كتاب Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design - Eleventh Edition
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 كتاب Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design - Eleventh Edition

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design - Eleventh Edition
Richard G. Budynas
Professor Emeritus, Kate Gleason College of Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology
J. Keith Nisbett
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering,
Missouri University of Science and Technology

كتاب  Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design - Eleventh Edition  B_s_m_14
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Preface xv
Part 1
Basics 2
Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design 3
Materials 41
Load and Stress Analysis 93
Deflection and Stiffness 173
Part 2
Failure Prevention 240
Failures Resulting from Static Loading 241
Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading 285
Part 3
Design of Mechanical Elements 372
Shafts and Shaft Components 373
Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of Nonpermanent Joints
421
Welding, Bonding, and the Design of Permanent Joints 48510
A B
Page ix
Mechanical Springs 525
Rolling-Contact Bearings 575
Lubrication and Journal Bearings 623
Gears—General 681
Spur and Helical Gears 739
Bevel and Worm Gears 791
Clutches, Brakes, Couplings, and Flywheels 829
Flexible Mechanical Elements 881
Power Transmission Case Study 935
Part 4
Special Topics 954
Finite-Element Analysis 955
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 977
Appendixes
Useful Tables 1019
Answers to Selected Problems 1075
Index 1081
Preface xv
Part 1
Basics 2
Chapter 1
Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design 3
Design 4
Mechanical Engineering Design 5
Phases and Interactions of the Design Process 5
Design Tools and Resources 8
The Design Engineer's Professional Responsibilities 10
Standards and Codes 12
Economics 13
Safety and Product Liability 15
Stress and Strength 16
Uncertainty 16
Design Factor and Factor of Safety 18
Reliability and Probability of Failure 20
Relating Design Factor to Reliability 24
Dimensions and Tolerances 27
Units 31
Calculations and Significant Figures 321-17
Design Topic Interdependencies 33
Power Transmission Case Study Specifications 34
Problems 36
Chapter 2
Materials 41
Material Strength and Stiffness 42
The Statistical Significance of Material Properties 48
Plastic Deformation and Cold Work 50
Cyclic Stress-Strain Properties 57
Hardness 61
Impact Properties 62
Temperature Effects 63
Numbering Systems 64
Sand Casting 66
Shell Molding 66
Investment Casting 67
Powder-Metallurgy Process 67
Hot-Working Processes 67
Cold-Working Processes 68
The Heat Treatment of Steel 69
Alloy Steels 72
Corrosion-Resistant Steels 73
Casting Materials 73
Nonferrous Metals 75
Plastics 78
Composite Materials 80
Materials Selection 813-1
Page xi
Problems 87
Chapter 3
Load and Stress Analysis 93
Equilibrium and Free-Body Diagrams 94
Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams 97
Singularity Functions 98
Stress 101
Cartesian Stress Components 101
Mohr's Circle for Plane Stress 102
General Three-Dimensional Stress 108
Elastic Strain 109
Uniformly Distributed Stresses 110
Normal Stresses for Beams in Bending 111
Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending 116
Torsion 123
Stress Concentration 132
Stresses in Pressurized Cylinders 135
Stresses in Rotating Rings 137
Press and Shrink Fits 139
Temperature Effects 140
Curved Beams in Bending 141
Contact Stresses 145
Summary 149
Problems 150
Chapter 44-1
Deflection and Stiffness 173
Spring Rates 174
Tension, Compression, and Torsion 175
Deflection Due to Bending 176
Beam Deflection Methods 179
Beam Deflections by Superposition 180
Beam Deflections by Singularity Functions 182
Strain Energy 188
Castigliano's Theorem 190
Deflection of Curved Members 195
Statically Indeterminate Problems 201
Compression Members–General 207
Long Columns with Central Loading 207
Intermediate-Length Columns with Central Loading 210
Columns with Eccentric Loading 212
Struts or Short Compression Members 215
Elastic Stability 217
Shock and Impact 218
Problems 220
Part 2
Failure Prevention 240
Chapter 5
Failures Resulting from Static Loading 241
Static Strength 2445-2
Stress Concentration 245
Failure Theories 247
Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory for Ductile Materials 247
Distortion-Energy Theory for Ductile Materials 249
Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile Materials 255
Failure of Ductile Materials Summary 258
Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory for Brittle Materials 262
Modifications of the Mohr Theory for Brittle Materials 263
Failure of Brittle Materials Summary 265
Selection of Failure Criteria 266
Introduction to Fracture Mechanics 266
Important Design Equations 275
Problems 276
Chapter 6
Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading
285
Introduction to Fatigue 286
Chapter Overview 287
Crack Nucleation and Propagation 288
Fatigue-Life Methods 294
The Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method 295
The Strain-Life Method 299
The Stress-Life Method and the S-N Diagram 302
The Idealized S-N Diagram for Steels 304
Endurance Limit Modifying Factors 309
Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity 3206-11
Page xii
Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses 325
The Fluctuating-Stress Diagram 327
Fatigue Failure Criteria 333
Constant-Life Curves 342
Fatigue Failure Criterion for Brittle Materials 345
Combinations of Loading Modes 347
Cumulative Fatigue Damage 351
Surface Fatigue Strength 356
Road Maps and Important Design Equations for the Stress-Life Method
359
Problems 363
Part 3
Design of Mechanical Elements 372
Chapter 7
Shafts and Shaft Components 373
Introduction 374
Shaft Materials 374
Shaft Layout 375
Shaft Design for Stress 380
Deflection Considerations 391
Critical Speeds for Shafts 395
Miscellaneous Shaft Components 400
Limits and Fits 406
Problems 4118-1
Chapter 8
Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of
Nonpermanent Joints 421
Thread Standards and Definitions 422
The Mechanics of Power Screws 426
Threaded Fasteners 434
Joints–Fastener Stiffness 436
Joints–Member Stiffness 437
Bolt Strength 443
Tension Joints–The External Load 446
Relating Bolt Torque to Bolt Tension 448
Statically Loaded Tension Joint with Preload 452
Gasketed Joints 456
Fatigue Loading of Tension Joints 456
Bolted and Riveted Joints Loaded in Shear 463
Problems 471
Chapter 9
Welding, Bonding, and the Design of Permanent
Joints 485
Welding Symbols 486
Butt and Fillet Welds 488
Stresses in Welded Joints in Torsion 492
Stresses in Welded Joints in Bending 497
The Strength of Welded Joints 4999-6
Static Loading 502
Fatigue Loading 505
Resistance Welding 507
Adhesive Bonding 508
Problems 516
Chapter 10
Mechanical Springs 525
Stresses in Helical Springs 526
The Curvature Effect 527
Deflection of Helical Springs 528
Compression Springs 528
Stability 529
Spring Materials 531
Helical Compression Spring Design for Static Service 535
Critical Frequency of Helical Springs 542
Fatigue Loading of Helical Compression Springs 543
Helical Compression Spring Design for Fatigue Loading 547
Extension Springs 550
Helical Coil Torsion Springs 557
Belleville Springs 564
Miscellaneous Springs 565
Summary 567
Problems 567
Chapter 1111-1
Page xiii
Rolling-Contact Bearings 575
Bearing Types 576
Bearing Life 579
Bearing Load Life at Rated Reliability 580
Reliability versus Life–The Weibull Distribution 582
Relating Load, Life, and Reliability 583
Combined Radial and Thrust Loading 585
Variable Loading 590
Selection of Ball and Cylindrical Roller Bearings 593
Selection of Tapered Roller Bearings 596
Design Assessment for Selected Rolling-Contact Bearings 604
Lubrication 608
Mounting and Enclosure 609
Problems 613
Chapter 12
Lubrication and Journal Bearings 623
Types of Lubrication 624
Viscosity 625
Petroff's Equation 627
Stable Lubrication 632
Thick-Film Lubrication 633
Hydrodynamic Theory 634
Design Variables 639
The Relations of the Variables 640
Steady-State Conditions in Self-Contained Bearings 649
Clearance 65312-11
Pressure-Fed Bearings 655
Loads and Materials 661
Bearing Types 662
Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings 663
Boundary-Lubricated Bearings 670
Problems 677
Chapter 13
Gears–General 681
Types of Gears 682
Nomenclature 683
Conjugate Action 684
Involute Properties 685
Fundamentals 686
Contact Ratio 689
Interference 690
The Forming of Gear Teeth 693
Straight Bevel Gears 695
Parallel Helical Gears 696
Worm Gears 700
Tooth Systems 701
Gear Trains 703
Force Analysis–Spur Gearing 710
Force Analysis–Bevel Gearing 713
Force Analysis–Helical Gearing 716
Force Analysis–Worm Gearing 719
Problems 72414-1
Chapter 14
Spur and Helical Gears 739
The Lewis Bending Equation 740
Surface Durability 749
AGMA Stress Equations 751
AGMA Strength Equations 752
Geometry Factors I and J (ZI and YJ) 757
The Elastic Coefficient C
p (ZE) 761
Dynamic Factor Kv 763
Overload Factor K
o 764
Surface Condition Factor C
f (ZR) 764
Size Factor K
s 765
Load-Distribution Factor K
m (KH) 765
Hardness-Ratio Factor CH (ZW) 767
Stress-Cycle Factors YN and ZN 768
Reliability Factor KR (YZ) 769
Temperature Factor KT (Yθ) 770
Rim-Thickness Factor KB 770
Safety Factors SF and SH 771
Analysis 771
Design of a Gear Mesh 781
Problems 786
Chapter 15
Bevel and Worm Gears 79115-1
Page xiv
Bevel Gearing–General 792
Bevel-Gear Stresses and Strengths 794
AGMA Equation Factors 797
Straight-Bevel Gear Analysis 808
Design of a Straight-Bevel Gear Mesh 811
Worm Gearing–AGMA Equation 814
Worm-Gear Analysis 818
Designing a Worm-Gear Mesh 822
Buckingham Wear Load 825
Problems 826
Chapter 16
Clutches, Brakes, Couplings, and Flywheels 829
Static Analysis of Clutches and Brakes 831
Internal Expanding Rim Clutches and Brakes 836
External Contracting Rim Clutches and Brakes 844
Band-Type Clutches and Brakes 847
Frictional-Contact Axial Clutches 849
Disk Brakes 852
Cone Clutches and Brakes 856
Energy Considerations 858
Temperature Rise 860
Friction Materials 863
Miscellaneous Clutches and Couplings 866
Flywheels 868
Problems 87317-1
Chapter 17
Flexible Mechanical Elements 881
Belts 882
Flat- and Round-Belt Drives 885
V Belts 900
Timing Belts 908
Roller Chain 909
Wire Rope 917
Flexible Shafts 926
Problems 927
Chapter 18
Power Transmission Case Study 935
Design Sequence for Power Transmission 937
Power and Torque Requirements 938
Gear Specification 938
Shaft Layout 945
Force Analysis 947
Shaft Material Selection 947
Shaft Design for Stress 948
Shaft Design for Deflection 948
Bearing Selection 949
Key and Retaining Ring Selection 950
Final Analysis 953
Problems 95319-1
Part 4
Special Topics 954
Chapter 19
Finite-Element Analysis 955
The Finite-Element Method 957
Element Geometries 959
The Finite-Element Solution Process 961
Mesh Generation 964
Load Application 966
Boundary Conditions 967
Modeling Techniques 967
Thermal Stresses 970
Critical Buckling Load 972
Vibration Analysis 973
Summary 974
Problems 975
Chapter 20
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 977
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Systems 978
Definition of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 979
Datums 983
Controlling Geometric Tolerances 98920-5
Geometric Characteristic Definitions 992
Material Condition Modifiers 1002
Practical Implementation 1004
GD&T in CAD Models 1009
Glossary of GD&T Terms 1010
Problems 1012
Appendixes
Useful Tables 1019
Answers to Selected Problems 1075
Index 1081
Index
AAb
rasion, 749
Absolute stability, 530
Absolute tolerance system, 31
Absolute viscosity, 626
Acme threads, 424, 426
Actual mating envelope, 986–987, 1010
Actual strain, 44
Actual stress, 44
Addendum a, 684
Adhesive bonds
application of, 508–509
joint design and, 513–515
references for, 516
stress distributions and, 510–513
types of adhesives and, 509–510
Admiralty metal, 77–78
AGMA equation factors. See also American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA)
allowable bending stress numbers, 753, 805–806
allowable contact stress, 754, 804–806
bending-strength geometry factor, 758, 799, 800
bevel and worm gears, 797–808
contact stress and, 941
crowning factor for pitting, 799
dynamic factor, 744–749, 763, 764, 798
elastic coefficient for pitting resistance, 750, 761–762 804
geometry factors, 757–761
hardness-ratio factor, 767–768, 801–803
lengthwise curvature factor for bending strength, 799
load-distribution factor, 765–767, 799
overload factor, 764, 797pitting resistance geometry factor, 752, 799, 800
reliability factors, 769–770, 803–804
reversed loading, 806
rim-thickness factor, 770–771
safety factor, 771, 797
size factor, 765, 799
stress, 751–757
stress-cycle factor, 768–769, 801
surface condition factor, 764
surface-strength geometry factor, 758–761
temperature factor, 758, 770, 803
worm gearing, 814–818
AGMA quality numbers, 763
ALGOR, 956
Alignment (bearings), 576, 578, 612
Allowable bending stress numbers, 753, 805–806
Allowable contact stress, 754, 804–806
Allowable stress numbers, 752
Allowance, 28
Alloy cast irons, 75
Alloy steels, 72–73, 375, 531
Alternating stress, 302, 326
Aluminum
characteristics of, 75–76
numbering system for, 65
Aluminum alloys, 76
Aluminum brass, 78
Aluminum bronze, 78
American Bearing Manufacturers Association (ABMA), 579, 586, 587
American Chain Association (ACA), 913
American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA), 359. See also AGMA equation factors
approach of, 740, 745
nomenclature, 740–742
standards, 744–745
strength equations, 752–757
stress equations, 751–752American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) building construction code, 500
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 64, 65
American National (Unified) thread standard, 423, 425
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 65–66, 500
bolt strength standards, 443, 445
lap joint stress, 510, 513
viscosity standards, 627
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 11, 626, 980
American Welding Society (AWS), 486, 500
Anaerobic adhesives, 510
Angle of action, 687
Angle of approach, 687
Angle of articulation, 910
Angle of recess, 687
Angle of wrap, 902, 904
Angularity control, 994–995
Angular-velocity ratio, 685, 688, 882, 884, 906
Annealing, 69
ANSI/AGMA standards, 771, 818
ANSYS, 956
Antifriction bearings, 576
Arc of action, 689, 690
Arc of approach, 689
Arc of recess, 689
Arrow side of joint, 487
Ashby, M. F., 81
ASME. See American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME-elliptic line, 335, 336, 459
ASME Y14.41-2003, 1009
ASME Y14.5-2009 Dimensioning and Tolerancing (American Society of Mechanical
Engineers), 980
ASME Y14.5-2009 standard, 980, 981
Associated Spring, 562
ASTM. See American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Austenitic chromium-nickel steels, 73
Automatic self-adaptive mesh refinement programs, 964–965Page 1082
Automeshing, 964
Average life, 580
AWS. See American Welding Society (AWS)
Axial clutch, frictional contact, 849–852
Axial layout, for shaft components, 376–377
Axial loads, 377, 380–381
Axial pitch, 697, 700
Axial stresses, on shafts, 380
Axle, 374
BBa
cklash, 684
Back to back mounting (DB), 611
Bainite, 70
Ball bearings. See also Bearings
selection of, 593–596
thrust and, 576, 577, 585–590
types of, 577
Ball bushings, 579
Band-type clutches and brakes, 847–848
Barth, Carl G., 745
Barth equation, 745
Base circle, 685, 686
Base pitch, 687–688
Basic dimension, 990, 1010
Basic Dynamic Load Rating, 580
Basic static load rating, 586
Basquin’s equation, 307, 308
Bauschinger effect, 57–58
Beach marks, 288, 289
Beam deflections
due to bending, 176–178
methods for, 179
by singularity functions, 182–188
by superposition, 180–182
Beamswith asymmetrical sections, 115–116
bending in curved, 141–145
bending moment and curvature of, 176–178
normal stresses and beams in bending, 111–116
shear force and bending moments in, 97–98
shear stresses for beams in bending, 116–122
two-plane bending and, 114–115
Bearing alloys, 661–662
Bearing characteristic number, 632
Bearing life, 576, 579–585, 662
Bearing pressure, 468, 921
Bearing reliability, 582–583
Bearings. See also Journal bearings; Rolling-contact bearings; specific types of bearings
alignment of, 576, 578, 612
alloys for, 661–662
antifriction, 576
ball and cylindrical roller, 577, 585–590, 593–596
big-end connecting rod, 667–670
boundary-lubricated, 670–677
collar, 429
combined radial and thrust loading in, 585–590
double-row, 578
life of, 576, 579–585, 662
load life at rated reliability and, 580–581
lubrication of, 608–609
material choice for, 661–662
mounting and enclosure of, 609–613
needle, 578
overview of, 576
related load, life, and reliability and, 583–585
reliability vs. life of, 582–583
rolling-contact, 576, 604–608
screw, 426, 430, 433
selection of, 949–950
self-aligning, 586
self-contained, 649–653sleeve, 624, 661
tapered roller, 579, 596–604
thrust and, 576, 577
types of, 576–579
variable loading in, 590–593
Bearing stress, 464
Belleville springs, 526, 564–565
Belting equation, 887
Belts
flat metal, 896–899
timing, 882, 884–885, 908–909
types of, 882–885
V, 882, 884, 900–908
Bending moments
in beams, 97–98, 114–115, 176–178, 195–196 (See also Beams)
fundamental equations for, 751
on shafts, 380, 381
in springs, 566
Bending-strength geometry factor, 758, 799, 800
Bending stress, 111–122, 141–145, 497–499, 559–560, 740, 753, 797. See also Lewis
bending equation
Bergsträsser factor, 527, 545
Beryllium bronze, 78
Beryllium copper, 531
Bevel and worm gears. See also Gears; Worm gears
AGMA equation factors for, 797–808, 814–817
AGMA symbols for bevel gear rating equations, 795–796
Buckingham wear load and, 825–826
classification of, 792–794
straight-bevel gear analysis and, 808–811
straight-bevel gear mesh design and, 811–814
stresses and strengths of, 794–797
worm-gear mesh design and, 822–826
Bevel gears. See also Bevel and worm gears
analysis of straight, 808–811
description of, 682, 683force analysis and, 713–716
hypoid, 793
spiral, 792, 794
straight, 695–696, 792
stresses and strengths of, 794–797
zerol, 792–793
Big-end connecting rod bearings, 667–670
Bilateral tolerance, 27
Blake, J. C., 450
Blanking, 69
Bolted joints
loaded in shear, 463–467
tension-loaded, 436
Bolts. See also Joints
function of, 434
preload and, 436, 452
relating bolt torque to bolt tension, 448–451
stiffness and, 437, 448
strength of, 443–446
thread length of, 434
torquing of, 450
Bonds, adhesive. See Adhesive bonds
Bonus tolerance, 1003, 1010
Booker, J. F., 627
Bottom land, 684
Boundary conditions, 967
Boundary elements, 967
Boundary-lubricated bearings
bushing wear and, 673–677
description of, 670–671
linear sliding wear and, 672
temperature rise and, 675
Boundary lubrication, 625, 670–677
Boundary representation (B-rep), 964
Bowman Distribution, 453
Boyd, John, 640, 641Page 1083
Brakes
band-type, 847–848
cone, 856–858
disk, 852–856
energy considerations for, 858–860
external contracting rim, 844–847
friction materials for, 863–866
internal expanding rim, 836–844
linings for, 864
static analysis of, 831–835
temperature rise for, 860–863
Brake shoe, 831
Brass, 77–78
Breakeven points, 14, 15
Brinell hardness, 61
Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory, 263
Brittle-ductile transition temperature, 62
Brittle materials
Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory, 263
classification of, 247
failure of, 265–266
fatigue failure criteria for, 345–347
modifications of Mohr theory for, 263–265
relatively, 267
Smith-Dolan fracture criteria for, 345–346
stress-concentration factor and, 133
Broghamer, E. I., 748
Bronze, 77, 78
Bubble chart, 83
Buckingham, E., 357, 825
Buckingham load-stress factor, 357, 358
Burnishing, gear, 695
Bushings, 662–663
Bushing wear, 673–675
Button pad caliper brake, 855–856
Butt welds, 487–491CCA
D software
applications for, 8–9
GD&T and, 980, 1009
Caliper brakes, 852–853
Cap screws, 434–436
Carbon steels, 65, 375, 531
Cartesian stress components, 101–102
Cartridge brass, 77
Case hardening, 70–71
Case study (power transmission). See Power transmission (case study)
Castigliano’s theorem, 179, 190–195, 202–204, 528, 560, 566
Casting
centrifugal, 67, 693
die, 67
of gear teeth, 693
investment, 67, 693
materials for, 73–75
permanent-mold, 693
sand, 66, 693
Casting alloys, 76
Cast irons
hardness, 61
numbering system for, 65–66
shafts and, 375
stress concentration and, 133
types of, 73–75
Cast steels, 75
Catalog load rating, 580
Centrifugal casting, 67, 693
Centrifugal clutch, 836
Cermet pads, 864
CES Edupack software, 81, 87
Chain dimensioning, 29–30
Chains, 882
Chains for Power Transmissions and Materials Handling (American Chain Association), 913Charpy notched-bar test, 62, 63
Chevron lines, 289
Chordal speed variation, 912
Choudury, M., 440
Chrome-silicon wire, 531
Chrome-vanadium wire, 531
Chromium, 72, 75
Circularity control, 993–994
Circular pad caliper brake, 855–856
Circular pitch p, 684
Circular runout, 1001–1002
Classical method of design, 18
Clearance, 27
journal bearings and, 653–655
Clearance c, 684
Clearance circle, 684
Close-wound extension springs, 551
Clough, R. W., 957, 958
Clutches
band-type, 847–848
cone, 856–858
energy considerations for, 858–860
external contracting rim, 844–847
friction, 830
frictional-contact axial, 849–852
friction materials for, 863–866
internal expanding rim, 836–844
miscellaneous, 866–867
static analysis of, 831–835
temperature rise for, 860–863
uniform pressure in, 858
uniform wear in, 857–858
Codes, 12–13
Coefficient of friction
journal bearings and, 645
in screw threads, 433torque and, 449, 450
Coefficients of variance, 26
Coining, 69
Cold-drawn steel, 375
Cold rolling, 68
Cold-work factor, 56
Cold working, 44, 51–53, 55–57
Cold-working processes, 68–69
Collins, J. A., 356
Columns
classification of, 207
with eccentric loading, 212–215
intermediate-length with central loading, 210–211
long with central loading, 207–210
Commercial bronze, 77
Commercial seal, 612
Complete journal bearing, 633, 634
Completely reversed stress, 302
Completely reversing simple loading, 359–361
Composite materials, 80
Compound gear train, 705
Compound reverted gear train, 706
Compression, 175
Compression members, analysis and design of, 207
Compression springs
description of, 528–529
extension springs vs., 550, 557
helical, 535–541
Compression tests, stress-strain relationships from, 47
Compressive stress, 101, 217
Computational errors, 958
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) programs, 9
Computation frame, 664
Computer-aided design (CAD) software, 8–9, 956
Computer-aided engineering (CAE), 9
Concentrated force function, 98Page 1084
Concentrated moment function, 98
Concentricity control, 1000
Concept design, 6–7
Cone angle, 856–857
Cone clutch
description of, 856–857
uniform pressure in, 858
uniform wear in, 857–858
Conical springs, 566
Conjugate action, 684–685
Constant amplitude loading, 302
Constant-force springs, 565
Constant-life approach, 544
Constant-life curves, 328, 342–345
Constructive solid geometry (CSG), 964
Contact adhesives, 509
Contact ratio, 689–690
Contact strength (contact fatigue strength), 358
Contact stresses
cylindrical, 147–149
description of, 145–146, 941
spherical, 146–147
Continuing education, 11
Coordinate dimensioning system, 978. See also Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
(GD&T)
Copper-base alloys, 77
Corrosion (endurance limit), 318
Corrosion-resistant steels, 73, 531
Cost considerations. See Economics
Cost estimates, 15
Coulomb-Mohr theory, 255–259, 265, 275
Couplings, 866–867
Courant, R., 957
Crack growth, 268
Crack modes, stress intensity factor and, 268–272
Crack nucleation, fatigue failure from, 289–293Crack propagation, fatigue failure from, 293
Cracks, 266. See also Fracture mechanics
Creep, 64, 882, 885
Creep test, 64
Creep-time curve, 64
Critical buckling load, 972
Critical deflection, of springs, 529
Critical speeds, for shafts, 395–400
Critical stress intensity factor, 270
Critical unit load, 208
Crossed belts, 882, 883
Crowned pulleys, 882
Crowning factor for pitting, 799
Cumulative fatigue damage, 351–356
Curvature effect, 527
Curve-beam theory, 559
Curved beams, bending in, 141–145
Curved members, deflection in, 195–201
Curve-fit equations, 322
Curve-fit polynomials, 315–316
Cyclic frequency, 319
Cyclic hardening, 58
Cyclic-minimum film thickness, 668
Cyclic Ramberg-Osgood, 60
Cyclic softening, 58
Cyclic strain strengthening exponent, 60
Cyclic strength coefficient, 60
Cyclic stress-strain curve, 59–60
Cyclic stress-strain properties, 57–60
Cyclic yield strength, 60
Cylindrical contact stresses, 147–149
Cylindrical roller bearings, 577, 585–590, 593–596
Cylindricity control, 994
DDa
mage-tolerant design, 295Datum features, 983–985, 987–988, 1004–1006, 1010
Datum feature simulator, 983, 984, 1010
Datum reference frame, 983, 984
Datums. See also Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
actual mating envelopes and, 986–987
description of, 983–984
feature symbol for, 987–988
immobilization of part and, 985
nonplanar features of, 986
order of, 985–986
Dedendum b, 684
Deflection analysis, 174
shafts and, 391–395, 948–949
in springs, 528, 529, 566–567
Deflection and stiffness, 174, 384. See also Stiffness
beam deflection methods and, 179
beam deflections by singularity functions and, 182–188
beam deflections by superposition and, 180–182
bending and, 176–178
Castigliano’s theorem and, 179, 190–195
columns with eccentric loading and, 212–215
compression members and, 207
deflection of curved members and, 195–201
elastic stability and, 217–218
helical springs and, 528
intermediate-length columns with central loading and, 210–211
long columns with central loading and, 207–210
shock and impact and, 218–220
spring rates and, 174–175
statically indeterminate problems, 201–207
strain energy and, 188–190
struts or short compression members and, 215–217
tension, compression, and torsion and, 175
Deflection equations, 201
Deformation equation, 202
DE-Gerber criteria, 381, 382Page 1085
Degrees of freedom (dof’s), 957
DE-Morrow criteria, 283
Derived unit, 31
Design basics
calculations and significant figures, 32–33
case study specifications, 34–36
considerations, 8
design factor/factor of safety, 18–20
dimensions and tolerances, 27–31
economics, 13–15
in general, 4–5
information sources, 9–10
phases and interactions of, 5–8
relating design factor to reliability, 24–27
reliability and probability of failure, 20–24
safety/product liability, 15
standards and codes, 12–13
stress and strength, 16
tools and resources, 8–10
topic interdependencies, 33
uncertainty in, 16–17
units, 31–32
Design engineer
communication and, 5, 10–11
professional responsibilities of, 10–12
Design factor, 17, 18
Design Manual for Cylindrical Wormgearing, 814
DE-SWT, 382
Deterministic design factor method, 17
Deviation, 406
Diametral interference, between shaft and hub, 410
Diametrical pitch P, 684
Die castings, 67, 693
Dimensioning. See Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
Dimensions
choice of, 28–29terminology of, 27–28
Dimension-series code, 587–588
Direct load, 468
Direct mounting, 597, 608
Discrete distributions, 23
Discretization errors, 958–959
Disk brakes
description of, 852–853
uniform pressure in, 854
uniform wear in, 854
Disk clutches, 852. See also Disk brakes
Dislocations, 292, 304
Distortion-energy (DE) theory, 249–255, 259, 275, 314, 337, 348, 362
yield strength in shear and, 533–534
Dolan, T. J., 748
Doorstops, 831, 832
Double-row bearings, 578
Dowling, N., 301, 336
Drawing (tempering), 70
Drum brake, 836
Ductile cast iron, 74
Ductile materials
classification of, 247
Coulomb-Mohr theory for, 255–258
distortion-energy theory for, 249–255
failure of, 258–262
maximum-shear-stress theory for, 247–249
selection of failure criteria for, 266
static loading and, 246–262
stress-strain diagram of, 51–52
Ductility, 56
Dunkerley’s equation, 398
Duplexing, 611
Duplex mounting, 611
Dynamically loaded journal bearings, 663–670
Dynamic factor, spur and helical gears and, 744–749, 763, 764Dynamic loads
as element loads, 966
journal bearings and, 663–670
stress concentration effect and, 134
Dynamic viscosity, 626, 627
Dyne, 626
EEc
centricity, centrifugal force deflection in shafts and, 395
Eccentricity rate, 633, 664–665
Eccentricity ratio, 213, 641
Eccentric loading
columns with, 212–215
shear joints with, 467–469
Economics
breakeven points, 14, 15
cost estimates, 15
large tolerances, 13–14
standard sizes, 13
Edge shearing, 464–465
Effective arc, 886
Effective slenderness ratio, 530
Effective stress, 250
Effective viscosity, 649
Eigenvalues, 973
Eigenvectors, 973
Elastic coefficient, 750, 761–762, 804
Elastic creep, 885
Elastic deformation, 43
Elastic instability, 217
Elasticity, 110, 174
Elastic limit, 43
Elastic stability, 217–218
Elastic strain, 109–110
Elastic-strain Basquin equation, 301
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), 625Electrolytic plating, 318
Element geometries, 958–961
Element library, 959
Element loads, 966
Elimination approach, 963
Enclosures (bearings), 612–613
End-condition constant, 208, 209, 530
Endurance limit modifying factors
application of, 319–320
corrosion, 318
cyclic frequency, 319
electrolytic plating, 318
frettage corrosion, 318
loading factor, 314
metal spraying, 319
miscellaneous-effects factor, 317–318
reliability factor, 316–317
size factor, 312–314
surface factor, 309–311
temperature factor, 314–316
Endurance limits
estimation of, 305–307
flexural, 357
Energy absorption, properties of, 47–48
Energy considerations, for brakes and clutches, 858–860
Engineering stress-strain diagrams, 43, 45
Engineers’ Creed (NSPE), 12
Engraver’s brass, 77
Envelope principle, 989, 1011
Epicyclic gear trains, 708
Equilibrium, 94
unstable, 208
Equivalent bending load, 919, 924
Equivalent radial load, 585
Euler column formula, 207, 209
Euler equation, 210, 871Euler’s method, 209–210, 213–215, 665
Evaluation, 7
Expanding-ring clutch, 836
Extension springs
close-wound, 552
compression springs vs., 550, 557
correction stresses for, 553–555
description of, 550–552
ends for, 550
fatigue and, 555–556
function of, 557
initial tension in, 552
Extreme-pressure (EP) lubricants, 670–671
Extrusion, 68
FFa
ce-contact ratio, 700
Face load distribution factor, 765–766
Face-to-face mounting (DF), 611
Factor of safety, 18–19, 329, 330, 362, 452, 458, 771, 797, 920, 922. See also Safety
Fail-safe design, 295
Failure. See also Fatigue failure; Fatigue failure from variable loading; Static loading, failures
resulting from
examples of, 242–244
meaning of, 242
Mohr theory of, 255–256, 265, 266
probability of, 20–23
selection of criteria for, 266
theories of, 247, 259, 265, 266
Failure prevention, knowledge of, 242
Failure theory flowchart, 276
Fasteners. See also specific types of fasteners
eccentric loading of, 468
overview of, 422
stiffness of, 436–443
threaded, 434–436Page 1086
Fatigue damage, cumulative, 351–356
Fatigue ductility coefficient, 301
Fatigue ductility exponent, 301
Fatigue failure
background on, 286
examples of, 289–292
low-cycle, 303–304
mechanisms of, 287–288
shaft materials and, 375
stages of, 288–289
Fatigue failure criteria
applications of, 337–342
ASME-Elliptic, 335
for brittle materials, 345–347
Gerber, 334, 381, 544
Goodman, 333–334, 342–343
Morrow, 334, 343
in pure shear case, 337
recommendations, 336, 343–344
Smith-Watson-Topper, 335, 343
Soderberg, 334–335
Walker, 336, 343
Fatigue failure from variable loading
characterizing fluctuating stresses and, 325–327
combinations of loading modes and, 347–350
constant-life curves and, 342–345
crack formation and propagation and, 288–293
cumulative fatigue damage and, 351–356
endurance limit modifying factors and, 309–320
fatigue failure criteria and, 333–342
fatigue failure criterion for brittle materials and, 345–347
fatigue-life methods and, 294–295
fluctuating-stress diagram and, 327–333
idealized S-N diagram for steels and, 304–308
linear-elastic fracture mechanics method and, 294–299
road maps and important design equations for the stress-life method and, 359–362strain-life method and, 294, 299–301
stress concentration and notch sensitivity and, 320–325
stress-life method and, 294, 302–304
surface fatigue strength and, 356–359
Fatigue-life methods, 294–295
Fatigue loading
of helical compression springs, 543–547
of tension joints, 456–463
of welded joints, 505–507
Fatigue strength
data for, 296–297
estimated at 103 cycles, 306
nature of, 303
of springs, 543, 562–564
Fatigue strength coefficient, 301, 308
Fatigue strength exponent, 308
Fatigue stress-concentration factor, 320, 323–327, 456, 500, 748, 758
Fazekas, G. A., 856
FEA. See Finite-element analysis (FEA)
Feature, 980, 1011
Feature control frame, 990–992, 1011
Feature of size, 980, 1011
Felt seals, 612
Ferritic chromium steels, 73
Field, J., 71
Filler, 80
Fillet welds, 487–491
bending properties of, 497–499
steady loads and size of, 500, 501
torsional properties of, 494
Filling notch, 577
Film pressure, 646–647
Finite element, 958
Finite-element analysis (FEA)
applications for, 149, 201, 956–957
beam deflections and, 179boundary conditions and, 967
critical buckling load and, 972
element geometries and, 956–961
load application and, 966–967
mesh generation and, 964–966
method of, 957–959
modeling techniques and, 967–970
software programs for, 9, 956, 964, 967, 974
solution process and, 961–963
stress-concentration factors and, 246
stress interactions and, 410
summary of, 974
thermal stresses and, 970–972
vibration analysis and, 973–974
Firbank, T. C., 885, 886
Fits
description of shaft, 406–411
interference, 409–411
using basic hole system, 407, 408
Fitted bearing, 634
Flat-belt and round-belt drives
analysis of, 889–892
description of, 882, 884, 885
flat metal belts and, 896–900
function of, 886–889
materials for, 890
pulley size and, 891–893
tension and, 893–896
theory of, 885–886
Flat belts, 882, 883, 893
Flat metal belts, 896–899
Flatness control, 992–993
Flat springs, 526. See also Springs
Flexible mechanical elements
belts as, 882–885
flat-and round-belt drives as, 885–900flexible shafts as, 926
roller chains as, 909–917
timing belts as, 882, 884–885, 908–909
V belts as, 882, 884, 900–908
wire rope as, 917–925
Flexible shafts, 926
Flexural endurance limit, 357
Floating caliper brake, 852–853
Fluctuating simple loading, 361–362
Fluctuating-stress diagram, 327–333
Fluctuating stresses
fatigue cracks and, 296
fatigue failure criterion and, 342
issues characterizing, 325–327
Fluctuating-stress values, 544
Fluid lubrication, 624
Flywheels, 830, 868–873
Foot-pound-second system (fps), 31
Force analysis
of bevel gearing, 713–716
free-body diagrams for, 95–96
guidelines for, 947
of helical gearing, 716–718
of spur gearing, 710–713
of worm gearing, 719–724
Forging, 68
Forming, 69
Fracture mechanics
background on, 266–267
crack modes and stress intensity factor and, 268–272
equation for, 276
fatigue failure and, 294–299
fracture toughness and, 270–274
quasi-static fracture and, 267–268
Fracture toughness, 270, 271, 273
Free-body diagrams, for force analysis, 95–96Page 1087
Free-body force analysis, 945
Free-cutting brass, 77
Frettage corrosion, 319
Frictional-contact axial clutches
description of, 849
uniform pressure in, 850–852
uniform wear in, 849–850
Friction clutch, 830
Friction materials, 863–866
Friction variable, 645
Full-film lubrication, 624
Functions, singularity, 94, 98–101
Fundamental contact stress equation, 794–797
Fundamental deviation, for shafts, 408
GGa
mma function, 582
Gasketed joints, 456
Gaskets, soft, 439
Gates Rubber Company, 902
Gaussian (normal) distribution, 21
GD&T (Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing). See Geometric Dimensioning and
Tolerancing (GD&T)
Gear bending strength, 752–755
Gear mesh
analysis of, 771–781
design of, 781–786, 822–826
Gears. See also Bevel and worm gears; Spur and helical gears; specific types of gears
AGMA approach and, 740–742
conjugate action in, 684–685
contact ratio and, 689–690
fundamentals of, 686–689
interference in, 690–693
involute properties of, 685–686
nomenclature for, 683–684
parallel helical, 696–700selecting appropriate, 938–945
straight bevel, 695–696, 702
tooth systems for, 701–703
types of, 682, 683
worm, 682, 683, 700–701, 703
Gear strength, 752–757
Gear teeth
bending stress in, 740, 742–749
conjugate action and, 684–685
contact ratio and, 689–690
formation of, 693–695
helical, 696–700
interference and, 690–693
terminology of, 683–684
Gear tooth bending, 776, 778, 785
Gear tooth wear, 776, 779, 785
Gear train force analysis
bevel gearing, 713–716
helical gearing, 716–718
notation for, 710
spur gearing, 710–713
worm gearing, 719–724
Gear trains
axes rotation and, 708
description of, 703–710
train value and, 704–705
two-stage compound, 706
Gear wheel, 815
Generating line, 687
Geometric characteristic controls and symbols, 982
Geometric controls
form, 992–994
location, 998–1001
orientation, 994–996
profile, 995–998
runout, 1001–1002Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T), 28, 953
CAD models and, 1009
control of, 989–992
datums and, 983–988
defined, 978–979
geometric attributes of features for, 980–981
geometric characteristic definitions and, 992–1002
glossary of terms for, 1010–1012
material condition modifiers and, 1002–1004
overview of, 28, 953, 978–979
practical implementation of, 1004–1008
standards for, 980
symbolic language for, 981–983
Geometric stress-concentration factor, 133
Geometry factor, 757–761
Gerber fatigue-failure criterion, 334, 381, 544, 562
Gerber line, 334, 459
Gib-head key, 402, 403
Gilding brass, 77
Glasses, 82
Global instabilities, 217
Goodman, John, 329
Goodman diagram, 328
Goodman failure criterion, 544
Goodman failure line, 329, 354
Goodman-Haigh diagram, 328
Goodman line, 328–330, 333, 334, 343
Government information sources, 10
Gravitational mass of units, 31
Gravity loading, 966
Gray cast iron, 73–74, 133
Green, I., 440
Griffith, A. A., 268
Grip l, 437
Grooved pulleys, 882
Grossman, M. A., 71Guest theory. See Maximum- shear-stress theory (MSS)
HHa
gen-Poiseuille law, 627
Haigh diagram, 328
Ham, C. W., 433
Hard-drawn steel spring wire, 531
Hardness, 61
Hardness-ratio factor, 767–768, 801–803
Hardness testing, 61
Haringx, J. A., 530
Haugen, E. B., 317
Heading, 69
Heat transfer analysis, 970–972
Heat transfer rate, 861
Heat treatment, of steel, 69–71
Helical coil torsion springs
bending stress in, 559–560
deflection and spring rate in, 560–561
description of, 557–558
end location of, 558–559
fatigue strength in, 562–564
static strength in, 561–562
Helical compression spring design, for static service, 535–541
Helical compression springs
design for fatigue loading, 547–550
fatigue loading of, 543–547
Helical gears. See also Gears; Spur and helical gears
crossed, 814
description of, 682
force analysis and, 716–718
parallel, 696–700
standard tooth proportions for, 702
Helical rollers, 578
Helical springs
critical frequency of, 542–543Page 1088
deflection of, 528
fatigue loading of, 543–550
maximum allowable torsional stresses for, 534
for static service, 535–541
stresses in, 526–527
Hertz, H., 146, 148
Hertzian contact pressure, 356, 357
Hertzian endurance strength, 358
Hertzian field, 148–149
Hertzian stress, 146, 357, 749
Hertz theory, 749
Hexagonal-head bolts, 434, 435
Hexagon-head cap screws, 434, 435
Hexagon nuts, 434, 436
Hobbing, 694
Holding power, 400
Hole basis, 407
Hooke’s law, 43, 110, 215
Hoop stress, 136
Hot melts, 509–510
Hot rolling, 67–68, 310
Hot-working processes, 67–68
Hrennikoff, A., 957
Hydraulic clutches, 836
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 624, 634–638
Hydrostatic lubrication, 625
Hypoid gears, 793
IId
le arc, 886
Impact, shock and, 218–220
Impact load, 62
Impact properties, 62–63
Impact value, 62
Inch-pound-second system (ips), 31
Indirect mounting, 597Infinite-life design, 295
Influence coefficients, 396
Information sources, 9–10
Injection molding, 693
Interference
diametral, 410
gear teeth and, 690–693
nature of, 27, 690
Interference fits, 409–411
Interference of strength, 25
Interference of stress, 25
Internal-friction theory, 256
Internal gear, 688
Internal-shoe brake, 836–837
International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM), 626
International System of Units (SI), 32
International tolerance grade numbers (IT), 407
Internet information sources, 10
Interpolation equation, 649
Investment casting, 67, 693
Involute helicoid, 696, 697
Involute profile, 684
Involute properties, of gears, 685–686
Irons
alloy cast, 75
ductile and nodular cast, 74
gray cast, 73–75
malleable cast, 74–75
white cast, 74
Ito, Y., 439
Izod notched-bar test, 62, 63
JJ.
B. Johnson formula, 210–211, 429
Joerres, R. E., 533, 534
Joints. See also specific types of jointsarrow side of, 487
bolted, 447, 452
bolted and riveted, 463–467
eccentric loading in shear, 467–469
fastener stiffness and, 436–437
fatigue loading of, 505–507
gasketed, 456
lap, 510–514
member stiffness and, 437–443
statically loaded, 452–456, 502–505
stiffness constant of, 448
strength of welded, 499–501
tension, 446–448
tension-loaded bolted, 436
welded, 492–499, 505–507
Jominy test, 71
Journal bearings. See also Bearings; Lubrication and journal bearings
alloys for, 661–662
big-end connecting rod, 667–670
boundary-lubricated, 670–677
design variables for, 639–640
dynamically loaded, 663–670
fitted, 634
material choice for, 661–662
nomenclature of complete, 633, 634
partial, 634
pressure-fed, 655–660
self-contained, 649–653
Trumpler’s design criteria for, 639–640
types of, 662–663
Journal orbit, 663–664
Journal translational velocity, 664–665
KKa
relitz, G. B., 650
Keys (shafts), 401–405, 950–952Kinematic viscosity, 627
Kuhn, P., 322
Kurtz, H. J., 450
LLa
byrinth seal, 612
Lamont, J. L., 71
Langer lines, 330
Lang-lay rope, 918
Lap joints, 510–514
Law of action and reaction (Newton), 95
Least material condition (LMC), 1002–1004, 1011
Leibensperger, R. L., 609
Lengthwise curvature factor for bending strength, 799
Lewis, Wilfred, 740
Lewis bending equation, 740, 742–749, 757
Lewis form factor, 743
Limits, 27
Limits (shaft), 406–407
Linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) method, 266, 294–299
Linear sliding wear, 672
Linear springs, 174
Linear stress analysis, 970, 972
Linear transverse line loads, 966
Lined bushing, 662
Line elements, 959
Line of action, 685, 687
Line of contact, 148
Lipson, C., 310, 311
Little, R. E., 439
Load and stress analysis
Cartesian stress components and, 101–102
contact stresses and, 145–149
curved beams in bending, 141–145
elastic strain and, 109–110
general three-dimensional stress and, 108–109Page 1089
Mohr’s circle for plane stress and, 94, 102–109
normal stresses for beams in bending and, 111–116
press and shrink fits and, 139–140
shear stresses for beams in bending and, 116–122
singularity functions and, 94, 99–101
stress and, 16, 101, 148–149
stress concentration and, 132–135
stresses in pressurized cylinders and, 135–137
stresses in rotating rings and, 137–139
temperature effects and, 140–141
torsion and, 123–132
uniformly distributed stresses and, 110–111
Load-application factor, 588, 589
Load-distribution factor, 765–767, 799
Load factor, 452
Loading factor (endurance limit), 314, 348
Loading modes, 347–350, 362
Load intensity, 97, 179
Load-life-reliability relationship, 576
Load-sharing ratio, 758
Loads/loading
critical unit, 208
dynamic, 966
element, 966
fatigue, 505–507
impact, 62
nodal, 966
reversed, 806
static, 133, 242, 286, 502–505, 966 (See also Static loading, failures resulting from; Static
loads/loading)
surface, 966–967
variable, 590–593 (See also Fatigue failure from variable loading)
Load-stress factor, 357, 358
Load zone, 600
Location controls
concentricity, 1000position, 998–1000
symmetry, 1000–1001
Loose-side tension, 886
Loss-of-function parameter, 18
Low brass, 77
Low-contact-ratio (LCR) helical gears, 758
Low-cycle fatigue, 303–304
Low-leaded brass, 77
Lubricant flow, 646
Lubricant temperature rise, 647–649, 655, 675
Lubrication
boundary, 625, 670–677
elastohydrodynamic, 625
function of, 624
hydrodynamic, 624, 634–638
hydrostatic, 625
mathematical theory of, 635
mixed-film, 671
roller chain, 917
rolling bearing, 478, 576, 579, 608–609
solid-film, 625
splash, 608
stable, 632–633
temperature rise and, 647–649, 655, 675
thick-film, 633–634
unstable, 633
Lubrication and journal bearings
bearing types and, 663
boundary-lubricated bearings and, 670–677
clearance and, 653–655
design variables for, 639–640
dynamically loaded journal bearings and, 663–670
hydrodynamic theory and, 624, 634–638
loads and materials and, 661–662
lubrication types and, 624–625
Petroff’s equation and, 627–632pressure-fed bearings and, 655–660
relationship between variables and, 640–649
stable lubrication and, 632–633
steady-state conditions in self-contained bearings and, 649–653
thick-film lubrication and, 633–634
viscosity and, 625–627
Lüder lines, 247–248
MMa
bie, H. H., 748
Macaulay functions. See Singularity functions
Magnesium, 76
Magnetic clutches, 836
Major diameter, of screw threads, 422
Malleable cast iron, 74–75
Manganese, 72
Manson, S. S., 355
Manson-Coffin equation, 301
Map frame, 665
Margin of safety, 25
Marin, Joseph, 258, 309
Marin’s equation, 309, 317
Martensite, 70, 306
Martensitic stainless steel, 73
Martin, H. C., 957
Master fatigue diagram, 328
Material condition modifiers (MMC), 1002–1004, 1011
Material efficiency coefficient, 85
Material index, 85–86
Materials. See also specific materials
alloy steel and, 72–73
casting, 73–75
cold-working processes and, 68–69
composite, 80
corrosion-resistant steel and, 73
cyclic stress-strain properties and, 57–60energy absorption properties of, 47–48
hardness and, 61, 62
heat treatment of steel and, 69–71
hot-working processes and, 67–68
impact properties and, 62–63
investment casting and, 67
nonferrous metals and, 75–78
numbering systems and, 64–66
plastic deformation and cold work and, 50–57
plastics and, 78, 79
powder-metallurgy process and, 67
sand casting and, 66
selection of, 42, 81–87
for shafts, 374–375
shell molding and, 66, 693
statistical significance of properties of, 48–50
strength and stiffness, 42–48
temperature effects and, 63–64
Materials selection charts, 81–82
Matrix, 80
Maximum load, 247–249, 262–263, 265
Maximum material condition (MMC), 989, 990, 1012
Maximum-normal-stress theory for brittle materials, 262–263, 265
Maximum shear stress, 47, 247, 248, 526
Maximum-shear-stress theory (MSS), ductile materials and, 247–249, 252, 257
Maximum shear theory, 275
Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem, 396
McHenry, D., 957
McKee, S. A., 632
McKee, T. R., 632
McKee abscissa, 632
McKelvey, S. A., 311
Mean coil diameter, 526
Mean stress, 302, 307
fatigue failure and, 333–336, 351
fluctuating stresses and, 325–330Page 1090
loading mode and, 347, 348
nonzero, 301
Mechanical springs. See Springs
Mesh, 964
Mesh density, 964
Mesh design
for straight-bevel gears, 811–814
for worm gears, 822–826
Mesh generation
fully automatic, 964
manual, 964
semiautomatic, 964
Mesh refinement, 964
Metal-mold castings, 67
Metals, nonferrous, 75–78
Metals Handbook (ASM), 289
Metal spraying, 319
Metric threads, 423–424
Milling, gear teeth, 693
Miner’s rule, 352, 353, 355
Minimum film thickness, 641, 642
Minimum life, 580
Minor diameter, of screw threads, 422
Mischke, Charles R., 312, 316
Mitchiner, R. G., 748
Mixed-film lubrication, 671
MMC. See Material condition modifiers (MMC)
Mobility map, 665
Mobility method, 664–665
Mobility vector, 665, 666
Modal analysis, 973, 974
Mode I, plane strain fracture toughness, 270
Modeling techniques, 967–970
Moderate applications, 746
Modern Steels and Their Properties Handbook (Bethlehem Steet), 71
Modified-Goodman diagram, 328Modified-Goodman line, 328–329
Modified Mohr (MM) theory, 263–265
Modified Mohr (plane stress), 275
Module m, 684
Modulus of elasticity, 43, 109
Modulus of elasticity of rope, 919
Modulus of resilience, 47–48
Modulus of rigidity, 47, 110
Modulus of rupture, 47
Modulus of toughness, 48
Mohr’s circle diagram, 104, 256, 259
Mohr’s circle for plane stress, 94, 102–109, 147
Mohr’s circle shear convention, 104–106
Mohr theory for brittle materials, 263–265
Mohr theory of failure, 255–256, 266. See also Coulomb-Mohr theory
Molded-asbestos linings, 864
Molded-asbestos pads, 864
Molding, 66, 693
Molybdenum, 72, 75
Moment connection, 492
Moment load, 468
Monte Carlo computer simulations, 31
Morrow fatigue-failure criterion, 334, 336, 382
Morrow line, 334, 353
MSC/NASTRAN, 956
Multiple of rating life, 581
Multiple-threaded product, 423
Multipoint constraint equations, 967
Muntz metal, 78
Music wire, 531, 532
NNa
val brass, 78
Necking, 45, 46
Needle bearings, 578
Neuber, H., 322Neuber constant, 322, 323
Neutral plane, 112
Newmark, N. M., 957
Newtonian fluids, 626
Newton (N), 32
Newton’s cooling model, 860–861
Newton’s third law, 95
Nickel, 72, 75
Nodal loads, 966
Nodes, 957, 961, 962
Nodular cast iron, 74
Noll, C. J., 310, 311
Nominal size, 27
Nominal stress, 133
Nonferrous metals, 75–78
Nonlinear softening spring, 175
Nonlinear stiffening spring, 174
Nonplanar datum features, 986
Nonprecision bearings, 579
Normal circular pitch, 697
Normal diametrical pitch, 697
Normalizing process, 69
Normal strain, 43
Normal stress, 101
Norris, C. H., 490
Notched-bar tests, 62, 63
Notch sensitivity, stress concentration and, 320–325
Numbering systems, 64–66
Nuts
grade of, 444
hexagon, 434, 436
OOc
tahedral shear stress, 251–252
Octahedral-shear-stress theory, 251, 252
Offset method, 44Oil outlet temperature, 649
Oil-tempered wire, 531
Opening crack propagation mode, 268, 269
Orientation control, 994–996
Osgood, C. C., 439
Overconstrained systems, 201
Overload factor, 764, 797
Overrunning clutch or coupling, 867
PPa
lmgren linear damage rule, 356
Palmgren-Miner cycle-ratio summation rule (Miner’s rule), 352, 353, 355
Parabolic formula, 210–211
Parallel-axis theorem, 113
Parallel helical gears, 696–700
Parallelism control, 994–995
Paris equation, 297
Partial journal bearing, 634
Partitioning approach, 963
Pedestal bearings, 649
Performance factors, 639
Permanent joint design
adhesive bonding and, 508–516
butt and fillet welds and, 487–494
resistance welding and, 507–508
welded joints and, 492–499, 505–506
welding symbols and, 486–488
Permanent-mold casting, 693
Permissible contact stress number (strength) equation, 797
Peterson, R. E., 246
Petroff’s equation, 631–632
Phosphor bronze, 77, 78, 531
Pilkey, W. D., 404
Pillow-block bearings, 649
Pinion, 683, 691, 693
Pinion bending, 782Page 1091
Pinion cutter, 693, 694
Pinion tooth bending, 775, 778, 784, 785
Pinion tooth wear, 776, 779
Pins (shafts), 401–405
Pitch
of bevel gears, 695
of screw threads, 422, 423, 426
timing belt, 908–909
Pitch circle, 683, 685, 686, 688, 693, 798
Pitch diameter
of screw threads, 422
of spur-gear teeth, 683
Pitch length, 902
Pitch-line velocity, 686, 711, 712, 745
Pitch point, 685
Pitch radius, 685
Pitting, 749
Pitting resistance, 750, 752, 761–762, 804
Pitting-resistance geometry factor, 752, 799, 800
Plane slider bearing, 635
Plane strain, 297
Plane stress, 275
Mohr’s circle for, 94, 102–109, 256–257
Plane-stress transformation equations, 102
Planetary gear trains, 708
Planet carrier (arm), 708
Planet gears, 708
Plastic deformation, 43, 44, 51–53
Plastics, 78, 79
Plastic strain, 289, 292
Plastic-strain Manson-Coffin equation, 301
Pneumatic clutches, 836
Poisson’s ratio, 80, 109, 749
Position control, 998–1000
Positive-contact clutch, 866, 867
Potential energy. See Strain energyPound-force (lbf), 31
Powder-metallurgy process, 67
Power curve equation, 311
Power screws, 426–433
Power transmission (case study)
background of, 936
bearing selection, 949–950
design sequence for, 937–938
final analysis, 953
force analysis, 947
gear specification, 938–945
key and retaining ring selection, 950–953
power and torque requirements, 938
shaft design for deflection, 948–949
shaft design for stress, 948
shaft layout, 945–947
shaft material selection, 947
Precipitation-hardenable stainless steels, 73
Preload
bolt, 436, 452
considerations for, 460
statically loaded tension joint with, 452–456
Presetting, 529
Press fits, 139–140, 378–379
Pressure angle, 687, 698, 703
Pressure-fed bearings, 655–660
Pressure line, 687
Pressure-sensitive adhesives, 509
Pressure-strength ratio, 921
Pressurized cylinders, stresses in, 135–137
Pretension, 436, 452–453
Primary shear, 468
Principal stresses, 103
Probability density function (PDF), 20
Probability of failure, 20–24
Product liability, 15Professional societies, 10, 11
Profile control, 996–998
Profile of a line, 996
Profile of a surface, 996
Proof load, bolt, 443
Proof strength, bolt, 443
Propagation of dispersion, 24
Propagation of error, 24
Propagation of uncertainty, 24
Proportional limit, 43
Puck pad caliper brake, 855–856
Pulleys
flat-belt and round-belt, 891–892
forces and torque on, 887
Pure shear, 337
QQu
ality numbers (AGMA), 763
Quasi-static fracture, 267–268
Quenching, 69–70
RR.
R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam machine, 302–303
Radial clearance ratio, 632
Radial loading/thrust loading combined, 585–590
Radial stress, 135–137, 410
Radius of gyration, 208
Raimondi, Albert A., 640, 641
Raimondi-Boyd analysis, 640–647
Rain-flow counting technique, 352
Ramberg-Osgood relationship, 53
Ramp function, 98, 99
Rating life, 579–580
Rayleigh’s equation, 396
Redundant supports, 201
Reemsnyder, Harold S., 297Regular-lay rope, 917
Related actual mating envelope, 986–987
Relative velocity, 859
Reliability factor, 316–317, 360, 769–770, 803–804
Reliability method of design, 20, 24–26
Repeated stress, 302
Residual stress, 317, 487
Resilience, 47–48
Resistance welding, 507–508
Retaining rings, 405–406, 950–952
Reynolds, Osborne, 626, 635, 636, 638
Reynolds equation, 636, 638, 665, 666
Right-hand rule, 423, 703, 722
Rim clutches
external contracting, 844–847
internal expanding, 836–844
Rim-thickness factor, 770–771
Ring gear, 688
Riveted joints, loaded in shear, 463–467
Roark’s formulas, 179
Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain (Young, Budynas & Sadegh), 179, 180
Rockwell hardness, 61, 806
Roller chains, 909–917
Rolling bearings
description of, 576, 578
lubrication and, 478, 576, 579, 608–609
types of, 578–579
Rolling-contact bearings
ball and cylindrical roller bearing selection and, 577, 585–590, 593–596
bearing load life at rated reliability and, 580–581
combined radial and thrust loading of, 585–590
description of, 576
design assessment for, 604–608
fit and, 608
life of, 579–580
lubrication of, 608–609Page 1092
mounting and enclosure of, 609–613
relating load, life and reliability and, 583–585
reliability of, 605–608
reliability vs. life of, 582–583
tapered roller bearings selection and, 596–604
types of, 576–579
variable loading and, 590–593
Roll threading, 69
Ropes, 882
Rotary fatigue, 356
Rotating-beam specimen, 305, 309
Rotating-beam test, 303
Rotating rings, stresses in, 137–139
Rotscher’s pressure-cone method, 439
Round-belt drives. See Flat-belt and round-belt drives
Round belts, 882
Runge-Kutta method, 665
Runout controls, 1001–1002
Russell, Burdsall & Ward Inc. (RB&W), 453–454
Ryan, D. G., 433
SSa
fe-life design, 295
Safety, 15, 18–20, 771, 797. See also Factor of safety
Salakian, A. G., 490
Samónov, C., 530, 534
Sand casting, 66, 693
Saybolt Universal viscosity (SUV), 627
Screws
cap, 434–436
elongation of, 449
power, 426–433
self-locking, 428
stiffness and, 437
Screw threads
efficiency of, 428square, 430
terminology of and standards for, 422–426
Sealants. See Adhesive bonds
Sealings, 612–613
Seam welding, 507, 508
Secant column formula, 213, 216
Secondary shear, 468, 492
Self-acting (self-locking) phenomenon, 833
Self-aligning bearings, 586
Self-contained bearings, 649–653
Self-deenergizing brake shoe, 831
Self-energizing brake shoe, 831
Self-locking screw, 428
Series system, 24
Set removal, 529
Setscrews, 400–401
Shaft basis, 407
Shaft components
keys and pins as, 401–405
retaining rings as, 405–406
setscrews as, 400–401
Shaft coupling, 866–867
Shaft design, for deflection, 948–949
Shaft design for stress
critical locations and, 380
estimating stress concentrations and, 384–390
first iteration estimates for, 386
shaft stresses and, 380–384, 948
Shaft layout
about, 375–376, 945–947
assembly and disassembly and, 379–380
axial, 376
supporting axial loads, 377
torque transmission provisions and, 377–379
Shaft material
fatigue failure and, 375selection of, 947
Shafts, 286
bearings in, 585
bending moments on, 380
couplings, 866–867
critical speeds for, 395–400
defined, 374
deflection analysis and, 391–395
flexible, 926
fundamental deviation for, 408
layout of, 375–380
limits and fits for, 406–411
materials for, 374–375
misalignment in, 611
Shallow drawing, 69
Shear-energy theory, 251
Shear force
bending moments in beams and, 97–98
welded joints in torsion and, 492, 493
Shearing edge, 464–465
Shear-lag model, 511
Shear loading, bolted and riveted joints and, 463–467
Shear modulus, 47, 110
Shear stress
for beams in bending, 116–122
maximum, 47, 124
tangential, 101, 135, 410, 430
torsion in shaft and, 410–411
transverse, 117–122
Shear stress-correction factor, 527
Shear yield strength, 275
Sheaves, 882, 901–902, 919–921
Shell molding, 66, 693
Shock, 218
Short compression members, struts as, 215–217
Shrink fits, 139–140, 378–379Significant figures, 32–33
Silicon, 72
Silicon bronze, 78
Simple loading
completely reversing, 359–361
fluctuating, 361–362
Sines failure criterion, 544
Single-row bearings, 577, 578
Singularity functions
application of, 99–101, 185
beam deflections by, 182–188
description of, 94, 98–99
Sintered-metal pads, 864
Size factor, 312–314, 765, 799
Sleeve bearings, 624, 661
Slenderness ratio, 208
Sliding fit, 407
Sliding mode, 268, 269
Slip, 44, 882
Slip lines, 247–248
Slip planes, 44
Slug, 31
Smith, G. M., 543
Smith-Dolan locus, 345–346
Smith-Watson-(SWT) criterion, 335, 336
Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) fatigue-failure criterion, 335, 336, 343, 344
S-N diagram. See Stress-life (S-N) diagram
Snug-tight condition, 449
torque and, 449
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 11, 64
bolt strength standards, 443, 444
Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), 11
Socket setscrews, 400–401
Soderberg line, 334–336
Software
CAD, 8–9, 980, 1009Page 1093
engineering-based, 9
engineering-specific, 9
Solid elements, 959, 960
Solid-film lubricant, 625
Sommerfeld, A., 638
Sommerfeld number, 632, 641, 645, 659
Special-purpose elements, 959, 960
Specific modulus (specific stiffness), 83
Speed ratio, 759
Spherical contact stresses, 146–147
Spherical-roller thrust bearing, 578
Spinning, 69
Spiral bevel gears, 792, 794
Spiroid gearing, 794
Splash lubrication, 608
Splines, 378
Spot welding, 507, 508
Spring brass, 531
Spring constant, 175
Spring index, 526, 535, 552, 559
Spring rate, 174, 175, 437, 440, 528, 560–561
Springs. See also specific types of springs
Belleville, 526, 564–565
classification of, 526
compression, 528–529
conical, 566
constant-force, 565
critical frequency of helical, 542–543
curvature effect in, 527
deflection in helical, 528
extension, 550–557
fatigue loading of helical compression


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