كتاب Ionizing Radiation and Polymers - Principles, Technology and Applications
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Ionizing Radiation and Polymers - Principles, Technology and Applications

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كتاب Ionizing Radiation and Polymers - Principles, Technology and Applications Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Ionizing Radiation and Polymers - Principles, Technology and Applications   كتاب Ionizing Radiation and Polymers - Principles, Technology and Applications Emptyالثلاثاء 29 أغسطس 2023, 12:49 am

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Ionizing Radiation and Polymers - Principles, Technology and Applications (2012)
Jiri George Drobny

كتاب Ionizing Radiation and Polymers - Principles, Technology and Applications I_r_a_11
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Table of contents
Dedication
Preface
Abbreviations
1. Introduction
1.1 Radiation Types and Sources
1.2 Ionizing Radiations
1.3 Ion Beam Radiation
1.4 Laser Beam Radiation
References
Recommended Further Reading
2. Fundamentals of Radiation Chemistry and Physics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Interaction of High-Energy Electrons with Organic Matter
References
Recommended Further Reading
3. Equipment Used for Radiation Processing of Polymers
3.1 γ-Ray Irradiation Equipment
3.2 EB Irradiation Equipment
3.3 X-Ray Processing Equipment
3.4 Current Developments in EB Processing Equipment and Technology
References
Recommended Further Reading
4. Electron Beam Processes
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Methods to Enhance EB Radiation Cross-linking by Prorads
4.3 Retarders of Radiation Cross-linking
References
Recommended Further Reading
5. Electron Beam Processing of Commercial Polymers, Monomers, and Oligomers
5.1 Processing of Thermoplastics
5.2 EB Processing of Elastomers
5.3 EB Processing of Liquid Systems
5.4 Grafting and Other Polymer Modifications
References
Recommended Further Reading
6. Industrial Applications of Ionizing Radiation
6.1 EB Process in Wire and Cable Technology
6.2 EB Process in Tire Technology
6.3 EB Process in the Manufacture of Polyolefin Foams
6.4 EB Process in the Production of Heat-Shrinkable Materials
6.5 Cross-linked PE Pipes
6.6 EB Process in Coatings, Adhesives, Paints, and Printing Inks
6.7 Production of Fluoroadditives
6.8 Radiation Curing of Polymeric Composites
6.9 Hydrogels
6.10 Sterilization of Medical Devices
6.11 Other Applications for Ionizing Radiation
References
Recommended Further Reading
7. Radiation-Resistant Polymers and Their Applications
7.1 Degradation and Stability
7.2 Applications of Radiation-Resistant Polymers
References
Recommended Further Reading
8. Dosimetry and Real-Time Process Monitoring
8.1 Dosimetry
8.2 Real-Time Monitors
References
Recommended Further Reading
9. Safety and Hygiene
9.1 EB Equipment Health and Safety
9.2 γ-Ray Health and Safety
9.3 Chemical Hazards
References
Recommended Further Reading
10. Current State of Technology and Trends
10.1 Current New Developments and Trends in Equipment and Chemistry
10.2 New Developments and Trends in Process Technology
10.3 Other New Development and Trends
References
Appendix I. Major EB Equipment Manufacturers
Appendix II. Standards and Specifications Applicable to Ionizing Radiation
AII.1 ASTM Standards
AII.2 ISO/ASTM Standards
AII.3 Other Resources for Dosimetry
Appendix III. Units of Exposure, Absorbed Dose, and Conversions
AIII.1 Exposure
AIII.2 Absorbed Dose
AIII.3 Equivalent Dose
Appendix IV. Equation Used
Appendix V. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry
Bibliography
Glossary
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
A
Absorbed dose, 1112, 261
Absorbed energy, 11
Accelerating voltage, 7
Acrylic compounds, 9195
Adhesives, 191195
laminating, 194195
pressure-sensitive, 192194
Advanced composites, 196
Advanced fiber-reinforced composites,
196200
AEB emitter, 75f
Aerospace applications, of radiation-resistant
polymers, 218220
Alanine dosimeters, 232
ALARA (as low as reasonably
achievable), 239
Aliphatic polyesters, 111
Allylic compounds, 9195
Antirads, 95
Applications of ionizing radiation
artificial joints, 204205
battery separators, 204
filter membranes, 204
Artificial joints, ionizing radiation
application as, 204205
ASTM Standards, for ionizing
radiation, 259
Atmospheric plasma processing (APP), 252
B
Battery separators, ionizing radiation
application as, 204
Bequerel (Bq), 4
Bias-oriented PP (BOPP), 252
Bremsstrahlung, 6
BROADBEAMt, 4851
EP series, 66, 68f
LE series, 6466, 68f
OSD series, 6668, 69f
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP),
43, 257258
C
Cable, 150
qualification tests of, 222
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), 203
Cast and Curet system, 251
Cathode ray, 1
Cellophane films, 228
Cellulose degradation for paper and viscose
production, 254
Cericcerous dosimetry, 232
Chain scission, 16, 18t
CharlesbyPinner equation, 17, 19f, 20, 263
Chemical hazards, of EB equipments,
240242
Chemistry, new developments and trends in,
251252
CHV (compact high-voltage systems), 59, 59f
Coatings, EB process in, 186187
applications of, 186187
on flexible substrates, 187
on rigid substrates, 187
Coaxial cable, 150152
Cobalt-60, 28, 28f
CockcroftWalton generators, 37, 52f
Comet AG, 69, 70f, 257258
Comet e-beam Emitter
modular design of, 77f
schematic of, 77f
Commercial EB reactors, performance
and use, 5168
Composite materials, 200202
Copolymer of ethylene and
tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 109
291Copolymer of ethylene and
trichlorofluoroethylene (ECTFE),
109
Corex, 257258
Coulomb per kilogram (C/kg), 261
Cross-head die, 153f
Crosshead extrusion process, 153
Cross-link density, 264
Cross-link promoters, 8889
Cross-linked PE (PEX) pipes, 181184
irradiation of PE pipes, 183184
production of, 182183
Cross-linking, defining, 16
Cure yield, measuring, 229
Curie (Ci), 4
Custom systems, 5859, 58f
Cyclotron, 8f
D
Degradation by ionizing radiation,
216218
Delivered dose, 264265
Depth-dose distribution, 32, 229
Dimaleimides, 90
Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 136
Direct accelerators, 3334
Discoloration, 214215
Dose limit ratio, 32
Dose reader, 229230, 230f
Dose uniformity, measuring, 229
Dose uniformity ratio (DUR), 32
Dose-rate effects, 216
Dosimetry, 225233
criteria for selecting, 226227
examples of, 226t
functions of, 225226
Dynamitron, 3739, 59, 60f
E
Easy-e-Beam, 4951, 50f, 6364, 64f, 158f
E-beam Test Lab, 69
EBOCAMs, 47
EBOGEN processing unit, 47, 48f
EC-Beam, 51, 53f
EC-LAB 400, 6971, 70f
EC-Print, 5153, 54f
EC-Scanner, 51, 53f
EC-Tube, 5354, 54f
Effective polyfunctional prorads, 94t
Elastomers
electron beam processing of, 112132
vulcanization of, 114
Electrical conductivity, radiation-induced, 215
Electrocure Casette, 5657, 57f
Electrocurtains, 4547
Electromagnetic radiation, 2, 2t
Electron beam processes, 8389, 149
in adhesives, 191195
laminating adhesives, 194195
pressure-sensitive adhesives, 192194
in coatings, 186187
cross-linked PE (PEX) pipes, 181184
irradiation of PE pipes, 183184
cross-linking, 182
by polythiols, 92t
by prorads, 8995
curable systems with common solvents
toxicity and properties, comparison
of, 241t
direct cross-link promoters, 9095
acrylic and allylic compounds, 9195
maleimides, 9091
thiols (polymercaptans), 91
of elastomers, 112132
individual elastomers, effects of
radiation on, 118132
radiation cross-linked elastomers,
physical properties of, 116117
equipments
for health and safety, 237239
manufacturers, 257258
personal radiation monitoring, 238239
radiation monitoring systems, 239
grafting, 134138
indirect cross-link promoters, 8990
bases, 90
halogenated compounds, 89
nitrous oxide, 8990
sulfur monochloride, 90
irradiation equipment, 3272
design and operation of industrial EB
reactors, 3251
direct accelerators, 3439
indirect accelerators, 3943
particle accelerators, 3351
irradiators, 13
liquid systems, 132134
market, by continent, 152f
292 INDEXin magnetic media, 186
in manufacture of polyolefin foams,
170174
applications, 173174
chemical and radiation processes,
comparison of, 173
foam expansion and its control, 171172
manufacturing processes, 172
polymer modifications, 139
in printing and graphic arts, 187191
flexography, 188189
rotogravure printing, 189191
in production of heat-shrinkable materials,
174181
heat-shrinkable sheets and films,
178181
heat-shrinkable tubing, 176177
radiation cross-linking, retarders of, 95
thermoplastics, 101112
engineering plastics, 111112
fluoroplastics, 107111
poly(methyl methacrylate), 107
polyolefins, 101105
polystyrene, 105106
polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene
chloride, 106107
in tire technology, 165170
in wire and cable technology, 150165
equipment and processes, 153161
materials, 163165
radiation equipment and process,
161163
recent developments and trends, 165
Electron penetration range, 8586
Electron processors, 4344
Electron volts (eV), 7
Electrostatic generators, 3536
Elektron Crosslinking AB (Sweden), 5154,
6971, 257258
ELV accelerators, 51
Energy deposited equation, 264
Energy Sciences Inc. (Massachusetts), 5459,
71, 257258
Engel/peroxide method, in PEX
production, 182
Engineering plastics, processing of, 111112
high-performance engineering plastics, 112
regular service engineering plastics, 111
Equal-entrance exposure, 8687
Equal-exit exposure, 8687
Equipments
new developments and trends in, 246247
4 in 1 flexible packaging line, 251
cellulose degradation for paper and
viscose production, 254
ethanol/biofuel production, cellulose
degradation for, 254
integrated shield roll, 247248
low-profile systems, 247
municipal waste recycling by
irradiation, 254
sealed tube emitters based EB systems,
249251
ultralow-energy EB systems, 247
for polymers radiation processing, 27
commercial EB reactors, performance
and use, 5168
current developments, in EB
processing equipment and
technology, 7478
design and operation of industrial EB
reactors, 3251
EB irradiation equipment, 3272
γ-ray irradiation equipment, 2732
laboratory EB units, 6972
X-ray processing equipment, 7273
Equivalent dose, 261
Ethanol/biofuel production, cellulose
degradation for, 254
Ethylenepropylenediene rubber (EPDM)
terpolymers, 125126
Ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), 160161
Ethylenepropylene copolymers, 125126
Exposure, 261
Extrusion, 153154
EZCure DF, 54, 55f
EZCure F-1, 5456, 55f
EZCure-CR, 56, 56f
EZCure-LS, 56, 57f
EZLab, 71, 71f
F
Fast check strips dosimeters, 253
FEP, electron beam processing of, 109
Fiber optic cables, 150152
Fiber-reinforced composites, 196
Film badge dosimeters, 238239
Film dosimetry, 227, 229
INDEX 293Filter membranes, ionizing radiation
application as, 204
Flexography, 188189
FloryRehner equation, 115116, 263
Fluoroadditives, production of, 195196
Fluorocarbon elastomers, 128129
Fluoroplastics, processing of, 107111
copolymer of ethylene and
tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), 109
copolymer of ethylene
and trichlorofluoroethylene
(ECTFE), 109
FEP and PFA, 109
polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 109
polytetrafluoroethylene, 108
polytrifluoroethylene (PF3E), 111
polyvinylfluoride (PVF), 110111
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 110
Fluorosilicone elastomers, electron beam
processing of, 129
4 in 1 flexible packaging line, 251
Four-side irradiation, of W&C, 164f
Free-radical polymerization, 18t
Fundamentals of radiation chemistry
and physics, 11
high-energy electrons with organic matter,
interaction of, 1324
G
Gamma rays (γ-ray), 34, 1213
health and safety, 239240
Gaseous products, formation of, 215
Gel fraction, 171
Gel level, 171
Gel point, 1819
Graft copolymer, 135
Grafting, 17, 18t, 134138
Graphite calorimeter, 231f
Graphite-fiber-reinforced composites, 198
Gray (Gy), 261
Green chemistry, principles of, 267268
Grun range, 263
H
Half-life, 4
Halogenated compounds, 89
Heat-shrinkable materials production,
EB process in, 174181
alternative patented method of, 178f
heat-shrinkable sheets and films,
178181
heat-shrinkable tubing, 176177
plastic memory effect of, 179f
Raychem patent for, 177f
High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 102,
181182
pipes, cross-linking of, 183
High-energy EPS processor with scanner,
65f, 66t
Hydrogels, 202203
Hypalons, 165
I
IBA Industrial (Belgium), 5961,
257258
ILU accelerators, 43
Indirect accelerators, 3334
Industrial applications, of ionizing
radiation, 149
applications for
artificial joints, 204205
battery separators, 204
filter membranes, 204
cross-linked PE pipes (PEX), 181184
irradiation of PE pipes, 183184
EB (electron beam) process
adhesives, 184195
laminatingadhesives, 194195
pressuresensitiveadhesives, 192194
cable manufacture, equipment and
processes in, 153161
extrusion, 153154
radiationversuschemicalcrosslinking,
155161
vulcanization(crosslinking), 154155
chemical and radiation processes,
comparison of, 173
coatings, 184195
foam expansion and its control, 171172
heat-shrinkable sheets and films,
178181
heat-shrinkable tubing, 176177
magnetic media, 186
manufacturing processes, 172
materials, 163165
in manufacture of polyolefin foams,
170174
in paints, 184195
294 INDEXpolyolefin foams, applications of,
173174
printing and graphic arts, 187191
in printing inks, 184195
in production of heat-shrinkable
materials, 174181
recent developments and trends, 165
in tire technology, 165170
in wire and cable technology, 150165
W&C manufacture, radiation equipment
and process in, 161163
fluoroadditives, production of, 195196
hydrogels, 202203
polymeric composites, radiation curing of,
196202
advanced fiber-reinforced composites,
196200
composite materials, 200202
sterilization of medical devices, 203204
Infrared (IR) radiation, 1
Insulating core transformers (ICTs), 37
Integrated shield roll, 247248
International Commission on Radiological
Protection (ICRP), 240
Ion beam radiation, 1, 78
Ionizing radiations, 27
EB radiation, 7
gamma rays, 34
sources comparison, 5t
X-rays, 46
Iron core transformers, 37
ISO/ASTM Standards, for ionizing radiation,
259260
J
Jacketing, 153
K
K-shell, 6
L
LambertBeer law, 4, 263
Laminar wood-plastic composites (WPCs),
201202
Laminating adhesives, 194195
Laser beam radiation, 1, 8
Linacs, 39
standing wave (SW), 40
traveling wave (TW), 3940
Linear cathode electron accelerators,
4547, 46f
Linear energy transfer (LET), 78
Linear induction accelerator (LIA), 4041
Linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 102
Liquid systems, electron beam processing
of, 132134
Long-chain branching, 16
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 102
Low-energy EB equipment, 253
Low-energy electron accelerators, 4351
Low-profile systems, 247
M
Magnetic media, 186
Maleimides, 9091
Manmachine interfaces (MMI), 4547
Medical devices, sterilization of, 203204
Medium-Energy EPS series, 67t
Mevex, 257258
Microwave linear accelerator, 39
Microwaves, 1
MooneyRivlin equation, 116, 264
Multiconductor cable, 150152, 152f
Multifilament linear cathode electron
accelerators, 4851
Multifunctional monomers, 91
Multimode fiber, 150152
Multipass wire irradiation, 164f
Municipal waste recycling by
irradiation, 254
N
Natural rubber
cross-links and scissions in, 96t
and synthetic polyisoprene, 118120
NHV Corporation (Japan), 64, 257258
Nitrile rubber (NBR), 127
Nitrous oxide, 8990
Nuclear industry applications, 221222
N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), 139
P
Paints, EB process in, 184195
Panoramic irradiators, 31
Particle accelerators, 3351
direct accelerators, 3439
indirect accelerators, 3943
INDEX 295PCT Engineered Systems, LLC, Davenport,
Iowa, 6469, 257258
PE dosimetry, 232233
Perfluoroelastomers, 129
Peroxidation radiation procedure, 135
Personal radiation monitoring, 238239
PFA, electron beam processing of, 109
Plastic fiber, 150152
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA),
processing of, 107
Polyamides, 111
Polybutadiene, electron beam processing
of, 120124
Polycarbonates, 111
Polychloroprene, 126127
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 109
Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), 128
Polyethylene (PE), 9091, 102104
Polyfunctional monomers, 9193
Polyfunctional prorads, in various
polymers, 94t
Polyisobutylene, electron beam processing
of, 124125
Polymeric composites, radiation curing of,
196202
advanced fiber-reinforced composites,
196200
composite materials, 200202
Polymerization, 16, 2022
anionic, 252
cationic, 132133
emulsion, 126
free-radical, 18t
grafting, 134135
Polymer modifications, 139
Polyolefins, 174
foams manufacturing, EB process in,
170174
applications of, 173174
comparison of chemical and radiation
processes, 173
foam expansion and its control,
171172
processes, 172
pipes, irradiation of, 183184
processing of, 101105
polyethylene, 102104
polypropylene, 104105
Polypropylene (PP), 104105
Polystyrene
processing of, 105106
radiation resistance of, 215
Polytetrafluoethylene resins, properties of, 195t
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), electron
beam processing of, 108
Polytrifluoroethylene (PF3E), 111
Polyvinylacetate, 9091
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 203
Polyvinyl chloride, processing of, 106107
Polyvinylfluoride (PVF), 110111, 160
Polyvinylidene chloride, 107
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 110
Postirradiation oxidation effects, 216217
Potential drop accelerators, 3334
Pre-radiation procedure, of radiation
grafting, 135
Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs),
192194, 252
Primary insulation, 153
Printing and graphic arts, EB process in,
187191
flexography, 188189
printing inks, 184195
rotogravure printing, 189191
Process dose, 3132
Process technology, new developments and
trends in, 252254
Programmable process controllers (PLC),
4547
Prorads, 8889
R
Rad, 261
Radiation cross-linked elastomers, physical
properties of, 116117
Radiation curing, 16
Radiation grafting, see Grafting
Radiation monitoring systems, 239
Radiation rapid curing (RRC), 138
Radiation sterilization, 220221
Radiation types and sources, 12
Radiation versus chemical cross-linking,
155161
Radiation-induced electrical conductivity,
215
Radiation-resistant polymers, 213
applications of, 218222
aerospace applications, 218220
296 INDEXnuclear industry applications, 221222
radiation sterilization, 220221
degradation and stability, 213218
in absence of oxygen, 213216
in air, 216218
specific polymers, 218
Radical scavengers, 217
Radioactive decay, 34
Radioactive isotope, 34
Radioactivity, 4
Radiochromic films, 227
Radionuclide, 28
Radionuclide Cobalt-60, 29f
REACH (Registration, Evaluation,
Authorisation and Restriction of
Chemicals), 242
Reactive thinners, 133134
Real-time monitors, 233
Rem, 261
Resin-transfer molding (RTM), 198
Resonant cavity accelerators, 40
Resonant transformers, 3637
Rhodotron, 6162, 61f
Rhodotron accelerators, 4142
Rhodotron TT 200, 62, 62f
Rhodotron TT 300, 62, 62f
Rhodotron TT 1000, 63, 63f
RisøScan, 229230
Ro¨ntgen (R), 261
Ro¨ntgen radiation, see X-radiation
Rotogravure printing, 189191
ROTO-JET system, for grinding irradiated
fluoropolymers, 197f
S
Safety and hygiene, of EB equipments, 237
Scanning-type electron accelerators, 44
Sealed tube emitters based EB systems,
249251
Sekisui process, 172
for polyolefin foams, 173f
Self-contained irradiators, 3031
Self-shielding processor, 47f, 50f, 52f, 65f
Semicrystalline polymers, 24
Sheathing, see Jacketing
Short fibers, 196
Sievert (Sv), 261
Silane method, of PEX production, 182
Silicone elastomers, 127128
Simultaneous radiation grafting method,
135136
Single-mode fiber, 150152
Single-stage scanned beam accelerator, 45, 46f
Source Rack Module, 29f
Stabilizers for radiation degradation in air,
217218
Standards and Specifications, for ionizing
radiation, 259260
Standing wave linacs, 40
Steigerwald Strahltechnik GmbH, 257258
Sterilization of medical devices, 203204
Sulfur monochloride, 90
Sunna dosimeter, 232
Surface area rate, measuring, 229
Sustainability features, 246
T
Terpolymers, 125126
Tetrafluoroethylene-propylene
(TFE-P), 129
Thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs), 239
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), 129132
polyolefins-based, 132
Thermoplastics, processing of, 101112
engineering plastics, 111112
fluoroplastics, 107111
poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), 107
polyolefins, 101105
polystyrene, 105106
polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene
chloride, 106107
Thin film dosimeters, 227, 253254
Thiols (polymercaptans), 91
Throughput, 264
Tire technology, EB process in, 165170
Toray process, 172
for polyolefin foams, 174f
Traveling wave linacs, 3940
Triallyl cyanurate (TAC), 93
Triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC), 93
Trimethylolpropane triacrylate
(TMPTA), 106
Trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate
(TMPTMA), 106
Trommsdorff peak, 136
Trunk polymer, 134135
Twisted pairs cable, 150152
Two-sided irradiation, of wire/cable, 163f
INDEX 297U
U-electront, 7172, 72f
Ultralow-energy EB systems, 247
Unsaturation, 214215
Ushio America, 7172, 257258
UV and EB radiations, 2
comparison of, 3f
UV-curable laminating adhesives, 195
V
Van de Graaff generator, 3536, 36f
Vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 128129
Vitons A, 128129
Volatile organic compounds (VOC), 237
Vulcanization, 113114, 154155
W
Wasik Associates, Inc, 257258
Wire and cable technology, EB process in,
150165
equipment and processes, 153161
extrusion, 153154
radiation versus chemical cross-linking,
155161
vulcanization (cross-linking), 154155
materials, 163165
radiation equipment and process in,
161163
recent developments and trends, 165
Wood-fiber-reinforced plastics
(WFRPs), 201
Wood-plastic composites (WPCs), 201
World electron beam market, 152f
X
X-radiation, 46, 7273
X-rays, 1, 46, 13, 7273
298 INDEX


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