كتاب Modification of Polymer Properties
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Modification of Polymer Properties

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كتاب Modification of Polymer Properties  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Modification of Polymer Properties    كتاب Modification of Polymer Properties  Emptyالإثنين 07 أغسطس 2023, 1:47 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Modification of Polymer Properties
Edited by
Carlos F. Jasso-Gastinel
University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Me´xico
Jose´ M. Kenny
University of Perugia, Terni, Italy
Table of contents
Dedication
About the Editors

كتاب Modification of Polymer Properties  M_o_p_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Preface
1. Introduction: Modifiable Characteristics and Applications
Abstract
1.1 Development of Polymers
1.2 Bonding in Polymers
1.3 Classifications of Polymers With Respect to Origin, Structure, and Applications
1.4 Morphology
1.5 Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution
1.6 Recycling and Degradation of Polymers
1.7 Structure–Properties Relationship in Polymers
1.8 Estimation of Polymer Properties
1.9 How to Select a Polymer
References
2. Filled Polymer Composites
Abstract
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Type of Composites and Their Properties
2.3 Filler Effects in Polymer Properties, Applications, and Market
2.4 Filler Surface Modification
2.5 Properties and Applications of the Main Fillers
2.6 Adhesion and Surface Modification
2.7 Matrix/Filler Interface and Interactions
2.8 Rheology of Filled Polymers
2.9 Manufacturing of Filled Polymers
References
3. Nanofillers in Polymers
Abstract
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Types of Nanoparticles
3.3 Processing of Nanostructured Polymers and Composites
3.4 Evaluation Techniques of Nanoparticles Dispersion
3.5 Effect of Nanofillers on the Properties of Polymer Composites
3.6 Conclusions
References
4. Additives in Polymers
Abstract
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Protective Additives
4.3 Plasticizers
4.4 Impact Modifiers
4.5 Compatibilizers
4.6 Dyes and Pigments
4.7 Bio-Based Additives and Formulations
References
5. Surface Modification of Polymers: Chemical, Physical, and Biological Routes
Abstract
Recent Trends in the Surface Modification of Polymers
5.1 Chemical Methods
5.2 Bulk Surface Modification
5.3 Physical Methods
5.4 Biological Routes
5.5 Examples of Applications
References
6. Smart Polymers
Abstract
6.1 Smart Materials: Polymers and Nanocomposites
6.2 Stimuli Responsive Materials in Smart Packaging
6.3 Mechanisms of Shape Memory
6.4 Mechanisms of Self-Healing
6.5 Mechanisms of Hydrogel
6.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References
7. Blends and Alloys
Abstract
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Fundamental Principles and Types of Polymer Blends
7.3 Phase Morphology of Polymer Blends
7.4 Phase Behavior and Properties of Polymer Blend Systems
7.5 Design and Applications of Polymer Blends
7.6 Concluding Remarks
Nomenclature
References
8. Gradients in Homopolymers, Blends, and Copolymers
Abstract
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Gradients in Homopolymers and Composites
8.3 Gradients in Blends
8.4 Compatibility and Phase Separation in MPS
8.5 Gradient Copolymers
8.6 Summary
Acknowledgments
References
Index
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
A
Acrylics modifiers, 99, 99t
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS),
4
modifiers, 98-99, 99t
properties and applications of, 31
Additives, 87
bio-based, 103-105, 104t
compatibilizers, 99-100, 101t
dyes, 100
impact modifiers, 97-99, 99t
pigments, 101-103, 102t
inorganic, 101-103
organic, 101
plasticizers, 95-97, 97f, 98t
protective, 88-95
flame retardants, 90
heat stabilizers, 89-91
against weathering, 88-93
role of, 87
technological aspects of, 87-88
Adhesion, 113
filled polymer composites, 31-32
Adhesives, classification of, 7t
Alloys, 155
Alumina trihydrate, properties and
applications of, 31
3-Aminopropylmethyldiethoxysilane
(APDES), 29
3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES),
29
Amorphous polymers, 7-10, 8f, 10f
Antibacterial coatings, 111
Antibacterial effect of polymer
composites
nanofillers effect on, 77-78
Antifouling properties of polymer
composites
nanofillers effect on, 78
Antioxidants (AO), 89-91
multifunctional, 91, 91f
in packaging materials, 136
primary, 89t, 90, 90f
secondary, 89t, 90-91, 90f, 91f
Antistatic coatings, 111
Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD),
122-123
Aromatic amines, secondary, 90, 90f
Aromatic LC polyesteramides, blends
with, 172-173, 173f
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 68, 69f
Atom transfer radical polymerization
(ATRP), 112, 202, 202f
Avobenzones, 91-92, 92f
B
Barrier properties of polymer composites
nanofillers effect on, 76-77, 76f
Benzophenones, 94t
Benzotriazoles, 94t
Bio-based additives, 103-105, 104t
Biocompatibility of polymers, 124
Biodegradable polymer blends, 176-179
PHB blends, 178-179, 179f
PLA blends, 177-178, 178f
Biofunctionalization of polymer surfaces,
120-121, 121f
Biological routes, 120-124, 122t
biofunctionalization of polymer
surfaces, 120-121, 121f
carbohydrate coatings, 123-124
peptide coatings, 122-123
protein coatings, 121-122
Blend(s/ing), 155
basic thermodynamics of, 156-157,
156f
classification of, 157-158
design and applications of, 173-179
biodegradable polymer blends,
176-179, 178f, 179f
postconsumer plastics based on PET
and polyolefins, recycling of,
173-176, 174t, 175f, 176f
gradients in, 188-198
diffusion in polymers, 191-194, 193f
gradient IPNs, 189-191, 189f, 190f,
194-198, 194f, 195f, 196f, 197f
methods of mixing, 158-159
phase morphology of, 159-164
compatibilization methods, 162-164
immiscible blends, 159-160, 160f
miscible blends, 160-162, 161f
phase transitions of, 157-158, 158f
polymer blend systems, phase behavior
and properties of, 164-173
blends with liquid crystal
components, 169-173, 170f, 171t
polyamide/polyolefin blends,
165-168, 167f, 168f
polyester/polyolefin blends,
165-168
polyolefin/polyolefin blends,
164-165, 164f, 166f
Block or graft copolymers addition,
compatibilization by, 162-163,
163f
Bohemite, 25f
Bonding, in polymers, 1-2
Boron carbide (B4C), 56-57
Bulk surface modification, 112-113
adhesion and wettability
(hydrophilicity), 113
low surface tension, hydrophobic and
oleophobic surfaces, 112-113
Butadiene-based graft copolymers, 98
Butene, properties of, 2t
C
Calcium carbonate
applications of, 30-31
properties of, 30-31, 36t
surface tension of, 33t
Carbohydrate coatings, 123-124
Carbon, allotropic forms of, 51-52, 52f
Carbon black (CB), 55, 102-103
properties of, 36t
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), 51-52, 54
thermoplastic matrices, 62
thermoset matrices, 64
Carbon nanoparticles, 51-55
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 51-54
multi-walled, 51-53
single-walled, 51-53
thermoplastic matrices, 62
thermoset matrices, 64
211Cellobiose, chemical structure of, 57f
Cellulose fibers, properties of, 36t
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), 57-58,
57f
Cellulose nanofibril, crystalline and
amorphous domains in, 57f
Cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide
(CTA-OH), 138
Chemical elements or groups, in
polymers, 3
Chemical resistant/barrier coatings,
111-112
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 117
Chitin, 59
chemical structure of, 59f
Chitosan, 59, 124
chemical structure of, 59f
Clay minerals, properties and applications
of, 30
Compatibilization methods, 162-164
by block or graft copolymers addition,
162-163, 163f
by functional/reactive polymers
addition, 163, 163f
reactive blending (in situ
compatibilization), 163-164
Compatibilizers, 99-100, 101t
Coniferyl alcohol, chemical structure of,
58f
Controlled radical polymerization (CRP),
gradient copolymer by, 202-203,
202f, 204f, 205f
Corona discharge, 114, 114f
p-Coumaryl alcohol, chemical structure
of, 58f
Coupling agents, 13, 26, 28, 34, 40
Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), 111
Crystallization of polymers, 7-9, 8f
D n
-Decane, properties of, 2t
Degradability, in polymers, 14-15, 88f
Degree of polymerization (DP), 8-9
Denisov Cycle, 92
Development of polymers, 1
Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films, 117
Diffusion in polymers, 191-194, 193f
Dyes, 100
E
Elastomeric matrices, 65-66
Electrical properties of polymer
composites
nanofillers effect on, 72-73, 72f
Electron microscopy, 67, 67f
Environmental-sensitive polymers, 131
Epoxy resin
silica nanoparticles in, 24f
surface tension of, 33t
Ethylene Propylene Diene (M class)
Rubber (EPDM), 65
Extracellular matrix (ECM), 121-122
F
Fatty acids, 28-29
Fiber-reinforced composites, 48f
Filled polymer composites, 23
adhesion in, 31-32
applications of, 26-28
compatibilization, 26, 30, 34-35
compounding, 28, 40-42
manufacturing of, 40-42
matrix/filler interface and interactions,
32-35, 33t, 35f
reinforcement, 23-25, 28, 30-31, 34
rheology of, 35-40, 36t, 38f, 39f
surface modification in, 28-32
types and properties of, 24-26
Flame retardants (FR), 90
Flame treatment, 114-115, 115f
Fluorescent pigments, 103
Fluoroalkylation of polymer surfaces, 112
Fluorosurfactant additives, 113
Functional/reactive polymers addition,
compatibilization by, 163, 163f

-irradiation, 117-118
Glass beads, properties of, 36t
Glass fibers
applications of, 30-31
properties of, 30-31, 36t
3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane,
110-111
Gradient IPNs
applications of, 194-198
chemical properties of, 196-198, 197f
physical properties of, 194-198, 194f,
195f, 196f
preparation of, 189-191, 189f, 190f
Gradients, 185
in blends, 188-198
diffusion in polymers, 191-194, 193f
gradient IPNs, 189-191, 189f, 190f,
194-198, 194f, 195f, 196f, 197f
gradient copolymers, 199-205, 200f
preparation of, 200-203, 202f, 204f,
205f
properties of, 194-198
in homopolymers and composites,
187-188
polymeric gradient composite,
187-188
multicomponent polymer systems,
compatibility and phase separation
of, 198-199
Graphene, 54-55
thermoplastic matrices, 62
thermoset matrices, 64
use of CNTs in, 53, 53f
Graphene oxide (GO), 54-55, 111
thermoplastic matrices, 62
thermoset matrices, 64
H
Halogen-based flame retardants, 95
Heat stabilizers, 87, 94t
Hemodialysis membranes, 124
High density polyethylene (HDPE),
34-35, 35f, 36f
High temperature behavior of polymer
composites
nanofillers effect on, 73-76, 74f, 76f
Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS),
92, 94t
Hindered phenols, 90, 90f
Hydrogels, mechanisms of, 146-147, 147f
Hydrolysis-condensation reaction, 110
Hydrophilicity, 113
Hydrophobic surfaces, 112-113
I
Immiscible blends, 159-160, 160f
Impact modifiers, 97-99, 99t
Inorganic pigments, 101-103
In situ compatibilization, 163-164
In situ polymerization, 134
Intelligent packagings, 137
Intelligent polymers, 131
Ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD), 119
Ion beam based processes, 119
Ion implantation, 119
Isodimensional nanoparticles, 133
thermoplastic matrices, 62-63
thermoset matrices, 64-65
Isopentane, properties of, 2t
Isotactic polypropylene/high density
polyethylene (iPP/HDPE) blends
phase behavior and properties of,
164-165
Isotactic polypropylene/low density
polyethylene (iPP/LDPE) blends
phase behavior and properties of,
164-165, 164f
K
Kevlar fibers, properties of, 36t
Kinetic chain-breaking antioxidants, 89
L
Laser-induced surface modifications,
118-119
Layered silicate
arrangements of “onium” ions in,
50-51, 51f
structure of, 50-51, 50f
212 INDEXLipid oxidation, 136
Liquid crystal polymers (LCPs), 156f
M
Magnesium hydroxide, properties and
applications of, 31
Maleic anhydride, 34
Manufacturing of filled polymers, 40-42
Matrix/filler interface and interactions,
32-35, 33t, 35f
Mechanical properties of polymer
composites
nanofillers effect on, 69-72, 71f
Melt-mixing, 134
Metakaolinite, 30
Metal complexes, 94t
Metal hydrate flame retardants, 95
Metallic pigments, 103
Metallic salts, 93-94
Methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS)
modifiers, 99, 99t
Methane, properties of, 2t
Mica
applications of, 26, 30
properties of, 26, 30, 36t
surface tension of, 33t
Miscible blends, 160-162, 161f
Molecular weight (MW), of polymers,
10-12, 11f, 12f
Molecular weight distribution (MWD),
11-12
Monomers, in polymer, 3-4
Montmorillonites (MMT), 50-51
layered silicate, 134
X-ray scattering of, 66f
Morphology
of nanocomposites, 51, 52f
of polymers, 7-10, 8f, 10f
Multicomponent polymer systems (MPSs),
185-187
compatibility and phase separation of,
198-199
Multifunctional antioxidants, 91, 91f
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes
(MWCNTs), 51-53
N
Nanocarbides, 56-57
Nanoclays, 50-51
thermoplastic matrices, 61-62
thermoset matrices, 63-64
Nanocomposites, 24, 24f, 47-48, 48f
fiber-reinforced, 48f
interphase in, 49f
processing of, 60-66
smart, 131-134
Nanofillers, 47
effect on polymer composites
properties, 68-78
antibacterial effect, 77-78
antifouling properties, 78
barrier properties, 76-77, 76f
electrical properties, 72-73, 72f
mechanical properties, 69-72, 71f
thermal properties and high
temperature behavior, 73-76, 74f,
76f
Nanolignin, 58
thermoplastic matrices, 63
thermoset matrices, 65
Nano-oxides, 55-56
Nanoparticles
dispersion, evaluation techniques of,
66-68
atomic force microscopy, 68, 69f
electron microscopy, 67, 67f
Raman spectroscopy, 67-68, 68f
small angle X-ray scattering, 66f, 67
wide angle X-ray diffraction, 66
geometrical shape and dimensions of,
49t
geometries of, 133f
types of, 49-60
Nanoreinforcement, 47
Nanostructured polymers, processing of,
60-66
Nanotechnology, 47
Nitroxide-mediated polymerization
(NMP), 202
Nonmetallic organic stabilizers, 94-95
Nonphthalates, 97, 98t
O
Oleophobic surfaces, 112-113
Oligomer, 1
Organic nanofillers, 57-59
cellulose nanocrystals, 57-58, 57f
chitin, 59, 59f
chitosan, 59, 59f
nanolignin, 58
Organic pigments, 101
Organometallic compounds, 94
Organosilane surface modifiers, 29, 29t
P
PAN membranes, 112
Pearlescent pigments, 103
n-Pentane, properties of, 2t
Peptide coatings, 122-123
Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs), for surface
modification, 112
Peroxide decomposers, 89
Phenol-formaldehyde resins, 25
Phosphites, 90, 90f
Phosphorus-based flame retardants, 95
Photo-aging, 89
Photodegradation, 88-89
Photoinitiated degradation, 89
Photostabilizers, 91-93, 92f, 93f, 94t
Photothermal degradation, 89
Phthalates, 97, 98t
Phyllosilicates, 50
Pigments, 101-103, 102t
inorganic, 101-103
organic, 101
PLA/EVA-GMA blends, 177-178, 178f
PLA-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB),
136
Plasma-assisted coating methods,
115-117
Plasma enhanced chemical vapour
deposition (PECVD), 117, 123
Plasma polymerization, 116
Plasma postirradiation grafting, 116
Plasma simultaneous grafting, 116
Plasma state polymerization, 116
Plasticizers, 88, 95-97, 97f, 98t
primary, 95-96
secondary, 95-96
Polyacids, 3
Polyacrylic acid, 61
Polyamide/polyolefin blends, 165-168
Polyamide-6/high density polyethylene
(PA6/HDPE) blends, 165-168
Polyamide-6/low density polyethylene
(PA6/LDPE) blends, 165-168,
167f
Polyamide-6 (PA-6), surface modification
of, 113
Polyamide-6/ultra low density
polyethylene (PA6/ULDPE) bleds,
165-168
Polyamide-6/very low density
polyethylene (PA6/VLDPE)
blends, 165-168, 168f
Polyamides, 3
properties and applications of, 31
Poly(butylenes terephthalate) (PBT), 156f
Poly(butylenes terephthalate)/4,4’-
terephthaloyldioxydibenzoic acid
(PBT/HTH), 172, 172f
Polycaprolactone (PCL), 111-112
carbohydrate coatings, 123-124
for surface modification, 112
Polycarbonate (PC), 156f
resistance to scratch and wear,
110-111
Polycarbonate/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PC/
PCL), 161
Polycondensation polymers, 34
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS),
antibacterial activity of, 111
Polyesters, 3
Polyetherimide (PEI), 156f
Polyethersulfone (PES), 123-124
membranes, 124-125
Polyethylene oxide (PEO), 61-63,
111-112
INDEX 213Polyethylene (PE)
antibacterial activity of, 111
for surface modification, 112-113
Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/high density
polyethylene (PET/HDPE), 169
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 63, 111
for surface modification, 112
Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(butylene
terephthalate) (PET/PBT), 161
Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/
polypropylene (PET/PP), 169,
170f, 171t
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes
(POSS), 59-60
chemical structure of, 60f
Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)
blends, 178-179, 179f
Poly(hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene
oxide) (PHB/PEO), 161
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), 111-112, 136
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA),
116-117
Polylactides (PLAs), 59, 61-63
blends of, 159, 177-178
Polymer composite properties, nanofillers
effect on, 68-78
antibacterial effect, 77-78
antifouling properties, 78
barrier properties, 76-77, 76f
electrical properties, 72-73, 72f
mechanical properties, 69-72, 71f
thermal properties and high temperature
behavior, 73-76, 74f, 76f
Polymeric gradient composite (PGC)
applications of, 188
preparation of, 187-188
Polymer layer interdiffusion, 34
Polymer(s)
additives in, 87
applications of, 6-7, 6t
blends, 3t, 155
bonding in, 1-2
chemical elements or groups in, 3
classification of, 3-7
components in, types of, 5
composites, filled. See Filled polymer
composites
degradability in, 14-15, 88f
development of, 1
diffusion in, 191-194, 193f
molecular weight of, 10-12, 11f, 12f
monomers in, 3-4
morphology of, 7-10, 8f, 10f
nanofillers in, 47
properties, estimation of, 16-17
reaction to temperature, 5-6, 5f
recyclability of, 13-14
selection of, 17-18
smart, 131
sources of origin, 3
space dimensions in, 4, 4f
structure-property relationships in,
15-16, 15t
surface modification of. See Surface
modification, of polymers
Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)
resistance to scratch and wear,
110-111
for surface modification, 112-113
surface tension of, 33, 33t
Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone), 63
Polyolefin composites, 34
Polyolefin/polyolefin blends, phase
behavior and properties of,
164-165
Polyolefins, 3
Poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS), 156f
Polypropylene (PP), 25-26, 29, 63, 87
photooxidative degradation of, 89
surface modifications of, 113
surface tension of, 33, 33t
Polypropylene/ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol
(PP/EVOH) blends, 168
Polysaccharide nanocrystals
thermoplastic matrices, 63
thermoset matrices, 65
Polystyrene (PS), 37, 61-62
resistance to scratch and wear,
110-111
for surface modification, 112-113
Polyurethanes, 3
Poly(vinyl acetate), 63
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA, PVOH),
61-63, 111
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), 63, 88, 93,
111
antibacterial activity of, 111
flame treatment, 114-115
plasticizers effect on, 96-97, 97f
for surface modification, 112-113
PPESK membranes, 125
Propylene copolymers blends, phase
behavior and properties of, 165, 166f
Protective additives, 88-95
flame retardants, 90
heat stabilizers, 89-91
against weathering, 88-93
Protein coatings, 121-122
PSU membranes, 125
PVDF membranes, 125
Q
Quenchers, 92, 92f, 93f, 94t
R
Radiation-induced surface modification,
117-119
γ-irradiation, 117-118
ion beam based processes, 119
laser-induced surface modifications,
118-119
UV-irradiation, 118
Radical addition fragmentation and
transfer (RAFT), 202-203
Radio frequency identification (RFID),
138, 138f
Raman spectroscopy, 67-68, 68f
Reactive blending, 163-164
Reactive ion etching (RIE), 117
Recyclability of polymers, 13-14
Rheology of filled polymers, 35-40, 36t,
38f, 39f
S
Scanning electron microscopy
(SEM), 67
Scratch/wear resistant coatings, 110-111
Self assembled monolayers (SAM),
119-120
functionalization by, 120f
Self-healing, mechanisms of, 143-146,
144f, 145t, 146f
Semicrystalline polymer, 8f, 10f
Shape memory, mechanism of, 138-143,
139f, 140f, 141f
Silica
properties and applications of, 31
surface tension of, 33t
Silicon carbide (SiC), 56-57
Sinapyl alcohol, chemical structure of,
58f
Single-walled carbon nanotubes
(SWCNTs), 51-53
Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), 66f,
67
Smart materials, 131-134
classes of, 132f, 133f
Smart polymers, 131
trends of, 132f
uses in biotechnology, 132f
Sol-gel coatings, 66, 110-111
hydrolysis and condensation reactions
involved in, 110f
Space dimensions, in polymers, 4, 4f
Stimuli responsive polymers, 131,
134-138, 135f, 138f
Structure-property relationships, in
polymers, 15-16, 15t
Styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR), 65-66
Sulfhydric acid, properties of, 2t
Surface modification, of polymers, 109
applications, 124-125
biocompatibility, 124
PAN membranes, 112
PES membranes, 124-125
PPESK membranes, 125
PSU membranes, 125
PVDF membranes, 125
214 INDEXultrafiltration and hemodialysis
membranes, 124
biological routes, 120-124, 122t
biofunctionalization of polymer
surfaces, 120-121, 121f
carbohydrate coatings, 123-124
peptide coatings, 122-123
protein coatings, 121-122
bulk surface modification, 112-113
adhesion and wettability
(hydrophilicity), 113
low surface tension, hydrophobic
and oleophobic surfaces,
112-113
chemical methods, 109-112, 110f
antibacterial coatings, 111
antistatic coatings, 111
chemical resistant/barrier coatings,
111-112
scratch/wear resistant coatings,
110-111
in filled polymer composites, 28-32,
29t
physical methods, 113-120
corona discharge, 114, 114f
flame treatment, 114-115, 115f
plasma-assisted coating methods,
115-117
radiation-induced surface
modification, 117-119
self assembled monolayers,
119-120, 120f
vapour-based coatings, 117
recent trends in, 109
Synthetic polymers, 131
T
Talc, properties and applications of, 30, 32
Template synthesis, 134
Tetraoctyl cetyltrimethylammonium
hydroxide (TOA-OH), 138
Thermal properties of polymer composites
nanofillers effect on, 73-76, 74f, 76f
Thermoplastic matrices, 61-63
carbon nanofibers, 62
carbon nanotubes, 62
graphene, 62
graphene oxide, 62
isodimensional nanoparticles, 62-63
nanoclays, 61-62
nanolignin, 63
polysaccharide nanocrystals, 63
Thermoplastic polymers, 23, 24t
Thermoset matrices, 24t, 63-65
carbon nanofibers, 64
carbon nanotubes, 64
graphene oxide, 64
graphene, 64
isodimensional nanoparticles, 64-65
nanoclays, 63-64
nanolignin, 65
polysaccharide nanocrystals, 65
Thermotropic LC polyesters, blends with,
172, 172f
Thiosynergists, 91, 91f
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 101-102
properties of, 36t
Traditional (conventional) radical
polymerization (TRP)
gradient copolymer by, 200-201
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),
67
U
Ultrafiltration, 124
UV absorbers, 91-92, 92f
UV-curable coatings, 109-110
UV-irradiation, 118
V
Vapour-based coatings, 117
W
Water, properties of, 2t
Weathering, protection against, 88-93
Wettability, 113
Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD),
66
Wollastonite, properties and applications
of, 25f, 30
Z
Zirconium carbide (ZrC), 56-57


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