كتاب Robotic Nondestructive Testing Technology
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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Robotic Nondestructive Testing Technology

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب Robotic Nondestructive Testing Technology  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Robotic Nondestructive Testing Technology    كتاب Robotic Nondestructive Testing Technology  Emptyالخميس 10 أغسطس 2023, 7:00 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Robotic Nondestructive Testing Technology
Chunguang Xu

كتاب Robotic Nondestructive Testing Technology  R_n_d_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface, xv
Author, xix
Chapter 1 ◾ Introduction 1
1.1 BACKGROUND 3
1.1.1 Automatic NDT Methods of Complex Components 4
1.1.2 Development Trend of Robotic NDT Technique 5
1.2 BASIS OF MANIPULATOR 7
1.2.1 Type and Structure of Manipulators 8
1.2.2 Working Mode of Manipulators 8
1.3 MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COORDINATE
SYSTEM AND EULER ANGLE 11
1.3.1 Definition of a Manipulator Coordinate System 11
1.3.2 Relationship between Position & Attitude and Coordinate System 14
1.3.2.1 Position Description 14
1.3.2.2 Attitude Description 15
1.3.2.3 Spatial Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation 15
1.3.3 Quaternion and Coordinate Transformation 17
REFERENCES 21
Chapter 2 ◾ Method of Acoustic Waveguide UT 23
2.1 WAVE EQUATION AND PLANE WAVE SOLUTION 23
2.1.1 Acoustic Wave Equation for an Ideal Fluid Medium 23
2.1.2 Plane Wave and Solutions of Wave Equations 31
2.2 ULTRASONIC REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION
AT THE INTERFACE 33
2.3 ANALYSIS OF SOUND FIELD IN AN ACOUSTIC WAVEGUIDE TUBE 38vi ◾ Contents
2.4 MEASUREMENT OF SOUND FIELD IN AN ACOUSTIC
WAVEGUIDE TUBE 51
REFERENCES 53
Chapter 3 ◾ Planning Method of Scanning Trajectory on
Free-Form Surface 55
3.1 MAPPING RELATIONS BETWEEN MULTIPLE COORDINATE SYSTEMS 55
3.1.1 Translation, Rotation and Transformation Operators 55
3.1.1.1 Translation Operator 55
3.1.1.2 Rotation Operator 56
3.1.1.3 Transformation Operator 57
3.1.2 Equivalent Rotation and Quaternion Equation 57
3.1.2.1 Representation in an Angular Coordinate System 58
3.1.2.2 Representation in an Equivalent Axial Angular
Coordinate System 59
3.2 SURFACE SPLIT AND RECONSTRUCTION BASED ON NUBRS 59
3.2.1 Parametric Spline Curve and Surface Split Method 59
3.2.2 Scanning of Non-uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) 60
3.2.3 Surface Construction Based on Differential Equation and
Interpolation Algorithm 61
3.3 SURFACE SCANNING TRAJECTORY ALGORITHM BASED ON
CAD/CAM 65
3.3.1 Generation of Discrete Point Data of Free-Form Surface 67
3.3.2 Coordinate Transformation under the Constraint of Ultrasonic
Testing (UT) Principle 71
3.4 SCANNING TRAJECTORY SMOOTHNESS JUDGMENT AND DATA
DISCRETIZATION PROCESSING 73
3.4.1 Wavelet Processing Method of Surface Data 73
3.4.2 Handling and Judgment of Surface Smoothness 75
REFERENCES 80
Chapter 4 ◾ Single-Manipulator Testing Technique 83
4.1 COMPOSITION OF A SINGLE-MANIPULATOR TESTING SYSTEM 84
4.1.1 Workflow of a Testing System 84
4.1.2 Principle of Equipment Composition 85
4.2 PLANNING OF SCANNING TRAJECTORY 93
4.2.1 Ultrasonic/Electromagnetic Testing Parameters 93
4.2.2 Trajectory Planning Parameters 102Contents ◾ vii
4.3 CALIBRATION AND ALIGNMENT OF ASSEMBLY ERROR 104
4.3.1 Method of Coordinate System Alignment 104
4.3.2 Alignment Method Based on Ultrasonic A-Scan Signal 107
4.3.3 Error Compensation Strategy and Gauss-Seidel Iteration 110
4.3.4 Positioning Error Compensation 112
4.4 MANIPULATOR POSITION/ATTITUDE CONTROL AND
COMPENSATION 114
4.4.1 Kinematics Analysis 114
4.4.2 End-Effector Position Error and Compensation Strategy 122
4.4.3 Method of Joint Position/Attitude Feedback 126
4.5 METHOD OF SYNCHRONIZATION BETWEEN POSITION AND
ULTRASONIC SIGNAL 128
REFERENCES 132
Chapter 5 ◾ Dual-Manipulator Testing Technique 133
5.1 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ULTRASONIC TRANSMISSION DETECTION 134
5.1.1 Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Reflection and Ultrasonic
Transmission 134
5.1.1.1 Basic Principle of Ultrasonic Reflection Detection 134
5.1.1.2 Basic Principle of Ultrasonic Transmission Detection 134
5.1.1.3 Comparison between the Elements of an Ultrasonic
Reflection Method and Those of an Ultrasonic
Transmission Method 135
5.1.2 Ultrasonic Transmission Testing of Curved Workpieces 135
5.1.2.1 Principle of Reflection and Transmission of Ultrasonic
Wave Incident on Curved Workpieces 135
5.1.2.2 Principle of Refraction of Ultrasonic Wave Incident on a
Curved Surface 136
5.2 COMPOSITION OF A DUAL-MANIPULATOR TESTING SYSTEM 136
5.2.1 Hardware Structures in a Dual-Manipulator Testing System 137
5.2.1.1 Six-DOF Articulated Manipulator 138
5.2.1.2 Manipulator Controller 141
5.2.1.3 Data Acquisition Card 142
5.2.1.4 Ultrasonic Signal Transceiver System 142
5.2.1.5 Water-Coupled Circulation System 143
5.2.2 Upper Computer Software of a Dual-Manipulator Testing System 144
5.2.2.1 Overall Design of Upper Computer Software 144viii ◾ Contents
5.2.2.2 Data Acquisition 145
5.2.2.3 Synchronous Control of Dual Manipulator 145
5.2.2.4 Automatic Scanning Imaging Module 148
5.2.3 Lower Computer Software of a Dual-Manipulator Testing System 149
5.3 MAPPING RELATION BETWEEN DUAL-MANIPULATOR BASE
COORDINATE SYSTEMS 150
5.3.1 Transformation Relationship between Base Coordinate Systems 151
5.3.1.1 Definition of Parameters of a Manipulator
Coordinate System 151
5.3.1.2 Solution of an Unified Variable Method 152
5.3.1.3 Solving with a Homogeneous Matrix Method 155
5.3.2 Orthogonal Normalization of Rotation Matrix 157
5.3.2.1 Basis of Lie Group and Lie Algebra 157
5.3.2.2 Orthogonalization of Rotation Matrix Identity 160
5.3.3 Experiment of Dual-Manipulator Base Coordinate
Transformation Relationship 162
5.3.4 Analysis of Transformation Relation Error 166
5.4 DUAL-MANIPULATOR MOTION CONSTRAINTS DURING TESTING 170
5.4.1 Constraints on the Position and Attitude of Dual-Manipulator
End-Effectors in the Testing of Equi-Thickness Workpiece 171
5.4.2 Constraints on the Position and Attitude of Dual-Manipulator
End-Effectors in the Testing of Variable-Thickness Workpiece 175
REFERENCES 179
Chapter 6 ◾ Error Analysis in Robotic NDT 181
6.1 KINEMATICS ANALYSIS FOR ROBOTIC TESTING PROCESS 181
6.1.1 Establishment of the Coordinate System in a Moving Device 181
6.1.2 Matrix Representation of the Position/Attitude Relationship
between Coordinate Systems 182
6.1.3 Coordinated Motion Relation between Manipulator and Turntable 184
6.1.4 Matrix Representation of Coordinated Motion Relation 186
6.2 PLANNING OF MOTION PATH IN THE TESTING PROCESS 187
6.2.1 Algorithm of Detection Path Generation 187
6.2.2 Resolving of Manipulator Motion Path 189
6.3 ERROR SOURCES IN ROBOTIC UT PROCESS 193
6.3.1 Geometric Error in Path Copying 194
6.3.2 Localization Error in Manipulator Motion 195Contents ◾ ix
6.3.3 Clamping Error of Tested Component 196
REFERENCES 198
Chapter 7 ◾ Error and Correction in Robotic Ultrasonic Testing 199
7.1 ULTRASONIC PROPAGATION MODEL 199
7.1.1 Fluctuation of Sound Pressure in an Ideal Fluid Medium 200
7.1.2 Expression of Sound Pressure Amplitude 203
7.1.3 Superposition of Multiple Gaussian Beams 204
7.1.4 Influence of the Curved Surface on Ultrasonic Propagation 205
7.2 3D POINT CLOUD MATCHING ALGORITHM BASED ON NORMAL
VECTOR ANGLE 208
7.2.1 Matching Features of 3D Point Clouds 209
7.2.2 Calculation of the Normal Vector on a Curved Surface 209
7.2.3 Identification and Elimination of Surface Boundary Points 210
7.2.4 Calculation of Spatial Position/Attitude Deviation of
3D Point Cloud 211
7.3 CORRECTION EXPERIMENT FOR 3D POINT CLOUD
COLLECTION AND INSTALLATION DEVIATION 213
7.3.1 Steps of 3D Point Cloud Matching 213
7.3.2 Simulation Verification of Position/Attitude Deviation
Correction Algorithm 215
7.3.3 Experiment and Detection Verification of Curved-Component
Deviation Correction 217
REFERENCES 219
Chapter 8 ◾ Kinematic Error and Compensation in Robotic
Ultrasonic Testing 221
8.1 THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION MODEL OF
ROBOTIC UT ERROR 221
8.1.1 Model of Manipulator Localization Error 221
8.1.2 Relationship between Distance Error and Kinematic
Parameter Error 225
8.1.3 Three-Dimensional Spatial Distribution of Errors 227
8.2 FEEDBACK COMPENSATION MODEL OF ROBOTIC UT ERROR 228
8.2.1 Principle of Error Feedback Compensation 229
8.2.2 Calculation of Kinematic Parameter Errors 230
8.2.3 Step of Feedback Compensation of Kinematic Parameter Error 232x ◾ Contents
8.3 DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF BI-HEMISPHERIC
CALIBRATION BLOCK 233
8.3.1 Design of Bi-hemispheric Calibration Block 233
8.3.2 Method of UT System Compensation with Bi-hemispheric
Calibration Error 235
8.3.3 Application of Calibration Block in Kinematic Parameter
Error Compensation 237
REFERENCES 242
Chapter 9 ◾ Dual-Manipulator Ultrasonic Testing Method for
Semi-Closed Components 243
9.1 PROBLEMS FACED BY THE ULTRASONIC AUTOMATIC TESTING
OF SEMI-CLOSED CURVED COMPOSITE COMPONENTS 243
9.2 METHOD OF PLANNING THE DUAL-MANIPULATOR TRAJECTORY
IN THE ULTRASONIC TESTING OF SEMI-CLOSED COMPONENTS 244
9.2.1 Coordinate Systems in Dual-Manipulator and Their Relations 244
9.2.2 Method of Planning the X-Axis Constrained Trajectory in the
Ultrasonic Testing of Semi-Closed Component 249
9.2.3 Experimental Verification of the Trajectory Planning Method
with X-Axis Constraint 254
9.3 ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF VIBRATION
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIAL-SHAPED EXTENSION ARM TOOL 257
9.3.1 Calibration of Static Characteristics of Special-Shaped
Extension Arm Tool 258
9.3.2 Improved S-Curve Acceleration Control Algorithm 262
9.3.3 Trajectory Interpolation Based on Improved S-Curve
Acceleration Control 270
REFERENCES 272
Chapter 10 ◾ Calibration Method of Tool Center Frame on Manipulator 273
10.1 REPRESENTATION METHOD OF TOOL PARAMETERS 273
10.2 FOUR-ATTITUDE CALIBRATION METHOD IN TCF 275
10.2.1 Calibration of the Position of Tool-End Center Point 275
10.2.2 Calibration of the Attitude of End Center Point of
Special-Shaped Tool 278
10.3 CORRECTION OF FOUR-ATTITUDE CALIBRATION ERROR OF
TOOL CENTER FRAME 279
10.4 FOUR-ATTITUDE TCF CALIBRATION EXPERIMENT 287Contents ◾ xi
10.4.1 TCF Calibration Experiment of Special-Shaped Tip Tool 287
10.4.2 Verification Experiment of TCF Calibration Result of
Special-Shaped Tip Tool 288
10.5 FOUR-ATTITUDE TCF CALIBRATION EXPERIMENT OF
SPECIAL-SHAPED EXTENSION ARM 290
REFERENCES 291
Chapter 11 ◾ Robotic Radiographic Testing Technique 293
11.1 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF X-RAY CT TESTING 293
11.1.1 Theory of X-ray Attenuation 293
11.1.2 Mathematical Basis of Industrial CT Imaging 295
11.2 COMPOSITION OF A ROBOTIC X-RAY CT TESTING SYSTEM 297
11.3 ACQUISITION, DISPLAY AND CORRECTION OF X-RAY
PROJECTION DATA 298
11.3.1 Principle and Working Mode of a Flat Panel Detector 298
11.3.2 Implementation of X-ray Image Acquisition and Real-Time
Display Software 302
11.3.3 Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Quality of X-ray
Projection Images 305
11.4 COOPERATIVE CONTROL OF X-RAY DETECTION DATA AND
MANIPULATOR POSITION AND ATTITUDE 310
11.4.1 Design of Collaborative Control Concept 310
11.4.2 Method of Manipulator Motion Control Programming in
Lower Computer 312
11.4.3 Modes of Communication and Control of Upper and
Lower Computers 314
11.4.4 Implementation Method of Cooperative Control Software 316
11.5 AN EXAMPLE OF HOLLOW COMPLEX COMPONENT UNDER TEST 318
REFERENCES 321
Chapter 12 ◾ Robotic Electromagnetic Eddy Current Testing Technique 323
12.1 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC EDDY
CURRENT TESTING 323
12.1.1 Characteristics of Electromagnetic Eddy Current Testing 323
12.1.2 Principle of Electromagnetic Eddy Current Testing 324
12.1.2.1 Electromagnetism Induction Phenomenon 324
12.1.2.2 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction 325
12.1.2.3 Self-Inductance 325xii ◾ Contents
12.1.2.4 Mutual Inductance 326
12.1.3 Eddy Current and Its Skin Effect 326
12.1.4 Impedance Analysis Method 328
12.1.4.1 Impedance Normalization 330
12.1.4.2 Effective Magnetic Conductivity and Characteristic
Frequency 331
12.1.5 Electromagnetic Eddy Current Testing Setup 335
12.2 COMPOSITION OF A ROBOTIC ELECTROMAGNETIC EDDY
CURRENT TESTING SYSTEM 337
12.2.1 Hardware Composition 337
12.2.2 Software Composition 340
12.3 METHOD OF ELECTROMAGNETIC EDDY CURRENT
DETECTION IMAGING 342
12.3.1 Display Method of Eddy Current Signals 343
12.3.2 Method of Eddy Current C-Scan Imaging 344
REFERENCES 347
Chapter 13 ◾ Manipulator Measurement Method for the Liquid Sound
Field of an Ultrasonic Transducer 349
13.1 MODEL OF AN ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCTION SYSTEM 349
13.1.1 Equivalent Circuit Model of an Ultrasonic Transducer 351
13.1.2 Ultrasonic Excitation and Propagation Medium 357
13.2 SOUND FIELD MODEL OF AN ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER
BASED ON SPATIAL PULSE RESPONSE 364
13.2.1 Theory of Sound Field in an Ultrasonic Transducer 364
13.2.2 Sound Field of a Planar Transducer 369
13.2.3 Sound Field of a Focusing Transducer 373
13.3 MEASUREMENT MODEL AND METHOD OF SOUND FIELD OF
AN ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER 378
13.3.1 Ball Measurement Method of Sound Field of an Ultrasonic Transducer 378
13.3.2 Hydrophone Measurement Method of Sound Field of an
Ultrasonic Transducer 392
13.4 SOUND-FIELD MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OF ROBOTIC
ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER 400
13.4.1 Composition of a Hardware System 402
13.4.2 Composition of a Software System 403
13.5 MEASUREMENT VERIFICATION OF SOUND FIELD OF
MANIPULATOR TRANSDUCER 405
13.5.1 Measurement of Sound Field of a Planar Transducer 405
13.5.2 Measurement of Sound Field of Focusing Transducer 406Contents ◾ xiii
REFERENCES 415
Chapter 14 ◾ Robotic Laser Measurement Technique for Solid Sound
Field Intensity 417
14.1 SOLID SOUND FIELD AND ITS MEASUREMENT METHOD 417
14.1.1 Definition, Role and Measurement Significance of
Solid Sound Field 417
14.1.2 Current Domestic and Overseas Measurement Methods and
Their Problems 418
14.2 SOUND SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLID SOUND FIELD
AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION PARAMETERS 420
14.2.1 Structure and Characteristics of Exciter Sound Source 420
14.2.2 Characterization Method of Solid Sound Field 424
14.2.2.1 Analytical Method 424
14.2.2.2 Semi-Analytical Method 426
14.2.2.3 Numerical Method 426
14.2.2.4 Measurement Method of Ultrasonic Intensity in Solids 428
14.3 COMPOSITION OF A ROBOTIC MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR
SOUND FIELD INTENSITY 432
14.3.1 Hardware Composition 433
14.3.2 Software Function 437
14.4 PRINCIPLE OF LASER MEASUREMENT FOR SOUND FIELD
INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION 440
14.4.1 Measurement Principle of Laser Displacement Interferometer 440
14.4.2 Measurement Principle of Normal Displacement of Sound Wave 442
14.5 MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR TRANSVERSE WAVE AND
LONGITUDINAL WAVE BY A DUAL-LASER VIBROMETER 444
14.6 APPLICATION OF A SOUND FIELD INTENSITY
MEASUREMENT METHOD 446
REFERENCES 449
Chapter 15 ◾ Typical Applications of Single-Manipulator NDT Technique 451
15.1 CONFIGURATION OF A SINGLE-MANIPULATOR NDT SYSTEM 452
15.2 AN APPLICATION EXAMPLE OF ROBOTIC NDT TO ROTARY
COMPONENTS 453
15.2.1 Structure of Clamping Device 453
15.2.2 Correction of Perpendicularity and Eccentricity of Principal Axis 454
15.2.3 Generation and Morphological Analysis of Defects in Rotary
Components 457xiv ◾ Contents
15.2.4 Analysis of Error and Uncertainty in the Ultrasonic Detection of
Defects inside Rotary Components 459
15.2.5 Application Examples of Robotic NDT of Rotary Components 463
15.3 ROBOTIC NDT METHOD FOR BLADE DEFECTS 469
15.3.1 Robotic Ultrasonic NDT of Blades 469
15.3.2 Detection by Ultrasonic Vertical Incidence 470
15.3.3 Ultrasonic Surface-Wave Detection Method 472
15.4 ROBOTIC NDT METHOD FOR BLADE DEFECTS 475
15.4.1 Principle of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement 475
15.4.2 Calculation Method of Echo Sound Interval Difference 477
15.4.3 Thickness Measurement Method with Autocorrelation Analysis 479
REFERENCES 486
Chapter 16 ◾ Typical Applications of Dual-Manipulator NDT Technique 487
16.1 CONFIGURATION OF A DUAL-MANIPULATOR NDT SYSTEM 487
16.1.1 NDT Method for Large Components: Dual-Manipulator
Synchronous-Motion Ultrasonic Testing 487
16.1.2 NDT Method for Small Complex Components: Dual-Manipulator
Synergic-Motion Ultrasonic Testing 488
16.2 AN APPLICATION EXAMPLE OF DUAL-MANIPULATOR
ULTRASONIC TRANSMISSION DETECTION 489
16.2.1 Ultrasonic C-Scan Detection of a Large-Diameter Semi-closed
Rotary Component 489
16.2.2 Ultrasonic C-Scan Detection of a Small-Diameter Semi-closed
Rotary Component 491
16.2.3 Ultrasonic C-Scan Detection of a Rectangular Semi-closed Box
Component 492
16.2.4 Ultrasonic Testing of an Acoustic Waveguide Tube 493
REFERENCES 496


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