كتاب Paint and Surface Coatings - Theory and Practice
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Paint and Surface Coatings - Theory and Practice

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Paint and Surface Coatings - Theory and Practice    كتاب Paint and Surface Coatings - Theory and Practice  Emptyالثلاثاء 15 أغسطس 2023, 1:41 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Paint and Surface Coatings - Theory and Practice
Second edition
Editors:
R LAMBOURNE and T A STRIVENS

كتاب Paint and Surface Coatings - Theory and Practice  P_a_s_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
List of contributors . x
Preface to first edition xi
Preface to second edition . . xm
1 Paint composition and applications - a general introduction
R Lambourne
1.1 A short history of paint 1
1.2 Paint or surface coating? . 3
1.3 The components of paint . 5
1.4 Paint making . 16
1.5 Methods of application 17
1.6 Paint markets 18
2 Organic film formers
J Bentley
2.1 Introduction 19
2.2 Natural polymers . 23
2.3 Oils and fatty acids . 24
2.4 Oleoresinous media . 30
2.5 Alkyd resins . 31
2.6 Polyester resins . 40
2.7 Acrylic polymers 44
2.8 Emulsion and dispersion polymers 54
2.9 Non-aqueous dispersion polymerization 60
2.10 Amino resins 62
2.11 Phenol formaldehyde resins 66
2.12 Epoxy resins . 67
2.13 Isocyanates 70
2.14 Silicone resins 74iv Contents
2.15 Vinyl resins 75
2.16 Water-borne systems 76
2.17 Resins for electrodeposition 80
2.18 High solids coatings . 82
2.19 Radiation-curing polymers . 84
2.20 Powder-coating compositions . 85
2.21 Resin manufacture 86
Bibliography . 87
References 87
3 Pigments for paint
AG Abel
3.1 Introduction 91
3.2 Definition 91
3.3 Required qualities of pigments . 92
3.4 Pigment classification 105
3.5 Pigment nomenclature 108
3.6 Further types of pigments and terms used 109
3.7 Particulate nature of pigments and the dispersion process 114
3.8 Manufacture of pigments 119
3.9 Toxicity and the environment . 124
3.10 Choosing pigments 125
3.11 Physical forms of pigment 127
3.12 Notes on families of pigments 129
References 165
4 Solvents, thinners, and diluents
R Lambourne
4.1 Introduction 166
4.2 The market for solvents in the paint industry . 167
4.3 Solvent power or solvency . 168
4.4 Solvent effects on viscosity 178
4.5 Evaporation of solvents from coatings . 179
4.6 Flashpoint . 180
4.7 Toxicity and environmental pollution 181
Acknowledgement 183
References 183
5 Additives for paint
R A Jeffs and W Jones
5.1 Introduction . 185
5.2 Anti-corrosive pigment enhancers . 186
5.3 Antifoams 186
5.4 Antisettling agents 187
5.5 Antiskinning agents . 188
5.6 Can-corrosion inhibitors . 188
5.7 Dehydrators/antigassing additives . 189
5.8 Dispersion aids . 189
5.9 Driers . 190Contents v
5.10 Electrical properties . 192
5.11 Flash corrosion inhibitors 192
5.12 Floating and flooding additives . 192
5.13 In-can preservatives . 193
5.14 In-film preservatives 194
5.15 Insecticidal additives 194
5.16 Optical whiteners . 195
5.17 Reodorants 195
5.18 Ultraviolet absorbers 195
5.19 Additive suppliers ........................................ 196
6 The physical chemistry of dispersion
A Doroszkowski
6.1 Introduction 198
6.2 Immersion and wetting of the pigment . 199
6.3 Deagglomeration (mechanical breakdown of agglomerates) 203
6.4 Dispersion - colloid stabilization . 205
6.5 Steric (or polymer) stabilization . 219
6.6 Depletion flocculation and stabilization 224
6.7 Adsorption . 227
6.8 Rate of flocculation . 234
References 240
7 Particle size and size measurement
A Doroszkowski
7.1 Introduction . 243
7.2 Definitions . 243
7.3 Sampling . 252
7.4 Methods of particle sizing 257
7.5 The best method? 280
References 283
8 The industrial paint-making process
F K Farkas
8.1 Introduction 286
8.2 The use of dispersants . 286
8.3 Methods of optimizing millbases for dispersion 288
8.4 The instrumental formulating technique 290
8.5 Methods of dispersion and machinery 309
8.6 Mixing 325
8.7 Control techniques 327
Acknowledgements . 329
References 329
9 Coatings for buildings
J A Graystone
9.1 Introduction . 330
9.2 Formulating considerations and constraints . 331
9.3 Pigment-binder-solvent relationships 335vi Contents
9.4 The nature of paint binder . 350
9.5 Colour delivery . 359
9.6 Meeting the needs of the substrate 365
9.7 Masonry and cementitious substrates 383
9.8 Metallic substrates 398
9.9 Plastic as a substrate 406
References 406
10 Automotive paints
D AAnsdeU
10.1 Introduction 411
10.2 Pretreatment . 415
10.3 Priming 419
10.4 Surfacers . 431
10.5 Anti-chip coatings 438
10.6 Inverted or reverse process . 438
10.7 Automotive topcoats 440
10.8 In-factory repairs . 457
10.9 Painting of plastic body components . 459
10.10 Spray application . 461
10.11 Stoving procedures . 472
10.12 Performance/testing . 477
10.13 Future developments 483
Acknowledgements . 490
Bibliography . 491
11 Automotive refinish paints
AHMawby
11.1 Introduction 492
11.2 Topcoat systems 494
11.3 Colour . 497
11.4 Future developments 500
Bibliography . 501
12 General industrial paints
GPA Turner
12.1 Introduction ...................................
12.2 Factors governing the selection of industrial painting
502
processes 503
12.3 Industrial application and curing methods 509
12.4 Finishing materials and processes in selected industrial
painting operations . 517
12.5 Developments and trends in general industrial finishing 526
References 528
13 The painting of ships
R Lambourne
13.1 Introduction 529
13.2 Corrosion 530Contents vii
13.3 Surface preparation . 533
13.4 Blast primers . 534
13.5 Paint systems for ships 534
13.6 The painting of off-shore structures . 547
References 549
14 An introduction to rheology
TA Strivens
14.1 Introduction 550
14.2 History of viscosity measurements . 551
14.3 Definitions . 552
14.4 Methods of measurement 560
14.5 Interpretation of results . 567
References 574
15 The rheology of paints
TA Strivens
15.1 Introduction 575
15.2 General considerations on paint rheology - paint application
processes . 575
15.3 Experimental methods for measuring paint rheology for
application and flow-out after application 581
15.4 Paint rheology during manufacture and storage . 593
References 595
16 Mechanical properties of paints and coatings
TA Strivens
16.1 Introduction . 598
16.2 Viscoelastic properties of polymers 599
16.3 Ultimate mechanical properties of polymers 603
16.4 Experimental methods for determining mechanical properties
of coatings . 605
16.5 Discussion of experimental methods . 611
16.6 Technological tests for mechanical properties . 612
16.7 Acoustic emission . 615
16.8 Recent developments 617
References 618
17 Appearance qualities of paint - basic concepts
TR Bullett
17.l Introduction . 621
17.2 Physics of reflection by paint/air interfaces 621
17.3 Light scattering and absorption by paint films . 624
17.4 Colour of pigment mixtures and pigmented films 629
17.5 Changes in paint films . 634
17.6 Fluorescence and phosphorescence 636
17.7 Colour appreciation . 636
17.8 Further reading . 639
References 640viii Contents
18 Specification and control of appearance
TR Bullett
18.1 Gloss 642
18.2 Opacity of paint films 647
18.3 Specification and control of colour 652
18.4 Colour control in paint manufacture . 657
Acknowledgements . 657
References 657
19 Durability testing
R Lambourne
19.1 Introduction 658
19.2 Chemical resistance testing . 661
19.3 Testing mechanical properties of paints 668
19.4 Accelerated weathering . 675
19.5 Natural weathering . 686
19.6 Suppliers of accelerated weathering test equipment 692
Acknowledgements . 692
References 693
20 Computers and modelling in paint and resin formulating
J Bentley
20.1 Introduction 694
20.2 Software in the laboratory . 695
20.3 Information technology and knowledge-based systems . 695
20.4 Modelling and mathematical techniques 696
20.5 Molecular modelling 700
20.6 Resin formulating and processes 701
20.7 Resin scale-up and manufacture . 711
20.8 Polymer properties, curing, and network properties 712
20.9 Solvents and solubility properties . 716
20.10 Paint formulation and manufacture, and coating performance . 718
20.11 Experimental analysis, design, and quality control . 719
Bibliography . 719
References 720
21 Health and safety in the coatings industry
GR Hayward
21.1 Introduction . 725
21.2 Raw materials and intermediates 726
21.3 Occupational exposure 729
21.4 Provision of information . 732
21.5 The approved supply list . 732
21.6 Hazard details 738
21.7 Safety data sheets . 739
21.8 Labelling of substances and preparations . 740
21.9 Classification and labelling for transport (conveyance) . 745
21.10 Control of hazardous substances 750
21.11 New substances regulations . 752Contents ix
21.12 Food contact coatings . 753
21.13 Major accident hazards 756
21.14 Environmental protection 759
21.15 Conclusions 761
References 762
Appendix 1: risk phrases 762
Appendix 2: safety phrases 764
Index 767
Index
Accelerated weathering tests, 482-3, 675-83,
691-2,692
assessment of results, 683--6
Accident hazards, 756--9
Acid resistance tests (automotive finishes), 480,
481
Acid value at gelation, 701
alkyds, 35, 36
Acoustic emission studies, 611, 615-17, 618
Acrylic paints/coatings
for electrodeposition, 81, 82
gloss formulations, 382
high solids formulations, 83
masonry paints, 394
powder coatings, 86
Acrylic resins, 44-54
formation (radical polymerization), 44-6, 48-9
formulation and preparation, 49-50
monomers and copolymerization, 46-9
non-aqueous dispersions, 60--2
solvents for, 21
thermoplastic, 50-1, 440-1, 446-7, 495
thermosetting, 51-4, 440, 443-5
Acrylic urethanes, 496, 500
Addition polymerization, see Chain growth
polymerization
Additives, 15-16, 185-96
anti-corrosive pigment enhancers, 186
anti-foams, 186-7
anti-settling agents, 187-8
anti-skinning agents, 188
anti-statics, 192
can-corrosion inhibitors, 188
dehydrators/antigassing agents, 189
dispersion aids, 189-90
driers, 190-2
flash corrosion inhibitors, 192
floating/flooding control agents, 192-3
in-can preservatives, 193-4
in-film preservatives, 194
insecticides, 194-5
optical whiteners, 195
reodorants, 195
ultraviolet absorbers, 195-6
Adhesive performance, 345
primers, 379
testing, 478, 616-17, 674
Adhesives, labelling requirements, 743
Adsorption, 227-34
free energy of, 229-32
of gases (surface area measurement), 278-9
isotherms, 228-32
rate of, 233
of solutes (surface area measurement), 279-80
specific, 233-4
and stereoregularity, 233
and temperature, 232-3
Aerosols, particle sizing, 274
After burners (solvent emission reduction), 167
Agglomerates
liquid penetration, 200--1
mechanical breakdown, 203-5
Agglomeration (pigments), 115, 123
Aggregation (pigments), 115, 123
Air-extended paints, 348-50
Air-jet heating, paint drying by, 514
Air Pollution Control Regulations, 759
Aircraft, coatings for, 524-5
Airless sprays, 537
Algicides, 194
Alkali resistance testing, 665-7
automotive finishes, 481
Alkyd paints. 350, 382
automotive refinishes, 495-6
automotive surfacers, 433, 434
automotive topcoats, 440, 441-3
for electrodeposition, 81
enamels, 495, 496
high solids formulations, 82. 83
masonry paints, 396768 Index
Alkyd resins, 7-8, 31-40, 381
coconut, 26
composition, 32-4
description, 35-6
formulating, 36-7, 701
in situ maleinization, 27-8
manufacture, 31-2
modified, 38-40, 352
preparation equipment, 37
reaction control, 35
reactions and structure, 34-5
water-soluble and dispersed, 37-8, 358
see also Urethane alkyds
Ally! ethers, 24, 44
Aluminium and aluminium alloys, coatings for,
406,524-5
Aluminium driers, 191
Aluminium flake pigments, 50, 58, 159---00, 468
in automotive metallic finishes, 13, 443, 445,
450--1,455---0,457
corrosion-resistant pigment, 402
particle sizing, 280
Aluminium sealers/primers, 379-80
Aluminium silicate, see CI Pigment White, 19
Aluminium tie coat, 541
Amino resins, 8-9, 62---0
characterization, 64
curing, 65
formulation, 64-5
high solids formulations, 83-4
uses, 65-6
Andreasen pipette, 259, 261, 263
modification, 261-2
Aniline black, see CI Pigment Black 1
Anthrapyrimidine yellow, see CI Pigment
Yellow 108
Anthraquinone black, see CI Pigment Black 20
Anthraquinone pigments, 134, 152
Anti-chip coatings, 415, 438
application, 465
testing, 480
Anti-foaming agents, 186-7
Anti-fouling paints, 529, 536, 540, 541-7
based on conducting paints, 547
based on natural biocides, 546-7
based on organo-tin compounds, 543-6
contact type, 543
low surface energy coatings, 547
soluble matrix, 542
Anti-gassing additives, 189
Antimony oxide, see CI Pigment White 11
Anti-settling agents, 187-8
Anti-skinning agents, 188
Anti-static additives, 192
Apparent viscosity, 554, 555. 556
Appearance
of automotive finishes, 478
and choice of industrial finish, 506
of paints, 621-40
see also Colour; Gloss
of pigments, 92
Application methods, 17-18
architectural paints. 334-5
centrifugation, 509
extrusion, 510
industrial finishes, 505, 509-13, 518
and pigment flocculation, 227
rheological considerations, 575-81
desirable rheology, 580-1
film flow-out, 578-80, 583-92
film formation, 577-8
transfer stage, 576-7
tumbling, 510
see also Spray application and under
Automotive finishes
Approved Carriage List, 747-9
Approved Codes of Practice, 750
Approved Supply List, 732-8
Architectural paints, 6, 7, 18, 330--1
above-CPVC, 347
classification, 331, 353-4
colour delivery, 359-65
considerations for formulation, 331-5
failure, 659
pigment-binder-solvent relationships, 335-50
weathering testing, 687-8
see also under Film formers
Argand diagrams, 601-3
Arylamide red pigments, 112-13, 147-9
Arylamide yellow pigments, 138-9
Asbestine, see CI Pigment White 26
Asbestos cement, 384
sheets, 389
Associative thickeners, 73, 352
Atlas Weatherometers, 676-7, 678, 679, 680-1,
682-3,691
Atmospheric pollution, 182-3
control regulations, 759
Attritors, 313, 315-16
Autoignition temperatures, 727, 728
Automobile production, 411, 412, 413
Automotive finishes, 11, 411-91
anti-chip coatings, 415, 438
application, 465
testing, 480
application methods, 412
application parameters, 471, 472, 473
future developments, 489-90
spray application, 461-72
air spray, 462-3, 468, 470
airless spray, 465
automatic spray, 463-4
efficiency, 470
electrostatic spray, 465-70
low-pressure hot spray, 464-5
spraybooths,461,471,483,490
electrodeposition, 17
failure, 659
future developments, 483-90
high solids formulations, 484-5, 490
in-factory repairs, 457, 459
performance specifications, 415
performance/testing, 477-83
pigment choice for, 126
plant,416,424,426-7,428
for plastic body components. 459-61
pretreatment, 415-18. 429-30
priming, 412-15. 419-31
dip,413-14,419,420-1
electropriming, 414-15, 422-31spray,412.419,420
purpose. 3
refinishing, 360, 492-501
air-drying/stoving, 493-4, 500
colour. 497-9
resin systems, 500-1
topcoat systems, 494-7
stoving, 415, 472-7, 500
emissions from, 475-6
fuels for, 475
future developments/alternatives, 476-7, 483
ovens for, 474-5, 490
surfacers, 431-8, 486
for basecoat/clear technology, 451
colour-keyed,432-3,435,437-8
high solids, 484
inner and outer, 433
inverted (reverse) process, 438-9
pigmentation, 435-7
resins for, 433-5
sandability test, 478
topcoats. 440-57, 458
alkyd/polyester. 440, 441-3, 457, 458
high solids formulations, 484-5
basecoat/clear, 441, 447-54, 473, 486-7
basecoats, 486. 487-8
clearcoats, 51-2, 443, 457, 487, 488-9
refinishes. 496-7
testing, 485
pigmentation. 454-7
thermoplastic acrylic lacquers, 440-1, 446-7.
457,458.459
thermosetting acrylic, 441, 443-5. 457, 458,
473
ultra high solids formulations, 485
see also Metallic finishes
Autophoretic deposition, 510-11
Autoxidative crosslinking, 28-9. 45, 352-3
Auxochromes, 94
Average functionality concept (alkyd
formulations). 36
Azo pigments, 111-13
manufacture. 122, 123, 124
Azobenzene. 94
Azodiisobutyronitrile. polymerization initiator, 45
Azoic dyes, 96-7
Azomethine. see CI Pigment Yellow 101
2B toner. see CI Pigment Red 48: 4
Ballmills. 118. 309-13, 314, 594
ball diameter, 310. 311, 312
critical speed, 312-13
laboratory systems. 311-12
Barium chromate pigments, 532
Barium driers, 191
Barium sulphate, see CI Pigment White 21, 22
Barytes. see CI Pigment White 22
Beadmills. 316-19
Beer can interiors, finishes for. 523-4
Bend testing (coatings), 480, 614, 673-4
Benzidine yellows. see Diarylide pigments, yellow
Benzimidazolone pigments, 113
red and brown. 150
yellow. 140-1
Benzoguanamine formaldehyde resins. 62-3, 65
Index 769
Berg's divers, particle sizing using, 263
Beverage can interiors, finishes for, 523-4
Binders, see Film formers
Bingham body, 560
Biocides. 753
in anti-fouling coatings
natural, 546-7
tin-based, 543-6
in-can preservatives, 193-4
in-film preservatives, 194
see also Fungicides; Insecticides
Biofilms. effects on steel corrosion, 533
Biological exposure indices, 730
Bismuth vanadate, see CI Pigment Yellow 184
Bisphenol epoxide resins, 68, 79
Bitumen. 30
Black pigments. 131-4
Blanc fixe. see CI Pigment White 21
Blast cleaning. 533
Blast primers, 534, 535
Bleeding (pigments), 97
Blister resistance testing (coatings), 662
Blistering, assessment. 662, 664, 684-5
Blooming (pigments), 97, 191
Blue pigments, 154-7
Blue stain fungi. 369
Blue Wool Scale (light fastness testing), 103
Boiled oils, 27
Boiling points (solvents). 181
BON arylamides. see Arylamide red pigments
BONA toners, 149-50
Books, finishes for paperback covers, 526
Boottopping, 530
paints for. 536, 540
Bouncing ball test, see Impact testing
Brabender Plastograph, 290, 291-2. 295, 296, 298,
339
Bricks, 389-90
British Standards
accelerated weathering testing, 676
bend testing. 673
bricks. 390
cement paints, 393
colorimetry of paints and varnishes, 655-6
contrast ratio determination, 649, 650
gloss measurement, 643-4, 647
glossary of paint terms, 642, 683
impact resistance testing, 669
metal primers. 405
moisture resistance testing (coatings), 662-3
paint colour comparisons, 653
paint film opacity, 650, 651
paints testing. 659-61
plasters. 389
repairs to renderings, 389
salt spray resistance test, 663
scratch resistance testing. 673
surface preparation of ferrous metals, 404
water repellents, 392
wood coatings. 374, 379, 380
Brittle failure (cracking). 601, 603-4. 605, 611.
615-17.673-4
assessment of changes on weathering. 684
Bronzing, assessment, 684
Brown pigments, 134-5, 150-1770 Index
Brunswick green, see CI Pigment Green 15
Buildings
coatings for, 330-406
see also under individual building components
Bulk compression/deformation, 552
Burnt sienna, see CI Pigment Brown 6, 7
Burnt umber, see CI Pigment Brown 6, 7
p-t-Butylbenzoic acid, 33
CAB, see Cellulose acetate butyrate
Cadmium red, see CI Pigment Orange 20; CI
Pigment Red 108
Cadmium yellow, see Cl Pigment Yellow 35, 37
Calcined clay, see CI Pigment White 19
Calcium borate primers, 406
Calcium carbonate
stearate-coated
antisettling agent, 187
in automotive surfacers, 437
see also CI Pigment White 18
Calcium driers, 191
Calcium molybdate, 163
Calcium plumbate, see Cl Pigment Brown 10
Calcium sulphate, see Gypsum
Calorimetry, surface area measurement by, 280
Can-corrosion inhibitors, 188
Can test, 289
Cans, beer and beverage, finishes for interiors,
523-4
Capillary flow viscometers, 563-4, 566, 581-2, 583
Capillary hydrodynamic fractionation (CHDF),
particle sizing by, 268-9
Carbazole violet, see CI Pigment Violet 23
Carbon black, see CI Pigment Black 6, 7, 8
Carcinogenic substances, 730, 735, 740, 744-5,
755
Cardura ElO, 34, 53
Cast iron, 399
Castor oil, 25, 26
dehydrated,25,27
hydrogenated,27,187,538
Catalytic chain transfer polymerization (CCTP),
23
Cave paintings, l, 131
CCTP, see Catalytic chain transfer polymerization
CDMCA Weathcrometer®, 676-7, 678
Cellulose (in wood), 368
Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), 24, 51
resins, 448, 497
Cellulose derivatives, 24
solubility parameters, 700
Cellulose nitrate, see Nitrocellulose
Cement, 384-8
renderings, 488-9
see also Asbestos cement; Portland cement
Cement paints, 393
Centrifugation
paint application by, 509
particle sizing using, 264-5, 282
Centrimill, 319, 320
Cerium driers, 191
Chain growth (addition) polymerization, 23, 60
modelling, 698, 702-9, 712
radical-initiated, 44-6, 48-9, 703, 705, 707, 709
Chalk, see CI Pigment White 18
Chalking (paints), 9, 109
assessment, 684
Chalking into film, assessment, 686
CHDF, see Capillary hydrodynamic fractionation
Chemical office software suites, 695
Chemical resistance testing, 480-1, 661-8
Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging
for Supply) Regulations, see CHIP
regulations
Chemometrics, 699
Child-resistant packaging, 744
China clay, see Cl Pigment White 19
CHIP regulations, 732, 744-5
Chlorinated rubbers, 10, 76, 398
marine paints based on, 538-40
metal primers based on, 405
Chromaticity, 630-1
differences, 638-9
Chromatographic methods of particle sizing,
266-9
Chrome green, see CI Pigment Green 15
Chrome yellow, see CI Pigment Yellow 34
Chromium oxide, see CI Pigment Green 17
Chromium oxide, hydrated, see CI Pigment
Green 18
Chromophores, 94
CI Pigment Black 1 (aniline black), 133-4
CI Pigment Black 6, 7, 8 (carbon black), 106, 115,
131-3
manufacture, 119
particle size, 116
CI Pigment Black 10 (graphite), 133
CI Pigment Black 11 (black iron oxides), 119, 133
CI Pigment Black 16 (zinc dust), 164
CI Pigment Black 20 (anthraquinone black), 134
CI Pigment Black 31, 114
CI Pigment Black 32, 114
CI Pigment Blue 15 (a-copper phthalocyanine),
156
CI Pigment Blue 15: 1 (a-copper phthalocyanine,
stabilized form), 156
CI Pigment Blue 15: 2 (a-copper phthalocyanine,
stabilized against flocculation), 156
CI Pigment Blue 15: 3 (p-copper
phthalocyanine), 116, 156
CI Pigment Blue 15:6 (o-copper
phthalocyanine), 156
Cl Pigment Blue 16 (metal-free phthalocyanine),
156
CI Pigment Blue 27 (Prussian blue, milori, iron
blue),2,94, 106, 154-5
CI Pigment Blue 29 (ultramarine), 94, 119, 154,
155
CI Pigment Blue 36 (cobalt blue), 155
CI Pigment Blue 60 (indanthrone), 154, 156-7
CI Pigment Blue 64, 157
CI Pigment Brown 6, 7 (iron oxide brown, burnt
sienna, burnt umber), 119, 134
CI Pigment Brown 10 (calcium plumbate), 164,
402,405-6
CI Pigment Brown 23, 150
CI Pigment Brown 25, 150
CI Pigment Brown 33 (metal complex brown),
135
CI Pigment Green 7 (phthalocyanine green), 158CI Pigment Green 15 (chrome green, Brunswick
green). 157
CI Pigment Green 17 (chromium oxide green),
157-8
CI Pigment Green 18 (hydrated chromium
oxide). 158
CJ Pigment Green 36 (phthalocyanine green),
158
CI Pigment Green 50 (cobalt green), 155
CI Pigment Metal 1, see Aluminium flake
pigments
CI Pigment Metal 6 (zinc dust), 164. 401, 403, 532
CI Pigment Orange 5 (dinitroaniline orange), 147
CI Pigment Orange 20 (cadmium red). 146
CI Pigment Orange 21 (lead chromate), 135--0
CI Pigment Orange 34, 144-5
CJ Pigment Orange 38, 148-9
CI Pigment Orange 43 (perinone orange), 96. 145
CI Pigment Orange 61, 141
CI Pigment Orange 68, 141
CI Pigment Red 1 (para red), 112
CI Pigment Red 3 (toluidine red), 111-12. 147,
287
synthesis. 122
CI Pigment Red 48:4 (2B toner).110.149, 153
CI Pigment Red 49: 1 (Lithol® Red), 110
CJ Pigment Red 53: 1 (Lake Red C), 110
CI Pigment Red 57: 1 (Lithol® Rubine, Rubine
toner). 110
CI Pigment Red 60:1 (pigment scarlet 3B lake),
111
CI Pigment Red 101. 102 (red iron oxide, red
ochre), 119. 146-7,376
CI Pigment Red 104 (molybdate red, scarlet
chrome), 117. 146
CI Pigment Red 105 (red lead), 2, 163, 378, 532
CI Pigment Red 108 (cadmium red). 146
CI Pigment Red 112. 147-8
CI Pigment Red 122 (quinacridone magenta).
113
CI Pigment Red 149. 114
CI Pigment Red 168 (dibromanthrone), 152
CI Pigment Red 170. 148, 153
CI Pigment Red 171, 150
CI Pigment Red 175. 150
CI Pigment Red 177, 152
CI Pigment Red 185, 150
CI Pigment Red 216 (pyranthrone red), 153
CI Pigment Red 224. 114, 151, 152
CI Pigment Red 242, 150
CI Pigment Red 254, 153
CI Pigment Violet 5 (quinizarin lake). 111
CI Pigment Violet 19 (trans-quinacridone), 151
polymorphism. 95, 103
solvent resistance. 98
CI Pigment Violet 23 (carbazole violet), 154, 195
CI Pigment White 1 (white lead). 130, 378. 532,
634
CI Pigment White 4 (zinc oxide), 130. 532, 634
CI Pigment White 5 (lithopone). 131
CI Pigment White 6, see Titanium dioxide
pigments
CJ Pigment White 7 (zinc sulphide). 131
CI Pigment White 11 (antimony oxide), 131
CI Pigment White 18 (calcium carbonate, chalk,
Index 771
whiting, Paris white), 161. 437
CI Pigment White 19 (aluminium silicate, china
clay, kaolin, calcined clay). 161, 436-7
CI Pigment White 21 (blanc fixe), 162, 436
CI Pigment White 22 (barytes), 162, 436
CI Pigment White 26 (talc, French chalk.
asbestine), 161-2, 437
CI Pigment White 27 (silica), 162
CI Pigment White 32 (zinc phosphate), 164, 403
coatings, 417. 418
primers based on. 406
CI Pigment Yellow 1 (Yellow G), 112. 138, 139
CI Pigment Yellow 3 (Yellow lOG), 139
CI Pigment Yellow 12, 139-40
CI Pigment Yellow 24 (fiavanthrone). 144
CI Pigment Yellow 34 (chrome yellow. lead
chromate), 119, 135-6
CI Pigment Yellow 35, 37 (cadmium yellow). 136
CI Pigment Yellow 36 (zinc chromates). 163, 532
primers based on, 406
CI Pigment Yellow 42. 43 (raw sienna, yellow
iron oxide. yellow ochre). 119, 136-7.
376,377
heat stability, 105
CI Pigment Yellow 53, 137
CI Pigment Yellow 73 (Yellow 4GX), 139
CI Pigment Yellow 74 (Yellow 5GX), 139
CI Pigment Yellow 83, 113, 140
CI Pigment Yellow 97, 139
Cl Pigment Yellow 101 (azomethine), 93
complexes. 141-2
related pigments, 114
CI Pigment Yellow 108 (anthrapyrimidine
yellow). 143
CI Pigment Yellow 110, 141
CI Pigment Yellow 128, 141
CI Pigment Yellow 138 (quinophthalone), 143
CI Pigment Yellow 139 (isoindoline), 114, 142-3
CI Pigment Yellow 153, 141
CI Pigment Yellow 173, 141
CI Pigment Yellow 183, 110
CI Pigment Yellow 184 (bismuth vanadate). 138
CI Pigment Yellow 191.110
CI Pigment Yellow 257, 110
CI Vat Orange 7, 96
CIE system of colour measurement. 629. 638-9
CIMAH Regulations, 757
Cissing. 15. 16
Cladding
coatings for. 375
coil-coated steel. 522-3
protection by design, 370-1
Coagulation of dispersions
modelling, 712
use of term, 208
Coal tar pitch, epoxy modifier, 70, 540-1
Coalescing aids. 341, 357, 718
Cobalt blue, see CI Pigment Blue 36
Cobalt driers. 29. 190
Cobalt green, see CI Pigment Green 50
Coconut oil, 25, 26
Coil-coaters. 512. 522-3
Colloidal shock, see Flocculation
Colour
automotive refinishes, 497-9772 Index
pigmented films, 631-3
assessment of changes on weathering, 684
changes on drying, 635-6
specification and control, 652-7
pigments, 92-5, 126-7
Colour drift, 233
Colour Index International, 108-9
Colour matching, 12, 126-7, 638-9
automotive refinishing, 493, 499
instrumental, 654-7
standards for, 652, 653, 654
visual, 652-4
Colour perception, 629-31, 640
effects of illumination, 639, 640, 652-3
Colour prediction programs, 633
Colour vision, 639
anomalies, 637
changes with age, 652
fatigue and contrast, 637-8
COMAH Regulations, 757-9
Combustible materials, 727
'Compliant' coatings, 21
Components of paint, 5-16
contributions to properties, 20
see also headings such as Additives; Film
formers; Pigments; Solvents
Computer modelling, 696-700
experimental analysis/design/quality control,
719
paint formulation/manufacture/use, 718
polymer properties, 712-16
resin formulation and processes, 701-11
resin scale-up/manufacture, 711-12
solvents and solubility, 716-18
Computer software
coating formulation and performance, 37,
291-2, 718
colour prediction, 633
experimental design and analysis, 719
laboratory applications, 695
mathematical modelling, 696-700
molecular modelling, 700, 717
resin formulation/processing, 86, 701-12
solvent system formulation, 176. 178
Computers
use in colour measurements, 655
use in paint and resin formulation, 694-
719
Concentric cylinder viscometer, 562-3
Concrete. 386-8
coatings for, 390
lightweight blocks, 389
Condensation polymerization, see Step growth
polymerization
Conditioning (pigments), 123-4
Cone and plate viscometer, 560-2, 582-3
Coning and quartering, 254, 255
Conjugated molecules, 93, 94, 95
Contact angles, measurement, 202-3
Contrast ratio, see under Opacity (hiding power),
paints
Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards
(CIMAH) Regulations, 757
Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH)
Regulations, 757-9
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
(COSHH) Regulations, 750-2
Copolymerization processes, modelling, 702,
706-9, 710
Copper phthalocyanine pigments, 155-6
manufacture, 122-3, 124
polymorphism, 95, 155-6
Core/shell structures
alkyd emulsions, 38
emulsion polymer dispersions, 58, 59, 358
Corrosion
aluminium, 406
assessment, 685
scab,424-5
test, 481-2
see also under Ferrous metals
Corrosion resistance testing, 665
Corrosion-resistant paints, 2, 102, 394, 532
pigments for, 162-5, 401-3, 532
enhancers, 186
Corrosive substances, 729, 734, 739
symbol, 736
COSHH Regulations, 750-2
Couette flow viscometer, see Concentric cylinder
viscometer
Coulter principle, particle sizing using, 271-2
Coupling solvents, 352
Covering power, see Hiding power
CPVC, see Critical pigment volume
concentration
Cracking, see Brittle failure
Crawling, 16
Creep studies, 565-6, 600, 605
Creosote, 372
Critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC),
337
for dispersion binders, 340-1, 342
and oil absorption, 339-40
and pigment packing geometry, 339
and porosity, 341-3
as reference point, 338-9
Crosslinking, see under Polymers
Crystal morphology, and rheology of millbases,
594
Crystal structure, and colour, 94-5
Curing, 22
acrylic resins, 52, 53
amino resins, 65
epoxy resins, 84
modelling, 702
industrial finishes, 505, 513-17, 519
polyester resins, 43, 44, 84
polyurethanes, 78, 84
powder coatings, 67, 78, 85-6
printing inks, 516
ultrasonic impedance studies, 609-11
see also Automotive finishes, stoving
Curtain-coating, 512-13
Cyanoacrylate adhesives, labelling requirements,
743
Dacrymyces stillatus, see 'Orange jelly' fungus
Danger signs, 746, 747
Data formats, 696
Debye forces, 169, 205Decorative paints, see Architectural paints
Defects of paints, 15-16
Deformation, modes of, 552
Degreasing treatment, 417
Dehydrators, 189
Depletion flocculation/stabilization, 224-7
Detergent resistance testing, 666, 667
Detergents, see Surfactants
Deuteranomaly, 637
Diarylide pigments, 113
yellow. 139--40
Dibenzoyl peroxide, 729
polymerization initiator, 45--6, 4 7
Dibromanthrone, see Cl Pigment Red 168
Dichroism, 631
Dielectric heating, 515
Diesel fuel resistance testing, 667
Diketopyrrolo-pyrrole (DPP) pigments, 114, 153
Dilatant materials, 556-7, 558
power law materials, 557-8
Diluents, 14, 21, 166
reactive, 82. 84. 354
see also Solvents
Dinitroaniline orange, see Cl Pigment Orange 5
Dioxazine violet pigments, 113, 116, 154
Dip priming, 413-14, 419, 420-1
Disazo pigments, 106, 113, 139--40
condensation pigments, 106, 113
red, 150-1
yellow, 141
Disperse dyes, 96
Dispersion forces, see Surface forces
Dispersion of pigments, 16-17, 117-18, 286
aids. 189-90
equipment for. 118-19,309-24
attritors, 313, 315-16
high-energy dispersers, 319-22
pugs (heavy duty), 322--4
see also Mills and milling
millbase optimization for. 288-90
instrumental method, 290-309
physical chemistry. 198-240
quality control
colour strength, 327-8
fineness. 327
strength and hue determination. 328-9
rheological considerations, 593--4
Dispersion polymers, 54--60
Dispersions
measurement of viscosity, 561-2
of pigments. colloid stabilization in, 205-19, 357
of polymers. 21-2
sampling, 255-6
see also Flocculation
DLVO theory. 209, 211, 213-18
Doors, finishes for flush. 525
Dough moulded compound (DMC) plastics, 459
DPP pigments. see Diketopyrrolo-pyrrole
pigments
Driers. see Metal driers
Dry hiding paints. 347, 635
Dry rot (Serpula lacrymans), 370
Drying (paints). 513-15
changes in characteristics during. 634--6
Drying oils. 7
early usage, 2
metal primers based on, 405
modified, 27-8
polymerization, 28-9
Index 773
Ductile failure (yielding), 601, 603--4. 605
Durability
of automotive finishes, 477
testing, 482-3
of paints
testing, 658-93
accelerated weathering, 482-3, 675-86.
691-2,692
British Standard specifications. 659-61
chemical resistance testing, 661-8
mechanical properties, 668-74
natural weathering, 683-6, 686-92
test sample preparation, 661
of pigments, 102--4
Dyes, 96-7
adsorption. surface area measurement by,
279-80
in Colour Index, 108
Dynamic mechanical analysis (coatings films),
601-3, 606-11
Eco-labelling, 21
Efflorescence,383,389.392,686
Egyptian Blue pigment, 2
Elasticity modulus, 601
shear, 553--4, 606
Electrical properties of paint, modification, 192
Electro powder coating. 439--40
Electrodeposited films, 76
curing. 22
resins for. 80-2
Electrodeposition, 17
future developments, 489. 490
resins for use in, 80-2
see also Autophoretic deposition;
Electropriming
Electroendosmosis, in electrodeposition. 423
Electron beam curing, 84, 516-17, 525
Electron microscopy. particle sizing by. 259, 260,
282
Electrophoretic mobility of particles, 210-11, 212
Electropriming, 414-15, 422-31
Electrostatic spraying, 192, 465-70
Elutriation, particle sizing by, 265--6
Emulsion paints. 14, 128, 356-8
for masonry. 394-5
textured,391.395-6
stabilization, 218, 357
viscosity, 577, 578-9
wetting agents in. 288
Emulsion polymerization. 54-8
modelling. 709-10, 711. 712
redox initiation. 46, 57
Emulsion polymers, 10, 11. 54-60
Emulsions
particle sizing by electron microscopy, 259
rheology of. 571
Enamel paints, 495, 496. 621
Entropic stabilization, see Steric stabilization
Environmental considerations, see Safety, health
and environment issues774 Index
Environmentally dangerous substances, 735,
758-9
symbol, 736
Epichlorhydrin, 68
Epoxy compounds, labelling requirements, 743
Epoxy paints
for electrodeposition, 81, 425
high solids formulations, 82
marine paints, 537-8
masonry coatings, 398
Epoxy resins, 9-10, 67-70, 81
in alkyds, 34
epoxy esters, 69
in automotive surfacers, 433, 434
modelling of curing reactions, 702
polyester modifiers, 434-5
radiation curing, 84
Erichsen indentation test, 480, 614, 670, 671
Etch primers, 404-5
Ethylene glycol tinters, 363
European Directives, 761
Biocidal Products Directive, 753
Dangerous Preparations Directive, 732
Dangerous Substances Directive, 732, 752
on food contact coatings, 753-6
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control
Directive, 760
on major accident hazards, 756-7
Plastics Food Contact Directive, 754-5, 756
Safety Data Sheets Directive, 732
'Seveso' Directives, 757-9
Solvents Directive, 760
European Standards
masonry coatings, 391
wood coatings, 374, 376
wood preservatives, 373
Evaporation (solvents from coatings), 179-80,
579-80,581
modelling, 716-17
Expert systems, 696
Explosive substances, 728-9, 734, 758
symbol, 748
Extenders, 11, 13-14, 92, 160--2, 346-7
in automotive surfacers, 436
and paint properties, 345
transparency, 99
Extensional deformation, 552
Extrusion (paint application), 510
Falling weight impact resistance test, 669-70
Fanal pigments®, 111
Farm implements, finishes for, 517, 520
Fatty acid process (alkyd manufacture), 32
Fatty acids, 24-6
maleinized, 27-8, 78, 81
Feret's particle diameter, 244
Ferrous metals
characteristics, 398-9
coatings for, 400-5, 510--11, 523
corrosion, 399-400, 418, 530--3
Field flow fractionation, particle sizing by, 269
Filiform corrosion, 400, 406
test for, 665
Fillers, and paint properties, 345
Film formers (binders), 6-11, 19-87, 340--1, 342,
350
for architectural paints, 334, 350--9
possible combinations, 351-4
properties related to PVC, 344-7
Fire-retardant paints, see Intumescent paints
Fischer sub-sieve particle sizer, 266
Flaking, assessment, 685
Flame drying, 514
Flammable substances, 726-7, 728, 732, 749, 758
symbols, 737, 748
see also Solvents
Flash corrosion inhibitors, 192, 404
Flashpoints (solvents), 180-1, 726, 727, 749
Flavanthrone, see CI Pigment Yellow 24
Flexibility testing, 614
automotive finishes, 480
Flip tone, 126, 159, 444-5, 449
Floating, 15, 16, 127
additives to control, 192-3
Flocculation (dispersions), 115-16, 208, 297,
299-300
assessment, 235-40
by electrolyte, 215, 217-18
by temperature change, 222
depletion. 224-7
rate of, 234-40
Flooding, 15, 16, 127
additives to control, 192-3
Florida exposure test (automotive finishes), 482,
686
Flow-coating, 509
Flow point technique (millbase formulations),
289
Fluorescence, 636
Fluorescent pigments, 92, 93
Flush pastes (pigments), 128
Foaming control, 186-7
Food contact coatings, 753-6
Fractal analysis, 699
Fraunhofer diffraction principle, use in particle
sizing, 273-4
Free energy of adsorption, 229-32
French chalk, see CI Pigment White 26
Fungi, attack on wood, 369-70
Fungicides
in gloss paints, 381, 382
in in-film preservatives, 194
in masonry coatings, 397
in preservative primers, 380
in varnishes, 377
in woodstains, 376
Fuzzy logic, 700
Gas adsorption, surface area measurement by,
278-9
Gassing (aluminium primers), 380
Gel permeation chromatography, 266-7
Geometric medians, conversion, see
Hatch-Choate transformation equations
Glass flake (barrier pigment), 402
Glass transition temperature. 600-1
modelling, 697, 702
Glazing. protection by design. 370--1
Gloss
assessment of changes on weathering, 684
assessment of sheen, 646-7
classification. 642-3measurement
by image distinctness, 645-6
by specular reflection, 643-5
Gloss paints, 377-8, 381-2
effects of erosion, 624
Glycidyl methacrylate, 67-8
Glycol pastes, 363
Glycoluril formaldehyde resins, 62-3
Grafting, 46
Graphite, see CI Pigment Black 10
Gravel resistance, see Stone chip resistance
Green pigments, 157-8
Grinding (pigments), 286
effect on colour strength, 296, 299, 300, 301
Grit blasting, 533
Group transfer polymerization, 23
Growth rings (wood), 367
Gypsum
cement retarder, 386
plasters based on, 389
Hamaker constants, 206, 207
Hansa® yellows, 138-9
Hansen solubility parameter system, 172-6, 700,
717
Hardness testing, 612-14, 617-18, 670-2
automotive finishes, 480
Hardwood, 366, 367
Harmful substances, 729, 734, 738
symbol, 736
Hatch-Coate transformation equations, 251-2
Hazard symbols, 736, 737, 746, 747, 749
subsidiary, 748
Hazards, 725-6, 751
from raw materials and intermediates, 726-9
of major accidents, 756-9
occupational exposure in paint industry, 729-32
in pigment handling, 124-5
solvent exposure, 182
see also under Safety, health and environment
issues
Hazchem scheme, 749, 750
Health considerations, see Safety, health and
environmental issues
Heartwood, 367, 372
Heat balance (resin production), estimation,
705-6, 711
Heats of immersion, determination, 280
Heavy duty coatings, 547-9
Hemi-solvents, 179, 228
Heraeus Xenotest® accelerated weathering
machines, 681-2
Hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) resins,
66,83
Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), 71, 72
adducts, 72, 73, 74
Hiding power, see Opacity
High alumina cement, 388
High polymer process (alkyd manufacture), 32
High solids coatings, 41, 82-4, 483-5, 490
High-speed dispersion, 319-24
millbase optimization for, 289-90
Historical background
paints, 1-3
viscosity measurements, 551
Index 775
HMDI, see Hexamethylene diisocyanate
HMMM resins, see Hexamethoxymethyl
melamine resins
Homogeneous deformation, 552
Hookean elastic bodies, 554
House (household) paints, see Architectural
paints
Humidity resistance test (automotive finishes),
481
Hydrodynamic chromatography, 255
particle sizing by, 267-9, 282
Hydrogen bonding, 169, 172, 202
Hydrometer, particle sizing using, 262-3
Hydroperoxide theory (polymer oxidation), 353
Hydrosols, 358
Hyperdispersants, 189-90
Image analysers, 259
Impact resistance testing, 584-5, 614-15, 669-70
automotive finishes, 480, 614-15
Impedance tests
coatings mechanical properties, 609-10
paint rheology, 585-6
Impressed current method (corrosion
protection), 532
Jn-can preservatives, 193-4
In-film preservatives, 194
In-store tinting systems, 359, 360-5
dispensing technology, 361-3
tinters and bases, 363-5
Indanthrone, see CI Pigment Blue 60
Indentation hardness testing, 480, 605-6, 612-13,
614,617-18,670,671-2
Indicative limit values, 731-2
Induction heating, paint drying by, 514
Industrial finishes, 6, 18, 502-27
aircraft, 524-5
anti-pollution and safety measures, 526-7
application methods, 505, 509-13, 518
beer and beverage can interiors, 523-4
curing methods, 505, 513-17, 519
economic pressures, 506, 527
factors governing selection, 503-8
finished result, 505-6, 508
required output rate, 506-7, 508
substrate, 503-5, 508
failure, 659
farm implements, 517, 520
flush doors, 525
markets, 503, 504
panel radiators, 520-1
paperback book covers, 526
refrigerators, 521-2
steel cladding, 522-3
Infectious substances, symbol, 747
Information management systems, 696
Information sources, 695-6
Infrared radiation curing, 84, 515
Injection moulded plastics, 459-60
Insecticides, additives, 194-5
Integrated Pollution Control Regulations, 759
International Standards Organization, see ISO
Internet, information source, 695, 696
Interparticle forces, 168-9, 172, 205, 286
see also Surface forces776 Index
Intersleek anti-fouling system, 547
Intrinsic viscosity, 179
lntumescent paints, 530
Iodine value (oils), 29
IPDI, see Isophorone diisocyanate
Iron, see under Ferrous metals
Iron blue, see Cl Pigment Blue 27
Iron driers, 191
Iron oxide pigments, 101, 106, 436
black, see CI Pigment Black 11
black micaceous, 133, 402
brown, see CI Pigment Brown 6, 7
dispersion of bluish red, 117
and light fastness, 102
manufacture, 119
red, see CI Pigment Red 101, 102
transparent, 126, 456
yellow, see CI Pigment Yellow 42, 43
Iron phosphate coatings, 417
Irritant substances, 729, 734, 739
symbol, 736
ISO standards
child-resistant packaging, 744
colorimetry of paints and varnishes, 655-6
contrast ratio determination, 649, 650
gloss measurement, 644
paint film opacity, 650
Isocyanates, 38-9, 70-4, 500
adducts, 71-2
blocked, 72,435,438
labelling requirements, 743
Isoindoline, see CI Pigment Yellow 139
Isoindolinone pigments, 114
yellow, 142
Isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), 71, 72
Isophthalic acid, 33, 41, 42, 83
Joinery
coatings for, 375, 380
protection by design, 370-1
weathering tests, 688-90
Joyce-Loeb) disc centrifuge, 264-5, 282
2K formulations, see under Two-pack products
Kaolin, see CI Pigment White 19
Keene's cement, 389
Keesom forces, 169, 205
Keim binders, 394
Knife-coating, 510
Knowledge based systems, 696
Kubeika-Munk theory, 625, 632, 633, 650-1
Labelling, 74G-5
for conveyance, 741, 745-9
derogations from regulations, 742
eco-, 21
special phrases, 742-3, 744
tactile warning, 744
Laboratory information management systems
(LIMS), 696
Lacquers, 21, 50, 51
choice of pigments for, 126
drying, 513
see also under Automotive finishes, topcoats
Lake pigments, 105, 110, 111
early, 2, 111
Lake Red C, see CI Pigment Red 53: 1
Laser light scattering, see Photon correlation
spectroscopy
Lasurs, see Woodstains
Lead-based paints, 2, 12, 29
automotive topcoats, 455
labelling requirements, 742-3
pigments, 130, 135-6, 163, 164
primers, 378, 405-6
Lead chromate pigments, 106, 402, 455, 532
see also CI Pigment Orange 21; CI Pigment
Yellow 34
Lead driers, 190
Lead silicochromate, 163, 422
Legislation
on corrosion standards, 425
COSHH regulations, 75G-2
environmental, 15, 21, 182-3, 333-4
environmental protection, 759-60
on flammable liquids, 180
on hazardous substances, 732
on labelling of substances and preparations,
74G-5
on major accident hazards, 756-9
new substances regulations, 752-3
on solvent vapour emissions, 167, 183, 333,
475-6,483,486
transport of hazardous substances, 745
on wood preservatives, 372
Levelling (paints), 580
rheological measurements during, 583-92
Life-cycle assessments of paints, 21
Light, effect on wood and wood coatings, 369
Light absorption
by paint films, 632-3
by pigments, 628-9
Light fastness, pigment systems, 102-4
Light reflection, paint interfaces, 621-4, 624-7
Light scattering
by paint films, 624, 625, 632-3
by paints, 346-7
by white pigments, 627-8
particle sizing using, 263, 272-8
Lignin (in wood), 368
Lime bloom, 383
Linseed oil, 25, 26
in oleoresinous vehicles, 30
Lithol® Red, see CI Pigment Red 49: 1
Litho!® Rubine, see CI Pigment Red 57: 1
Lithopone, see CI Pigment White 5
London forces, see Surface forces
Loop reactor, 59
Loss modulus, 601, 607
Loss tangent, 601
Low shear viscometers, 583, 587-91
Lycopene, 94
Magnesium silicate, see CI Pigment White 26
MAK values, 730
Maleinized fatty acids, 27-8, 78, 81
Maleinized oils, 78, 81
Manganese driers, 191
Manufacture of paint, 16-17, 286-329
control techniques, 327-9Manufacture of pigments, 119-24
Marine paints, see under Off-shore structures and
Ships
Marine pollutants. 746, 749
Markets
industrial finishes, 503, 504
paints, 18
solvents (in paint industry), 167-8
Marr accelerated weathering machine, 676, 677,
678
Martin's particle diameter, 244
Masonry, coatings for. 390--8
Masterbatch (pigments), 129
Material safety data sheets (US), 740
Matt paints, 354, 624
Mechanical properties
of paints and coatings, 598-618
experimental determination, 605-11. 668-74
standard test methods, 660
technological tests, 612-17
of polymers. 344-5
Melamine formaldehyde resins, 8, 62-3. 64-5
acrylic modifiers, 51-2
alkyd modifiers, 40
crosslinking agents in automotive finishes, 435.
442,443
Metal complex brown, see CI Pigment Brown 33
Metal driers, 2, 29, 190-2, 353
Metallic catalysts (accelerators), 29
Metallic finishes, 13, 50. 58. 443, 444-5
alkyd. 496
basecoat/clear, 441
refinishes, 496-7
solvent-borne, 447-51
water-borne, 451-4. 486-7
electrostatic spraying, 467-8
light fastness. 102
particle orientation in, 580
pigment choice for. 101, 126
'single coat', 447, 449, 455-6
Metals, coatings for, 5. 400-6
Metamerism, 455, 498, 631, 637, 654
MFFT. see Minimum film-forming temperature
MGPET-200 coatings, 547
Michael reaction, 53. 54
'Microbloc' beads, 349
Microelcctrophoresis. 210-11. 212
Microemulsions, 80
Microgels. 35, 58. 59, 62
modelling, 710
Microporosity. 346, 370. 375
Microscopy
assessment of flocculation by, 237, 239
particle sizing by, 259
see also Ultramicroscopy
Miller-Macosko network analysis, 713-14. 716
Mills and milling, 118-19
rheological considerations, 593-4
see also Ballmills; Beadmills; Centrimill;
Rollmills; Sandmills
Millscale (ferrous metals), 531, 533
Milori, see CI Pigment Blue 27
Minimum film-forming temperature (MFFT).
55-6
Mixed phase metal oxides. 110, 137-8
Mixing, 325-7
modelling, 712
paste mixers, 324
rheological considerations, 594-5
Mixture theory, 332, 335-6
Index 777
Modelling, see Computer modelling; Molecular
modelling
Modulus of elasticity, see Elasticity modulus
Moisture resistance testing (coatings), 662-3
Molar attraction constants, 170. 171
Molecular modelling, 700, 717
Molybdate red, see CI Pigment Red 104
Monoazo pigments, 106, 112-13
Monoglyceride prepration, 31
Monte Carlo modelling, 698
chain growth polymerization, 707
emulsion polymerization, 710
network formation, 716
step growth polymerization, 701-2
Montreal Protocol, 183
Mould growth assessment, 685-6
Mudcracking, 347, 395
Munsell Book of Color. 652, 653
Mutagenic substances. 735-6
Naphthol AS® pigments, see Arylamidc red
pigments
~-Naphthol pigments. 112, 147
Natural polymers, 23-4
Natural weathering tests, 675, 686-92
assessment of results, 683-6
Nelson-Hemwall-Edwards solubility parameter
system, 176-8
Network analysis. 713-16
Neural networks, 699-700, 711, 718
New substances regulations, 752-3
Newtonian viscous liquids, 554
power law materials. 557-8
Nitrocellulose-based systems. 2-3, 10, 24. 494-5
Nitrogen resins, see Amino resins
Non-aqueous dispersion (NAD) polymerization,
55,60-2
Non-aqueous dispersions. 10, 55, 60
automotive finishes, 440, 443-4
masonry paints. 397
Normal force, 554, 555
Novolac resins, 9. 66, 67
Occupational exposure (hazardous substances).
729-32
European Community exposure limits, 731-2
UK limits. 731
units of measurement, 731
Off-gloss paints, 381-2
Off-shore structures, painting of. 547-9
Oil absorption (pigments). 116-17, 339-40
Oil length (resins), 7, 30. 32-3, 35
Oils, 24-30
characterization, 29-30
classification, 24
composition, 25
maleinized, 78, 81
modified, 27-8
Oleoresinous media, 7, 30
Oligomeric polymers, 82778 Index
Oncur (basic lead silicochromate), 163, 422
Opacifying aids, 348-50, 718
Opacity (hiding power)
paints. 99, 647-52
and air voids/cavities, 347, 628
changes during drying, 634-5
changes during film formation, 343
contrast ratio determination, 648-50
measurement, 101
and porosity, 341. 347
pigments, 99-101, 126
measurement, 101
Opaque stains, 381
Optical properties (paints), 346-7
see also Light absorption; Light scattering
Optical whiteners, 195
'Orange jelly' fungus (Dacrymyces stillatus), 370,
375
Orange pigments, 144-5
Oscillating can viscometer, 595
Oscillating torsion pendulum test method
(coating properties), 592, 606--7
Oxidizing substances, 728-9, 732, 758
symbols, 737, 747
Ozone, 182-3
Packaging, child-resistant, 744
Paint
classification of types, 125
nature and requirements, 3-5
use of term, 3
see also specific types and properties of paints,
and under substrates
Panel radiators, finishes for, 521
Paperback books. finishes for covers, 526
Para red, see CI Pigment Red 1
Parallel plate viscometer, 560, 563, 566-7
Paris white, see CI Pigment White 18
Particle segregation, 252-3, 255, 257
Particle shape (pigments), 114-16
Particle size
'averages', 245, 246-7, 248
definitions, 243-5
non-aqueous polymer dispersions, 61
pigments, 116
and colour, 95
effect on light absorption, 628-9
Particle size analysis
counting requirements, 245-6
methods. 257-82
based on Coulter principle, 271-2
based on surface area measurement, 278-80
chromatographic. 266-9
comparison, 280-1, 282
direct measurement, 259
optical, 272-8
overview, 258
sedimentation, 259, 261-6
sieving, 269-70
sampling for, 246, 252-7
size-frequency curves, 247-52
see also Particle size distribution
Particle size distribution (pigments), 116
before and after milling, 105, 204
and opacity, 100, 101
Passivators (pigments), 401-2
Paste mixers, 324
Patent information, 695
Pearlescent pigments, 126, 160
Pencil scratch testing, 613, 672
Pendulum hardness testing, 613-14. 617
Pendulum impact resistance testing, 669
Pentaerythritol, 31
etherification, 34
Perinone orange, see CI Pigment Orange 43
Perinone red, 145
Permeability
coatings, 344-5, 375-6
concrete and cement, 387
Permeametry, particle sizing by, 266
Peroxides
symbol, 747
see also Dibenzoyl peroxide
Perylene pigments, 114, 151-2
Petrol resistance testing, 667
Phenol formaldehyde resins, 66-7
alkyd modifiers, 39
Phenolic resins, 9
Phosphating (automotive finishes), 417-18, 425,
429
Phosphorescence, 636
Phosphoric acid treatment, 405, 417
Photon correlation spectroscopy, use in particle
sizing, 274-8, 282
Phthalic anhydride, 33, 34, 35
Phthalocyanine green, see CI Pigment Green 7
and 36
Phthalocyanine pigments, 106, 113, 115-16, 154,
456
see also CI Pigment Blue 16; Copper
phthalocyanine pigments
Pigment-binder-solvent relationships, 335-50
pigment to binder (P: B) ratio, 127, 335
Pigment preparations, 128
Pigment scarlet 3B lake, see CI Pigment Red 60:
1
Pigment volume concentration (PVC), 127, 207,
335-7,338
PVC-property relationships, 344-7
as reference point, 338
see also Critical pigment volume concentration
(CPVC)
Pigments. 11-14, 91-165
automotive finishes
anti-chip coatings, 438
future developments, 489
metallic finishes, 449-51
primers, 421, 422. 425
refinishes, 498-9, 500
surfacers. 435-7
topcoats, 454-7
blending, 127
choosing, 125-7
classification, 105-7
crystal structure, 114
definition, 91-2
dispersion, see Dispersion of pigments
early.1-2, 111.131, 136
encapsulation, 347
families, 129-65aluminium flake. see Aluminium flake
pigments
black, 131-4
blue, 154-7
brown, 134-5
corrosion-inhibiting, 162-5, 422, 532
green, 157-8
orange, 144-5
pearlescent, 160
red, 145-53
violet, 153-4
white. 129-31
yellow, 135-44
Hansen solubility parameters, 176
hazards assessment and minimization. 124-5
immersion and wetting, 199-203, 286-8, 346
light absorption by. 628-9
manufacture. 119-24
morphology, and paint properties. 345
nomenclature, 108-9
organic and inorganic compared, 105-7
pastes, 128, 358, 363
physical forms of. 127-9
prediction of colours of mixtures. 633
preparation of millbase, 593-4
prevention of settling, 187-8
quantity in paints, 127
required qualities. 92-105
appearance, 92
colour,92-5, 126-7
durability. 102-4
insolubility. 97-9
opacity, 99-101, 126
particulate nature, 96-7
stability to chemicals, 104
stability to heat, 104-5
tinctorial strength, 95
transparency, 101, 126
solid surface characterization, 202-3
in tinters. 363-4
see also Extenders
Pipes, paste/paint flow in, 594
'Pittment' (extender), 14
Plaster, 383, 389
Plastic pigments. 337, 348, 349
Plasticizers. 50-1, 58-9, 76, 341
Plastics
coatings for, 365. 406
automotive plastics. 459-61. 489
pigments for, 110
Plate out (pigments), 97
Pneumatic microindentation apparatus, 605-6,
612
Poiseuille flow viscometer. see Capillary flow
viscometer
Polar forces. 169, 172, 205
Pollution. 15. 181-3
in use of industrial finishes. 507, 526-7
Pollution control legislation. 167, 183, 333, 475-6,
483,486, 759-60
Polyamide resins, alkyd modifiers, 39, 352
Polycyclic pigments. 113-14
Polyester resins, 40-4
in automotive surfacers, 433, 434, 437-8
in automotive topcoats, 440, 441-3
formulation. 41-2. 701
high solids formulations, 83
modification. 42
in powder coatings. 85
preparation. 42
unsaturated, 10,40,42-4
Polyethylene glycol, 77
Index 779
Poly-12-hydroxystearic acid stabilizers. 60-1, 220,
222,227,228,229
Polymer-extended paints, 14, 348-50
Polymerization
control. 710-11
drying oils. 28-9
types, 22-3
see also Chain growth polymerization;
Emulsion polymerization; Step growth
polymerization
Polvmers
classification, 23
crosslinking. 22, 352-4
in automotive finishes, 435, 442, 443
autoxidative, 28-9, 45, 352-3
test for products, 478
glass transition temperature. 600-1
modelling, 697, 702
Hansen solubility parameters, 175
modelling of properties, 697, 698. 712-16
molecular modelling, 700
natural. 23-4
stereoregularity. and adsorption properties. 233
tin-containing. 544-5
ultimate mechanical properties, 603-5
viscoelasticity, 599-603
viscosity of solutions, 572-3
see also Film formers
Polymorphism (pigments). 94-5, 103. 109-10. 114,
129. 155-6
Polyols
for alkyd resins, 31. 33
etherification. 34
for polyester resins, 40-1
Polyurethanes, 8
automotive body components. 459, 461
coatings. 72-3
dispersions, 74, 358-9
curing, 78
high solids formulations, 82
in marine paints. 538
masonry paints, 398
polyester modifiers. 437-8
radiation curing, 84
varnishes. 377
Poly(vinyl chloride), coatings for unplasticized,
406
Porosimetry. 279
Porosity
concrete and cement. 387
paints
and critical PVC, 341-3
see also Microporosity
Porosity index, 343, 347
Portland cement, 383, 384-5
in cement paints, 393
in cement renderings, 388
hydration, 385-6780 Index
Powder coatings, 15, 17, 20
aqueous slurries, 487
choice of pigment for, 125
for coil coating, 523
composition, 85---{i
curing, 67, 78, 85---{i
future developments, 487
heat treatment, 22
masterbatch tinting for, 129
for panel radiators, 521
polyester resins for, 42
for refrigerators, 521-2
stability of pigments for, 104
stone chip primers, 438
UV curing, 85
see also Electro powder coating
Powders
classification, 253
flammability, 728
sampling, 252-7
Power law materials, 557-8
Precision coaters, 512
Preservative primers, 380
Preservatives
in-can, 193--4
in-film, 194
see also Wood preservatives
Presscakes (pigments), 123, 124, 128
Primers, 4, 5, 370, 378--80
alkali-resisting, 393
blast, 534, 535
corrosion-inhibiting, 403, 404
for ferrous metals, 404---{i
see also under Automotive finishes
Printing inks
curing, 516
light fastness, 102
pigments, 101
Prohesion test, 665
Protanomaly, 637
Protective colloids, 24, 57, 220, 357
Prussian blue, see CI Pigment Blue 27
Pseudoplastic materials, 555---{i, 557, 573
power law materials. 557-8
Pugs (heavy duty), 322--4
PVC, see Pigment volume concentration
Pyranthrone red, 153
Pyrazolone orange pigments, 144-5
Q-U-V accelerated weathering macine, 683,
691
Quality control
dispersions, 327-9
paint colour, 657
Quinacridone pigments, I13, 151
trans-quinacridone, see CI Pigment Violet 19
quinacridone magenta, see CI Pigment Red
122
Quinizarin lake, see CI Pigment Violet 5
Quinophthalone, see CI Pigment Yellow 138
Radiation-curing polymers, 84-5
polyester resins. 43, 44, 84
Radiofrequency drying, 515
Raw sienna, see CI Pigment Yellow 42, 43
Reaction injection moulded (RIM) plastics, 459,
461
Recrystallization (pigments), 98
Red lead, see CI Pigment Red 105
Red ochre, see CI Pigment Red 101, 102
Red pigments, 145-53
Redox polymerization initiation, 46, 57
Reduced pigment volume concentration, 338
Reduced viscosity, 178-9
Reflectance spectrophotometry, 654, 655
Reflection, see Light reflection
Refractive index
determination (Brewster angle method), 622
and light reflection, 621, 623, 644--5
and opacity, 99-100, 634--5
paint media and comparative materials, 645
Refrigerators, finishes for, 521-2
Relative viscosity, 178-9, 568
Reodorants, 195
Resins, 19
computers in formulation and processing, 694,
701-11
computers in scale-up and manufacture, 711-12
for electrodeposition, 80-2
manufacture, 86-7
in oleoresinous vehicles, 30
see also specific resins
Resole resins, 9, 67
Resonance methods (coating properties), 608
Rheology, 550-74
definitions, 552-60
measurements, 555
instrumentation, 581-3
interpretation of results, 567-74
rheological structure


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