كتاب Introduction to Fluoropolymers - Materials, Technology and Applications
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Introduction to Fluoropolymers - Materials, Technology and Applications

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Introduction to Fluoropolymers - Materials, Technology and Applications (2013)
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كتاب Introduction to Fluoropolymers - Materials, Technology and Applications I_t_f_12
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Table of contents
1. Fluorine, Fluorocarbons, and Fluoropolymers in Human Life -- A Day with the Smiths.
2. From Fundamentals to Applications
3. Fluoropolymers -- Discovery, History, Evolution, and Consumption
4. History of Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene and W.L. Gore & Associates
5. Introduction to Thermoplastic Fluoropolymers
6. Manufacturing and Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene
7. Processing and Fabrication of Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene
8. Fabrication and Processing of Fine Powder Polytetrafluoroethylene
9. Fabrication and Processing of Polytetrafluoroethylene Dispersions
10. Manufacturing Melt-Processible Copolymers of Tetrafluoroethylene
11. Introduction to Vinylidene Fluoride Polymers
12. Processing and Fabrication of Parts from Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers
13. Manufacturing and Properties of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
14. Processing and Fabrication of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
15. Applications of Fluoropolymers16. Fluoroelastomers
17. Fluoropolymer and Fluorinated Additives
18. Polyvinyl Fluoride: The First Durable Replacement for Paint
19. Fluorinated Coatings; Technology, History, and Applications
20. Fluorinated Ionomers: History, Properties, and Applications
21. Functional Fluoropolymers
311
A
Abrasion transfer granulation steps,
108, 109f
AC-617, 175
Acid acceptor systems, 172
Additives, 239–240
ADONA. See Ammonium 4,8-dioxa-
3H-perfluorononanoate
Advanced Polymer Architecture
(APA), 216
AF. See Amorphous polymers
AFLAS, 152, 165–166
AGC Chemicals, 152t
Agglomeration
abrasion transfer, 108, 109f
coalescence, 108, 109f
crushing, 108, 109f
dry, 107
layering, 108, 109f
nucleation, 108, 109f
snowballing, 108, 109f
wet, 107–108
American Durafilm, 254
American Society for Testing
Materials (ASTM)
commercial fluoropolymers, 64
PTFE characterization
dispersions, 118–121, 121t–122t
fine powder resins, 117–118,
119t–120t
granular resins, 113–117,
115t–117t
PVDF characterization, 138,
139t–140t
Ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3Hperfluorononanoate (ADONA),
99, 100f
Ammonium perfluorooctanoate
(APFO), 85, 98–100, 109–110
Amorphous polymers (AF), 29
Anhui Lite Environment
ePTFE production, 51
APA. See Advanced Polymer
Architecture
APFO. See Ammonium
perfluorooctanoate
Applications of fluoropolymers, 83,
84t
ASTM. See American Society for
Testing Materials
Austin Black, 172t
Autoclave, 109–110
Automotive air conditioner pistons,
268
Automotive fuel(s)
resistance to, 190–191
seals, 180t
Automotive industry, 267–270
B
Bakeware, 263–265
Baking/curing, 251–252
Barwell Precision Preformer, 183
Benzyltriphenylphosphonium
chloride (BTPPC), 168–169
BHA Corporation
ePTFE production, 50
BHA Group Holdings
ePTFE production, 50
Bis (β-carboxypropionyl) peroxide, 101
Bisphenol cure systems, 168–169
Bisphenols, 168–169, 173
Blanc Fixe, 172t
Blow molding, exhaust scheme for,
299f
Note: Page numbers with “f” denote figures; “t” tables.
Index312 Index
Boron nitride, 105–106
Branched fluoropolymers, 24, 26
Bromination, 67, 91–92
BTPPC. See
Benzyltriphenylphosphonium
chloride
Building Products Venture, 58
C
C8. See Ammonium
perfluorooctanoate
Calendering, 182–183
Capture velocity, 298
Carnauba wax, 175
Cefral Soft, 209
Celite 350, 172t
Cellophane®, 56–57
Central Glass Co., 209
CFCs. See Chlorofluorocarbons
Chain transfer agents, 155
CHClF2 See Chlorodifluoromethane
Chemical processing industry (CPI),
270–273
chemical reactors, 271–272
ducts for corrosive fumes and fire
resistance, 272–273
Chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), 78
1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, 135
Chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2)
preparation of, 92
tetrafluoroethylene preparation, 92,
94, 94t
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 8
Chloroform, 67
preparation of, 92
2-Chloro-1,1,1,2,3,3-
hexafluoropropane, 93
1-Chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane,
93
Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE),
152–154, 153t
polychlorotrifluoroethylene. See
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
polymerization of, 71
properties of, 71
synthesis of, 68–69. See also
Trifluoroethylene
ClF3. See Chlorine trifluoride
Closed-cell sponge, compound for, 178t
Clysar, 56–57
Coagulated dispersion products
tetrafluoroethylene emulsion
polymerization, 97, 112–113
Coalescence granulation steps, 108,
109f
Coatings
FKMs’ applications in, 198–199
fluoropolymers used in, 232–237
ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
copolymer, 236–237
ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
copolymers, 235–236
fluorinated ethylene propylene
copolymer, 234
perfluoroalkoxy polymers, 234
polytetrafluoroethylene, 233
polyvinylidene fluoride, 236
for food contact, 261–262. See also
fluorocoating entries
Coefficient of friction (COF)
of perfluoropolyether additives, 128
of polyvinyl fluoride, 57t
COF. See Coefficient of friction
Cold feed extruders, 183
Commercial dryer drums, 273
Commercial fluorocoating producers,
252–253
Commercial/industrial bakeware,
264–265
Compression molded seals,
compounds for, 176t–177t
Compression molding, 183, 187
Compression set resistance, 190
Condensation reactions, 203
Continuous emulsion polymerization,
157–159
Cookware, 253, 263–264
Corbonyl fluoride, health hazards of,
296t–297tIndex 313
Corona charging in powder spray
gun, 251f
Corona-charging system, 250
Corrosive fumes, 272–273
CPI. See Chemical processing
industry
C. R. Bard Corporation
ePTFE production, 50–51
Critical shear rate, 199
Crushing granulation steps, 108, 109f
Cryolite. See Cryolith
Cryolith, 7
CSM. See Cure-site monomer
CTFE. See Chlorotrifluoroethylene
Curatives, 173–174
Cure-site monomer (CSM), 170
Curing, 186–187, 251–252
D
DAI-EL, 209, 211t
Daikin Industries Co., LTD., 152t,
253
ePTFE production, 51
Dehalocarboxylation, 278–279
Desflurane, 3–4
DAST. See Diethylaminosulphur
trifluoride
Developmental history, of
fluoropolymers, 27–29
DeWal Industries
ePTFE production, 50
Diamine cure system, 168
Diethylaminosulphur trifluoride
(DAST), 8
Dispersions
coating, 302
polymerization, 108–113
polytetrafluoroethylene
characterization, 118–121,
121t–122t
products
tetrafluoroethylene emulsion
polymerization, 111–112
of PTFE, 79–80
Disposal methods, 308
Disuccinic acid peroxide. See Bis
(β-carboxypropionyl) peroxide
Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP),
136–137
Donaldson Corporation
ePTFE production, 50
Dry agglomeration process, 107
DTBP. See Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide
DuPont Company, 17, 19–24, 27,
54–55, 152t, 253
Spectrographic® fry pan, 260f
Teflon II Classic white fry pan,
258f
Dyneon LLC, 152t, 253
ADONA™, 99, 100f
E
Economy of fluoropolymers, 85–86
ECTFE. See Ethylene
chlorotrifluoroethylene
copolymer
Electron beam irradiation, 218
Electrostatic coating, 249
Emission during processing, 295–296
Emulsion polymerization, 157–164
continuous, 157–159
of polytetrafluoroethylene, 72, 98
semi-batch, 159–160
of tetrafluoroethylene, 97, 108–113
dispersion products, 111–112
fine powder products, 112–113
of vinylidene fluoride, 136–137.
See also Polymerization
End-of-life disposal of products, 215
Enflurane®, 3–4, 13
Environmental protection and
disposal methods, 308
ePTFE. See Extended
polytetrafluoroethylene
Equilibrium reaction, 93
Equipment cleaning and maintenance,
303
ESG. See Extended specific gravity
ETFE. See Ethylene-cotetrafluoroethylene polymers314 Index
Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
copolymer (ECTFE) (Aclar®),
26, 236–237
consumption of, 33f
finishing of, 74–75
polymerization of, 74–75
properties of, 31t, 81
structure of, 235f. See also
Chlorotrifluoroethylene,
Trifluoroethylene
Ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene
polymers (ETFE), 235–236
finishing of, 74
polymerization of, 74
properties of, 80–81
structure of, 235f. See also
Tetrafluoroethylene
Exhaust, typical setup for, 299f
Extended polytetrafluoroethylene
(ePTFE), 1, 3
discovery of, 40–43
history of, 37–52
patent of, 47f
structure of, 45f
who invented, 43–49. See also
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Extended specific gravity (ESG)
of fine powder PTFE resins,
119t–120t
of granular PTFE resins, 115–116,
115t
Extruded gods, compounds for, 176t
Extrusion, 183
of fine powder PTFE resins, 118
F
Fabrication techniques, of
fluoropolymers, 82–83
FDA. See U.S. Food and Drug
Administration
Federal District Court, 44, 47
FEP. See Fluorinated ethylene
propylene
Fillers, 171
pigments and, 238–239
Fine-cut powders
tetrafluoroethylene suspension
polymerization, 104–105
Fine powder (coagulated dispersion)
products
tetrafluoroethylene emulsion
polymerization, 112–113
Fine powder PTFE
characterization of, 117–118,
119t–120t
tetrafluoroethylene suspension
polymerization of, 72
Finishing
of ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene,
74–75
of ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene, 74
of fluorinated ethylene propylene, 74
of fluoroelastomers, 214
of granular PTFE, 104–108
of perfluoroalkoxy polymer, 73
of polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 75
of polytetrafluoroethylene, 72–73
of polyvinyl fluoride, 75–76
of polyvinylidene fluoride, 75
Fire hazard, 304
Fire resistance, 272–273
Fischer–Tropsch process, 129
“Fluff”, 238
Fluorinated additives, 125–132
fluorinated graphite, 130
perfluoropolyether additives,
128–129
polymeric, 126–128
fluoroelastomer additives,
127–128
polytetrafluoroethylene
homopolymer additives,
126–127
vinylidene fluoride polymer
additives, 128
PTFE modified waxes, 129–130
Fluorinated ethylene propylene
(FEP), 24, 234
consumption of, 33fIndex 315
finishing of, 74
polymerization of, 74
properties of, 31t, 79–80
structure of, 234f
thermal degradation of, 77, 77f
Fluorinated graphite, 130
Fluorinated ionomers, 277–292
composition, 277–279
history, 277
properties, 280–291
Fluorinated thermoplastic elastomers
(FTPEs), 209, 209–213
in chemical and semiconductor
industries, 211
in electrical and wire and cable, 213
Fluorination, 8, 130–131
of polyolefin film surface, 6
Fluorine, 1–4
basic facts about, 8t
characteristics of, 7–14
fluorination, 8
inorganic chemistry, 11
nature and, 13–14
organic chemistry, 11–13
preparation, 9–10
reactivity, 9
uniqueness of, 5–7
Fluoroadditives
polytetrafluoroethylene, 73
Fluoroapatite, 7
Fluorocarbon elastomers, 1–4, 12–13,
151–201
applications of, 192–197
aerospace and military
applications, 193–195
automotive applications, 193
chemical and petrochemical
applications, 195–196
industrial applications, 196–197
compounds from, mixing and
processing of, 181–185
calendering, 182–183
compression molding, 183
extrusion, 183
injection molding, 184–185
transfer molding, 184
cross-linking chemistry, 167–171
by free-radical mechanism,
169–170
by ionic mechanism, 168–169
by ionizing radiation, 170–171
cured fluorocarbon elastomers,
physical and mechanical
properties of, 188–192
curing, 186–187
formulation of compounds from,
171–181
acid acceptor systems, 172
curatives, 173–174
examples, 176–181
fillers, 171
plasticizers and processing aids,
175
manufacturing process, 155–164
continuous emulsion
polymerization, 157–159
emulsion polymerization,
157–164
semi-batch emulsion
polymerization, 159–160
suspension polymerization,
160–164
as polymeric processing additives,
199–201
properties related to polymer
structure, 164–167
solution and latex coating, 185–186
Fluorocoating compositions, 237–245
additives, 239–240
fluoropolymer, 238
liquid coatings, 243–244
nonfluoropolymer binders, 240–243
polyamide-imide, 241
poly ether sulfone, 241–242
polyphenylene sulfide, 242–243
pigments and fillers, 238–239
powder coatings, 243, 245
solvents, 239316 Index
Fluorocoating producers, 252–253
Fluorocoatings, application of, 245–252
baking/curing, 251–252
liquid coating, 247–249
powder coating, 249–251
substrate, 245–247
Fluorocoatings, commercial
applications of, 263–275
automotive, 267–270
chemical processing industry,
270–273
chemical reactors, 271–272
ducts for corrosive fumes and
fire resistance, 272–273
commercial dryer drums, 273
commercial/industrial bakeware,
264–265
fuser rolls, 265–266
housewares: cookware, bakeware,
small electrical appliances,
263–264
industrial rollers, 273
light bulbs, 267
medical devices, 274–275
Fluoroelastomers, 149
additives, 127–128
fluorinated thermoplastic
elastomers, 209–213
fluorocarbon elastomers. See
Fluorocarbon elastomers
fluorosilicone elastomers, 201–208
applications of, 206–208
cured fluorosilicones, properties
of, 204–206
polymerization, 201–202
processing, 202–204
new developments and current
trends, 215–218
chemistry and processing,
215–216
new products, 216–217
phosphazenes, 213–214
safety, hygiene, and disposal,
214–215
compounding, mixing, and
processing, 214–215
disposal of used products, 215
hazardous conditions during use,
215
polymerization and finishing, 214
Fluoroplastics, 232
Fluoropolymer(s), 1–4, 232, 238
applications of, 83, 84t
branched, 24, 26
classification of, 65–66
coatings, 264–265
commercialization timeline of, 30t
consumption of, 32–34
developmental history of, 27–29,
28f–29f, 65–66, 65f
discover of, 17–36
economy of, 85–86
fabrication techniques of, 82–83
finish technology, historical
chronology of, 253–261
fundamental properties of, 26–27,
27t
partially fluorinated, 26
polytetrafluoroethylene,
commercialization of, 23–24
products, 66
properties of, 31t
Roy Plunkett’s story of, 21–23
safety of, 84–85
use of, 32–34
examples of, 34
FluoroXprene, 216–217
Fluorspar, 7, 9, 67, 92
Food contact
coatings for, 261–262
and medical applications, 305
Free flow powders
tetrafluoroethylene suspension
polymerization, 105
Fremy’s Salt technique, 9–10, 12
Freon®, 21
FTPEs. See Fluorinated thermoplastic
elastomersIndex 317
Fully fluorinated copolymers,
166–167
Fuser rolls, 265–266
FZ Elastomer, 213–214
G
General Electric
ePTFE production, 50
General Plastics, 254
GlaxoSmithKline, 275
Gore-Tex®. See Extended PTFE
Granular PTFE
characterization of, 113–117,
115t–117t
fibrillation of, 110
finishing technologies of,
104–108
low flow, 104–105, 106f
reground, 114
reprocessed, 114
tetrafluoroethylene suspension
polymerization of, 72,
100–108, 102f. See also
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Granular reactor, 103–104, 103f
Granulation, 108
abrasion transfer, 108, 109f
coalescence, 108, 109f
crushing, 108, 109f
layering, 108, 109f
nucleation, 108
snowballing, 108, 109f
Graphite, fluorinated, 130
Graphite Powder, 172t
Grit blasting, 246
H
Halar®, 236–237
Halex reaction, 12
Halogen, 5
Halothane, 3–4
HCFC-22. See
Chlorodifluoromethane
HDPE. See High-density
polyethylene
Heat resistance
of fluorosilicone elastomers,
205–206
fluorocarbon elastomers, 188
Henkel North America, 252
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 67, 73,
93, 152–154, 153t, 209–210, 234
polymerization of, 157
properties of, 70
synthesis of, 68
Hexafluoropropylene epoxide
(HFPO), 278–279
Hexamethylene carbamate, 173
HF. See Hydrogen fluoride
HFC. See Hydrofluorocarbon
HFP. See Hexafluoropropylene
HFPO, 200–201. See
Hexafluoropropylene epoxide
High-density polyethylene
(HDPE)
High-volume, low-pressure (HVLP)
atomization, 248
Historical chronology of
fluoropolymer finish
technology, 253–261
Housewares, 263–264
HPFP. See
Hydropentafluoropropylene
HVLP. See High-volume, lowpressure atomization
Hydrofluoric acid, 67
Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), 2
Hydrogen fluoride (HF), 7, 9–10, 92
health hazards of, 296t–297t
preparation of, 92
Hydropentafluoropropylene (HPFP),
166–167
Hydroquinone, 173
I
IBM, 259
IMPRA. See International Medical
Prosthesis Research Associates,
Inc.318 Index
Impreglon Canada, 271
Industrial bakeware, 264–265
Industrial rollers, 273
Injection molding, 184–185, 187
Inorganic chemistry
fluorine characteristics, 11
International Medical Prosthesis
Research Associates, Inc.
(IMPRA), 46
Iodine transfer polymerization,
209–210
Ionomer products, manufacture of,
279f
Isoflurane®, 3–4, 13
Isoparaffin, 118
J
Japan Gore-Tex Inc. (JGI)
ePTFE production, 49
Jet Mills, 105
JGI. See Japan Gore-Tex Inc.
K
KALREZ, 151, 166–167, 192, 197
Kapton®, 56–57
Kel-F, 152–154
Kirovo-Chepetsk Chemical Plant,
152t
Kynar Flex® PVDF PPA, 128, 147,
236
L
Latex coating, 185–186
Lattice culture, 43
Layering granulation steps, 108, 109f
Le Chatelier’s Principle, 93
Leetex Technologies Co., LTD.
ePTFE production, 51
Light bulbs, 267
Limiting oxygen index (LOI), 82
d-Limonene, 67, 94
Linear fluoropolymer, 233
Linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 200–201
Liquid coatings, 243–244, 247–249
LLDPE. See Linear low-density
polyethylene
LOI. See Limiting oxygen index
M
Manhattan Project, 22–23
Manufacturers of fluorinated
coatings, 252
Material incompatibility, 304–305
MDF. See Mitsui-DuPont
Fluorocarbon Co.
MDI. See Metered-dose inhaler
MEA. See Membrane-electrode
assembly
Medical applications of
fluoropolymers, 305
Medical devices, fluorinated coatings
as, 274–275
Melt creep viscosity, of
polytetrafluoroethylene, 98
Melt flow index (MFI), 79
Melt flow rate (MFR), 79–80
Melt processing, 302–303
Membrane-electrode assembly
(MEA), 287
Metered-dose inhaler (MDI), 274,
275f
Methoxyflurane, 3–4
Methylvinyl silicone rubber (MVQ),
201–202
MFI. See Melt flow index
MFR. See Melt flow rate
Micropowders. See Fluorinated
additives
Mitsui-DuPont Fluorocarbon Co.
(MDF), 253
Moissan’s reactions, 9–10
Molding processes
compression molding, 183
injection molding, 184–185
transfer molding, 184
MT Black, 172t
Multimodal fluoropolymers, 200Index 319
Mupor, LTD.
ePTFE production, 51
MVQ. See Methylvinyl silicone
rubber
Mylar®, 56–57
N
Nafion sulfonic polymer, 289
Nitto Denko/Ambic/Kyowa
ePTFE production, 51
Nonfluoropolymer binders, 240–243
polyamide-imide, 241
poly ether sulfone, 241–242
polyphenylene sulfide, 242–243
Nonstick coated fry pans, 263
Novel fluorine thermoplastic
vulcanizates, 216–217
Nucleation granulation steps, 108
Nucleophilic curing system, 173
Nyad 400, 172t
O
Octafluoro-2-butene, 70
Octafluoroisobutylene, 70, 93
OF2. See Oxygen difluoride
Open-mill mixing, 181–182
Organic chemistry
fluorine characteristics, 11–13
Oxygen difluoride (OF2), 78
P
PAI. See Polyamide-imide
Paint atomization, 247–248
Paper dust, 266
Partially fluorinated fluoropolymers, 26
Paste extrusion, 301–302
PAVE. See Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ethers
PCTFE. See
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PDMS. See Polydimethyl siloxane
PE. See Polyethylene
PEM. See Polymer electrolyte
membrane fuel cells
Perfluorinated ethylene propylene
copolymer. See Fluorinated
ethylene propylene polymer
Perfluorinated ionomers, 285–286
Perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA), 26,
66, 234
-coated light bulbs, 267f
consumption of, 33f
finishing of, 73
polymerization of, 73
properties of, 31t, 79
structure of, 235f
Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ethers
(PAVE)
properties of, 71
synthesis of, 68, 68f
Perfluorocyclobutane, 93
Perfluoroelastomers, 151, 165,
170–171
applications of, 197–198
Perfluoroisobutylene, 67
health hazards of, 296t–297t
Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE),
153t, 165, 234
Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) additives,
128–129
Perfluoropolymers, 232
Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PPVE),
73
properties of, 71
Perlast ICE, 151, 216
Peroxide cross-linking, 202–203
Peroxide-cured seals, compound for,
177t–178t
Peroxidic cure systems, 173–174
Personal hygiene, 304
Persulfate initiation, 100, 101t
PES. See Poly ether sulfone
PFA. See Perfluoroalkoxy
polymer
PFF. See Polymer fume fever
PFPE. See Perfluoropolyether
additives
Pharmaceutical properties, fluorineenhanced compounds, 2
Phillips Scientific
ePTFE production, 51320 Index
Phosphazenes, 213–214
Pigments and fillers, 238–239
α-Pinene, 67, 94
Plasticizers, 175
Plastisol, 56
Plunkett, Roy
story, of fluoropolymers, 21–23
PMTFPS. See
Polymethyltrifluoropropyl
siloxane
PMVE. See Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether
Polyamide-imide (PAI), 241
Poly(aryloxyphosphazene) elastomer,
213
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE),
26
consumption of, 33f
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
finishing of, 75
polymerization of, 75
properties of, 80. See also
Chlorotrifluoroethylene,
Trifluoroethylene
Poly(dichlorophosphazene), 213–214
Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), 201
Poly ether sulfone (PES), 241–242
Polyethylene (PE)
chemical structure of, 54f
structure property relationship, 76–77
Poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene)
elastomer, 213
Polymer
fluorine content of, effect of
increase in, 6t
history, milestones in, 20t
science, age of, 19–21
Polymer electrolyte membrane
(PEM) fuel cells, 285–286
Polymer fume fever (PFF), 295–296
Polymeric fluorinated additives,
126–128
fluoroelastomer additives, 127–128
polytetrafluoroethylene
homopolymer additives, 126–127
vinylidene fluoride polymer
additives, 128
Polymeric processing additives,
199–201
Polymeric processing aids, 199–200
Polymerization, 72–76
of chlorotrifluoroethylene, 71
of ethylene-cochlorotrifluoroethylene
polymers, 74–75
of ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene
polymers, 74
of fluorinated ethylene propylene
polymer, 74
of perfluoroalkoxy polymer, 73
of polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 75
of polytetrafluoroethylene, 72–73
of polyvinyl fluoride, 75–76
of polyvinylidene fluoride, 75
temperature, 102–103
of tetrafluoroethylene, 67, 70, 97
mechanism of, 100, 101t
suspension, 97, 100–108, 102f
of vinylidene fluoride, 71
emulsion polymerization,
136–137
solution polymerization, 138
suspension polymerization,
137–138. See also Emulsion
polymerization; Solution
polymerization; Suspension
polymerization
Polymer processing additives (PPAs),
128
Polymethyltrifluoropropyl siloxane
(PMTFPS), 201
Polyolefin film surface, fluorination
of, 6
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS),
242–243
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
(Teflon®), 1–2, 5–6, 12–13,
22–23, 141, 233, 295, 304,
306–308Index 321
applications of, 83
attributes of, 28t
characterization of, 113–121, 114t
dispersions, 118–121, 121t–122t
fine powder resins, 117–118,
119t–120t
granular resins, 113–117,
115t–117t
commercialization of, 23–24
consumption and use of, 32–34
development, milestones in, 25t
developmental history of, 27–29,
28f–29f
discovery of, 55–56
dispersion of, 72–73, 108–113
economy of, 85–86
extended. See Extended PTFE
fabrication of, 83
fine powder, 72
finishing of, 72–73
fire hazard, 304
fluoroadditives, 73
fundamental properties of, 26–27,
27t
granular. See Granular PTFE
homopolymer additives, 126–127
manufacturing, 91–124
melt creep viscosity of, 98
modified waxes, 129–130
polymerization of, 72–73
properties of, 31t, 77–79
repro PTFE, 307f, 308
scrap PTFE, 305–306, 307t
structure of, 233f
structure property relationship,
76–77
thermal degradation of, 77, 77f
virgin PTFE, 306–308, 307f, 307t.
See also Tetrafluoroethylene
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 56
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 2–3, 53–62,
294
attributes of, 54t
chemical structure of, 54f
coefficient of friction of, 57t
consumption of, 33f
development of, 56–60
fabrication of, 83
films, properties of, 54t
finishing of, 75–76
history of, 55–56
polymerization of, 75–76
properties of, 31t, 82
surface energy of, 57t. See also
Vinyl fluoride
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 3,
26, 133f, 236
applications of, 146–147
characterization of, 138–140
consumption of, 33f
emulsion polymerization of,
136–137
finishing of, 75
polymerization of, 75
processing of, 145
properties of, 81–82, 139t,
141–145, 142t–144t
conformations and transitions,
141–145
solution polymerization of, 138
structure of, 235f
suspension polymerization of,
137–138. See also Vinylidene
fluoride
Potassium gold cyanide, 287
Potassium permanganate, 101
Powder coatings, 243, 245,
249–251
application equipment, 250f
Powder spray gun, Corona charging
in, 251f
PPAs. See Polymeric processing
additives
PPS. See Polyphenylene sulfide
PPVE. See Perfluoropropyl vinyl
ether
Precision Polymer Engineering Ltd.,
152t, 216322 Index
Preforming
granular PTFE characterization,
114, 116–117
Processing aids, 175
Properties of fluoropolymers, 232
Propylene, 165–166
Protective clothing, 304
PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene
PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride
PVDF. See Polyvinylidene fluoride
PVF. See Polyvinyl fluoride
Pyrolysis
tetrafluoroethylene preparation, 92
R
Radiation promoters, 170
Ram extruders, 183
Rayon®, 56–57
Reactivity, of fluorine, 9
Red Iron Oxide, 172t
Reduction ratio
of fine powder PTFE resins, 118
Redux initiators, 101
Repro PTFE, 306
Resins
granular PTFE. See Granular PTFE
fine powder PTFE, 117–118,
119t–120t
Rheometer, 118
Rotary seal for aircraft, 181t
Rotolining, PVDF applications in,
147
Rotomolding, PVDF applications in,
147
S
SEAs. See Small electrical appliances
Safety measures, 297–305
equipment cleaning and
maintenance, 303
fire hazard, 304
material incompatibility, 304–305
personal hygiene, 304
processing and fabrication,
298–303
dispersion coating, 302
machining, 302–303
melt processing, 302
paste extrusion, 301–302
sintering, 300–301
soldering and melt stripping, 303
welding and flame-cutting
fluoropolymer-lined metals, 303
welding fluoropolymer, 303
protective clothing, 304
spillage cleanup, 303
ventilation, 298
Safety of fluoropolymers, 84–85
Scrap and recycling, 305–308
Sealants, FKMs’ applications in,
198–199
Seat belt D-rings, 268
Semi-batch emulsion polymerization,
159–160
Sevoflurane®, 3–4, 13
Shanghai Bag Filtration Equipment
Co., Ltd.
ePTFE production, 50
Shanghai Da Gong New Materials
Company, LTD.
ePTFE production, 51
Shanghai Linflon Film Technology
ePTFE production, 51
Shanghai Lingqiao Environmental
Protecting Works
ePTFE production, 51
SilverStone® coatings, 259–260
SilverStone SUPRA®, 260
Sintering, 300–301
granular PTFE characterization,
114
Size reduction technique, 103
Skiving
granular PTFE characterization, 114
Small electrical appliances (SEAs),
263–264
“Snake oils”, 239
Snowballing granulation steps, 108,
109fIndex 323
Solution polymerization
of vinylidene fluoride, 138. See
also Polymerization
Solvay Solexis S.A., 152t
Solvents, 239
Spectragraphics®, 259
Spillage cleanup, 303
Spray guns, 248
SRF Black, 172t
SSG. See Standard specific gravity.
Standard specific gravity (SSG)
dispersions of PTFE, 118, 121t
of fine powder PTFE resins, 117,
119t–120t
of granular PTFE resins, 113–116,
115t
of polytetrafluoroethylene, 77–78
Steam resistance, 192
Steam-resistant formulations,
179t–180t
Strained specific gravity, of
fine powder PTFE resins,
119t–120t
Stratification, 240
Stretch void index (SVI)
of fine powder PTFE resins,
119t–120t
Structure property relationship
polyethylene, 76–77
polytetrafluoroethylene, 76–77
Stud, 270
Substrate, 245–247
Sulfones, 175
Sumitomo Electric Industries
ePTFE production, 51
Supercritical carbon dioxide,
215–216
Suspension polymerization, 160–164
of polytetrafluoroethylene, 72
of tetrafluoroethylene, 97,
100–108, 102f
of vinylidene fluoride, 137–138.
See also Polymerization
SVI. See Stretch void index
T
TCTFE. See 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-
trifluoroethane
TECHNOFLON, 190
TECNOFLON SL, 166–167
TECNOFLON T, 166–167
Tedlar®, 56–60, 255
-clad aluminum fascia hanger, 58
-finish sidings, 58
SP film, 60
surfacing, 60
Tefal® process, 255
Teflon®, 23, 254
TEFLON Powder, 172t
Teflon-P® PFA Powder Coating
532-5010, 259
Teflon-S®, 240
Terpene B, 67, 94
Teslar®, 56–57
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 5–6,
21–23, 26, 64, 153t, 165,
209–210, 214, 277–278, 295
-based fluoroelastomers, 152–154
chlorotrifluoroethylene. See
Chlorotrifluoroethylene
consumption of, 33f
ethylene-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene
polymers. See ethyleneco-chlorotrifluoroethylene
polymers
ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene
polymers. See Ethylene-cotetrafluoroethylene polymers
health hazards of, 296t–297t
polymerization of, 67, 70, 97, 157
emulsion, 108–113
mechanism of, 100, 101t
suspension, 97, 100–108, 102f
polymers, 97–100
polytetrafluoroethylene. See
Polytetrafluoroethylene
preparation of, 91–94, 94t
properties of, 31t, 70, 95–97, 96t
synthesis of, 67, 67f324 Index
TFE. See Tetrafluoroethylene
TFE/P elastomer based compounds,
178t–179t
Thermal instability index (TII)
of fine powder PTFE resins,
119t–120t
of granular PTFE resins, 115t
Thermal properties of
fluoropolymers, 294–295
Thermoplastic coatings, 237
TII. See Thermal instability index
Ti-Pure R-960, 172t
Toxicology of fluoropolymers, 294
TPT, 60
Transfer molding, 184
Tribocharging, 250–251
Triboelectric-charging powder spray
gun, 252f
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane
(TCTFE), 68–69
1,1,1-Trifluoroethane, 69
conversion of, 134–135
Trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane, 8
Two-step graft copolymerization,
209–210
Types of fluoropolymers, 233
U
Uhde cell stack, 284, 285f
Uniqueness of fluorine, 5–7
United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA), 262
Unstrained specific gravity, of fine
powder PTFE resins, 119t–120t
USDA. See United States Department
of Agriculture
U.S. Department of Transportation
on vinyl fluoride, 71
U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, 85, 99–100
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
(FDA), 83
V
VDF. See Vinylidene fluoride
Ventilation, 298
VF. See Vinyl fluoride
Vinyl fluoride (VF)
polyvinyl fluoride. See Polyvinyl
fluoride
properties of, 71
synthesis of, 69–70
Vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 64,
151–154, 153t, 166–167,
209–210
-based fluoroelastomers,
152–154
polymer additives, 128
polymerization of, 71, 157
polymers, 133–148
polyvinylidene fluoride. See
Polyvinylidene fluoride
preparation of, 135–138
emulsion polymerization,
136–137
solution polymerization, 138
suspension polymerization,
137–138
properties of, 71
synthesis of, 69, 134–135
commercial process, 135
1,1,1-Trifluoroethane, conversion
of, 134–135, 134t
yield, contact time and temperature
effect on, 134t
Viton, 152–154, 166–167, 190
Vortex® Mill, 105–106
Vulcanization, 210
W
W.L. Gore and Associates, 37–52
early history of, 38–39
expanded PTFE, discovery of,
40–43
W.L. Gore v. C.R. Bard, 49
Wear-resistant material 75 FKM 260
466, 216
Weilburger Coatings, 253
Weld-nut, 270
Wet agglomeration process, 107–108
Whitford Corporation, 252–253Index 325
X
Xylan® 1010, 257–258
Y
Yeu Ming Tai Chemical Ind. Co. LTD.
ePTFE production, 51
Z
Zeus Industrial Products
ePTFE production, 50
Zirconia nitride, 105–106


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