expansion), 110,
112-114
Index
Constant life diagram, 573-576
Control of bolt preload, see Preload,
Assembly
Control, torque, see Torque
Control, torque-turn, see Torqueturn
Corrosion:
effect on clamping force, 82
essential conditions for, 604
fighting it, 633-635
galvanic series, 603-604
general discussions of, 122-123,
125, 128-129, 602-649
mechanism for, 603-605
types of, 605-609
Cost of fasteners, 125, 129-131
Creep:
gasket, definitions of, 656-659
gasket, at elevated temperatures,
660-664, 669-671
rupture, 493
Cryogenic bolt materials, 119,
124-125
Density of fasteners, 130
Design of bolted joints:
allowable stress design, 847-849,
869
ASME Code procedure, 809-817
basic goals for, 12-13, 773-775,
781-782
equations for, 448-449, 496-497,
764-766, 783-789, 799-802,
810-815, 842-844, 848-849
gasketed joints, 798-839
general procedure, 775-779,
782-783
influence of torque control on,
264-266
load and resistance factor design,
847, 869-870
need for overdesign, 441, 755-758
PVRC procedure, 817-827
shear joints, 840-871
tension joints, 773-797Index
[Design of bolted joints]
VDI procedure, 779-792,
799-809, 842-845
Diagrams, joint, see Joint diagrams
Differential expansion, see Thermal
effects
DTI, see Washers, tension indicating
Effective length, see Length,
effective
Elastic curves for bolts, 18-19
Elastic interactions, 6, 8, 200-208,
357-359, 366-367
how much to expect, 207-208,
357-359, 424-427, 708, 766,
805, 843
Elastic limit, 18
Elasticity, modulus of, see Modulus
of elasticity
Elongation of bolt, see Stretch and
Joint diagrams
Embedment, 35, 46, 190-197, 207,
354-356, 532, 537
how much to expect, 196-198,
425-426
Embrittlement, hydrogen, see
Hydrogen embrittlement
Endurance limit, 119, 126-127,
570-571
Energy (see also Assembly, energy
consumed during),
stored in bolt, 5, 6, 35, 44,
148-149, 170-171, 178-179, 181,
314, 441-442, 613
stored in joint, 5, 6, 168-171, 181,
441-442, 451
Equations:
long form torque-preload,
219-221, 224
short form torque-preload,
226-233, 711, 744, 795, 908
Expansion, differential, see Thermal
effects
Extensomer, ultrasonic, see
Ultrasonics
Failure:
bolt, 10-12, 33-34, 515
corrosion, 602-649
fatigue, 565-601
joint, essential conditions for,
517-519, 565, 588, 604
joint, in general, 514-526
joint, summarized, 10-12
joint, types of, 39-40, 214-215
self-loosening, 527-564
shear joint, 522-523
945
stress cracking, see Hydrogen
embrittlement, Stress corrosioncracking
Failure of threads, see Threads,
failure of, Threads, stripping of
Fasteners, stretch controlled,
330-333
Fatigue:
constant life diagram, 573-576
designing for, 787-788
endurance limit, 570-571
factors which affect life, 572-573
general discussion of, 565-601
infinite life diagram, 577-579
minimizing problems, 588-595
optimum preload for, 584, 787-788
predicting life, 595-596
S-N diagrams, 569-571
Faying surfaces, 505, 851
Fire, effect on bolts, 118-119, 124
Flange:
design of, see Design of bolted
joints, gasketed joints
raised face, stiffness of, 164-166
rotation, 481-483, 653, 667, 808,
810, 812, 814, 892
surface finish of, 668
FOGTAR, 239, 241
Force, clamping, see Clamping force
Forces on bolt and joint, see Joint
diagrams, Loads
Friction (see also Nut factor):
factors affecting, 221-222
losses during assembly, 178-180,
219-221
Fugitive emissions, 692946
Galling, 523-526
Galvanizing, 640-641
Gasketed joints:
design of (see also Design of
bolted joints)
design of, 798-839
general discussion of, 650-729
stiffness of, 159-166
Gasket factors, 674-676, 681,
686-689, 704-719
Gaskets:
behavior of, 161
blowout resistance of, 664-665
creep relaxation of (see also
Creep, gasket), 655-664,
669-671, 709
fugitive emissions, 692
leakage behavior of, 674-689
m and y factors, 674-676,
704-711
measuring stress on and deflection
of, 693-694
mechanical behavior of, 652-673
optimizing use of, 719-721
PVRC factors, 681, 686-689,
712-719
P x Tfactor, 661, 665
quality factors for, 694-699
selecting assembly stress, 703-719
selection of, 699-703
stiffness of, 159-164, 652-655
substitutes for asbestos, 691-692
testing of, 690-694
tightness parameter, 681-684
Hardness of bolts, 96-102
Heaters, bolt, 362-363, 365, 367
Hole interference, 182-185
Hydraulic wrenches, 249-250
Hydrogen embrittlement, 609-614
Interactions, elastic, see Elastic
interactions
Interference fit, 182-185
Index
Joint, axial shear, see Joint, shear
Joint behavior:
nonlinear, 459, 466-468, 477-481,
654-655
under tensile loads, 9-10, 421-457
Joint, concentric, stiffness of,
151-152
Joint control, see Torque-turn
control
Joint design, see Design of bolted
joints
Joint diagrams:
assembly, 180-182, 207, 266,
426-427
compressive load, 455-456
cyclical loads, 454-455, 580-583,
587
for joint design, 785
in general, 422-457
loading planes, 422-453
nonlinear, 654-655
thermal effects on, 488-489
Joint, eccentric shear, 857, 862-869
Joint, eccentric tension, 152-155,
468-475, 788-789
Joint, flanged, see Gasketed joints
Joint, gasketed see Gasketed joints
Joint materials, 131-134
Joint, nonlinear, 150, 161, 168-170
Joint, overdesign of, 441, 755-758
Joint, rotation of, see Flange,
rotation of
Joint, shear:
bearing type, 508-509, 845,
856-862
definition of, 3-4
design goals for, 12-13
fatigue failure of, 596-598
friction type, 505-507
general discussions of, 39-40,
504-513, 840-871
loads on, 735, 845-848, 850, 853,
857' 862-863
Joint, sheet metal, 13
Joint, slip-critical, 845-847Index
Joint, stiffness of, see Stiffness of
joint
Joint stiffness ratio, see Load factor
Joint, structural, see Structural steel
joints
Joint, tension:
definition of, 3-4
design of, 773-797
design goals for, 12-13
K, see Nut factors
Klinger gasket factors, 829-832
Leakage, see Gasketed joints,
Gaskets
Length, change in, see Change in
length, computing, for bolt;
Stretch of bolt
Length, effective, 140-142
Load factor (see also Stiffness ratio,
bolt-to-joint), 168, 439, 448,
471-473, 586
Load indicating bolts, 347-348
Loading planes, 442-453
Load intensifiers (see also Joint,
eccentric shear; Joint, eccentric
tension), 520-521
Loads on bolts (see also Stress in
bolts, Working loads on bolts):
maximum, 439, 449
tensile plus shear, 511-513
types of, 40-47
Loads on joint:
axial shear, 850, 853, 857
compressive, 455-456
critical, 434-435, 437, 446,
454-455, 473-474, 580-582
dynamic, 454-456
eccentric, 468-475, 788-789, 857,
862-869
prying, 460-476, 521, 581, 594
shear, see Joint, shear
Lockbolts, 346-347, 364, 556
Locking fasteners, 551-557
Loosening of nut, see Self-loosening
LRM preload control system,
296-298
Lubrication, see Nut factor
Materials:
bolting, equivalent, 92-93
bolting, in general, 80-137
947
bolting, list of tables of properties,
93-94
joint
joint, 131-134
Metric-English conversion factors,
904-905
Metric fasteners, in general, 91-92
Micrometer measurements, see
Stretch, measurement of
Modulus of elasticity, 110, 115-117,
318, 483-484
Monitor, torque, see Torque control
Multipliers, torque, 248-249
Nut factors, 226-233
table of, 231-232
Nut runners, 251-254
Nuts:
dilation of, 69-70
hydraulic, 360-362
locking, 551-553
strength of, 73, 104-107
stresses in, 24-27
tension, 25, 590
torque limiting, 259-261
which to use, 104-107
Perpendicularity of bolt and joint,
590
Plating (see also Coatings), 610-611,
630-631, 636-637, 639-641
cadmium substitutes, 643, 647
Preload (see also Clamping force,
Joint diagrams):
accuracy of, see Accuracy
vs. clamping force, 176, 180,
182-189, 265-266
computer control of, 292-302
correct, 213-216, 519-520, 584,
703-719, 733-772, 775, 783-789948
[Preload]
definitions of, 176
direct control of, 340-368
factors affecting, 175-202,
221-226
initial vs residual, 176, 190-197,
200-208
LRM control of, 296-297
monitors, 301-302
optimum, 584
selection of, 213-216, 519-520,
584, 703-719, 733-772
stretch control of, 312-339,
360-361
torque control of, 213-268
torque-time control of, 288-289
torque-turn control of, 269-311
vs. turn, 272-276
turn-of-nut control of, 281-286
ultrasonic control of, 369-418
variation in, 234-244, 316-317,
424-427, 747-758, 766-768, 782
(see also Accuracy)
yield control of, 293-296
Pressure exerted by bolt head or nut
on joint, 35-38, 739, 788
Prevailing torque (see also Torque,
prevailing):
fasteners, 550
Procedure, bolting (see also
Assembly), 177-178, 210-211
problems, 287
Proof strength, see Strength of
bolts, proof
Prying action, 460-476, 521, 581,
594
Public Law No. 101, 592, 613
Relaxation:
of automotive transmission bolts,
307-308
of bolts (see also Embedment,
Elastic interactions, Selfloosening, Stress relaxation),
46, 110-111, 118-119, 120-122,
189-208
of gasket, 159-162, 655-664, 800
Index
Resilience (see also Stiffness), 155,
471
Rotation of flange, 481-483, 653, 667
Rupture of bolts, see Failure of bolts
SCC, see Stress corrosion cracking
Seizing of threads, see Galling
Self-loosening:
fighting it, 540, 543-562
general discussion of, 527-564
Junker theory of, 532-536
testing for, 540-542
why it occurs, 528-540
Separation of joint, see Failure,
joint, in general
Shear joint, see Joint, shear
Shear loads, see Joint, shear; Loads
on joint
Shear strength, see Joint, shear;
Strength of bolts; Strength of
joints, material
Slip critical joints, see Joint, slipcritical
Slip of joint, see Failure, joint, types
of
Snugging the joint, 177-178, 273,
282-283, 309
Specifications, see Standards
Standards, 84-87
Stiffness of bolt, 65, 138-158
computing, 138-148
temperature, effects of, 83
Stiffness of bolt-nut-washer system,
146-147
Stiffness of gaskets, 159-164,
652-655
Stiffness of joint:
computing, 149-155, 166-167
concentric, 151-152, 157-159,
164-166
eccentric, 152-155
estimating it, 157-159, 164-166,
309-310
Stiffness ratio, bolt-to-joint,
165-166, 171, 594-595
Strain gages, 341-342 (see also
Stretch of bolt, Stretch control)Index
Strength of bolts (see also Threads,
strength of):
brittle fracture, 16-17, 102-104
extreme temperature, 107-110,
119, 124-125, 484
fatigue, 17, 119, 122, 126-127
general discussions of, 15-17,
27-35, 80-137
proof, 27-29, 73, 96-101
shear, 16, 95, 103
stress cracking strength, 617-620
tensile, 15-16, 46-47, 87, 94-101
types of, 15-17
ultimate, 16, 18, 28, 29, 94-101
yield, 96-102
Strength of joint:
bearing contact, 35-38, 739, 788
material strength, 131-134
Strength of threads, see Threads,
strength of
Stress area, tensile, see Tensile
stress area
Stress in bolts (see also Loads on
bolts), 20-24, 788
bending, 42-43, 475-476
combined, 43-47
shear, 41
tensile, 46-47
tensile plus shear, 511-513
torsional, 34, 41-42, 46, 294
Stress, contact, head to joint, 35-38
Stress, contact, nut to joint, 35-38
Stress corrosion cracking, 606-608,
615-632
essential conditions for, 615, 622
fighting it, 622-631
KISCC, 616-621
Stress cracking, see Hydrogen
embrittlement, Stress corrosion
cracking
Stress on gasket, see Gaskets
Stress in joint, 38
Stress, measurement of, 389-391,
693-694
Stress, nomenclature for, 87
Stress in nuts, 24-27
949
Stress relaxation of bolts, 110-111,
118, 120-123, 490-492
Stress, ultrasonic measurement of,
389-391
Stretch of bolt (see also Change in
length, Stretch control):
amount to expect, 336-337
Stretch, computing, for bolt,
139-143, 312-313
Stretch control (see also
Ultrasonics):
advantages of, 313-314, 337-338
basic concepts, 312-314
general discussion of, 312-339
optimizing, 338-339
problems with, 314-325, 337-338
Stretch, measurement of, 325-333
Stripping of threads, see Threads,
stripping of
Structural steel joint (see also Joint,
shear):
assembly of, 211, 283-285,
342-343, 345-346
failure modes, 39-40, 522-523
general discussions of, 39-40,
504-513, 840-871
prying of, 468
Temperature, high (see also
Thermal effects):
effect on gasket, 668-673,
684-686, 691-692, 698-699, 702,
710, 721-724
effect on yield strength, 107-110
service temperature limits, 123
Temperature, low, see Cryogenic
bolt materials
Tensile joint, see Joint, tension
Tensile loads, (see also Joint
diagrams)
effects of, 9
Tensile strength, see Strength of
bolts, Strength of joint
Tensile stress area:
of bolt, 29-33
of nut, 29-30
tables of, 32, 74, 906-923950
Tension in bolt, see Preload, Joint
diagrams, Stress in bolts
Tension joint, see Joint, tension
Tensioners, 350-361, 365-367
Tensioners, optimizing the use of,
365-367
Thermal effects (see also
Temperature, high):
clamping force, 81-82
compensating for, 493-496
differential expansion, 110,
112-114, 317-318, 484-490, 710
elasticity, 483-484
fire tests, 118-119, 124
flange rotation, 481-483
gasket behavior, 668-673,
684-686, 691-692, 698-699, 702
modulus of elasticity, 110,
115-117
strength, 484
stress relaxation, 110-111, 118,
120-123
ultrasonic measurements, 382,
393, 400
Threads:
allowances for, 56-57
classes of, 58
coarse vs. fine pitch, 63
engagement of, 61, 67-69, 792
failure of, 65-73
fatigue resistant, 589-592
forms of, 49-52
gaging of, 61-63
general discussion of, 49-71
inspection of, 61-63
metric, 56, 58-61
nomenclature for, 62-63
profiles of, 53-54
series of, 54-56
strength of, 65-77
stripping of, 34, 65-66
table of stripping areas, 32
tolerances for, 57-60
Tightening procedure, see Assembly
Tightness parameter for gaskets,
681-684
Index
Tools:
computer controlled, 292-302
LRM controlled, 296-297
stretch control, 325-333
tensioning, 35, 361
torque controlled, 245-258
torque-turn controlled, 287-302
yield control, 293-296
Tools, accuracy of, see Accuracy
Torque:
breakaway, 262-264
calibration of, 254-256
equations for, 217-221, 224,
226-228
influence on joint design, 264-266
limiting fasteners, 258-261
loosening, 262
prevailing, 224, 226, 533-534, 550,
559
restarting, 262-264
tools, 245-248
which to use, 233-234
Torque control (see also Torque):
in general, 213-268
importance of, 261-262
Torque loss, see Relaxation, of bolts
Torque monitors, 256-257
Torque multipliers, 248-249
Torque-time control, 288-289
Torque-turn control:
advantages of, 280-281
in general, 269-311
optimizing, 308-309
Torque-turn, computing joint
stiffness with, 166-167
Torsion, see Stress in bolts
Turn-of-nut control, 281-286
Turn vs. preload, 272-276
Turn, relative
Ultimate strength, see Strength of
bolts, ultimate
Ultrasonics:
basic principles, 370-373
calibration of instruments,
391-394Index
[Ultrasonics]
crack detection, 632
effects of temperature on, 382,
393, 400
general discussion of, 369-418
instruments used, 374-391
optimizing the use of, 415-417
preload control by, 301, 332, 348,
369-418, 724-725
problems reduced by, 415
residual preload measured by,
305-307, 359, 771
stretch measured by, 332, 379-384
where used, 373-374
Units in text, 857-887
Vibration loosening, see Selfloosening
Washers:
Belleville, 195
strain gaged, 341-342
951
[Washers]
tension indicating, 342-344, 364
thick, 36-37
Weight of fasteners, 125, 130
Window control, 287-289
Work done on bolt, 178-180,
208-209
Working loads on bolts, factors
affecting, 216-217 (see also
Loads on bolts)
Wrenches:
hydraulic, 249-250
impact, 250-251, 254
torque, 245-247
Yield control, 293-296
Yield strength of bolt, 96-102
Yield strength of joint, 131-134
Yield strength vs temperature,
107-110
Young's modulus, see Modulus of
elasticity


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