كتاب Machine Elements in Mechanical Design - Sixth Edition
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 كتاب Machine Elements in Mechanical Design - Sixth Edition

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كتاب Machine Elements in Mechanical Design - Sixth Edition Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Machine Elements in Mechanical Design - Sixth Edition   كتاب Machine Elements in Mechanical Design - Sixth Edition Emptyالإثنين 7 أغسطس 2023 - 0:53

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Machine Elements in Mechanical Design
Sixth Edition
Robert L. Mott
University of Dayton
Edward M. Vavrek
Purdue University
Jyhwen Wang
Texas A&M University

كتاب Machine Elements in Mechanical Design - Sixth Edition M_e_i_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


2–9 Tool Steels 51
2–10 Cast Iron 51
2–11 Powdered Metals 53
2–12 Aluminum 56
2–13 Zinc Alloys and Magnesium 58
2–14 Nickel-Based Alloys and Titanium 59
2–15 Copper, Brass, and Bronze 60
2–16 Plastics 61
2–17 Composite Materials 64
2–18 Materials Selection 76
References 81
Internet Sites Related to Design Properties of
Materials 82
Problems 83
Supplementary Problems 85
Internet-Based Assignments 86
3 Stress and Deformation Analysis 87
The Big Picture 87
You Are the Designer 88
3–1 Objectives of This Chapter 91
3–2 Philosophy of a Safe Design 91
3–3 Representing Stresses on a Stress
Element 92
3–4 Normal Stresses Due to Direct Axial
Load 93
3–5 Deformation Under Direct Axial
Load 94
3–6 Shear Stress due to Direct Shear Load 94
3–7 Torsional Load—Torque, Rotational
Speed, and Power 94
3–8 Shear Stress due to Torsional Load 96
3–9 Torsional Deformation 98
3–10 Torsion in Members Having Non-Circular
Cross Sections 98
3–11 Torsion in Closed, Thin-Walled
Tubes 100
3–12 Torsion in Open, Thin-Walled
Tubes 100
3–13 Shear Stress Due to Bending 102
Preface ix
Acknowledgments xv
PART 1 Principles of Design
and Stress Analysis 1
1 The Nature of Mechanical Design 2
The Big Picture 2
You Are the Designer 7
1–1 Objectives of This Chapter 8
1–2 The Design Process 8
1–3 Skills Needed in Mechanical Design 9
1–4 Functions, Design Requirements,
and Evaluation Criteria 10
1–5 Example of the Integration of Machine
Elements into a Mechanical Design 12
1–6 Computational Aids 13
1–7 Design Calculations 14
1–8 Preferred Basic Sizes, Screw Threads,
and Standard Shapes 14
1–9 Unit Systems 20
1–10 Distinction Among Weight, Force,
and Mass 21
References 22
Internet Sites for General Mechanical Design 22
Internet Sites for Innovation and Managing
Complex Design Projects 23
Problems 23
2 Materials in Mechanical Design 25
The Big Picture 25
You Are the Designer 26
2–1 Objectives of This Chapter 27
2–2 Properties of Materials 27
2–3 Classification of Metals and Alloys 39
2–4 Variabilty of Material Properties Data 43
2–5 Carbon and Alloy Steel 43
2–6 Conditions for Steels and Heat
Treatment 46
2–7 Stainless Steels 51
2–8 Structural Steel 51
CONTENTSiv Contents
5–8 Recommended Design and Processing
for Fatigue Loading 188
5–9 Design Factors 189
5–10 Design Philosophy 189
5–11 General Design Procedure 191
5–12 Design Examples 193
5–13 Statistical Approaches to Design 203
5–14 Finite Life and Damage Accumulation
Method 204
References 207
Internet Sites Related to Design 208
Problems 208
6 Columns 217
The Big Picture 217
6–1 Objectives of This Chapter 218
You Are the Designer 219
6–2 Properties of the Cross Section of a
Column 219
6–3 End Fixity and Effective Length 220
6–4 Slenderness Ratio 221
6–5 Long Column Analysis: The Euler
Formula 221
6–6 Transition Slenderness Ratio 222
6–7 Short Column Analysis: The J. B. Johnson
Formula 223
6–8 Column Analysis Spreadsheet 226
6–9 Efficient Shapes for Column Cross
Sections 227
6–10 The Design of Columns 229
6–11 Crooked Columns 232
6–12 Eccentrically Loaded Columns 233
References 237
Problems 237
PART 2 Design of a Mechanical
Drive 241
7 Belt Drives, Chain Drives,
and Wire Rope 244
The Big Picture 244
You Are the Designer 246
7–1 Objectives of This Chapter 246
7–2 Kinematics of Belt and Chain Drive
Systems 246
7–3 Types of Belt Drives 251
7–4 V-Belt Drives 252
7–5 Synchronous Belt Drives 262
3–14 Shear Stress Due to Bending – Special
Shear Stress Formulas 103
3–15 Normal Stress Due to Bending 104
3–16 Beams with Concentrated Bending
Moments 105
3–17 Flexural Center for Beam Bending 110
3–18 Beam Deflections 110
3–19 Equations for Deflected Beam Shape 112
3–20 Curved Beams 113
3–21 Superposition Principle 120
3–22 Stress Concentrations 122
3–23 Notch Sensitivity and Strength Reduction
Factor 129
References 129
Internet Sites Related to Stress and Deformation
Analysis 129
Problems 129
4 Combined Stresses and Stress
Transformation 142
The Big Picture 142
You Are the Designer 143
4–1 Objectives of This Chapter 144
4–2 General Case of Combined Stress 144
4–3 Stress Transformation 145
4–4 Mohr’s Circle 150
4–5 Mohr’s Circle Practice Problems 157
4–6 Mohr’s Circle for Special Stress
Conditions 159
4–7 Analysis of Complex Loading
Conditions 164
Reference 164
Internet Sites Related to Stress
Transformation 164
Problems 165
5 Design for Different Types
of Loading 166
The Big Picture 166
You Are the Designer 168
5–1 Objectives of This Chapter 168
5–2 Types of Loading and Stress Ratio 168
5–3 Failure Theories 172
5–4 Design for Static Loading 173
5–5 Endurance Limit and Mechanisms
of Fatigue Failure 175
5–6 Estimated Actual Endurance Limit, sn= 178
5–7 Design for Cyclic Loading 185Contents v
9–11 Computer-Aided Spur Gear Design
and Analysis 407
9–12 Use of the Spur Gear Design
Spreadsheet 409
9–13 Power-Transmitting Capacity 412
9–14 Plastics Gearing 413
9–15 Practical Considerations for Gears and
Interfaces with other Elements 418
References 422
Internet Sites Related to Spur Gear Design 423
Problems 423
10 Helical Gears, Bevel Gears,
and Wormgearing 428
The Big Picture 428
You Are the Designer 430
10–1 Objectives of This Chapter 430
10–2 Forces on Helical Gear Teeth 430
10–3 Stresses in Helical Gear Teeth 433
10–4 Pitting Resistance for Helical Gear
Teeth 433
10–5 Design of Helical Gears 434
10–6 Forces on Straight Bevel Gears 439
10–7 Bearing Forces on Shafts Carrying Bevel
Gears 441
10–8 Bending Moments on Shafts Carrying
Bevel Gears 444
10–9 Stresses in Straight Bevel Gear Teeth 444
10–10 Forces, Friction, and Efficiency in
Wormgear Sets 456
10–11 Stress in Wormgear Teeth 461
10–12 Surface Durability of Wormgear
Drives 461
10–13 Emerging Technology and Software
for Gear Design 464
References 466
Internet Sites Related to Helical Gears, Bevel
Gears, and Wormgearing 467
Problems 467
11 Keys, Couplings, and Seals 470
The Big Picture 470
You Are the Designer 471
11–1 Objectives of This Chapter 471
11–2 Keys 471
11–3 Materials for Keys 476
11–4 Stress Analysis to Determine Key
Length 476
7–6 Chain Drives 278
7–7 Wire Rope 292
References 301
Internet Sites Related to Belt Drives and Chain
Drives 301
Problems 302
8 Kinematics of Gears 304
The Big Picture 304
You Are the Designer 308
8–1 Objectives of This Chapter 308
8–2 Spur Gear Styles 309
8–3 Spur Gear Geometry-Involute-Tooth
Form 309
8–4 Spur Gear Nomenclature and Gear-Tooth
Features 311
8–5 Interference Between Mating Spur Gear
Teeth 321
8–6 Internal Gear Geometry 322
8–7 Helical Gear Geometry 323
8–8 Bevel Gear Geometry 326
8–9 Types of Wormgearing 330
8–10 Geometry of Worms and Wormgears 332
8–11 Gear Manufacture 337
8–12 Gear Quality 340
8–13 Velocity Ratio and Gear Trains 343
8–14 Devising Gear Trains 351
References 356
Internet Sites Related to Kinematics of
Gears 357
Problems 357
9 Spur Gear Design 362
The Big Picture 362
You Are the Designer 363
9–1 Objectives of This Chapter 364
9–2 Concepts From Previous Chapters 364
9–3 Forces, Torque, and Power in Gearing 365
9–4 Introduction to Stress Analysis for
Gears 374
9–5 Bending Stress in Gear Teeth 374
9–6 Contact Stress in Gear Teeth 387
9–7 Metallic Gear Materials 389
9–8 Selection of Gear Materials 393
9–9 Design of Spur Gears to Specify Suitable
Materials for the Gears 400
9–10 Gear Design for the Metric Module
System 405vi Contents
13–10 Robust Product Design 560
References 560
Internet Sites Related to Tolerances
and Fits 561
Problems 561
14 Rolling Contact Bearings 563
The Big Picture 563
You Are the Designer 564
14–1 Objectives of This Chapter 565
14–2 Types of Rolling Contact Bearings 565
14–3 Thrust Bearings 567
14–4 Mounted Bearings 568
14–5 Bearing Materials 569
14–6 Load/Life Relationship 570
14–7 Bearing Manufacturers’ Data 571
14–8 Design Life 575
14–9 Bearing Selection: Radial Loads
Only 576
14–10 Bearing Selection: Radial and Thrust
Loads Combined 576
14–11 Bearing Selection from Manufacturers’
Catalogs 578
14–12 Mounting of Bearings 578
14–13 Tapered Roller Bearings 580
14–14 Practical Considerations in the Application
of Bearings 582
14–15 Importance of Oil Film Thickness in
Bearings 584
14–16 Life Prediction under Varying
Loads 585
14–17 Bearing Designation Series 586
References 586
Internet Sites Related to Rolling Contact
Bearings 587
Problems 587
15 Completion of the Design of a Power
Transmission 589
The Big Picture 589
15–1 Objectives of This Chapter 590
15–2 Description of the Power Transmission to
be Designed 590
15–3 Design Alternatives and Selection of the
Design Approach 591
15–4 Design Alternatives for the Gear-Type
Reducer 592
15–5 General Layout and Design Details of the
Reducer 593
11–5 Splines 479
11–6 Other Methods of Fastening Elements
to Shafts 482
11–7 Couplings 486
11–8 Universal Joints 494
11–9 Other Means of Axial Location 499
11–10 Types of Seals 502
11–11 Seal Materials 503
References 505
Internet Sites for Keys, Couplings, and
Seals 505
Problems 506
12 Shaft Design 509
The Big Picture 509
You Are the Designer 510
12–1 Objectives of This Chapter 510
12–2 Shaft Design Procedure 510
12–3 Forces Exerted on Shafts by Machine
Elements 513
12–4 Stress Concentrations in Shafts 516
12–5 Design Stresses for Shafts 517
12–6 Shafts in Bending and Torsion Only 520
12–7 Shaft Design Examples—Bending and
Torsion Only 521
12–8 Shaft Design Example—Bending and
Torsion with Axial Forces 529
12–9 Spreadsheet Aid for Shaft Design 533
12–10 Shaft Rigidity and Dynamic
Considerations 534
12–11 Flexible Shafts 535
References 535
Internet Sites for Shaft Design 535
Problems 536
13 Tolerances and Fits 546
The Big Picture 546
You Are the Designer 547
13–1 Objectives of This Chapter 547
13–2 Factors Affecting Tolerances and Fits 547
13–3 Tolerances, Production Processes, and
Cost 548
13–4 Preferred Basic Sizes 550
13–5 Clearance Fits 551
13–6 Interference Fits 554
13–7 Transition Fits 555
13–8 Stresses for Force Fits 555
13–9 General Tolerancing Methods 557Contents vii
18–3 Helical Compression Springs 659
18–4 Stresses and Deflection for Helical
Compression Springs 666
18–5 Analysis of Spring Characteristics 667
18–6 Design of Helical Compression
Springs 670
18–7 Extension Springs 677
18–8 Helical Torsion Springs 681
18–9 Improving Spring Performance by Shot
Peening and Laser Peening 687
18–10 Spring Manufacturing 687
References 688
Internet Sites Related to Spring Design 688
Problems 689
19 Fasteners 691
The Big Picture 691
You Are the Designer 692
19–1 Objectives of This Chapter 693
19–2 Bolt Materials and Strength 693
19–3 Thread Designations and Stress
Area 695
19–4 Clamping Load and Tightening of Bolted
Joints 696
19–5 Externally Applied Force on a Bolted
Joint 698
19–6 Thread Stripping Strength 700
19–7 Other Types of Fasteners and
Accessories 700
19–8 Other Means of Fastening and
Joining 702
References 702
Internet Sites Related to Fasteners 703
Problems 704
20 Machine Frames, Bolted Connections,
and Welded Joints 705
The Big Picture 705
You Are the Designer 706
20–1 Objectives of This Chapter 706
20–2 Machine Frames and Structures 706
20–3 Eccentrically Loaded Bolted
Joints 710
20–4 Welded Joints 712
References 719
Internet Sites for Machine Frames, Bolted
Connections, and Welded Joints 720
Problems 721
15–6 Final Design Details for the Shafts 605
15–7 Assembly Drawing 608
References 611
Internet Sites Related to Transmission Design 612
PART 3 Design Details and Other Machine
Elements 613
16 Plain Surface Bearings 614
The Big Picture 614
You Are the Designer 616
16–1 Objectives of This Chapter 616
16–2 The Bearing Design Task 616
16–3 Bearing Parameter, mn/p 617
16–4 Bearing Materials 618
16–5 Design of Boundary-Lubricated
Bearings 619
16–6 Full-Film Hydrodynamic Bearings 624
16–7 Design of Full-Film Hydrodynamically
Lubricated Bearings 625
16–8 Practical Considerations for Plain Surface
Bearings 630
16–9 Hydrostatic Bearings 632
16–10 The Kugel Fountain—A Special Example
of a Hydrostatic Bearing 635
16–11 Tribology: Friction, Lubrication,
and Wear 635
References 638
Internet Sites Related to Plain Bearings and
Lubrication 639
Problems 640
17 Linear Motion Elements 641
The Big Picture 641
You Are the Designer 643
17–1 Objectives of This Chapter 644
17–2 Power Screws 644
17–3 Ball Screws 649
17–4 Application Considerations for Power
Screws and Ball Screws 652
References 652
Internet Sites for Linear Motion Elements 653
Problems 653
18 Springs 655
The Big Picture 655
You Are the Designer 656
18–1 Objectives of This Chapter 657
18–2 Kinds of Springs 657viii Contents
22–14 Drum Brakes 768
22–15 Band Brakes 772
22–16 Other Types of Clutches and Brakes 773
References 775
Internet Sites for Clutches and Brakes 775
Problems 775
23 Design Projects 778
23–1 Objectives of This Chapter 778
23–2 Design Projects 778
List of Appendices 781
Appendix 1 Properties of Areas 782
Appendix 2 Preferred Basic Sizes and Screw
Threads 784
Appendix 3 Design Properties of Carbon and Alloy
Steels 787
Appendix 4 Properties of Heat-Treated Steels 789
Appendix 5 Properties of Carburized Steels 791
Appendix 6 Properties of Stainless Steels 792
Appendix 7 Properties of Structural Steels 793
Appendix 8 Design Properties of Cast Iron—U.S.
Units Basis 794
Appendix 8A Design Properties of Cast Iron—SI
Units Basis 795
Appendix 9 Typical Properties of Aluminum 796
Appendix 10–1 Properties of Die-Cast Zinc
Alloys 797
Appendix 10–2 Properties of Die-Cast Magnesium
Alloys 797
Appendix 11–1 Properties of Nickel-Based
Alloys 798
Appendix 11–2 Properties of Titanium Alloys 798
Appendix 12 Properties of Bronzes, Brasses, and
Other Copper Alloys 799
Appendix 13 Typical Properties of Selected
Plastics 800
Appendix 14 Beam-Deflection Formulas 801
Appendix 15 Commercially Available Shapes Used
For Load-Carrying Members 809
Appendix 16 Conversion Factors 829
Appendix 17 Hardness Conversion Table 830
Appendix 18 Stress Concentration Factors 831
Appendix 19 Geometry Factor, I, for Pitting for
Spur Gears 834
Answers to Selected Problems 837
Index 848
21 Electric Motors and Controls 723
The Big Picture 723
You Are the Designer 725
21–1 Objectives of This Chapter 725
21–2 Motor Selection Factors 725
21–3 AC Power and General Information about
AC Motors 726
21–4 Principles of Operation of AC Induction
Motors 727
21–5 AC Motor Performance 728
21–6 Three-Phase, Squirrel-Cage Induction
Motors 729
21–7 Single-Phase Motors 731
21–8 AC Motor Frame Types and
Enclosures 733
21–9 Controls for AC Motors 735
21–10 DC Power 742
21–11 DC Motors 742
21–12 DC Motor Control 744
21–13 Other Types of Motors 744
References 746
Internet Sites for Electric Motors and
Controls 746
Problems 747
22 Motion Control: Clutches and
Brakes 749
The Big Picture 749
You Are the Designer 751
22–1 Objectives of This Chapter 751
22–2 Descriptions of Clutches and Brakes 751
22–3 Types of Friction Clutches and
Brakes 751
22–4 Performance Parameters 756
22–5 Time Required to Accelerate or Decelerate
a Load 758
22–6 Inertia of a System Referred to the Clutch
Shaft Speed 760
22–7 Effective Inertia for Bodies Moving
Linearly 761
22–8 Energy Absorption: Heat-Dissipation
Requirements 762
22–9 Response Time 762
22–10 Friction Materials and Coefficient of
Friction 764
22–11 Plate-Type Clutch or Brake 765
22–12 Caliper Disc Brakes 767
22–13 Cone Clutch or Brake 767
848
A
Abrasion resistance, 298
Adhesives, 702
Aerospace Materials System (AMS), 39–40
Air blasting, 466
Allowable stress, 189
Allowance, 547, 548
Aluminum, 56–58, A–9
casting alloys, 57–58
forging alloys, 58
Aluminum Association (AA), 39
American Gear Manufacturers Association, (AGMA), 311, 317, 320,
381, 382, 390–395, 397–399, 415, 416, 419, 420, 433,
437, 438, 444–453, 455, 461, 462, 465, 637
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 39
American National Standards Institute, (ANSI), standards, 547, 548,
551, 554, 584
American Society for Testing and Materials, (ASTM), 16, 30, 31,
34–36, 40–43, 51–53, 663–666, A–7, A–8
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, (ASME), standard, 551,
554, 558
American standard beam shapes, 16, A–15–10
Angles, equal and unequal leg, 18, A–15–1, A–15–2, A–15–3
Annealing, 47
Areas, properties of, A–1
Austempered ductile iron (ADI), 53, A–8
Automotive universal joints, 495, 496
Average stress, 100
Axiomatic design, 8
B
Babbitt, 618
Ball screws, 649–651
column buckling, 652
efficiency, 651
materials, 652
performance, 649–650
torque, 651
travel life, 651
Basic sizes, preferred, 14, A–2
Beams, 104
bending stress, 104–105
concentrated bending moment, 105–109
curved, 113–120
deflections, 110–112, A–14
flexural center, bending, 110
shapes, A–15
shear center, 110
Bearings, plain surface, 615–638
bearing characteristic number, 627
bearing parameter, mn/p, 616–618
boundary lubrication, 619–624
operating temperature, 620–621
oscillating loading, 623–624
pV factor, 619–620
wear considerations, 624
clearance, diametral, 621–622, 626
coefficient of friction variable, 617, 619, 628
design of full film hydrodynamic bearings, 624–630
film thickness variable, 624–626
friction torque and power, 640
full-film (hydrodynamic) lubrication, 615, 616, 624–625
geometry, 615
grooving, 630–631
hydrostatic bearing performance, 632–635
journal, 614
Kugel Fountain, 635
length, 619
materials, 618–619
mixed-film lubrication, 616, 624
mn/p parameter, 617–618
pressure, 620, 624–625
pV factor, 619–620
Sommerfeld number, 627–628
Stribeck curve, 617
surface roughness, 625
temperature of lubricant, 626–627
viscosity, 627
wear factor, 638
Bearings, rolling contact, 563–586
brinelling, 571
design life, 575–576
dynamic load rating, 571
equivalent load, 576–578
flange units, 569
grease for, 582, 583
installation, 583
life factor, 575
load/life relationship, 570–571
locknuts, 579–580
lubrication, 582–583
manufacturers’ data, 571–575
materials, 569–570
mean effective load, 585–586
mounted bearings, 568–569
mounting, 578–580
oil film thickness, 584–585
pillow blocks, 591
preloading, 583
rated life (L10), 571
reliability, 578
rotation factor, 576
sealing, 583–584
selection, 576–578
sizes, 571
speed factor, 575
speeds, limiting, 584
standards, 584
static load rating, 571
INDEXIndex 849
pitch, 278–279
power ratings, 283–285
roller chain, 278–280
service factors, 286
sizes, 279
sprockets, 278
styles, 279
U.S. units, 279
Channel beam shapes, 16, A–15–4 to A–15–8
Charpy test, 36
Clearance fits, 551–553, 626
Clevis joints, 126
Clutches and brakes, 749–774
actuation, 753–756
applications, typical, 752
band brakes, 753, 772–773
brake, defined, 750
brake, fail-safe, 754
clutch-brake module, 751
clutch, coupling, 751
clutch, defined, 750
coefficient of friction, 764–765
cone clutch or brake, 752–753, 767–768
disc brakes, 752, 767
drum brakes, 768–772
eddy current drive, 774
energy absorption, 762
fiber clutch, 774
fluid clutch, 774
friction materials, 764–765
inertia, effective, 760–762
jaw clutch, 773
overload clutch, 774
performance, 756–757
plate type, 756, 765–767
radius of gyration, 758
ratchet, 774
response time, 762–764
single-revolution clutch, 774
slip clutch, 751, 755
sprag clutch, 774
tensioners, 774
types, 751–756
wear, 764–765
Wk2, inertia, 758–764
wrap spring clutch, 774
Coefficient of friction, 457, 458, 619, 764–765
Coefficient of thermal expansion, 39
Collars, 501
Columns, 217–239
buckling, 217–218
column constant, 222
crooked, 232–233
design factors for, 222
design of, 229–232
eccentrically loaded, 233–236
effective length, 220–221
efficient shapes for column cross sections, 227–229
end fixity, 220–221
Euler formula, 221–223
J. B. Johnson formula, 223–226
radius of gyration, 218
secant formula, 233–234
slenderness ratio, 221
Combined stresses, 144–150
Complex loading conditions, 164
Composite materials. See Materials, composites
Computational aids, 13–14. See also MDESIGN software;
Spreadsheets as design aids
stiffness, 583
take-up bearings, 569
tapered roller bearings, 580–582
thrust bearing, 567–568
thrust factor, 581
tolerances, 584
types, 565–567
varying loads, 585–586
Belleville spring, 657–658
Belt drives, 246–251
belt, chain speed, 246
configuration, 248
fixed center distances, 276
kinematics of, 246–251
multiple shaft drive, 276–277
pitch circle diameter, 247
pulleys, 246
span belt, 249
speed increaser, 248
speed reducer, 248, 249, 251
twin power belts, 276, 278
types of, 251–252
whip belt, 249
Belt pulleys, flat, 516
Belts and chains. See Chain drives;
V-belt drives
Bending
normal stress, 104–105
shear stress, 102–103
Bolted connections, 696–698, 710–712
Brakes. See Clutches and brakes
Brass, 60–61
properties, A–12
Brazing, 702
Brinell hardness, 31
Bronze, 60–61, 392–393
properties, A–12
sintered, 618
Buckling of columns, 189
Buckling of springs, 667
Bushing, split taper, 485
C
Carbo-nitriding, 49
Carburized steels, properties of, A–5
Carburizing, 49, 391–392, A–11
of gear teeth, 392
Cardan universal joint, 494
Case hardening
flame hardening, 48–49
heat treating operations, cautions, 49–50
induction hardening, 48–49
Cast iron, 392–393
SI units (design properties) basis, A–8A
U.S. units (design properties) basis, A–8
Ceramics, bearing material, 570
Chain drives, 246–251, 278–291
attachments, 279
center distance formula, 281–282
configuration, 248
conveyor chain, 279, 282
design of, 279–291
forces on shafts, 514–515
kinematics of, 246–251
length of chain formula, 282
lubrication, 286–291
metric sizes, 280
multiple strands, factors, 281850 Index
Direct axial load
deformation, 94
normal stress, 93–94
Direct Gear Design®, 465
Direct shear stress, 94
Distortion energy theory (DET), 174, 510, 518–520
Double cardan universal joint, 494
Drawings, assembly, 608–611
shaft details, 605–608
Drop weight test, 36
Ductile iron, 52–53, A–8
Ductility, 29
E
Early cycle yielding, 186
Elastic limit, 28
Electrical conductivity, 39
Electrical resistivity, 39
Endurance limit, 178–185
actual, 178
graph vs. tensile strength, 179
size factors, U.S. customary units, 181
Endurance strength, 36
Equivalent torque, 161
Euler formula for columns, 221–223
Evaluation criteria, 10–11
Extra improved plow steel (XIP), 297
F
Factor of safety. See Design factor
Failure modes, 92, 645
Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), 9
Failure theories, 172–173
Fasteners, 691–702
adhesives, 702
American Standard, 695
bolted joints, 696–698
bolt materials, 693–695
brazing, 702
clamping load, 696–697
coatings and finishes, 695
head styles, 692
locking devices, 701
metric, 696
screws, 693
set screws, 700
soldering, 702
strength, 693–695
thread designations, 695–696, A–2
thread stripping, 700
tightening torque, 697
washers, 698
Fatigue, 36
failures, stress analysis
high-cycle fatigue (HCF), 175–176
low-cycle fatigue (LCF), 175–178
loading, 169, 188–189
resistance, 298
Fiber core (FC), 292
Fillets, shoulder, 474
Finite-element analysis (FEA), 164
Finite life method, 204–207
Fits, 547–548
for bearings, 601
clearance, 551–553
locational, 553
running and sliding, 551
Concentrated bending moment, 105–109
Connections, keyless, 483–484
Constant velocity (CV) joint, 494
Conversion factors, A–16
Coordinate measurement machine (CMM), 342
Copper, 60–61
properties, A–12
Copper Development Association (CDA), 39
Cornay™ universal joint, 494–495, 497
Coulomb-Mohr theory (CMT), 174–175
Couplings, 470–505
bellows, 488
chain, 487
D-Flex, 488
Dynaflex®, 489
Ever-Flex, 487
flexible, 487–490
floating shaft–type, 493, 494
FORM-FLEX®, 489
gear, 488
Grid-Flex, 487
jaw-type, 489
PARA-FLEX®, 488
polygon connection, 484–485
rigid, 486–487
Ringfeder Locking Assemblies®, 483
Creep, 36–37
Criteria for machine design, 10–11
Critical speed, 534, 535, 652
Crushing resistance, 298
Curved beams
composite cross sectional shape, 117–120
cross sectional shape, 114–116, 118
general procedure, bending moment, 114–117
stress analysis, 113–114, 120
Cyaniding, 49
Cyclic loading
brittle materials, 188
ductile materials, 185–186
Smith diagram, 186–188
D
Damage accumulation method, 204–207
Decision analysis, 592
Deflected beam shape, equations, 112–113
Deformation, 94
Density, 38
Designation comparison, steels and aluminum, 42
Design calculations, 14
Design details, power transmission, 589–611
Design factor, 189
Design for six sigma (DFSS), 8
Design philosophy, 189–191
Design problem examples, 193–203
Design procedure, 191–193
Design process
axiomatic designx, 8
design for six sigma (DFSS), 8
engineering design process-embodiment design, 9
example, 12–13
failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), 9
product design for manufacture and assembly, 9
quality function deployment (QFD), 8
total design, 9
TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), 8
Design projects, 778–780
Design requirements, 10–11
Design skills, 9–10Index 851
form milling, 338
hobbing, 338
measurement, 340–343
quality numbers (AGMA standards), 382–384
shaping, 338
stress analysis, 374
worm. See Wormgearing
Gears, spur, 311–321, 362–422
addendum, 317
backlash, 317
center distance, 317
clearance, 379
contact stress, 387–389
dedendum, 415
design of, 400–412
dynamic factor, 382
efficiency, 367
elastic coefficient, 387–389
face width, 401, 402
forces on shafts, 513–516
forces on teeth, 513
gear teeth geometry, 311–317
AGMA standards, 311
comments, 317
design considerations, 311
metric module system, 311, 316
geometry, 375, 376
geometry factor, 377, A–19
Hertz stress on teeth, 387
idler, 394
internal, 338
involute tooth form, 309–311
base circle, 310
conjugate curves, 309
constant angular velocity ratio, 309
law of gearing, 310
Lewis form factor, 375, 416
life factor, 394
load distribution factor, 378–380
lubrication, 419–420
manufacture, 337–339
materials, 393–396
material specification, 413
metric module, 405
overload factor, 378
pitch, diameter, 364–365
pitch, diametral, 365
pitting resistance, 413, A–19
plastics gearing, 414–415
power flow, 367
power transmitting capacity, 412–413
pressure angle, 365
quality, 340–343
rack, 349
reliability factor, 394
rim thickness factor, 380–381
size factor, 378
stresses, allowable, 374
stresses in teeth, 374–384
styles, 309
undercutting, 322
Gear trains
devising
designing, single pair, 353
factoring approach, compound gear trains, 355–356
hunting tooth, 351–353
residual ratio, 354–355
train value, 345–347, 351–356
velocity ratio, 343–345, 353
interference, 554–555
force fits, 554–555
locational, 553
shrink, 554
stresses for, 555–557
transition, 555
Flame hardening, gears, 48, 390, 391
Flexible couplings, 487–490
effects on shafts, 516
torque capacity, shafts, 535
Flexible disc coupling selection procedure, 490–494
Flexural center, 110
Flexural modulus, 30–31
Flexure formula, 105
Fluctuating stress, 170–172
Force, 21
Force fits, 555–557
stresses for, 555–557
Forces exerted on shafts by machine elements, 513–516
Friction, 636
Function statements, 11
G
Garter springs, 657
Gearmotors, 462
Gears
bevel, 326–330, 439–456
allowable bending strength number, 448–450
bearing forces, 441–444
bending moments on shafts, 443–444
bending stress number, 445
contact stress number, 449–455
dynamic factor, 446
forces on, 439–441
geometry, 326–330
geometry factor, 446, 448
load distribution factor, 446, 447
material selection, 446
miter gears, 326
overload factor, 445
pitch cone angle, 326
pitch diameter, 445
pitches, 445
pitting resistance, 413
practical considerations, 456
reducers, 420
size factor for bending strength, 445–446
stresses in, 444–456
stresses in teeth, 416
tangential force, 445
cutting tools, 338
design process
non-standard gearing and gear tooth forms, 465
peening, 465–466
software, 466
helical, 323–326, 430–439
crossed, 305
design of, 434–439
forces on teeth, 430–433, 513
geometry, 323–326
geometry factor, 375–378
helix angle, 514
pitches, 324–325
pitting resistance, 433–434, 437, 438
reducers, 390, 391
stresses in teeth, 433
internal, 322–323
manufacture and quality, 337–343852 Index
types, 472–475
Woodruff, 473, 475
Keyseats and keyways
dimensions, 475
fillets, 474
selections and installations, 474–475
stress concentrations, 516–517
Kugel Fountain, 635
L
Law of gearing, 308
Leaf springs, 657
Lewis form factor, 461
Linear motion elements, 641–652
Loading types, 167, 172
Locknuts, 501, 579
Lubricants, 636–638
solid, 638
Lubrication
bearings
plain. See Bearings, plain surface
rolling contact, 471
chain drives, 286
gears, 419
Lug joints. See also Clevis joints
stress concentration factors, 126–129
M
Machinability, 35
Machine frames and structures, 705–719
deflection limits, 707
materials, 707
torsion, 709–710
Magnesium alloys, 59
die-cast alloys, A–10–2
Malleable iron, 52, A–8
Mass, 21
Materials in mechanical design, 25–81
aluminum, 56–58, A–9
brass and bronze, 60–61, 393, A–12
carbon and alloy steel, 43–46, 390–391, A–3, A–4
cast iron, 392–393, A–8, A–8A
composites, 64–76
advantages of, 67–68
construction of, 70–71
design guidelines, 72–76
filament winding, 67
limitations of, 70–71
preimpregnated materials, 66
pultrusion, 67
reinforcing fibers, 64
sheet molding compound, 67
wet processing, 66
copper, 60–61
decision analysis, 77–78
gear, 393–400
nickel alloys, 59
other considerations, 78–81
plastics, 61–64, 413–418, A–13
powdered metals, 53–56
process, 76
properties, 27–39
selection, 76–81
stainless steels, A–6
structural steel, A–7
thermoplastics, 62
thermosets, 62
titanium, 60, A–11
zinc, 58–59, A–10
Gear-type speed reducers, 420–422, 509, 567, 746
Geometry factor, I, A–19
Gerber criterion, 186
Goodman criterion, 186
Goodman method, 168
Gray iron, 27, 52, A–8, A–8A
Greases, 637
H
Hardness, 31–34
carburizing, A–5
conversions, 32, A–17
measurement, 33
properties, A–4
Heat treating of steels
annealing, 46, 47
carbo-nitriding, 48, 49
carburizing, 49, 50, 391–392
case hardening, 48–49, 391
flame hardening, 48–49, 391
induction hardening, 48–49, 391
nitriding, 48–49, 183, 392
normalizing, 47
tempering, 47–48
through-hardening, 47–48
Heavy-duty industrial type double universal joint, 494, 496
Heavy-duty right angle gear reducer, 456
Hertz stress, 387
Hollow structural shapes (HSS), 18
Hunting tooth, 351–353
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 625–630
Hydrostatic bearings, 632–635
I
I-beam shapes, 41, 42, A–15–9 to A–15–13
Idler gear, 347–348
Impact energy, 35–36
Impact loading, 172
Improved plow steel (IPS), 297–298
Inconel alloys, 694
Independent wire rope core (IWRC), 292, 300
Induction hardening, gears, 48–49, 391
Interference, 637
fits, 554–555
Internal gear, 322–323
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 465
Involute tooth form, 374–376
Izod test, 35
J
J. B. Johnson formula for columns, 223–226
J-factor
for helical gears, 433–435
for spur gears, 375
K
Keys, 471–505
chamfers, 472, 474
design of, 477, 478
forces on, 476, 477
gib head, 472, 475
materials for, 476
parallel, 472, 473
pin, 472–473, 475
sizes, 472, 473
stresses in, 476–478
taper, 472, 475
tolerances, 472, 605Index 853
starters, 736–739
stepping motors, 746
synchronous motors, 730
three phase power, 737
torque motors, 744
universal motor, 730–731
wound rotor motor, 729
Motor starters, 736–740
N
Nanotechnology applications, materials, 75–78
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
(NEMA), 729
Nickel-based alloys, 59–60
properties, A–11–1
Ni-resist alloy, 59
Nitriding, 183, 392
Non-circular gears, 465
Normalizing, 47
Normal stress, 92
bending, 104–105
direct axial load, 93–94
element, 93
Notch sensitivity, 129
O
Oils, 636–637
Open tube, 100
P
Palmgren–Miner rule, 585
Percent elongation, 29
Pillow blocks, 568
Pinning, 482–483
Pipe, 19
Pitch circle diameter, 247
Plastic gear materials, 414–415
Plastics, 61–64, 413–415, 619
bearing material, 569
properties, A–13
Poisson’s ratio, 29
Polar section modulus, 97
Polygon connection, 484–485
Powdered metals, 53–56
application, disadvantages, 53
examples, 54
industrial application, 56
processing, 53
proprietary formulations and grades, 53–56
Powder metallurgy (PM). See Powdered metals
Power, 94–96
Power screws, 644–649
Acme thread, 644, 647–648
buttress thread, 644
efficiency, 647
lead angle, 647
metric thread, 645–647
power required, 648
self-locking, 647
square thread, 647
torque required, 647
Power–torque–speed relationship, 94
Press fit, 486. See also Fits, interference; Force fits;
Shrink fits
Pressure angle
spur gears, 335
wormgearing, 335
Principal stress, maximum and minimum, 145
Maximum normal stress theory (MNST), 174
Maximum principal stresses, 145
Maximum shear stress, 146
Maximum shear stress theory (MSST), 164, 173–174
MDESIGN software
synchronous belts, 303
Mechanical design process. See Design process
Megagear®, 465
Metallic gear materials
allowable bending stress number, AGMA 2001-DO4, 390
Metal Powder Industries Foundation (MPIF), 53
Metals and alloys, classification, 39–42
Metric power screws, 645
trapezoidal screw thread, examples, 646
Metric sizes, keys. See Keys
Metric units, 19
MGT Frictionless Drive System®, 465
Miner’s rule, 205–206, 585
Minimum principal stresses, 145
Miter gears, 326
Modified Mohr theory (MMT), 175
Modulus of elasticity
in shear, 29
spring wire, 668
in tension, 28–29
Mohr’s circle, 150–156
practice problems, 157–159
special stress conditions, 159–164
three-dimensional stresses, 156
tresca stress, 156
von mises stress, 156
Molding, 486
Monel alloys, 569–570
Moore, R.R. fatigue test device, 169
Motion control. See Clutches and brakes
Motors, electric, 723–746
AC motors and types, 727, 733–735
AC variable speed drive, 740
AC voltages, 726
brushless DC, 746
capacitor start, 731–732
compound-wound, DC, 744
controls, AC, 735–742
DC motor control, 744
DC motor types, 743–744
DC power, 742
enclosures, motors, 734
frame sizes, 734–735
frame types, 733
induction motors, 729–731
linear motors, 746
NEMA AC motor designs B, C, D, 729
overload protection, 739–740
performance curves, AC motors, 729–733
permanent magnet, DC, 744
permanent split capacitor, 732
printed circuit motors, 746
rectifiers (SCR), 742
selection factors, 725–726
series-wound, DC, 743
servomotors, 744–746
shaded pole, 732–733
shunt-wound, DC, 743
single-phase motors, 731–733
single-phase power, 736
sizes, 736
speed control, AC, 744
speeds, 729
split-phase, 731
squirrel cage motors, 729–731854 Index
face, 503, 504
gaskets, 505
O-rings, 502
packings, 505
rigid materials, 505
shafts, 505
T-rings, 502
types, 502–504
Section modulus, 105
polar, 97
Self-locking, 460
Set screws, 485
Shaft design, 509–535
design stresses, 517–520
dynamic considerations, 534–535
equation for diameter, 519
examples, 519–520
fastening elements
keyless hub, 483–484
Ringfeder Locking Assemblies®, 483
flexible, 535
forces exerted on shafts, 513–516
preferred basic sizes, 521, A–2
procedure, 510–512
stress concentrations in, 516–517
Shapes
commonly used metals, 41–42
load-carrying members, A–15
section properties, 16, A–15
types, 16–19. See also Structural shapes
Shaping of gears, 339
Shear center, 110
Shear pin, 387
Shear strength, 29
Shear stress, 92
direct, 94
due to torsional load, 96–98
element, 92–93
formulas, 97
horizontal, 102
on keys, 95
positive and negative, 93
special shear stress formulas, 103–104
vertical, 102–103, 518–519
Sheaves, 246
forces on shafts, 515–516
Shock loading, 172
Shot peening, 465, 466
Shoulders, shaft, 501, 579
Shrink fits, 554
stresses for, 555–557
SI units, 20
prefixes, 20
typical quantities in machine design, 20
Size factor, 181–182, 378
Slenderness ratio for columns, 221
Smith diagram, mean stress, 186–188
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 39, 40, 479, 765
Soderberg criterion, 185–186
Soldering, 702
Sommerfeld number, 627–628
Spacers, 501
Special stress conditions, Mohr’s circle
biaxial tension and compression, 160
combined tension and shear, 161–162
cylinder with internal pressure, 162–164
pure shear, 161
uniaxial compression, 160
uniaxial tension, 159, 161
Specific modulus, 67
Specific strength, 67
Product design for manufacture and assembly, 9
Product realization process, 9
Properties of materials in mechanical design
coefficient of thermal expansion, 39
creep, 36–37
density, 38
ductility elongation, 29
elastic limit, 28
electrical resistivity, 39
endurance strength, 36
fatigue strength, 36
flexural modulus, 30–31
flexural strength, 30–31
hardness, 31–34
impact energy, 35–36
machinability, 35
modulus of elasticity
in shear, G, 29
in tension, E, 28–29
non-destructive measurement, 29–30
percent elongation, 29
Poisson’s ratio, v, 29
proportional limit, 28
relaxation, 37–38
shear strength, Sys and Sus, 29
tensile strength, Su, 28
thermal conductivity, 39
toughness, 35–36
wear, mechanical devices, 34
yield strength, Sy, 28
Proportional limit, 28
Pulleys
flat belt, 516
V-belt, 244, 515–516. See also Sheaves
Pure oscillation, 186
Pure pulsating stress, 186
pV factor, 619
Q
Quality function deployment (QFD), 8
R
Rack, 349–350
Radius of gyration, 218
Random loading, 172
Ratchet, 774
Relaxation, 37–38
Reliability factors, 180–181, 448, 449
Residual stress, 183
Resistivity, electrical, 39
Retaining ring grooves, 517
Retaining rings, 499, 500
Reyn, 627
Ringfeder Locking Assemblies®, 483
Robust product design, 560
Rockwell hardness, 31
Rotational speed, 94–96
R.R. Moore fatigue test device, 169
S
SAE numbering system
alloy groups, 44
designation, 43–45
Sand blasters, 466
Screw threads, 14–16, 695, A–2
Seals, 502–505
bearings, 503, 504, 583–584
diaphragm, 502, 503
elastomers, 504Index 855
Strength
endurance, 36
reduction factor, 129
shear, 29
tensile, 28
yield, 28
Stress
allowable for gears, 374
amplitude, 168, 176
combined bending and torsion on circular shafts, 520, 521
combined stress, general, 144–145
concentration factors, 516–517, A–18
concentrations, 122–129
defined, 122, 123
factors, lug joints, 126–129
general guideline, for use, 124–126
keyseats, 516
in shaft design, 516–517
design, for shafts, 517–520
direct shear, 91
due to shrink or force fits, 555–557
elements, 92–93
fluctuating, 170–172
gear analysis, 374
high-cycle fatigue (HCF), 175–176
longitudinal, 162
low-cycle fatigue (LCF), 175–178
maximum shear, 146
normal, direct axial load, 93–94
principal, 145
ratio, 168–172
repeated and reversed, 169–170
special shear stress formulas, 103–104
static, 168–169
torsional shear, 96–98
transformation
maximum and minimum principal stresses, 145
maximum shear stress, 146
principal stress element, angle, 145–146
three-dimensional, 146
vertical shearing stress, 102–103
Stress-life diagram, 176
Structural shapes, 16–18, A–15
angles, A–15–1 to A–15–3
channels, A–15–4 to A–15–8
I-shapes, A–15–9 to A–15–13
pipe, A–15–17
tubing
mechanical, round, A–15–18, A–15–19
square and rectangular, A–15–14 to A–15–16
Structural steel, A–7
Superposition principle, 120–122
Surface finish, 180, 558, 560, 687
Synchronous belts, 251, 262–278
configurations for, 275–278
construction of, 264
kinematics of, 246
MDESIGN software for, 303
metric sizes, 262, 266
selection procedure, 266, 270–273
taperlock bushings, 264–265
T
Taguchi method, 560
Taper and screw, 485, 486
Tapered roller bearings, 580–582
Taperlock bush, 264–265
Tempering, 47, A–3 to A–7
Tensile strength, 28
Tensile stress, 120
The engineering design process-embodiment design, 9
Specific weight, 38
Splines, 479–482
fits, 480–481
geometry, 479
involute, 480–482
modules, 482
pitches, 481–482
straight-sided, 479–481
torque capacity, 480
Split taper bushings, 499
Spreadsheets as design aids
chain design, 291
columns, 226–227, 229, 232
force fits, stresses, 558
gear design, 409–412
shaft design, 533
springs, design, 673–677
Springs
helical compression, 659–666
allowable stresses, 680
analysis, 667–670
buckling, 667
deflection, 666–667
design of, 670–677
end treatments, 659
materials, 663, 668
number of coils, 662
pitch, 662
pitch angle, 662–663
spring index, 662
spring rate, 662
stresses, 666–667
Wahl factor, 667
wire diameters, 659–660
helical extension, 677–681
allowable stresses, 663–666, 680
end configurations, 677–680
helical torsion, 681–687
deflection, 682
design procedure, 682–687
design stresses, 682
number of coils, 682
spring rate, 682
stresses, 682
types, 657–659
manufacturing, 687–688
shot peening, 687
Sprockets, chain, 262, 514–515
Stainless steel, A–6
Statical moment, 102
Static loading
brittle materials, 174–175
ductile materials, 173–174
Statistical approaches to design, 203–204
Steel, 43–53
alloy groups, 45–46
bearing, 45, 569–570
carbon and alloy, 43–46, 390, 391, A–3 to A–7
carbon content, 45
carburized, 49, 391–392, A–5
conditions, 46–51
designation systems, 43–45
heat treating, 46–51
high-carbon, 45
low-carbon, 45
medium-carbon, 45
properties, heat-treated, A–3 to A–7
stainless, A–6
structural, A–7
uses for, 46
Stochastic methods, 203856 Index
austempered ductile iron (ADI), 52
bronze, 60
CMNCs.(ceramic matrix nano composites), 76
gray iron (ADI), 52
malleable iron (ADI), 52
steel, 31
Weight, 21
Welded joints, 712–719
allowable stresses, 712, 714
geometry factors, 715
size of weld, 713–714, 716
treating weld as a line, 714
types of joints, 713
types of welds, 713
Wheel blasting, 466
White iron, 53
Wide flange beam shapes, 18–19, A–15–9
Wire ropes, 292–300
application of, 292
classification, 292–293
construction, 292–293, 298
design factors, 299–300
lay of, 294
material and grades, 297
nominal diameter, 292
properties of, 300
roller bearing, 296
selection of, 298–299
sheave and drum design, 295–297
strand construction, 293–295
tread diameter, 295
working loads, 299–300
Woodruff keys, 473, 475, 479
Wormgearing, 330–337, 456–464
coefficient of friction, 457, 458
efficiency, 458–460
face length of worm, 336
forces on, 456–460
friction force, 458
geometry, 332–337
input power, 458
lead, 333
lead angle, 333
output torque, 457
pitches, 332
pitch line speed, 456
power loss, 458
pressure angle, 335
reducer, 331, 332, 456
self-locking, 335, 460
shell worm, 335, 336
stresses, 461
surface durability, 461–464
threads (teeth), 332
tooth dimensions, 335
types, 330–332
velocity ratio, 334, 456
worm diameter, 335
wormgear dimensions, 335–336
Y
Yield locus, 173
Yield point, 28
Yield strength, 28, 173–175, 185, 186, 188–190
Z
Zinc, 58–59
die-cast alloys, A–10–1
Thermal conductivity, 39
Thermal expansion coefficient, 555
Three-stage industrial gear reducer, 456
Thrust bearings, 567–568
Titanium, 60, A–11–2
Titanium/nickel alloys, bearing material, 569
Tolerance, 546–560
geometric, 558, 559
grades, 548, 550
Torque, 94–96
equivalent, 161
tubes, 495, 497–499
Torsion
in closed thin-walled tubes, 100
deformation, 98
in noncircular cross sections, 98–100
in open thin-walled tubes, 100–101
shear stress formula, 97–98
stress distribution, 97
Torsional deformation, 98
Torsional shear, 96
stress formula, 97–98
Total design, 9
Toughness, 35–36
Train value, 345–346
Transition fits, 555
Transmission, design of, 590–611
Tresca criterion, 164
TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), 8–9
Tubes, stresses in, 100–101, 103
U
Undercutting of gear teeth, 322
Unified numbering system, UNS, 39–40
Unimegagear®, 465
Unit systems, 20–21
Universal joints, 494–499
U.S. customary units, 20
typical quantities in machine design, 20
V
V-belt drives, 252–262
angle of contact, 253
angle of wrap correction factor, 259
belt construction, 252
belt cross sections, 253
belt lengths
correction factor, 259
formula, 257
standard, 260
belt tension, 262
center distance formula, 261
design of, 253–262
forces on shafts, 515–516
kinematics of, 246
metric sizes, belt cross section, 253
power rating charts, 257, 258
pulleys. See Sheaves
SAE standards, 286
service factors, 256
sheaves, 251–255
span length, 253
Velocity ratio, gears, 334
gear trains, 343–344
Viscosity, 627
Viscosity index (VI), 637
von Mises criterion, 164
W
Wear, 638
Wear resistance


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