كتاب Manufacturing Flexible Packaging - Materials, Machinery, and Techniques
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Manufacturing Flexible Packaging - Materials, Machinery, and Techniques

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Manufacturing Flexible Packaging - Materials, Machinery, and Techniques
Thomas Dunn

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Table of contents
Introduction
Background
Reference
1. Basics of Web Processes
Web Tension
Web Winding
Cross-Web Variation
Web Dimensional Analysis
2. Rotogravure Printing
Gravure Process
Gravure Cylinders
Halftone Image Reproduction
Ink Metering
Gravure Process Innovation
Cylinder Cost and Cycle Time
Reference
3. Flexographic Printing
The Flexo Process
Reference
4. Adhesive Lamination
Adhesive Laminating Process
Adhesive Lamination Strength
Other Coating Processes
Adhesive Laminating Innovation
Reference
5. Extrusion Lamination and Coating
Extrusion Laminating Process
Extrusion Coating Process
Extrusion Laminating Innovation
References
6. Finishing and Slitting
Communicating Slit Roll Requirements
Slitting Options
Rewind Options
References
7. In-Line Processes
Equipment Requirements
Operational Considerations
Success Criteria
8. OEE Effectiveness
Overall Equipment Effectiveness
Availability
Performance
Quality
OEE Calculation
References
9. Efficiency and Cost Accounting
Efficiency
Cost Accounting
References
10. Basics of Control Systems
Distributed Control Systems
Data Inputs
Process Feedback
References
11. Rotogravure Presses
Press Components
12. Flexographic Presses
Press Components
Reference
13. Adhesive Laminators
Dry Bond Laminators
Solventless Laminators
Online Coating Measurement
14. Flexible Packaging Extrusion Coating/Laminating Line
Line Configuration
Gauge Measurement and Control
15. Slitters
16. Preventative Maintenance versus Available Production Time
Availability
Preventative Maintenance
Calibration
Actual Operating Time
17. Setup/Cleanup versus Scheduled Production Time
Performance
Setup and Cleanup
Decreased Speeds and Minor Stoppages
Increased Speeds
18. Saleable Product versus Product Produced
Quality
Reference
19. Paper
Paper Dimensioning
Paper Grades
Paper Coatings
Paper for Flexible Packaging
References
20. Foil
Production
Converting
Commercial Trends
References
21. Unoriented Plastic Films
Flexible Films
General Film Property Effects
References
22. Oriented Plastic Films
Film Orientation
Oriented Film Applications
Special Oriented Film Effects
References
23. Bulk Polyolefin Resins
Polymer Structure
Functional Description
Value Provided
Forms Used
Reference
24. Specialty Sealant and Adhesive Resins and Additives
Polymer Structure
Additives
Functional Advantages
25. Barrier Resins
Barrier Kinetics
Polyvinylidene Chloride
Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol
Nylon
Coextrusion
References
26. Inks
Ink Vehicles
Ink Pigments
Ink Curing
Ink Selection
References
27. Overprint Varnishes and Coatings
Overprint Varnish
Coating Integrity
Vacuum Deposition
Reference
28. Adhesives
Polyurethane Adhesives
Acrylic-Based Adhesives
Energy-Cured Adhesives
References
29. Primers
Polyethylene Imide Primers
Ethylene Acrylic Acid Copolymer Primers
Other Primers
Primer Selection
Reference
30. Conditioning
Standard Conditioning
Special Conditioning
References
31. Intrinsic Material Properties
Standards
Intrinsic Property Influences
Case Study: Intrinsic Property Influences
32. Secondary Quality Characteristics
Containment Integrity Characteristics
Protection/Preservation Characteristics
Transportation Integrity Characteristics
Communication Integrity Characteristics
Flexible Packaging Material Specifications
References
Index
Table of contents
Introduction
Background
Reference
1. Basics of Web Processes
Web Tension
Web Winding
Cross-Web Variation
Web Dimensional Analysis
2. Rotogravure Printing
Gravure Process
Gravure Cylinders
Halftone Image Reproduction
Ink Metering
Gravure Process Innovation
Cylinder Cost and Cycle Time
Reference
3. Flexographic Printing
The Flexo Process
Reference
4. Adhesive Lamination
Adhesive Laminating Process
Adhesive Lamination Strength
Other Coating Processes
Adhesive Laminating Innovation
Reference
5. Extrusion Lamination and Coating
Extrusion Laminating Process
Extrusion Coating Process
Extrusion Laminating Innovation
References
6. Finishing and Slitting
Communicating Slit Roll Requirements
Slitting Options
Rewind Options
References
7. In-Line Processes
Equipment Requirements
Operational Considerations
Success Criteria
8. OEE Effectiveness
Overall Equipment Effectiveness
Availability
Performance
Quality
OEE Calculation
References
9. Efficiency and Cost Accounting
Efficiency
Cost Accounting
References
10. Basics of Control Systems
Distributed Control Systems
Data Inputs
Process Feedback
References
11. Rotogravure Presses
Press Components
12. Flexographic Presses
Press Components
Reference
13. Adhesive Laminators
Dry Bond Laminators
Solventless Laminators
Online Coating Measurement
14. Flexible Packaging Extrusion Coating/Laminating Line
Line Configuration
Gauge Measurement and Control
15. Slitters
16. Preventative Maintenance versus Available Production Time
Availability
Preventative Maintenance
Calibration
Actual Operating Time
17. Setup/Cleanup versus Scheduled Production Time
Performance
Setup and Cleanup
Decreased Speeds and Minor Stoppages
Increased Speeds
18. Saleable Product versus Product Produced
Quality
Reference
19. Paper
Paper Dimensioning
Paper Grades
Paper Coatings
Paper for Flexible Packaging
References
20. Foil
Production
Converting
Commercial Trends
References
21. Unoriented Plastic Films
Flexible Films
General Film Property Effects
References
22. Oriented Plastic Films
Film Orientation
Oriented Film Applications
Special Oriented Film Effects
References
23. Bulk Polyolefin Resins
Polymer Structure
Functional Description
Value Provided
Forms Used
Reference
24. Specialty Sealant and Adhesive Resins and Additives
Polymer Structure
Additives
Functional Advantages
25. Barrier Resins
Barrier Kinetics
Polyvinylidene Chloride
Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol
Nylon
Coextrusion
References
26. Inks
Ink Vehicles
Ink Pigments
Ink Curing
Ink Selection
References
27. Overprint Varnishes and Coatings
Overprint Varnish
Coating Integrity
Vacuum Deposition
Reference
28. Adhesives
Polyurethane Adhesives
Acrylic-Based Adhesives
Energy-Cured Adhesives
References
29. Primers
Polyethylene Imide Primers
Ethylene Acrylic Acid Copolymer Primers
Other Primers
Primer Selection
Reference
30. Conditioning
Standard Conditioning
Special Conditioning
References
31. Intrinsic Material Properties
Standards
Intrinsic Property Influences
Case Study: Intrinsic Property Influences
32. Secondary Quality Characteristics
Containment Integrity Characteristics
Protection/Preservation Characteristics
Transportation Integrity Characteristics
Communication Integrity Characteristics
Flexible Packaging Material Specifications
References
Index
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and
tables, respectively.
A
Acid copolymers, 203
Acrylates. See Acrylic esters
Acrylic chemistry, 237
Acrylic esters, 236
Acrylic polymer, 237
Acrylic-based adhesives,
236237
Actual operating time, 140141
Adaptor technology, 169170
Additives, 200201, 219
chill-roll-release, 169
Adhesion primer, 239
Adhesive(s), 4041
acrylic-based, 236237
energy-cured, 237238
failure, 4344, 233, 264265
lamination, 39
coating processes, 44
innovation, 4547
process, 4142
strength, 4344
laminators, 123
dry bond laminators,
123124
online coating
measurement, 125126
solventless laminators, 125
polyurethane, 234236
Air gap, 5253
Alkanes, 187
Alkene, 187188, 199f
Alpha olefins, 199, 199f
Alpha-olefin comonomers,
199200
Alpha-olefin copolymers,
204205
Aluminum alloys, 161
Aluminum foil, 161, 267268
Amphiphiles, 200201
Anchor coat, 239
Anilox cylinder, 3435
Annealing, 162, 163f
ASTM F99 Specification Guide
for Flexible Barrier
Material, 263t, 276
Attributes, 153
Automatic die bolt adjustment,
131
Automatic ink cleaning systems,
3536
Automatic roll indexing,
145146
Availability, 7374, 81, 137138
B
Barrier kinetics, 207214
Barrier layer, 39
Barrier resins, 207
barrier kinetics, 207214
coextruded flexible films,
216217
277Barrier resins (Continued)
ethylene vinyl alcohol,
215216
nylon, 216
OTR performance for, 208f
polyvinylidene chloride
(PVDC), 214
WVTR performance for, 208f
Basis weight, 911, 10t,
155156
Benefits of manufacturing
flexible packaging, 87
Beta gauge, 130
Beta systems, 131
Beta transmission, 126
Beta-ray, 130
Between-color (BC) dryers,
117, 121
Bleeding edge, 6162
Blow up ratio (BUR), 170
Blown film, 167, 171f, 173175
Bond strength, 266
Bulk polyolefin resins
density ranges of, 193f
forms used, 195196
functional description,
189194
intrinsic material
characteristics, 190194
polymer structure, 187189
value provided, 194195
Burst strength, 273
Business plans, 8788
n-butene, 199
C
Calibration, 139140
Cast (tenter), 180182
Cast films, 169170, 172173,
174t
Catalysts, 187188
Cellophane, 159, 177
Centersurface winding, 4, 66
Center winding, 4, 65
Central impression (CI) flexo
press, 71, 117
Chemical Abstracts System
(CAS), 221
“Chemical etching” process,
1415
Chemical vapor deposition
(CVD), 231232
Chill drum, 129
“CIE 1976 color space”, 2930
Clamshell dryer, 111, 129
Clay-coated paper, 158
Cleanup time, 9495, 98
“Closed-loop” control system,
106108
Coated paper, 158159
Coating integrity, 228229
Coating processes, 44
Coating weight, 42, 5051
Coefficient of friction, 149, 264
Coextruded film, 171172,
179180
Coextruded flexible films,
216217
Coextrusion, 4950, 216217
Cohesive failure, 4344,
264265
Collapsing frame, 170171
Color register, 25
Communication integrity
characteristics, 274
scuff resistance, 274
whiteness, 274
Comonomers, 188, 198, 198f
Conditioning, 245
antifog, 248
278 INDEXelectrostatic charge, 248
humidity sensitivity, 246247
measurement, 245, 248
sample, 245
special conditioning, 247248
standard conditioning,
246247
temperature sensitivity,
246247
Contact angle, 234f
Containment integrity
characteristics, 264266
bond strength, 266
coefficient of friction, 264
hot tack strength, 265266
seal initiation temperature, 266
seal strength, 264265
tear strength, 266
thickness, 266
Continuous tone images, 19
Contract converting, 88
Control systems, 82, 103
data inputs, 105106
distributed control systems
(DCSs), 103105
process feedback, 106110
closed-loop control system,
107108
open-loop control system,
106107
PID controls, 108110
shop-floor, 140141
Converting operation, scheduled
production time in, 9394
running time, 94
setup and cleanup time,
9495
Copolymers, 54, 197, 201202
acid, 203
α-olefin, 204205
Cost accounting, 93101
direct and indirect costs, 9596
local facility and general
company costs, 95
minimum order size, 98101
Covalent bonding, 52
Covalent bonds, 52
Cross-direction, 1, 156157
Cross-web variation, 58
Crystalline structures, 172173
Curing, 4041, 233
ink, 222223
D
Dedicated slitter capability, 135
Depreciation schedules, 9697
Designed experiment, 151
Die gap adjustment, 131
Diffusion coefficient, 210211
Digital devices, 115
Diisocyanate, 234, 235t
Direct costs, 9697
Distributed control systems
(DCSs), 103106
Distributed Control Systems, 127
Doctor blade, 21f, 22
Double bonds, 187188
Down web variation, 78
Draw down ratio (DDR), 51,
173175
Dry bond laminating, 4041
Dry bond laminators, 123124
Drying technology, 121122
E
Effective feet per minute (efm),
9495, 94f, 145
Effectiveness, defined, 80
Efficiency, 8893
defined, 80
INDEX 279Efficiency (Continued)
material waste, 9092
time waste, 9293
Elastic plastic materials,
254255
Electron beam, 237
Electron beam energy, 223
Electronic drives, 74, 115
Electrostatic assist (ESA), 114
Emerson, Harrington, 7778, 78t
Energy-cured adhesives, 237238
Energy-cured inks, 223
Enterprise resource planning
(ERP), 7778, 103104
Equipment automation, 144
Ethylene acrylic acid (EAA),
198199, 203, 241242
copolymer primers, 241242
Ethylene methyl acrylate,
202203
Ethylenepropylene copolymers,
197
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA),
202, 215
Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH),
200201, 207
Extended gamut, 36
Extrusion
coating, 5556
laminating process, 4955
innovation, 5759
promoting adhesion
melt curtain, 5254
substrate, 5455
Extrusion coating/laminating
line, 127
equipment components, 128t
gauge measurement and
control, 129131
line configuration, 129
Extrusion laminating, 4955
Extrusion primers, 242t
F
Falling body technique, 113
Feedstocks, 187188, 220
Fibers, 155156, 184185
Fick’s first law, 210211
Film orientation, 178180
Financial accounting, 9597
Finishing and slitting equipment
components, 135t
Fit-for-use product design, 243
Fit-for-use products, 127129
Flagging rolls, 115116
Flex crack resistance, 267
Flexible films, 167172
Flexible packaging layers, 50t
package functions distributed
into, 40t
Flexible packaging material
specifications, 274276
Flexo ink metering, 3233
Flexo process, 2837
innovation, 3537
Flexographic presses, 117
finger printing process, 121
press components, 117122
drying technology,
121122
plate cylinder pressure,
118119
plates, mounting tape, and
plate sleeves, 120121
Flexographic printing, 27
halftone printing, 3335
ink metering, 3233
numerical color space, 2831
process, 2837
process innovation, 3537
280 INDEXFlotation dryers, 121122
Foil, 161, 273
annealing process, 162
“A-wettable” foil, 162
commercial trends, 164165
converting, 163
production, 161162
rolling process, 161
Form-fill-seal packaging,
177178, 182
Fourdrinier-paper machine, 156
Fracture plastic materials,
254255
Free radicals, 237
Frozen storage, 272
Functional coating, 158159, 227
Functions of packaging, 40t
G
Gamma backscatter, 126
Gauge bands, 129130
Gauge measurement and control,
129131
Generally Accepted Accounting
Principles (GAAP), 95
Glass transition temperature, 178
Glassine, 157
Gloss coating, 228
“Good roll formation”, 4
Gravure press. See Rotogravure,
presses
Gravure. See Rotogravure,
printing
H
Halftone image reproduction,
1620
Hazardous air pollutants, 114
Heat seal coating, 158159,
177178, 227229
n-hexene, 199
High-density polyethylene, 199
Homopolymers, 197199
Hot tack strength, 265266
Humanmachine interface
(HMI), 103104
Hydrogen bonds, 52, 215, 240
Hydrogen chloride gas, 214
I
Image monitoring, 114116
Image screening, 1618
Impression cutoff, 6162
Indirect costs, 9596
Infrared preheating, 121
Inks, 219
curing, 222223
metering, 2022, 3233
pigments, 221222
selection, 223225
vehicles, 219220
viscosity, 113114
In-line processes
equipment requirements,
7173
operational considerations,
7374
availability, 7374
performance, 74
quality, 74
success criteria, 7475
In-line quality assessment, 150
Inside diameter (ID), 63
Integrated form-fill-seal
packaging, 177178
Intrinsic material properties,
190194, 251
intrinsic property influences,
253255
case study, 255258
INDEX 281Intrinsic material properties
(Continued)
materials, mechanical
properties of, 256t
standards, 253
Ionic bonding, 52
Ionomer, 203204
ISO 291: 2008, 246
J
Job cost estimate/calculation,
buildup of, 96f
K
Kraft process, 156
L
Lamination strength, 4344
Light barrier, 270271
Linear low-density
polyethylenes, 199
Linear polymers, 173175
Linear/slot extrusion die, 167
LLDPE, 204205
Low-density polyethylene
(LDPE), 199, 251
M
“Machine direction”, 1
Machine hour rate, 9697
“Make-ready” stock, 91
“Make-to-order” business, 137
“Makeup” solvent, 113114
Manual devices, 115
Master web, 61
Material traceability, 116
Material waste, 9092
Materials engineering, 251
Matte finish, 56, 184185
Mean time to failure, 140
Measuring/controlling gauge, 130
Mechanical linkages, 71
Melt flow index (MFI), 191
Melt flow rate (MFR), 191, 192t
Melt index (MI), 191
Melt point, 198199
Metallized films, 164165, 231
Metallocene catalyst, 200,
204205
Meter mixer, 125
MFI resins, 172
Migratory additives, 200201,
201t
Minimum order size, 98101
Minor stoppages, decreased
speeds and, 145146
MLLDPE, 204205
Moisture barrier, 270
Moisture-cured urethane
reaction, 258f
“Moisture-proof”, 177
Monomers, 187188
N
Nakajima, Seiichi, 78, 81
Newton’s laws of motion, 12
Nip pressure, 34, 78, 118119
Nitrocellulose (NC) bases,
219220
Nonmigratory additives,
200201, 201t
Numerical color space, of
flexographic printing,
2831
Nylon, 178, 207, 216, 246247
Nylon 6, 246247, 247t
O
Olefins, 187188
chemical structure of, 188f
Online coating measurement,
125126
282 INDEXOnline databases, 252
“Open-loop” control system,
106107
Operations waste, 9091
OPP films, 179
Oriented films, 172173,
178180
Oriented nylon, 164165, 180
Oriented plastic films, 177
applications, 180182
cast (tenter), 180182
crystalline, 179
double bubble process, 183f
film orientation, 178180
special oriented film effects,
183185
tubular (bubble), 182
Outside diameter (OD), 9, 63,
103, 107
Overall Equipment Efficiency
(OEE), 77, 7980, 135
availability, 81
calculation, 8384
effectiveness, 138t, 144t, 150t
origins of OEE methods, 78t
performance, 8182
quality, 83
Overhead dryer, 72, 121122
Overprint varnish, 227228
Oxygen barrier, 216217, 267
of polymers and films, 208f
Oxygen permeation
dynamics of, 268f
permeation cell for, 269f
Oxygen transmission rate
(OTR), 207
P
Paper, 177, 246
coatings, 158159
dimensioning, 155156
for flexible packaging,
159160
grades, 156158
paper/plastic lamination, 160f
“Pattern coating” process, 44
Pattern cohesive coatings, 72
Performance rate, 8182
Performance rate metric, 143
Permeability, 207209,
213214, 269270
Permeant, 210211
Permeation coefficient, 211,
213
Photoinitiator, 237
Photopolymer plates, 120
Physical vapor deposition
(PVD), 231232
Pigment, 20, 219, 221, 221t
chemistry, 221222
constitution number, 221
generic name, 221
Pinholes, 161, 231
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (PECVD),
231232
Plastic, 254255
additives, 200
extruder, 4950
films, 200, 227, 258, 267
lamination, 160f
“Plate cylinder”, 28, 32, 117
pressure, 118120
Plate mounting tape, 121
Plate sleeves, 120121
Polyamides, 178, 216
Poly-chloro-tri-fluoro-ethylene
(PCTFE) film, 207
Polyethylene imide (PEI)
primers, 239241
INDEX 283Polyethylenes, 11, 3940, 55,
168169, 178, 187,
198199
Polymer chains, 173175,
183184, 198, 212213,
234
Polyolefin resins, 187
chemical structure of, 188f
Polyolefins, 207, 246
Polypropylene, 5253, 174t,
187, 195, 216217
Polyurethane adhesives,
234236
diisocyanate, influence of,
235t
polyol, influence of, 235t
solvent-based urethanes, 236t
solvent-free urethanes, 236t
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 215
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC),
207, 214
Pounds per linear inch (PLI),
2, 69
Pounds per ream (ppr), 42,
155156
Predictive maintenance, 8182
Prepolymer, 234, 237
Prepress, 2324, 3334, 36, 120
Press fingerprinting, 3133
Preventative maintenance, 81,
138139
versus available production
time, 137
actual operating time,
140141
availability, 137138
calibration, 139140
Primary additive colors, 1819,
18t
Primary adhesive failure, 4344
Primed foil, 239
Primers, 239, 242
ethylene acrylic acid
copolymer primers,
241242
hydrogen bonding, 240241,
243
ionic bonding, 241, 243
polyethylene imide primers,
239241
primary nitrogen sites, 240
selection, 242243
Priming, 5455
unit, 129
Print trolley, 111113
Process, 44
of adhesive lamination, 4142
feedback, 106110
of extrusion coating, 5556
of extrusion lamination, 4955
of flexographic printing,
2837
innovation
of flexographic printing,
3537
of rotogravure printing, 22
printing, 3335
of rotogravure printing, 14
Process printing, 3335
Product shelf life, 238, 271
Production logs, 140
Productivity, defined, 80
Programmable logic controllers
(PLCs), 103104
Programmed waste, 90
Proportional-integral-derivative
(PID) controls, 108110
Protection/preservation
characteristics, 266272
flex crack resistance, 267
284 INDEXlight barrier, 270271
moisture barrier, 270
oxygen barrier, 267
product shelf life, 271
Pulp, 156
Puncture resistance, 273
Q
Quality, 27, 83, 115, 149154
secondary characteristics, 259
Quality control, 30, 84t
Quality management, 74
system (ISO 9000), 7778,
84t
variability concerns in, 84t
Quality rate, 83
Quick changeover, 9293, 111
technique, 144145
R
Raw materials, 911, 44,
7778, 8990, 98,
150152
and market prices, 8889
Razor blade (or burst) slitting, 65
Razor slitting, 65, 66t
Ream, 10t, 42, 155156
Relative humidity (RH), 177,
207, 246247, 270, 272
Renewable resources, 160
Resin blends, 198199,
264265
Reverse printing, 3536
Rewind, 1, 6569, 111,
134135
chart, 63f
designation, 12
options, 6569
Rework methods, 150
Roll doffs, 133134
Roll length estimation, 11
Roll quality, 135
Roll rewind designation, 12
Roll telescoping, 6465
Rolling oil, 162
Roll-to-roll quality assessment,
16, 150
Rotogravure
presses, 111
electrostatic assist, 114
image monitoring, 114116
ink viscosity, 113114
press components, 111116
printing, 13
cylinder cost and cycle
time, 2325
cylinders, 1415
halftone image
reproduction, 1620
ink metering, 2022
process, 14
process innovation, 22
work practices, 2425
Running time, 94
S
Saleable product versus product
produced, 149
overall equipment
effectiveness, 150t
quality, 149154
Scan-a-webs, 115
Score (or crush) cut slitting, 65
Scuff resistance, 227, 274
Seal initiation temperature,
204205, 266
Seal strength, 55, 264266
Sealant layer, 39, 72
Secondary adhesive failure,
4344
INDEX 285Secondary colors, 1819, 18t
Secondary quality
characteristics, 259
communication integrity
characteristics, 274
containment integrity
characteristics, 264266
flexible packaging material
specifications, 274276
performance considerations
of, 263t
protection/preservation
characteristics, 266272
to product consumption,
262t
test methods for, 263t
transportation integrity
characteristics, 272274
properties, 149, 252
Sensor calibration, 139
Setup reduction, 9293
Setup/cleanup, 143145
overall equipment
effectiveness, 144t
versus scheduled production
time, 143
decreased speeds and minor
stoppages, 145146
increased speeds, 146147
performance, 143
Shear slitting, 65
Shop-floor control systems,
140141
Shrinks films, 178
Side-chain branching, 172, 188,
192194
Single bonds, 187
Single extrusion laminator, 129f
Slit roll
inside diameter (ID), 63
outside diameter (OD), 63
requirements, 6165
Slitters, 133
Slot die extrusion, 182
Slow solvents, 146147
100% solids laminating, 4041,
4950
Solubility coefficient, 211
Solute, 210211
Solvent-based adhesives, 123
Solventless laminators, 125
Spare parts inventory, 140
Special conditioning, 247248
Special oriented film effects,
183185
Specialty sealant and adhesive
resins, 197
and additives, 200201
functional advantages, 201205
alpha-olefin copolymers
(LLDPE and mLLDPE),
204205
ethylene acrylic acid, 203
ethylene methyl acrylate,
202203
ethylene vinyl acetate, 202
ionomer, 203204
neutralization, 203
polymer structure, 197200
alpha-olefin comonomers,
199200
Standard conditioning, 246247
Standard industry rewind
chart, 63f
Standard operating procedures,
9193, 110, 143,
152153
Statistical process control (SPC),
84t, 150151, 153154
feedback system, 151f
286 INDEXto manufacture product,
151152
value of, 153154
to web processes, 153, 153t
Statistical product control, 84t
Sticky back, 28, 121
Strength, of adhesive lamination,
4344
Subtractive colors, 1819, 18t
Supercalendering, 157
Supply chain integration, 8788
Surface printing, 3536
Surface treatment, 54, 181
Surface wet-out, 53, 233
Surface winding, 4, 66
T
“Tag” or “Bag” sheet, 156
Tandem laminators, 72
Taper tension, 67, 106
TAPPI conditions, 247
TAPPI standard, 246
Taylor, Frederick W., 7778
Tear strength, 266
Tensile properties, 195, 254255
Tension transducer, 105f
Tenter frame, 180182
Test methods, 253, 273
Thermoplastic properties,
189190
Thickness, 266
Time in air gap (TIAG), 53
“Time to first quality product”,
144
Time waste, 9293
Torque units of measure, 34
“Total Productive Maintenance”
methodology, 78, 81
Total quality management, 83, 84t
TPM tenkai, 78
Traction, 45
Transfer rollers, 125
Transient defects, 149150
Transportation integrity
characteristics, 272274
burst strength, 273
puncture resistance, 273
Tubular biaxially oriented
films, 182
Tubular film manufacturing, 170
Twin-foil rolling process, 162
U
Ultraviolet light, 222, 237
Unoriented plastic films, 167
cast, 169170
chill-roll-release, 169
extrusion, 167
flexible films, 167172
frost line, 170171
general film property effects,
172175
internal bubble cooling, 171f
modulus, 168169
sheeting, 167168
surface treatment, 169
tubular, 170172
Unplanned maintenance, 140
Unwind stand, 117, 133
Urethane formulation, 242
V
Vacuum deposition, 229232
Vacuum-deposited coatings, 231
Value-add rate (VAR), 9899
calculation, 99101, 100t
Van der Waals force, 213, 222
Variables, 127, 153
Vendor managed inventory
(VMI), 140141
INDEX 287Vinyl acetate (VA), 202, 215
Viscose, 177
Viscosity, 190
Vision systems, 115116
Voided films, 184
Volatile Organic Compounds
(VOCs), 45
Voluntary consensus standards,
253
Vulcanized rubber plates, 120
W
Waste in converting, 90
Water vapor transmission rates
(WVTRs), 207
Water-based adhesives, 4546,
123
“Waterleaf”, 157158
Water-quenched film, 167, 172
Web dimensional analysis, 912
industry units of measure, 911
Web length estimation, 11
Web materials, 1, 6465
Web processes
cross-web variation, 58
roll rewind designation, 12
web dimensional analysis,
912
industry units of measure,
911
web length estimation, 11
web tension, 23
web winding, 35
Web width, 64
Web winding, 35
Web-converting processes, 103
Wet bond laminating, 4041
Whiteness, 274
Winding processes, comparison
of, 5t
Wire-wound (Mayer) rod, 123
X
X-ray transmission, 126
Y
“Yield” measure, 911, 10t
Z
Zahn cups, 11


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