كتاب Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts - Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts - Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts - Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers    كتاب Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts - Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers  Emptyالخميس 17 أغسطس 2023, 1:14 am

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Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts - Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers
Michel Biron

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Table of contents
1. Thermoplastic Material Selection: Some Ways of Thinking for a Systematic Approach
1.1. Specific Plastics Design Issues: Some Ins and Outs among Others
1.2. Checklist Proposal
2. Thermoplastic Specific Properties
2.1. Do not Confuse Raw Polymer and Plastic Grade (or Compound)
2.2. Raw TPs Are Organic Macromolecules
2.3. Supramolecular Structure
2.4. Viscoelasticity, Time, and Temperature Dependency
2.5. From Raw Polymers to Actual Grades: Upgrading and Customization
2.6. Isotropy and Anisotropy
2.7. Dimensional Stability
2.8. Market Appeal: Sensory Properties Are of the Prime Importance
3. Thermoplastics: Economic Overview
3.1. Overview of the Global Plastics Industry Today and Tomorrow
3.2. Market Shares of the Various Thermoplastic Families
3.3. Market Shares of Composites
3.4. Market Shares for the Main Application Sectors
3.5. Importance of the Various Processing Modes
3.6. Consumption Trends
3.7. The North American Market
3.8. The Western European Market
3.9. The Asian Market
3.10. Structure of the Plastics Processing Industry
3.11. Plastic Costs
3.12. The Future: Two Important Issues Linked to Crude Oil: Costs and Drying Up
3.13. Price Index Hypotheses for 279 Plastics
3.14. Useful Source Examples for Initiation of In-depth Studies
4. Elements for Analogical Selections: Survey of the 10 Top Markets
4.1. Packaging
4.2. Building and Civil Engineering
4.3. Automotive and Transportation
4.4. Electrical and Electronics Market
4.5. Household, Entertainment, and Office Appliances
4.6. Mechanical Engineering
4.7. Sports and Leisure
4.8. Medical Market
4.9. Furniture and Bedding
4.10. Agriculture
5. Avoid Some Pitfalls
5.1. Balance Well-Estimated Part Requirements and Properties of the Used Compound: Objectively Fill Out Your Checklist
5.2. Mechanical Properties: At Break, at Elastic Limit, at Yield, after Creep
5.3. Do not Confuse Local and Bulk Properties: Take into Account the Statistical Distribution of Properties
5.4. Chemical Behavior: Nature of Chemicals, Time, Temperature, Environmental Stress Cracking
5.5. Ambient Humidity Can Plasticize Polymers and Change Their Properties Including Electrical Properties
5.6. Often Properties Evolve Abruptly: Glass Transition, Yield, Knees, Frequency- Dependent Properties
5.7. Modeling and Predictions of Lifetimes: Very Useful if Carefully Used; Very Hazardous in Other Cases
5.8. Helpful, Hazardous, and False Comparisons
6. Density, Actual Weight Savings, Cost, and Property per Volume Advantages
6.1. Density of 280 Thermoplastics, Statistical Analysis, and Modeling
6.2. Specific Yield Strength and Specific Modulus
6.3. Cost per Volume Examples
6.4. Actual Weight Savings
6.5. Density Reduction Using Structural Foam Techniques and Hollow Parts
7. Mechanical Properties
7.1. Plastics are not Ideal Materials Obeying to Simple Physical Laws
7.2. First of All, Fully Understand Information and Make Your Requirements Understandable
7.3. Tensile Properties
7.4. Flexural Properties
7.5. Compressive Properties
7.6. Shear Properties
7.7. Comparison of Tensile, Flexural, Compressive, and Shear Properties
7.8. Impact Strength
7.9. Hardness
8. Thermal Properties
8.1. Overview
8.2. Glass Transition Temperature (See Also Section 2.3.3)
8.3. Thermal Behavior above Room Temperature (See Also Section 1.1.3)
8.4. Low-Temperature Behavior (See Also Section 1.1.4)
9. Dimensional Stability
9.1. Coefficients of Thermal Expansion—CTE or CTLE
9.2. Shrinkage after Molding
9.3. Warpage
9.4. Water Uptake
9.5. Releasing of Organic Additives: Choose High-Molecular Weight or Reactive Additives
9.6. Some Other Causes of Dimensional Variations
10. Advanced Mechanical Properties
10.1. Thermal Dependency of Mechanical Properties
10.2. Time-Dependent Mechanical Properties
10.3. Poisson’s Ratios
10.4. Friction and Wear; Tribological Thermoplastics
11. Fire Behavior
11.1. Preliminary Remarks: Define the Problem Correctly
11.2. Predisposition to Burn: More or Less Easily, All Thermoplastics Burn
11.3. Inherently FR polymers
11.4. FR Solutions
11.5. The Top Solutions: HFFR and FST grades
11.6. Examples of Effect of FR Modifications on Properties
12. Electrical Properties
12.1. Volume Resistivity
12.2. Relative Permittivity or Dielectric Constant
12.3. Alternating Current Loss Tangent or Loss Factor
12.4. Dielectric Strength
12.5. Surface Resistivity
12.6. Arc Resistance
12.7. Frequency, Temperature, Moisture, Physical, and Dynamic Aging Effects
12.8. Electrically Conductive Thermoplastics
13. Sensory Issues: Optical Properties, Aesthetics, Odor, Taste, Touch
13.1. Refractive Index
13.2. Transparent Thermoplastics
13.3. Aesthetics
13.4. Odor and Taste Transfer
13.5. Touch
13.6. Acoustics, NVH
13.7. Sensory Testing Needs the Complementarity of Instrumental Measurements and Sensory Panel Evaluations
14. Resistance to Chemicals, Light, and UV
14.1. Chemical Resistance of Unstressed Materials
14.2. Environmental Stress Cracking
14.3. Photooxidation: Weathering, Light, and UV Behavior
15. EcoDesign
15.1. Well-Established Routes
15.2. Replacement of Fossil Materials by Renewable Materials
15.3. Take Advantage of Thermoplastics Versatility for a More Sustainable Use Phase
15.4. Overview of Some Environmental Indicators and Benchmarks Relating to LCAIndex
Acronyms and Abbreviations
5V UL Fire Rating
AAGR Average annual growth rate
ABS Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene
ACM-V Vulcanized Acrylate Rubber
ACS Acrylonitrile chlorinated Polyethylene styrene
AES or AEPDS Acrylonitrile EPDM styrene
AMC Alkyd molding compound
ArF or AF Aramid fiber
ASA Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ATBC Acetyl tributyl citrate
ATH Aluminum trihydrate
BF Boron fiber
BMC Bulk molding compound
BMI Bismaleimide
BOD Biochemical oxygen demand
BOPLA Biaxially oriented polylactic acid
BOPP Biaxially oriented polypropylene
BRIC Brazil–Russia–India–China
CA Cellulose acetate
CAB Cellulose acetobutyrate
CAD Computer-aided design
CAGR Compound annual growth rate
CBT Cyclic Polybutadiene terephthalate
CE Cyanate ester
CF Carbon fiber
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
CFRP Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic
CFRTP Carbon fiber-reinforced thermoPlastic
CIC Continuous impregnated compound
CM or CPE Chlorinated polyEthylene
CNT Carbon nanotube
COC or COP Cyclic olefin copolymers or Cyclic olefin polymers
COD Chemical oxygen demand
Conc. Concentrated Solution
COP or COC Cyclic olefin polymers or Cyclic olefin copolymers
COPE or TPEE Copolyester TPE
CP Cellulose propionate
CPE or CM Chlorinated polyEthylene
CPVC or PVC-C Chlorinated PVC
CS Compression set
CTI Comparative tracking indexxxii Acronyms and Abbreviations
CTLE Coefficient of thermal linear expansion
CUT Continuous use temperature Under Unstressed State
Cy Polycyanate
DAP DiAllyl phthalate
DCPD Poly(Dicyclopentadiene)
DMC Dough molding compound
DMTA Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis
DRIV Direct resin injection and venting
DSC Differential scanning calorimeter
DTA Differential thermal analysis
DWNT Double-wall nanotubes
EB Elongation at break
EBA, EGMA, EMAH, EEA, EAA Ethylene-acid and ethylene-ester copolymers, e.g., Ethylene-butylacrylate
ECO Prefix concerning ECOlogy or the environment, i.e., Eco-profile
ECTFE Ethylene monochlorotrifluoroethylene
EE, E&E Electrical and electronics
EMA Ethylene-methacrylate ionomers
EMI Electromagnetic interference
EP Epoxy
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPDM rubber Terpolymer ethylene, propylene, diene
EPS Expandable (or Expanded) polystyrene
ESBO Epoxidized soybean oil
ESC Environmental stress cracking
ESD Electrostatic discharge
ETFE Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene
EU European Union
EVA, E/VAC, EVAC, VAE, EVM Ethylene-vinylacetate copolymers
EVOH Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers
F-PVC Flexible PVC
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FEP Fluorinated ethylene propylene
FIM Film insert molding
FR Fire retardant
GB Glass bead
GF Glass fiber
GFRP Glass fiber-reinforced plastic
GFRTP Glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
GHG Greenhouse gas
GMT Glass mat thermoplastic
GWI Glow wire ignition
GWP Global warming potential
HB UL fire rating
HDPE or PE HD High-density polyethylene
HDT Heat deflection temperature
HFFR Halogen-free fire-retardant
HIPS High impact PS
HPGF High-performance short glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene
HSCT High speed civil transport (aircraft)
HTPC Hybrid thermoplastic composite
HTV High temperature vulcanizationAcronyms and Abbreviations xxiii
HVAC Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
HWI Hot wire ignition
ICP Inherently conductive polymer
IDP Inherently dissipative polymer
ILSS Interlaminar shear strength
IMC In-mold coating
IMD In-mold decoration
IML In-mold labeling
IPN Interpenetrating polymer network
IRHD International rubber hardness
IRM International referee material
ISO International standardization organization
LCA Life-cycle assessment
LCI Life-cycle inventory
LCP Liquid crystal polymer
LCTC Low-cost tooling for composites
LDPE or PE LD Low-density polyethylene
LED Light-emitting diode
LEFM Linear elastic fracture mechanics
LFRT Long fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
LFT Long fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
LGF Long glass fiber
LIM Liquid injection molding
LLDPE Linear low-density polyethylene
LOI Limiting oxygen index
LRI Liquid resin infusion
LRTM Light RTM
LSR Liquid silicone rubber
LWRT Lightweight-reinforced thermoplastic
MABS Methylmethacrylate–acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene
MAH Maleic anhydride
MBS Methyl methacrylate–butadiene–styrene
MDPE Medium-density polyethylene
MF Melamine
MFI Melt flow index
MPR Melt processable rubber (TPE)
MVTR Moisture vapor transmission rate
MWNT Multiwalled carbon nanotubes
NB No break
NF Natural fiber
NOx Nitrous oxides
NVH Noise vibration harshness
O&M Organization and methods department
OIT Oxygen induction time
OLED Organic light-emitting diode
OPET Oriented PET
OPP Oriented PP
OPS Oriented PS
OTR Oxygen transmission rate
PA Polyamide
PA-T Transparent amorphous polyamidexxiv Acronyms and Abbreviations
PAA Polyarylamide
PAI Polyamide imide
PAEK Polyaryletherketone
PAN Polyacrylonitrile
PAS Polyarylsulfone
PB Polybutene-1 or Polybutylene-1
PBB Polybrominated biphenyls
PBDE Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
PBI Polybenzimidazole
PBO Polyphenylenebenzooxazole
PBT or PBTP Polybutyleneterephthalate
PC Polycarbonate
PCB Printed circuit board
PC-HT Polycarbonate—high temperature
PCL Polycaprolactone
PCT Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate
PCTA Terephthalate/isophthalate
PCTFE Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PCTG Polycyclohexylene-dimethylenediol/ethyleneglycol terephthalate
PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane
PE Polyethylene
PEAA Polyethylene acrylic acid
PEAR Polyetheramide resin
PEBA Polyether block amide
PECVD Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition
PEEK Polyetherether ketone
PEF Polyethylene furanoate
PEG Polyethylene glycol
PEI Polyetherimide
PEK Polyetherketone
PEKK Polyetherketoneketone
PEN Polyethylene naphthalenedicarboxylate
PES or PESU Polyethersulfone
PET or PETP Polyethylene terephthalate
PETG Polyethylene glycol modified
PETI Phenylethynyl with imide terminations
PEX Cross-linked polyethylene
PF Phenolic resin
PF1Ax PF general purpose, ammonia-free
PF2Cx PF heat-resistant, glass fiber-reinforced
PF2Dx PF impact-resistant, cotton-filled
PF2E1 PF mica-filled
PFA Perfluoroalkoxy
PGA Polyglycolic acid
PHA Polyhydroxyalkanoate
PHB Polyhydroxybutyrate
PHBH Polyhydroxybutyrate-hexanoate
PHBV Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate
PHV Polyhydroxyvalerate
PI Polyimide
PIR PolyisocyanurateAcronyms and Abbreviations xxv
PK Polyketone
PLA Polylactic acid
PMI Polymethacrylimide
PMMA Poly methylmethacrylate
PMP Polymethylpentene
PO Polyolefin
POE Polyolefin elastomer
POM Polyoxymethylene or Polyacetal
POP Polyolefin plastomer
POSS Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane
PP Polypropylene
PPA Polyphthalamide
PPE Polyphenylene ether
PP/EPDM Unvulcanized EPDM blended with polypropylene or block copolymerized
PP-EPDM (reactor TPO)—(TPE) (TPO)
PP/EPDM-V Vulcanized EPDM dispersed in polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
PP/IIR-V Vulcanized butyl rubber dispersed in polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
PP/NBR-V Vulcanized nitrile rubber dispersed in polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
PPO Polyphenylene oxide
PPS Polyphenylene sulfide
PPSU Polyphenylenesulfone
PPT or PTMT or PTT Polypropylene terephthalate
Prepreg Preimpregnated
PS Polystyrene
PSU Polysulfone
PS-X or XPS Cross-linked polystyrene
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
PTMT or PBT Polytetramethylene terephthalate or Polybutyleneterephthalate
PTMT or PPT or PTT Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)
PTT Polytrimethylene terephthalate
PUR Polyurethane
PV Pressure*velocity
PVA or PVAL or PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol
PVAC Polyvinyl acetate
PVAL or PVA or PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol
PVB Polyvinyl butyrate
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
PVDC Polyvinylidene chloride
PVC-C or CPVC Chlorinated PVC
PVC-U Unplasticized PVC
PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
PVF Polyvinyl fluoride
PVOH or PVAL or PVA Polyvinyl alcohol
r Recycled, i.e., rPET, rPP
REACH Registration Evaluation Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals
RF Radio frequency
RFI Resin film impregnation
RH Relative humidity or hygrometry
RIM Reaction injection molding
RIRM Resin injection recirculation molding
RoHS Restriction of hazardous substancesxxvi Acronyms and Abbreviations
RP Reinforced plastic
RRIM Reinforced reaction injection molding
RT Room temperature
RTI Relative thermal index
RTM Resin transfer molding
RTP Reinforced thermoplastic
RTV Room temperature vulcanization
SAN Styrene acrylonitrile
SAP Super absorbent polymer
SATUR Saturated solution
SB Styrene butadiene
SBC Styrenic block copolymer
SBS Styrene–butadiene–styrene (TPE)
SCRIMP Seeman’s composite resin infusion molding process
SEBS Styrene ethylene/butylene styrene (TPE)
SEPS Styrene ethylene/propylene styrene (TPE)
SFRT Short fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
SGF Short glass fiber
Si Silicium
Si Silicone
SiOx Silicon oxide
SIS Styrene isoprene styrene (TPE)
SMA Styrene maleic anhydride
SMC Sheet molding compound
SMMA Styrene-methyl methacrylate
SN curve Plot of stress or strain (S) leading to failure after N cycles of repeated loading
SOL Solution
SP-polyimides Condensation polyimides
SPC Statistical process control
SPDF Super plastic diaphragm forming
SR Self-reinforced
SRRIM Structural (reinforced) resin injection molding
SWNT Single-walled carbon nanotubes
TAC Triallyl cyanurate
TDI Toluene-2,4-disocyanate
TFE Tetrafluoroethylene
T
g Glass transition temperature
TGA Thermogravimetric analysis
TGV High-speed train
TMC Thick molding compound
toe Ton of oil equivalent
TP Thermoplastic
TPE Thermoplastic elastomer
TPE/PVC PVC-based TPE, alloys of PVC and rubber (TPE) (TPO or TPV)
TPEE or COPE Thermoplastic elastomer ester
TPI Thermoplastic imide
TPO Thermoplastic olefin
TPR Thermoplastic rubber
TPS Thermoplastic styrenic
TP/Si-V TPV of a vulcanized silicone rubber dispersed in a thermoplastic phase
TPU Thermoplastic polyurethaneAcronyms and Abbreviations xxvii
TPV Thermoplastic vulcanizate
TR Temperature-retraction procedure
TS Tensile strength
UD Unidirectional composite
UF Urea-formaldehyde
UHMWPE or PE-UHMW Ultrahigh molecular weight PE
UL Underwriters laboratories
Unkn. Unknown
UP Unsaturated polyester
USB United Soybean Board
UV Ultraviolet
V0 to V2 UL fire rating
VAE Ethylene-vinylacetate copolymers
VARI Vacuum-assisted resin injection
VARTM Vacuum-assisted RTM
VE Vinylester
VGCNF Vapor-grown carbon nanofibers
VIP Vacuum infusion process
VOC Volatile organic compounds
VST Vicat softening temperature
WPC Wood plastic composite
XLPE Cross-linked LDPE
XPE or PEX Cross-linked polyethylene
XPS or PS-X Cross-linked polystyrene
ZMC A highly automated process using molding comp
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures and “t” indicate tables.670 Index
ASTM D1292-10, 20
ASTM D1729, 534
ASTM D1822-13, 319
ASTM D2444-99(2010), 319
ASTM D2843, 18
ASTM D4272-09, 319
ASTM D4495-12, 319
ASTM D4496-13, 502
ASTM D4508-10, 320
ASTM D4812-11, 320
ASTM D5420-10, 320
ASTM D5628-10, 320
ASTM D6110-10, 320
ASTM D6272-10, 302
ASTM D6395-11, 320
ASTM D7136/D7136M-12, 320
ASTM E460-12, 20
ASTM E691, 219, 220t
ASTM E1870, 20–21
ASTM E2454-05(2011), 20
ASTM E2609-08, 20
ASTM F736-95(2011), 320
ASTM oils, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 544t–545t
ASTM STP 434, 20
ASTM STP 758, 20, 534
ASTM Subcommittee E18.05 on Sensory
Applications, 533–534
Antistatic specialties, 479, 515–516
Automotive sector, 132–145
airbag systems, 141
ancillary equipment, 142
body elements, 144
bumpers, 141
dashboards, 140–141
developing applications, 140
emerging applications, 140
engine covers, 142
fenders, 144
fuel tanks, 140
glazing, 144
intake manifolds, 142
interior trims, 141
lenses, 141
market segmentation of, 139f
mono-material concept, 140
radiator fan, 142–144
ready-to-install modules, 140
sealing, 144
seating, 144
shields and barriers, 144–145
thermoplastic applications in, 145,
146t–152t
under-the-hood parts, 142, 143t
weight saving in, 613, 639–641
GHG emissions, 640t
opposite way towards, 639
Avantium Research and Technology,
636
Average temperature, 6–7
B
Ball indentation, 320
Banned substances, 13
Barriers, in automotive sector, 144–145
Bases, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 552–559, 556t–557t
Bedding sector, 198–199
Benzaldehyde, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 568t
Benzene, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 540t–541t
Benzyl alcohol, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 564t–565t
Benzyl chloride, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 583t–584t
Bio-additives, 98
Bio-based polyethylene terephthalate
(PET), 633
Biocarbon content, 14
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 645
Biodegradable plastics, 14–15
use in packaging, 117
BIO-FLEX®, 630
example of properties, 631t
BioFormPX™, 636
BIOFRONT™, 624, 628–629
Biofuel, 98
Biograde®, 624, 629–630
property examples of, 624t
BioHybrid, 630
example of properties, 632t
Biological degradation, 30
Biomass, 14
BIOPAR®, 628
Bioplastics, 798, 169, 619
consumption of, 99f
raw material costs, 99t
Biopolyethylene, 620
Biopolyols, 620
Bio-sourced composites, 630–631
Bio-sourced thermoplastics, 619–631
life cycle examples, 652t
Bio-TPU family, 636
Bleeding, 11–12
Blow molding, 82
containers, 119
Body elements, in automotive sector, 144
Bottles, packaging, 119
Braskem, 632–633
Brittle point, 9, 373
Building/civil engineering, 120–132
applications, 126, 127f
exteriors, 127–128
geomembranes, geotextiles, geogrids,
130–132
interiors, 129–130, 129f
pipes and tubing, 130
thermoplastic applications in, 132,
133t–138t
wood thermoplastic composites, 126
Bulk compression, 315–316
Bulk modulus, 404
Bulk molding compounds (BMCs), 83
for engine covers, 142
Bulk properties, 216–221
Bumpers, 141
Burning, rate of, 19
Butane, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 540t–541t
Butanol, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 564t–565t
Butanone, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 571t–572t
Butyl acetate, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 574t–575t
Butylamine, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 560t–561t
C
Cable coating, 155–156
CAD software, 608t
Cadmium, 13–14
Canvas, 128
Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics
(CFRTP), 212, 612–613
properties of, 68, 68t
Carbon fibers (CFs), 54–55, 55f, 63, 445
composite fuselage, 94–95
-reinforced polyamide front ends
molding, 639
Carbon footprint, 15
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 516
reinforcement with, 612–613
Carbon tetrachloride, chemical resistance
of polymers in, 583t–584t
Cellulose, 620
-based plastics, ready-to-use, 624
fiber composite console armrest, 641
Cellulosics, 620
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Ceramis® Barrier Films, 609
Certification Process for recycled plastics,
614
Chain architecture, 45
Charpy impact test, 5, 228f, 318
notched, 318f–319f
unnotched, 319f
Checklist, 210–215
proposal, 32–38
Chemical behavior, 221–222
resistance of stressed samples, 222
resistance of unstressed samples,
221–222
Chemical oxygen demand (COD), 645
Chemical resistance
in alcohols, 563–567
in aldehydes, 567–570
in amines, 559–563
in bases, 552–559Index 671
in chlorinated hydrocarbons,
580–586
in esters, 570–577
in ethers, 577–580
in hydrocarbons, 539–543
influencing factors, 537–538
in ketones, 570
in mineral/inorganic acids, 548–552
in oils and fuels, 543–548
in organic acids, 552
in oxidants, 586–590
in phenols, 580
Chemical Safety Report (CSR), 13
Chemical uptake, 10–11
Chemicals
and heat, 214–215
and stress/time, 214
China reed reinforced pallets, life cycle
environmental performance of,
645t
Chinese market, 85–86
Chlorinated hydrocarbons, chemical
resistance of polymers in,
580–586, 583t–584t
Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE)
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
598
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C),
598
and environmental stress cracking, 593
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
597–598
Chloroethane, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 583t–584t
Chloroform, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 583t–584t
Chloroparaffins, 13
Chromic acid, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 587t–588t
Chromium, 14
Civil engineering. See Building/civil
engineering
Clash & Berg test, 9, 373
CML, 645
CO2
-based polymers, 98
and global warming, 11
Coca Cola, 633
Coefficient of friction (CoF), 416,
445–451, 447t–450t
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE),
8–10, 10t, 72–74, 378–386
deformation due to mechanical
stresses, 73
effect of additives on, 385–386
effect of molecular orientation on, 386,
386t
effect of morphology on, 385
Poisson’s Ratio and Young’s
Modulus, 73
releasing of organic additives, 74
residual internal stresses, 73
shrinkage, 73
structural effect of tested polymer,
378–385
warpage, 73
water uptake, 73
Coefficient of thermal linear expansion
(CTLE), 378–386, 379t
of traditional materials, 385t
Color, effect on polymers, 596
Colorants, 74
problems related to, 530–531
Coloration, 530–532
Commodity thermoplastics, 116, 212
dense/foamed, property of, 256t, 259t
recycling and reuse of, 98
strength and stress retentions for, 411t
Comparative tracking index, 511
and performance level categories,
correlation between, 512t
Comparisons, 227–230
hazardous, 227–228
for information purposes, 229
risk minimization, 227
special cautions, 228–229
unexpected and questionable, 229–230
Compensate for higher plastic costs,
28–29
Composites
in automotive sector, 144
consumption of, 81f, 81t, 84, 86t
market shares of, 79–80, 81f, 84f, 84t
processings, market share for, 85f
with wood, in building, 130
Compostable polymers, 14–15
Compounds, formulation of, 58–63
improvement of general behavior,
58–61
improvement of special features, 61–63
Compressive modulus, vs. tensile
modulus, 317f
Compressive properties, 303–316, 315t
bulk compression, 315–316
shear properties, 316, 316t
uniaxial compression, 303–315
Compressive strength, 316t
vs. tensile strength, 317f
Conductive carbon and steel fibers, 515
Conductive carbon blacks, 515
Conductive grades, properties of, 70, 70t
Conductive polymers, 62–63
Cone calorimeter, 18
Consumption
of bioplastics, 99f
of composites, 81f, 81t
of plastics, 78t, 79f
global, 78, 78f, 78t
of thermoplastic and thermoset
composites, 84, 86t
of thermoplastics, 83–84, 85t
Contact, testing chemical resistance by,
221–222
Containers, packaging, 119
Continuous fiber-reinforced sheet
overmolded by injection, 57–58
Continuous use temperature (CUT), 7
assessments concerning, 356–362,
357t–362t
vs. stress yield, 212, 212f
Control equipments, 158
Conventional conductive additives,
examples of, 514–516
COPE (copolyesters), example of, 477t
Copolyester thermoplastic elastomers
(Hytrel), 620
FR solutions, 471
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
601
Copper, 13
Corrosivity, and fire behavior, 18
Corrugated pipes, service life of, 226,
226f
Cost per volume, and density, 241–251,
252t, 253f
Cost savings, induced by weight savings,
613
CoverForm® process, 532
Cradle to factory gate, 644
Cradle to grave, 644
Crankshaft cover with integrated oil seal,
641
Creep, 50–51, 416–437
Creep deformation, vs. time, 214f
Creep modulus, 216, 217t, 416, 425t–427t
vs. time
at room temperature, 428t–432t
at various temperatures, 433t–437t
Creep strength, 216, 416, 438t
Cresol, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 581t
Critical stresses, 214, 214t
Crude oil
vs. bio-sourced plastics, 96–99, 97f
vs. polymer cost, price comparison,
95–96, 95f–96f, 96t
Crystalline polymers, 49–50, 49f
Crystallization, 50, 51f
Crystallization test, 9, 375
Crystalsev, 633
Current frequency, effect on electrical
properties, 17
Cyclic olefin copolymer
weathering, light, and UV resistance, 598
Cyclohexane, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 540t–541t
Cyclohexanol, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 564t–565t
Cyclohexanone, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 571t–572t672 Index
D
D495 (arc resistance), 508–511
and performance level categories,
correlation between, 512t
Damping, in automotive sector, 144–145
Dashboards, 140–141
Decorations, 530–532
in building, 128
Deflection temperature. See Heat
deflection temperature (HDT)
Deformation
creep deformation, 214f
due to mechanical stresses, 73
in-plan shear deformation, 316f
Density, 231–260
and cost per volume, 241–251, 252t
examples, 232t–240t
vs. modulus and strength, 258f
reduction
foaming of glass fiber-reinforced
thermoplastics, 259
hollow parts, 258–259
microcellular thermoplastics,
257–258
using structural foam techniques,
254–257
reduction using structural foam
techniques and hollow parts,
252–259
of reinforced or filled grade, 240
specific yield strength and specific
modulus, 241, 242t–251t
statistical analysis, 231–240, 241t
weight savings, 251–252, 254f
Design issues, 2–32
dimensional stability, 9–11
economics, 23–29, 27f
electrical properties, 16–17
fire behavior, 17–19
heat, 6–8
lifetime and end-of-life criteria, 29–31,
30f
low temperatures, 8–9
mechanical loading, 3–6
regulation, health, safety requirements,
31–32, 31f
sensory properties, 19–23, 19f
sustainability, 11–15
Design rules, 3f
Desorption, 11–12
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating,
609–610
Diamonex DLC coatings, 609–610
Dibutyl phthalate, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 574t–575t
Dichloromethane, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 583t–584t
Dielectric constant, 489–496
examples, 490t–495t
Dielectric strength, 16, 496–502
examples, 503t–507t
Diethyl amine, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 560t–561t
Diethyl ether, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 578t
Dimensional stability, 9–11, 10f, 72–74,
377–406
aging, desorption, bleeding, releasing
of organic components, 11
checklist, 33, 34t
coefficient of thermal expansion,
72–74, 378–386
coefficient of thermal linear expansion,
378–386, 379t
effects of mechanical loading, 5
interactions between loaded and
unloaded axes, 404
and mechanical hysteresis, 405–406,
405f
and relaxation of residual stresses, 405
releasing of organic additives, 395–404
shrinkage, 10
after molding, 386–394, 386f, 387t
strain recovery, permanent set, 405
thermal expansion/retraction, 9–10, 10t
warpage, 10
water uptake, 395, 395t–396t, 404t
water/chemical uptake, 10–11
Dimethyl amine, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 560t–561t
Dioctyl phthalate, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 574t–575t
Dissipation factor, vs. frequency, 230,
230f
Distortion. See Warpage
Dow Chemical Company, 633
DuPont, 633–636
Durability enhancement, in EcoDesign,
605–607
long-lasting parts design, 607
protective additives for long-lasting
compounds, 606–607
switching to another thermoplastic,
605–606
Dynamic aging effect, 512–514
on electrical properties, 17
Dynamic fatigue, and mechanical
loading, 5
Dynamic torsion modulus, 373–375
E
ECO proprietary technology, 636
ECOBRAS, 629
EcoDesign
conventional polymers synthesized
from bio-sourced chemical bricks,
632–636
life cycle assessment (or analysis)
(LCA)
end-product type, environmental
impact of, 647–651
fibers, environmental impact of, 646
polymer production, environmental
impact of, 646
processing, environmental impact of,
646–647
recycling, environmental impact of,
651
terminology, 644–645
reinforcement with natural fibers for
polymer composites, 636–638
renewable polymers, 619–631
renewable resources, additives from, 638
thermoplastics versatility in sustainable
use, 638–643
in automotive industry, 639–641
in energy-efficient house, 638
in packaging, 642–643
well-established routes
durability enhancement, 605–607
recycled plastics, use of, 614–618
simulation and modeling tools,
607–609
smart coatings, 609–610
used parts repairing, 619
weight saving, 610–614
Eco-Indicator 95, 99, 645
Economics, 23–29, 27f, 77–112
additive costs, 27
Asian market, 84–86, 87t–88t
Chinese market, 85–86
Indian market, 86
Japanese market, 86
checklist, 35, 37t
compensate for higher plastic costs,
28–29
consumption trends of thermoplastics,
83–84
crude oil, 95–99
vs. bio-sourced plastics, 96–99, 97f
vs. polymer cost, price comparison,
95–96, 95f–96f, 96t
effect of lifetime on cost, 29
global plastics industry, 77–79
market shares for main application
sectors, 80–82, 82f, 82t
composites, 84f, 84t
thermoplastics, 83f, 83t
market shares of thermoplastic
families, 79
North American market, 84, 86t
part costs, 23–27
plastic costs. See Plastic costs
price index hypotheses for plastics, 99,
100t–109t
processing modes, 82–83, 85f
raw material costs, 27
reinforcement costs, 28
structure of plastic processing industry,
88, 88t
useful sources for initiation of in-depth
studies, 99, 109t–110t
Western European market, 84, 87tIndex 673
EcoPaXX™, 633
Eco-profile, 644
Ecovio®, 629
property examples, 629t
Elastic limit, 216, 263, 314
Elastic modulus, , 216. See Young’s
modulus
Elasticity, of thermoplastic elastomers,
47, 47f
Electric components, 156
Electrical properties, 16–17, 16f
alternating current loss tangent or loss
factor, 496
arc resistance, 16, 508–512
arc resistance (D495), 508–511
comparative tracking index, 511
high-voltage arc tracking rate, 512
checklist, 33, 35t
dielectric strength, 16, 496–502
dynamic aging effect, 512–514
electrically conductive thermoplastics,
514–517
examples of conventional conductive
additives, 514–516
innovative solutions, 516–517
frequency, temperature, moisture,
physical, dynamic aging effects,
17
frequency effect, 512–514
examples, 513–514
high voltage arc tracking rate, 16–17
and humidity, 222–223
moisture effect, 512–514
examples, 513
physical effect, 512–514
relative permittivity/dielectric constant,
489–496
surface resistivity, 16, 502–508
temperature effect, 512–514
examples, 512
volume resistivity, 16, 16t, 480
Electrical/electronic market, 145–158
application overview, 154–158
fuel cells, 157
lighting, 157
measuring and control equipment, 158
photovoltaic solar cells, 156–157
polymer light-emitting diodes,
157–158
substrates for electronic equipment, 158
thermoplastic applications in, 158,
159t–166t
UL fire rating, 154
UL temperature index, 153–154
wire and cable coating, 155–156
wiring equipment, 158
Electrically conductive thermoplastics,
514–517
examples of conventional conductive
additives, 514–516
antistatic specialties, 515–516
conductive carbon and steel fibers,
515
conductive carbon blacks, 515
metal powders or flakes, 515
innovative solutions, 516–517
Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
grades, 515
property examples, 516t
Electrostatic dissipative (ESD) polymers,
479
Elemental composition, 40–42, 42f,
43t–44t
Elongation at break, 278t
and UV aging, 214f
vs. temperature, 408f, 414t
vs. time, 213f
Elongation work, 264–287
EMA ionomers
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
598
End-of-life costs, 212–213
End-of-life criteria, 29–31
checklist, 35, 37t
End-product type, environmental impact
of, 647–651
Energy
consumption, 646, 647t
requirements, 646, 648t
of fossil, 647, 651t
Energy-efficient house, 638
energy and GHG assessment, 640t
Engine covers, 142
Engineering modulus, 241, 242t–250t,
425t–426t
Engineering thermoplastics, 116, 214f
in building, 129–130
dense/foamed, property of, 256t, 259t
market shares of, 80t
strength and stress retentions for, 411t
Engineering yield strength, 241,
242t–250t
E-nose, 21
Entertainment appliances, 158–169,
167t–168t
thermoplastic applications in, 169,
170t–176t
Environment
checklist, 33, 34t
impact of polymer production, 646
trends, 12f. See also Sustainability
Environment of service, 30
Environmental Design, 604
Environmental stress cracking (ESC),
222, 538, 590–594
and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, 593
influencing factors, 590–591
and polyamides, 592
and polycarbonate, 593
and polyetherether ketone, 594
and polyetherimide, 594
and polymethylmethacrylate, 592
and polyolefins, 591–592
and polyoxymethylene, 592–593
and polyphenylene ether, 593
and polysulfones, 593–594
and polyvinyl chloride, 593
and polyvinylidene fluoride, 593
and styrenics, 592
Environment-friendly products, common
production ways, 604
Esters, 59
chemical resistance of polymers in,
570–577, 574t–575t
ETFEs
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Ethanal, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 568t
Ethanoic acid, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 553t–554t
Ethanol, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 564t–565t
Ethers, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 577–580, 578t
Ethyl acetate, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 574t–575t
Ethyl chloride, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 583t–584t
Ethylene monochlorotrifluoroethylenes
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers
(EVAs)
weathering, light, and UV resistance, 598
Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
598
E-tongue, 21
Eutrophication, 11–12, 645
EXATEC (multilayer coating system),
610, 641
Expanded graphite, 470
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), for
packaging, 120
Expected neat grades, 362, 378, 395
Exteriors, building, 127–128
decorations, 128
flexible structures, 128
insulation, 127
light structural functions, 127–128
seals/sealing, 128
transparency, 128
waterproofing, 128
Extrinsic conductive polymers, 62, 514f
Extrusion, 83
F
Fatigue, 438–440, 439f–440f, 441t–442t
Federal Aviation Administration (FAR),
31
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
(FMVSS), 31674 Index
Fenders, in automotive sector, 144
Fibers
energy use for production of, 646, 650t
environmental impact of, 646
reinforcements, 54–55, 55f, 55t, 89
tensile strength and modulus, 611f
and weight saving, 610–611
FIBROLON®, 630
Filled thermoplastics, 53–58
density of, 240
with glass beads, 56, 56t
with mineral fillers, 55–56, 56t
nanofillers. See Nanofillers
Film profile cladding, 532
Films
for aging protection, 60–61
packaging, 118–119
FIM, 532
Fire behavior, 17–19
checklist, 35, 36t
cone calorimeter, 18
FR modifications effect on properties,
examples, 471–478
FR solutions, 468–470
glow wire test, 19
ignition temperature, 18
inherently FR polymers, 460–468
oxygen index, 18, 18t
predisposition to burn, 460
preliminary remarks, 458–459
rate of burning, 19
regulations, 458–459
smoke opacity, toxicity, and corrosivity,
18
top solutions
ABS/PC alloys, 471
copolyester thermoplastic elastomer,
471
polyamides, 470–471
polycarbonate, 471
polycarbonate/polyester blend resin,
471
polyolefins, 471
polyphenylene oxide, 471
thermoplastic polyesters, 471
thermoplastic polyurethane, 471
UL94 fire ratings, 18
Fire requirements, checklist, 35, 37t
Fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastics, 40,
61–62
Flame retardants (FR), 169, 458
brominated, 459
families, 459
predisposition to burn, 460
Flex modulus
vs. temperature, 213f
vs. tensile modulus, 317f
Flex strength
vs. temperature, 213f
vs. tensile strength, 317f
Flexibility, low-temperature, 9
Flexible polybutylene, for pipes/tubing,
130
Flexible structures, in building, 128
Flexural modulus, 227–228, 228f–229f,
228t, 304t
Flexural properties, 291–303, 303t
Flexural strengths, 313t
Flow-coating/clearmelt process, 532
Fluorinated thermoplastics
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Fluoroguard®, 445
FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards) 302, 19
Foams
in automotive sector, 145
packaging, 119–120
Fogging, 75, 526
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 31
Food packaging films, 118
Formaldehyde, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 568t
Formic acid, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 553t–554t
Fortron 1140A66, 460
Fossil
energy requirement, 647, 651t
life cycle examples, 652t
Free radical vinyl polymerization, 45
Frequency effect, 512–514
examples, 513–514
Frequency-dependent properties, 223–225
prediction through process of
deduction for, 230, 230f
FST (Flame, Smoke and Toxicity),
458–459
Fuel cells, 157
Fuel savings, 613–614
Fuel tanks, 140
Fuels, chemical resistance of polymers in,
543–548, 544t–545t
Furniture sector, 198–199
indoor furniture, 199
outdoor furniture, 198–199
thermoplastic applications in, 199,
200t–202t
G
Gaïalene®, 621
Gap hider, 641
Gas-assisted injection molding, 258
Gehman test, 9
Geogrids, 130–132
Geomembranes, 130–132
Geotextiles, 130–132
Gevo, Inc., 636
Glass beads
filling with, 56, 56t
reinforcement with, 611–612
Glass fibers (GFs), 55, 63
life cycle of, 15t
Glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics
(GFRTP), 612–613
elongation at break of, 66, 66f
foaming of, 259, 259t
heat deflection temperature of, 66, 66f
notched impact strength of, 65, 66f
pallets, life cycle environmental
performance of, 645t
polyamide, density of, 241t
Rockwell M of, 66, 66f
tensile and flex modulus of, 65, 66f
yield stress of, 65f
Glass mat thermoplastic, 83
Glass transition temperature (Tg), 50, 50f,
223–225, 340, 341t–347t, 357t
Glass-reinforced polyamide (PA), 605
Glazing, in automotive sector, 144
Global plastics consumption, 78, 78f, 78t
Global plastics industry, 77–79
Global warming, 11
potential, 644
Glossy polymers, 21, 74
Glow wire test, 19
Grades
influence on UL temperature, 7
properties of, 63–70, 64t–65t
Graphene, 516–517
-based coatings, 610
Graphite, 445
Grätzel technology, 157
Green attitude checklist, 33, 34t
Green Design, 604
Greenhouse effect, 11
Grilamid 1S, 633
Grilamid 2S, 633
Grilamid TR, 633
Grivory HT3 (PA10T/X), 633
Growth rates of plastics, 78–79, 78t
H
Halogenated derivatives, 62
Halogen-free FR (HFFR), 458–459, 468f,
469
Hardness, 5, 5t, 227–228, 228f, 228t, 320,
329t–336t
Harshness, 21–23
ISO and SAE standards dealing with,
24t–27t
Hazardous comparison, 227–228
Haze, 21, 524t–525t
Health requirements, 31–32, 31f
checklist, 35, 37t
Heat, 6–8, 6f
absorbing materials, in automotive
sector, 144–145
accelerated aging, 8
average temperature, 6–7
checklist, 33, 33tIndex 675
and chemicals, 214–215
continuous use temperature, 7
long-term effect on oxidizing aging,
409–416
and mechanical loading, 213, 213f
short-term effects, 408–409
behavior above room temperature,
408–409
behavior below room temperature,
409
UL temperature index, 7
Vicat softening temperature, 7–8
Heat deflection temperature (HDT), 7–8,
340–347, 348t–356t
comparison of HDT A and HDT B,
347, 357t
HDT A, 356f
HDT B, 356f
prediction of HDT A and HDT B data,
229, 229f
Heat dissipaters, 445
Heavy metals, 13–14
Hexane, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 540t–541t
High impact polystyrene, and environmental stress cracking, 592
High voltage arc tracking rate (HVTR),
16–17
High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 45
corrugated pipes, long-term service
of, 226
vs. crude oil, price comparison, 95f
High-performance thermoplastics,
strength and stress retentions for,
410t
High-tech thermoplastic, 213, 213f–214f
High-voltage arc tracking rate, 512
and performance level categories,
correlation between, 512t
Hiprolon® 200, 633
Hollow parts, density reduction using,
258–259
Home medical care, 194
Hoop stress, 225f
Household appliances, 158–169,
167t–168t
thermoplastic applications in, 169,
170t–176t
Humidity, 222–223, 223t
moisture absorption, 222t
moisture content vs. time, 222f
Hydrocarbons, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 539–543, 540t–541t
Hydrochloric acid, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 549t–550t
Hydrogen peroxide, chemical resistance
of polymers in, 587t–588t
Hydrolysis stabilizers, 60
protective additives, 606
Hytrel® RS, 633–636
I
IEC 93, 16
IEC 60243, 496
Ignition temperature, 18
Immersion, testing chemical resistance
by, 221–222
Impact
behavior, mechanical loading, 4–5, 5t
grade, 40
vs. modulus, 319f
tests
low temperature, 9
processed at low temperatures, 371,
372t–373t
Impact enhancers, 58
Impact modifiers, 58
Impact strength, 317–320
above room temperature, 364
of dry/conditioned polyamides, 224t
Indian market, 86
Indoor furniture, 199
Industrial oils, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 544t–545t
Inflatable structures, in building, 128
Initial modulus, 216, 264, 314–315
Injection molding of structural foams,
254, 257
In-mold coating (IMC), 532
In-mold decoration (IMD), 531–532
In-mold graining, 532
Innegra S, 639
Inorganic acids, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 548–552, 549t–550t
In-plan shear deformation, 316f
Inrekor concept, 94
Institute of Food Technologists, Sensory
Evaluation Division of, 19
Instrumental measurements, 19–20,
533–534
Insulation, 127
Intake manifolds, in automotive sector, 142
Interior trims, in automotive sector, 141
Interiors, building, 129–130, 129f
composites with wood, 130
engineering plastics, 129–130
polyethylene, 129
soft and U-PVC, 129
styrenics, 129
Intrinsic conductive polymers, 62, 514f
Intumescent materials, 469
Inventory of Existing Chemical
Substances Produced or Imported
in China (IECSC), 13, 32
IRHD (international rubber hardness
degrees), 320
ISO 48, 320
ISO 178:2010, 301
ISO 179-1:2010, 318
ISO 179-2:1997, 318
ISO 180:2000, 318
ISO 527-1:2012, 262–263
ISO 604:2002, 303
ISO 6603-1:2000, 319
ISO 6603-2:2000, 319
ISO 7765-1:1988, 319
ISO 7765-2:1994, 319
ISO 8256:2004, 319
ISO 9854-1:1994, 319
ISO 9854-2:1994, 319
ISO 11673:2005, 319
ISO 14000, 619
ISO 14125:1998, 302
ISO 17281:2002, 319
Isooctane, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 540t–541t
Isotropic plastics, 228
Isotropy, 70–72
Izod impact strength, 223
notched, 321t–328t
Izod impact test, 5, 5t, 217–221, 228f, 318
notched, 217–221, 318f
J
Japanese market, 86
K
Kenaf, 169, 630–631
Ketones, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 570, 571t–572t
Kinetics
changes during long-term tests, 224–225
and lifetime, 30
Knees, 223–225
L
Land pollution, 11–12
Layup, 83
Lead, 13–14
Leisure. See Sports/leisure
Lenses, in automotive sector, 141
LEXAN™, 605, 641
Life cycle assessment, 15
end-product type, environmental
impact of, 647–651
fibers, environmental impact of, 646
polymer production, environmental
impact of, 646
processing, environmental impact of,
646–647
recycling, environmental impact of, 651
terminology, 644–645
Life cycle inventory (LCI), 644
Lifetime, 29–31, 30f
criteria, 35, 37t
effect on cost, 29
enhancement, 30–31
environment of service, 30
and mechanical loading, 6
modeling, 30, 225–226
predictions, 225–226676 Index
Light resistance
alloys, 601
cellulosics, 600
fluorinated thermoplastics, 600
liquid crystal polymers, 601
polyacetals, 600
polyamides, 599
polybenzimidazole, 601
polycarbonate, 600
polyetherimide, 601
polymethylmethacrylate, 599–600
polyolefins, 597–598
polyphenylene ether, 600
polyphenylene sulfide, 600–601
polysulfone, 600
PVC, 598
ranking proposal, 596t
styrenics, 598–599
thermoplastic elastomer, 601
thermoplastic polyesters, 599
thermoplastic vulcanizate, 601
Light stabilizers, 60
protective additives, 606
Light structural functions, in building,
127–128
Lightening and weight savings
in packaging, 614
in transport, 613
Lighting, 157
Lignin, 620
Linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 45
Liquid crystal polymer, special behavior
of, 72
Liquid crystal polymers (LCPs), 28, 95,
317
CTE of, 386, 386t
frequency effect on, 513
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
601
Liquid plasticizers, 12
Liquid wood based on lignin, 626
Loaded/unloaded axes interactions, and
dimensional stability, 404
Local properties, 216–221
Long glass fibers (LGFs), 57
-reinforced thermoplastics, properties
of, 67, 67t
Long-lasting parts, 605f, 607
Low corrosivity FR compounds, 458
Low temperatures, 8–9, 8f
brittle point, 9
checklist, 33, 33t
crystallization test, 9
rigidity in torsion, 9
service, 8t
tests, 8–9
Low toxicity FR additives, 458
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 45
vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
Low-temperature
behavior, 364–375
tests, 364–375
assessments and characteristics,
374t–375t
brittle point, 373
standardized impact tests, 371,
372t–373t
M
Machinery, in agriculture, 202
Magnetic polymers, 63
Market appeal of thermoplastics, 74–75
Market segmentation, of automotive
sector, 139f
Market shares
of composites, 79–80, 81f
processings, 85f
of engineering and specialty plastics,
80t
of plastics, 79, 79t
of thermoplastic families, 79–80, 80t,
81f
of thermoplastic processings, 85f
for main application sectors, 80–82,
82f, 82t
composites, 84f, 84t
thermoplastics, 83f, 83t
Mater-Bi®, 621
Mats, in automotive sector, 145
Matting, 21, 74
MBA900H PLA molding compound, 169
MDMO-PPV, 157
Mean, 216–217
Measurements
equipments, 158
instrumental, 19–20, 533–534
noise, 533
Mechanical engineering, 169–177
thermoplastic applications in, 177,
178t–188t
Mechanical hysteresis, and dimensional
stability, 405–406, 405f
Mechanical loading, 3–6, 4f
checklist, 32, 32t
combination with other parameters, 6
dimensional effects, 5
dynamic fatigue, 5
hardness, 5, 5t
and heat, 213, 213f
impact behavior, 4–5, 5t
and lifetime, 6
stress rate and time effect, 4
temperature effect, 4
testing chemical resistance by, 222
type of loading, 4
Mechanical properties, 215–216,
261–338, 407–456
coefficient of friction, 445–451
comparison of, 317
compressive properties, 303–316
flexural properties, 291–303,
303t–304t, 313t
hardness, 320, 329t–336t
impact strength, 317–320
and physical laws, 261–262
Poisson’s ratio, 440–444, 442t–443t
PV limit, 451, 452t
tensile properties, 262–291
thermal dependency of, 407–416
long-term effect on oxidizing aging,
409–416
short-term heat effect, 408–409
time-dependent, 416–440
tribological additives, 444–445, 446t
understanding information and
requirements, 262
wear and abrasion, 451–454, 452t–454t
Medical market, 188–198
thermoplastic applications in, 194–198,
195t–198t
MEK, chemical resistance of polymers in,
571t–572t
Melamines, 469
Mercury, 13–14
Metal functionalized silsesquioxane
Me-POSS, 470
Metal hydroxides, 469
Metal powders or flakes, 515
Metallization, 531
Metallocene catalysis polymerization, 45
Methanal, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 568t
Methanoic acid, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 553t–554t
Methanol, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 564t–565t
Methylene chloride, chemical resistance
of polymers in, 583t–584t
Methylmethacrylate-acrylonitrilebutadiene-styrene (MABS)
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
598–599
Microcellular thermoplastics, 257–258
Military (MIL), 31
Mineral acids, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 548–552, 549t–550t
Mineral filled grades, properties of,
68–69, 69t
Mineral fillers, 62
filling with, 55–56, 56t
reinforcement with, 55–56, 56t,
611–612
Minimum service temperature, 8, 364,
365t–371t
Mirel, 625
Miscellaneous proprietary alloys and
compounds, 628–630
Modeling for lifetime forecasting,
225–226Index 677
Modified polyvinyl chloride, for pipes/
tubing, 130
Modulus of rigidity. See Shear modulus
Modulus retention, vs. temperature, 409f,
412t–413t
Moisture effect, 512–514
on electrical properties, 17
examples, 513
Moldflow, 526
Molding, 82
shrinkage after, 386–394, 386f, 387t
Molecular orientation, effect on CTE,
386, 386t
Molecular structure
of thermoplastic elastomers, 47–48,
47f–48f
of thermoplastics, 45–47, 47f
of thermoset, 48–49, 48f
Molecular weight, 45
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), 445
Monoethyleneglycol (MEG), 636
Mono-material concept, in automotive
sector, 140–141
Montmorillonite, 57, 612
Morphology
effect on CTE, 385
effect on shrinkage, 386
MuCell process, 257–258, 640
N
Nanocomposites, in automotive sector,
144
Nanofillers, 56–57, 469–470
reinforcement with, 612
Nanorods, 157
Nanosilicates, 57
-filled polyamide, 57t
NaOH, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 556t–557t
National Sanitation Foundation Testing
Laboratory, Inc. (NSF), 31
Natural additives, 638t–639t
Natural fibers (NFs), 54–55
life cycle, 15t
compared with glass fiber, 643t
physical and mechanical properties, 637t
-reinforced composite
life cycle, compared to neat ABS, 644t
polymer composites, 636–638
-reinforced grades, properties of, 68,
69t
and wood plastic composites,
comparison of engineering and
specific properties, 637t
Natural polymers, direct processing of, 97
Natural rubber, 620
Natural scraps, 97–98
Neat grades, 231
density of, 241f
elongation at break of, 66, 66f
heat deflection temperature of, 66,
66f
notched impact strength of, 65, 66f
properties of, 64t–65t, 67–70, 67t–70t
Rockwell M of, 66, 66f
tensile and flex modulus of, 65, 66f
yield stress of, 65f
Net carbon footprint, 646, 649t, 651t
NH4OH, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 556t–557t
Nitric acid, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 549t–550t
No or low smoke additives, 458
Noise, 21–23
ISO and SAE standards dealing with,
24t–27t
measurement, 533
Nonfood packaging films, 119
Nonoil alternatives, 97, 97f
Normal distribution, 217f
North American market, 84, 86t
Notched impact tests, 5, 5t. See also
Charpy impact test; Izod impact
test
NVH (noise, vibration, harshness),
533
Nylon, for engine covers, 142
O
Odors, 21, 75, 532–533
Office appliances, 158–169, 167t–168t
thermoplastic applications in, 169,
170t–176t
Oils, chemical resistance of polymers in,
543–548, 544t–545t
Olefin/carbon fiber hybrid, 639
Oleic acid, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 553t–554t
Operating costs, 92
Optical properties, 74–75
Organic acids, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 552, 553t–554t
Organic additives release, 74
and dimensional stability, 395–404
Organic components, release of, 11–12
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED).
See Polymer light-emitting
diodes
Oriented stretched films/fibers, 70
Outdoor furniture, 198–199
Outdoor suitability of materials, 594
Overmolding, 530–532
Oxalic acid, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 553t–554t
Oxidants, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 586–590, 587t–588t
Oxidizing aging, long-term heat effect on,
409–416
Oxygen index, 18, 18t, 229, 229f, 460
examples, 461t–467t
P
PA. See Polyamide (PA)
PA4.10, 633
PA6, 385
and environmental stress cracking, 592
example of, 473t–474t
performance examples of virgin and
recycled, 615t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
597
PA6.10, 620, 633
and environmental stress cracking, 592
PA10.10, 620, 633
PA11, 633
and environmental stress cracking,
592
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
599
PA12
and environmental stress cracking, 592
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
599
PA46
frequency effect on, 513
moisture effect on, 513
PA66
and environmental stress cracking, 592
example of, 475t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
599
PA66 15PTFE 30 GF, 452
Packaging, 115–120, 642–643
bottles and other containers, 119
cost per volume materials used in, 117f
films, 118–119
foams, 119–120
lightening in, 614
market, thermoplastic shares in, 116f
reasons for use of thermoplastics in,
116
thermoplastic applications in, 120,
121t–125t
Painting, 531
Panoramic roof system, 94
Paraxylene, 636
Parts
costs, 23–27
protection, 30–31
requirements, estimation of, 210–215
alternative polymers, 212
downsizing, 212–213
usual combinations of aggressive
factors, 213–215
weak points and average properties,
211–212
PC 15PTFE 30 GF, 451
Pearlbond® ECO, 636
Pearlthane®, 636
Pebax®, 620
Perfluoropolyether (PFPE), 445678 Index
Petroleum-based components, biocomponents partly replacing, 97
Phenols, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 580, 581t
Phosphorus, 469
additives, 62
derivatives, 13
Photochemical oxidation, 644
Photooxidation, 594–601
anti-UV additives, effect of, 597
color, effect of, 596
light and UV resistance
examples, 597–601
weathering, 594
Photovoltaic solar cells, 156–157
Physical aging, effect on electrical
properties, 17
Physical aspects of thermoplastics, 21
defects, 22t
Physical effects, 512–514
Pigments, problems related to, 530–531
Pipes/tubing
in agriculture, 202
in building, 130
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, 130
flexible polybutylene, 130
modified PVC, 130
PET, 130
polyethylene, 130
polypropylene, 130
rigid PVC, 130
Plane wings, load compensator on,
28–29
PlantBottle®, 633
Plastic costs, 89–95
additive costs, 89, 91f
end-life cost of plastic parts, 86t
good reasons to use thermoplastics,
92–95
processing costs, 91–92, 92f, 93t
raw material costs, 89, 90f
reinforcement costs, 89, 91f
Plastic lamps, 157
Plastic processing industry, structure of,
88, 88t
Plasticization, 58–59
Plasticizers, 12–13
Plastics
action of chemical on, 538
biodegradable, 14–15
Plasticulture, 202
Platamid®, 620
Plexiglas, 94
Poisson’s ratio, 5, 73, 404, 440–444,
442t–443t
Pollution checklist, 33, 34t
Polyacetals
toughening effects on properties of, 58t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Polyamide (PA), 620, 633. See also
PA4.10; PA6; PA6.10; PA10.10;
PA11; PA12; PA46; PA66; PA66
15PTFE 30 GF
dry/conditioned
electrical properties of, 224t
impact strength of, 224t
mechanical properties of, 223t
and environmental stress cracking, 592
FR solutions, 470–471
glass fiber-reinforced, density of, 241t
industrially recycled, 616t
moisture effect on, 513
nanocomposites, 57t
nanosilicates-filled, 57t
properties, effect of glass beads on,
56, 56t
for radiator fans, 142–144
totally or partially natural-sourced
engineering plastics, 634t–635t
toughening effects on properties of, 58t
water uptake of, 395t, 404t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
599
Polyaryletherketones (PAEK), 95
Polybenzimidazole (PBI)
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
601
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), 13–14
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs),
13–14
Polybutylene, and environmental stress
cracking, 592
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 415
Arrhenius plot for, 415f
example of, 476t
Polycaprolactone (PCL)/starch-based
blends, mechanical performance
of, 632t
Polycarbonate (PC), 386, 605
dense and foamed, properties, 255t
and environmental stress cracking, 593
example of, 475t
FR solutions, 471
PC/PBT blend, example of, 477t
PC/polyester blend resin, FR solutions,
471
visible light transmission, 523t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13
Polychlorotrifluoroethylenes
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Polyesters
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
599
Polyethelene (PE)
and environmental stress cracking, 591
for packaging, 120
for pipes/tubing, 130
properties of, 46t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
597
Polyethelene terephthalate (PET), 618
vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
in packaging, 119
for pipes/tubing, 130
Polyether bloc amides (PEBA)
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
601
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK),
28–29, 95
and environmental stress cracking, 594
Polyetherimide (PEI)
and environmental stress cracking, 594
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
601
Polyethersulfone (PES), frequency effect
on, 513
Polyethylene (PE)
in building, 129
cable, example of, 472t
creep strain vs. time of, 424f
frequency effect on, 513
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
bio-based, 620
bio-based, 633
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), 620, 625
property examples, 625t
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), 620, 625
property examples, 627t
Polyhydroxybutyrate-hexanoate (PHBH),
625–626
property examples, 627t
Polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate (PHBV),
625
property examples, 626t
Polyimide coatings, 610
Polylactides/polylactic acid (PLA)
plastics, 169, 620, 630
ready-to-use, 621–624
property examples, 622t
Polymer light-emitting diodes, 157–158
Polymerization, 45
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)
and environmental stress cracking, 592
visible light transmission, 523t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
599–600
Polymethylpentene (PMP)
and environmental stress cracking, 591
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
598
Polyolefins, 116, 141, 632–633
and environmental stress cracking,
591–592
FR solutions, 471
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
597–598Index 679
Polyoxymethylene (POM)
and environmental stress cracking,
592–593
moisture effect on, 513
temperature effect on, 512
Polyphenylene ether (PPE)
and environmental stress cracking, 593
weathering, light, and UV resistance, 600
Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), FR
solutions, 471
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600–601
Polyphenylenesulfone, frequency effect
on, 514
Polypropylene (PP), 591
creep strain vs. time of, 424f
vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
crystallization of, 50, 51f
and environmental stress cracking, 591
example of, 473t
films
examples of antioxidant efficiencies
in, 60t
interaction between antioxidant and
silica in, 61t
-grade degradation, 415t
industrially recycled, 616t
for packaging, 120
for pipes/tubing, 130
properties, effect of mineral fillers on,
56, 56t
UV exposure time to reach same level
of degradation of, 62t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
597
PP/EPDM-V, 601
Polystyrene (PS), 620
critical stresses, 214t
vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
and environmental stress cracking, 592
high impact, and environmental stress
cracking, 592
industrially recycled, 616t
properties of, 41t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
598
Polysulfone
and environmental stress cracking,
593–594
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 386, 445,
460, 641
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Polyurethane, coefficient of thermal linear
expansion of, 385f
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 340, 620
vs. crude oil, price comparison, 96f
and environmental stress cracking, 593
outdoor exposure, 526
for packaging, 120
properties according to degree of
plasticization, 59t
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
598
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
and environmental stress cracking, 593
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
POM 20PTFE, 450–451
Postconsumer recycled (PCR) bottles,
618
Potassium hypochlorite, chemical
resistance of polymers in,
587t–588t
Potassium permanganate, chemical
resistance of polymers in,
587t–588t
Preselection, schematic of, 115f
Price index hypotheses for plastics, 99,
100t–109t
Printing, 531
Processability, 38
Processing
costs, 91–92, 92f, 93t
environmental impact of, 646–647
stabilizers, 60
protective additives, 606
Propanol, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 564t–565t
Propanone, chemical resistance of
polymers in, 571t–572t
Property decay, vs. time, 225f
Property retentions, vs. temperature and
time, 417t–424t
Proportional limit. See Elastic limit
Proprietary additives, 445
Prototyping, 529
PV limit, 444, 451, 452t
PVDC
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
598
PVF
weathering, light, and UV resistance,
600
Pyridine, chemical resistance of polymers
in, 560t–561t
R
RadElast®, 636
Radiator fan, in automotive sector,
142–144
RadiciSpandex Corp., 636
Raw material costs, 27, 89, 90f, 253f
for bioplastics, 99t
Raw polymers
and organic molecules, 40–45
vs. plastic grade, 40, 40f
upgrading and customizing, 51–70, 54f
REACH (Registration Evaluation
Authorization and Restriction of
Chemicals), 13–14, 32, 457
Ready-to-install modules, in automotive
sector, 140
Ready-to-use cellulose-based plastics,
624
Ready-to-use polylactic acid grades,
621–624
Ready-to-use thermoplastic starch, 621
Rectangular plates, 71–72
Recycled high-density polyethylene, 651
Recycled polyethylene terephthalate, 651
Recycled plastics, 614–618
evaluating path, 614
issues limiting the use of, 618t
regulations, 614
Recycling
of commodity thermoplastics, 15
and building/civil engineering


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» كتاب Thermoplastic Material Selection - A Practical Guide
» كتاب Plastic Product Material and Process Selection Handbook
» كتاب Thermosets and Composites - Material Selection, Applications, Manufacturing, and Cost Analysis
» كتاب Plastic Injection Molding - Volume II - Material selection and product design fundamentals
» كتاب Design Data for Plastics Engineers

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