كتاب Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering

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كتاب Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering    كتاب Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering  Emptyالخميس 03 أغسطس 2023, 2:28 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering
Syed Ali Ashter
R&D Endovascular
Maquet Getinge Group
Merrimack, NH, USA

كتاب Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering  I_t_b_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of contents
1. Introduction
Abstract
1.1 Background
1.2 Understanding Global Markets
1.3 Current Material Trends
1.4 Current Market Trends
1.5 Barriers to Biopolymer Commercialization
References
2. Overview of Biodegradable Polymers
Abstract
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Definitions
References
3. Mechanisms of Polymer Degradation
Abstract
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Polyesters
3.3 Polyamides
3.4 Polycarbonates
3.5 Polyurethanes
3.6 Polyacetals
References
4. Fundamentals on Biodegradability
Abstract
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Measurement of Biodegradability of Polymers
4.3 Factors Affecting Biodegradability
References
5. Types of Biodegradable Polymers
Abstract
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Bio-Based Polymers
5.3 Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers
5.4 Bio-Derived Polyethylene
5.5 Polymers from Bio-Based Monomers
5.6 Bio-Based Materials for Paper/Substrate Coatings
References
6. Additives and Modifiers for Biopolymers
Abstract
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Types of Additives and Modifiers
6.3 Additives and Modifiers for Bioolefins
6.4 Additives and Modifiers for Biopolymers
6.5 Effect on Properties
References
7. Processing Biodegradable Polymers
Abstract
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Injection Molding
7.3 Compression Molding
7.4 Film Casting
7.5 Blow Molding
7.6 Blown Film Extrusion
7.7 Thermoforming
7.8 Fiber Spinning
References
8. Extrusion of Biopolymers
Abstract
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Conventional Extrusion of Biopolymers
8.3 Starch Extrusion
8.4 Extrusion Screw Designs
References
9. Commercial Applications of Bioplastics
Abstract
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Packaging
9.3 Bags
9.4 Disposable Housewares
9.5 Agriculture and Horticulture
9.6 Medical Devices
9.7 Consumer Electronics
9.8 Automotive
References
10. New Developments
Abstract
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Materials
10.3 Processing
10.4 Applications
References
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables,
respectively.
A
Abiotic oxidation, 3132
Absorbable anterior and posterior
cruciate ligament interference
screw, 237f
Absorbable orthopedic pin, 237f
Acidbase titration, 74
Acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile (ASA),
254
Additives and modifiers, 153
bio-based, 89
for bioolefins, 156160
for biopolymers, 160172
foamability, 167
heat resistance, 165167
mechanical properties, 167172
processability, 163165
toughness, 160163
effect on properties, 172175
foamability, 174
heat resistance, 173174
mechanical properties, 175
processability, 173
toughness, 172173
types of, 154156
type 1 additives, 155
type 2 additives, 155156
type 3 additives, 156
Aerobes, 3233
Aerobic biodegradation, 3233, 72
Agricultural mulches, 234, 234f
Agricultural waste, 252253
Agriculture and horticulture
applications, 234235
Agro-polymers, 82
Ahlstrom Corp., 202
Aliphatic copolyesters, 83t
Aliphatic polyamides, thermal
oxidation of, 43, 44f
Aliphatic polyester, 36, 83t, 104,
112
general degradation mechanism of,
36, 37f
Alkyds, 139140, 140f
Amylopectin, 86, 86f
Amylose, 86
Anaerobic biodegradation, 3233
Arboblend resins, 189
Arkema
Biostrength, 161, 163
ski boot, 267
ArmorLite roofing material,
253254, 253f
Aromatic copolyesters (PBAT), 83t
Aromatic polyesters
general degradation mechanism of,
35, 35f
thermal degradation mechanism of,
3536, 36f
ASTM D6400, 13
ASTM D6866, 13, 139
ASTM sub-committee D20-96, 65t
AT&T, 128
Automotive applications, 240246
B
Bacillus megaterium, 104
Bacterial polyesters, 33, 104111
polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs),
104108
polyhydroxybutyrate (PHBs),
108111
275BASF, 85, 270
Ecovio resins, 168
Bioactive substances, 61
BioBag, 90
Bio-based additives, 89
Bio-based bioplastics, 1, 2f, 1415
Bio-based butadiene (bio-BDO), 85
Bio-based monomers, polymers from,
132139
1, 3 propanediol and DuPont’s
Sorona, 134135
bio-based unsaturated polyester,
136139
lactic acid and poly(lactic acid),
133
succinic acid, 136
Bio-based plastics, 5, 2627, 27f,
245f
advantages of, 2627
Bio-based polyamides, 240243,
267, 267f
Bio-based polyesters, 240243
Bio-based polyethylene (Bio-PE), 7,
127128, 128f, 268
Bio-based polymers, 81, 84111
bacterial polyesters, 104111
cellulose-based polymers, 92103
chitin and chitosan, 103104
different ways to produce, 85f
evolvement of, 84t
starch-based polymers, 104111
Bio-based resins, 139141
Bio-based unsaturated polyesters
(UPEs), 136139
Bio-BDO. See Bio-based butadiene
(bio-BDO)
Bioceta, 9495
Biodegradability, 23, 31, 61
example of, 62f
factors affecting, 7778
measurement of, 7077
gas-evolution test system, 7677
plate test system, 73
respirometric system, 7476
standards, 6367
levels of standardization, 67f
specifications, 67f
standardization nomenclature,
64t
terminology used in, 65t
testing, 6770, 68f
field test, 70
laboratory test, 68, 70
simulation tests, 70
Biodegradability testing, 6770
Biodegradable bags, 230231, 232f
Biodegradable bioplastics, 1, 2f
Biodegradable biopolymers, 1415
Biodegradable burial pods, 237f
Biodegradable dental implants,
235238
Biodegradable hangers, 233f
Biodegradable materials, 6162, 180,
251
Biodegradable natural polymer, 205f
Biodegradable plastic staples, 235
Biodegradable plastics, 2324, 65t,
72, 227228, 229f, 254
Biodegradable polymers, 19
application of, 21f
classification of, 20f
definitions, 2228
bio-based plastics, 2627
biodegradable plastics, 2324
biopolymer, 2426
oxo-degradable plastics, 2728
Biodegradable polymers, processing,
179
blow molding, 192196
stretch blow molding, 194196
blown film extrusion, 196197
compression molding, 187189
fiber spinning, 199206
electrospinning, 202206
melt spinning, 200202
film casting, 189192
injection molding, 180187
DuPont Biomax TPS, 184
276 INDEXEcovio IS 1335, 186187
Metabolix Mirel, 184186
NatureWorks Ingeo Series,
182183
Novamont Mater-Bi, 184
TianAn Biologic, 186
thermoforming, 197199
Biodegradable polymers, types of, 81,
84f
bio-based monomers, polymers
from, 132139
1, 3 propanediol and DuPont’s
Sorona, 134135
bio-based unsaturated polyester,
136139
lactic acid and poly(lactic acid),
133
succinic acid, 136
bio-based polymers, 84111
bacterial polyesters, 104111
cellulose-based polymers,
92103
chitin and chitosan, 103104
starch-based polymers, 8692
bio-derived polyethylene, 127131
overview of, 83t
paper/substrate coatings, bio-based
materials for, 139141
synthetic biodegradable polymers,
112127
poly(glycolide)/poly(glycolic
acid), 121123
poly(lactic acid), 114118
poly(lactide-co-glycolide),
125127
poly(p-dioxanone), 123125
poly(ε-caprolactone), 118121
Biodegradable synthetic polymer, 205f
Biodegradation curve, 71, 71f
Biodegradation of polymers, 32f
Biodegradation process, 19, 20f, 31,
6162, 65t
Bio-derived polyethylene (Bio-PE),
84, 127131, 128f
Bio-Fan, 268269
BIO-FLEX, 194
Bio-Flex F6510, 195196
BioFoam, 255, 258, 258f
Bio-LDPE. See Bio-Low density
polyethylene (Bio-LDPE)
Bio-Low density polyethylene
(Bio-LDPE), 128
Biomax Strong, 155156, 160161,
161f
Biomax Strong 100 and 120,
160161, 163, 164t
Biomax Thermal 300, 166
Biomer, 112t
Bioolefins, additives and modifiers
for, 156160
Bio-PE. See Bio-derived polyethylene
(Bio-PE)
Bioplastic touch screen computer
casing, 241f
Biopol, 112t
Biopol B, 107, 108f
Biopolyesters, 8283
Biopolymer commercialization,
barriers to, 1415
Biopolymer Network, 255257
Biopolymers, 1415, 2426
additives and modifiers for, 153,
160172
foamability, 167
heat resistance, 165167
mechanical properties, 167172
processability, 163165
toughness, 160163
advantages of, 2526
challenges to, 15
functions of, 25t
structures of, 25
BioPreferred coatings, 141
categories, 140t
Biorefinery concept, 9f
Biostrength, 155156, 170
Biostrength 130 acrylic modifier,
161
INDEX 277Biostrength 150 impact modifier,
161162
Biostrength 280 impact modifier, 162
Biostrength 700 acrylic copolymer,
163
Biostrength Advantage, 163
BioWit-tube, 267268, 267f
Bisphenol-A, 810, 46
Blow molding, 192196
blowing stage, 193
ejection, 193
injection stage, 193
preinjection stage, 192
stretch blow molding, 194196
Blown film extrusion, 196197, 196f
Blow-up-ratio (BUR), 196197
Braskem, 128129, 130f
Bulk degradation, 3435, 120f, 121
BUR. See Blow-up-ratio (BUR)
Burial pods, biodegradable, 237f
C
CA. See Cellulose acetate (CA)
CAB. See Cellulose-acetate butyrate
(CAB)
Calcification, 5152
Camphor, 101
characteristics of, 101102
structure of, 101f
CAP. See Cellulose-acetate
propionate (CAP)
Capa, 254255
Capa brand polycaprolactone,
254255
Caprolactam, 3940
Carbonic ester, 46
Cargill, 85
Cellobiose, 92, 93f
Celluloid, 99103
manufacture, flow chart of, 100f
thermal degradation of, 102f
Cellulose, 9293, 92f, 100f
Cellulose acetate (CA), 9598
preparation mechanism, 96f
properties of, 97t
structure of, 98f
Cellulose esters, 9495
melting points of, 95t
Cellulose nitrate, 100101, 101f
Cellulose-acetate butyrate (CAB), 99,
99f
Cellulose-acetate propionate (CAP),
9899, 98f
Cellulose-based polymers, 92103
Cellulosic feedstocks, 78
CelTiX, 155
CEN, 64, 65t
Cereplast, 154
CESA-natur product line, 156
Chitin and chitosan, 103104, 103f
Ciba Speciality Chemicals, 159
Cinnamomum camphora, 101
Citric acid, 92
Clariant, 156, 165
HYDROCEROL chemical foaming
agents, 167, 168f
Colorants, 102
Commercial applications of
bioplastics, 227
agriculture and horticulture,
234235
automotive, 240246
bags, 230231
biodegradable plastics, 227228
consumer electronics, 240
disposable housewares, 231233
medical devices, 235239
packaging, 228230
Compatibilizer, 91
Compostability, 62, 63f, 65t
Compostable bags, 227228
Composting, 6162, 7172
Compression molding, 187189
arrangement, 188f
of tractor hood and speakers,
190f
process parameters of, 188f
Consumer electronics, 240, 242f
278 INDEXConventional extrusion of
biopolymers, 213216
Conventional plastic versus Ingeo 3D
biopolymer, 262t
Conventional plastics and bioplastics,
differences between, 15f
Coordinate system, 34
Corbion Purac, 240, 244246
Corn starch, 91
Cost feasibility, 45
Cotton fibers, 187188
Current market trends, 1013
Current material trends, 610
Cutlery, 231
compostable, 233f
Natur-Ware bio-based, 233f
D
Danimer LLC, 154, 165166
Degree of substitution (DS), 94, 97,
98t
Denimite product, 269f
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA),
chemical structure of, 24f
Depolymerization, 31
Derived alkoxy radical,
decomposition of, 42f
Devolatilization unit, 255
DIN, 65t
Direct extrusion, 213214
Disintegrability, 23
Disposable housewares, 231233,
233f
Dissolvable medical screws
promoting bone growth, 237f
Dow Chemicals, 170172
Drop-ins, 67, 26
DS. See Degree of substitution (DS)
DuPont Biomax TPS, 184
processing conditions for, 185t
DuPont Co., 123
DuPont’s Sorona, 134135
in flooring applications, 135f
synthesis of, 135f
DuPont’s Sorona EP PTT polyester,
243
Durabio, 271f, 272
E
Ecodear Nanoalloys, 258259
Eco-Delink, 155
Eco-PLA, 119t
Ecovative, 269
Ecovative Myco foam packaging,
269f
Ecover, 129, 131f
Ecovio IS 1335, 186187
Ecovio L Foam, 259, 270, 270f
Electrospinning, 202206
parameters, 204t
setup, 203f
Electrospun fibers, 205207, 206f
Elvaloy, 155156
EMforce Bio, 168170
EMforce Bio additive, 155
EN 13432, 2224
Enteric esters, 94
EPI Oxo-Biodegradable bags, 231
EPS. See Expanded polystyrene (EPS)
Ester linkages, 3334, 34f, 263264
Esterase, 3334
Ethanol, 127
Eureka, 254
European Bioplastics Association, 6
Expanded PLA (EPLA) bead and
foams, 255258
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 255
Expansorb, 261263
Expansorb-B universal expander
liquid, 263f
External deckles, 189191
Extruder screw, 217218
Extruders
components of, 211
single-screw, 211212
twin-screw, 213
Extrusion blow molding, 193194,
193f
INDEX 279Extrusion blow molding (Continued)
examples of, 194f
Extrusion of biopolymers, 211
conventional extrusion of
biopolymers, 213216
LSLF extrusion, 215216
extrusion screw designs, 217223
pulverization screw design,
220221
reactive extrusion screw design,
221223
Turbo-Screw design, 218220
starch extrusion, 216217
F
Fantastic Beach toys, 231
Feather-g-poly(methyl acrylate)
plastic, 265
Fermentation process, 107, 110
Fiber spinning, 199206
electrospinning, 202206
melt spinning, 200202
Field tests, 68f, 70
Film casting, 189192, 191f
product examples, 192f
First-generation additives, 154
FIS Green 300T, 266267, 266f
Fischer esterification, 94
Fischerwerke, 266267
FKUR, 194
Foam extrusion process, Turbo-Screw
in, 218
Foam packaging, 227228
Foamability, 167, 174
Food packaging, 228
Ford Motor Co, 1
Fringed-micelle regions, 93
G
Galactic (Belgium), 119t
Gas-evolution test system, 7677
GE Geloy, 253
General Electric, 253
General-purpose screw, 180, 182f
Genomatica, 85
G-Kup Coffee, 271, 271f
Global markets, 56
Global production capacities of
bioplastics, 7f
by 2018, 10f
by material type, 8f
Glycolide, 122123
Glycoprotein, 24
Grab-n-Go, 230
Green Guard, 139
Green Seal, 139
Guided-tissue-regeneration
membranes, 235238, 238f
H
HDT. See Heat deflection
temperature (HDT)
Heat deflection temperature (HDT),
165, 173174
Heat resistance, 165167, 173174
Heated nozzles, 187
High impact polystyrene (HIPS),
198199
High-shear screws, 180
High-speed energy input (HSEI)
TSEs, 215
HIPS. See High impact polystyrene
(HIPS)
Hot runner systems, 187
HYDROCEROL chemical foaming
agents, 167
Hydrolysis, 3334
of acetals, 5556
Hyperform
HPN-20E, 157158, 158f
I
Impact modifiers, 172173
Infrared (IR) radiation, 198199
Ingeo 3D Series, 259261
Ingeo 3251D TDS, 180, 182
Inherent biodegradability, 65t
Injection blow molding, 192193
examples of, 194f
process, 193f
280 INDEXInjection molding, 180187, 181f
DuPont Biomax TPS, 184
Ecovio IS 1335, 186187
Metabolix Mirel, 184186
NatureWorks Ingeo Series,
182183
Novamont Mater-Bi, 184
TianAn Biologic, 186
Injection stretch blow molding
(ISBM). See Stretch blow
molding
InnoCore, 254
Insorb absorbable skin stapler, 237f
Invista, 85
IRGACLEAR XT 386, 159, 160f
IRGASURF SR 100, 159160
Iris Industries, 269
ISO 472, 65t
Isosorbide-based
copolyesters, 910
J
Japanese Biodegradable Plastics
Society, 65t
Johnson & Johnson, 129, 131f
K
Kenaf fiber, 187188
Kickstarter, 269
Knitted cellulosic high-performance
fibers, 107, 108f
Kuredux PGA data sheet, 123f
Kureha Chemical Industries, 123
L
Lacear (Mitsui Toatsu Chemical,
Japan), 119t
LACTEL absorbable polymers,
263264, 264f
Lactic acid, 115
and poly(lactic acid), 133
Lactron (Kanebo Goshen, Japan), 119t
Lacty (Shimadzu Corporation, Japan),
119t
Lenzing AG, 202
Life cycle of bioplastics, 3, 3f
Low-speed late fusion (LSLF)
extrusion, 215216
twin-screw extruders, 215
LSLF. See Low-speed late fusion
(LSLF)
M
Masterbatch, 153154, 165
Material classification system, 4f
Medical devices, 235239
Melt spinning, 200202, 201f
Melting temperature, 7778
Mer units, 19, 20f
Meredian, 167168
Metabolix Inc., 910, 9f, 167168
Metabolix Mirel, 184186
processing properties of, 185t
MHG Biopolymers, 154, 165168
Microbial degradation, 31
Millad 3988i, 156157
Millad NX8000, 156157
Mineralization, 32, 5152
Minerals, 155
Minimum renewable carbon
content categories
(MRCC), 139, 141
Mirel, 910, 184186
processing properties of, 185t
Mitsubishi Chemical, 910, 272
Mixing and conveying elements, 213f
Modifiers, additives and.
See Additives and modifiers
Monomers, defined, 31
MRCC. See Minimum renewable
carbon content categories
(MRCC)
MSU respirometric
systems, 7476
cumulative measurement
respirometric system, 74, 74f
direct measurement respirometric
system, 7476, 75f
Mushroom packaging, 269
Myco Foam, 269, 269f
INDEX 281N
Nanoalloy technology, 258259
properties of, 260t
National standards, 6467
Natural biodegradable polymers, 82
Natural polymers, 1, 2f, 19, 8182
Natural resins, 2f
NatureWorks, 119t, 166
NatureWorks Ingeo Series, 182183,
270
Natur-Ware cutlery, 231
Nestle´ & Tetra Pak, 129
New developments of bioplastics, 251
applications, 266272
materials, 251264
Ecodear Nanoalloys, 258259
Ecovio L Foam, 259
expanded PLA (EPLA) bead and
foams, 255258
Expansorb, 261263
Ingeo 3D Series, 259261
LACTEL absorbable polymers,
263264
processing, 264265
Nodax, 112t
Non-biodegradable biopolymers,
1415
Nonenteric esters, 94
Nontoxic biodegradable polymer
sutures, 235
Nova Institute, 5
Novamont Mater-Bi, 184
processing conditions for, 184t
Novamont resins Inc., 90
Novozymes, 85
Nucleic acids, 24
function of, 25t
Nylon, types of, 38f
O
OctoDEX, 239, 254
Octoplus, 239, 254
OnCap Bio, 170, 171f
OnCap BIO Antifog, 155156
OPS. See Oriented polystyrene (OPS)
Oriented polystyrene (OPS),
198199
Oxo-Biodegradable bags, 231
Oxo-degradable additives, 27
Oxo-degradable plastics, 2728
P
Packaging applications, 1112, 11f,
63, 228230
Pantene, 130131
Paper/substrate coatings, bio-based
materials for, 139141
Paraloid BPM-500, 170172, 171f
Parietex ProGripTM laparoscopic selffixating mesh, 239, 239f
Parison, 193194
Patented additives, 252253
PBS. See Polybutylene succinate
(PBS)
PBSA. See Polybutylene succinate
adipate (PBSA)
PCL. See Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)
PDO. See 1, 3 Propanediol (PDO)
PE. See Polyethylene (PE)
PEA. See Polyesteramide (PEA)
Pebax RNew 80R53, 267
Percent mineralization, 72
Perstorp, 254
PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate
(PET)
Petroplastics versus bioplastics, 5f
PGA. See Poly(glycolide)/poly
(glycolic acid) (PGA)
PHA-based polymeric modifier,
910, 9f
PHAs. See Polyhydroxyalkanoates
(PHAs)
PHB. See Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
PHBV. See Polyhydroxybutyratevalerate (PHBV)
Photolysis, 42, 54
PLA. See Polylactic acid (PLA)
Plantura, 244246
282 INDEXPlastic sutures, 235
Plasticizers, 89, 9192, 175, 217
Plate test system, 73
PLGA. See Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)
(PLGA)
Pliable braided sutures, 235
Polestar 200P, 155
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), 3132,
83t, 90, 118121
applications of, 122f
-based bioplastics, 254
structure of, 119f
synthesis of, 120f
Poly(diphenolic acid-isophthaloyl
chloride), 3536
Poly(glycolide)/poly(glycolic acid)
(PGA), 112, 121123, 124f
applications of, 124f
structure of, 122f
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA),
125127, 126f
Poly(p-dioxanone) (PDS), 123125
commercial products of, 125t
structure of, 124f
Poly(propylene succinate) (PPSu), 36
Polyacetals, 5356
depolymerization reaction of, 54f
depolymerization under UV
radiation, 55f
hydrolysis of, 5556
photo-oxidation of, 54, 55f
thermal oxidation of, 53
PolyActive, 239, 254
Polyamide 4,6 (PA-4,6), 38
Polyamide 6 (PA-6), 38
cis-elimination reaction in, 40
degradation of, 40f
monomer formation mechanisms
in, 39f
Polyamide 6,6 (PA-6,6), 38
Polyamide 11 (PA-11), 38
Polyamides, 3843
photo-oxidation, 4143
thermal degradation, 3941, 41t
thermal oxidation, 43
Polybutylene succinate (PBS), 91
Polybutylene succinate adipate
(PBSA), 91
Polycarbonates, degradation of,
4451
Davis and Golden mechanism for,
44, 45f
Kuroda’s mechanism for, 47f
Lee’s degradation
mechanism, 46, 46f
McNeill and Rincon’s mechanism
for, 47, 49f
Montaudo and Puglisi’s mechanism
for, 50f
Polyesteramide
(PEA), 83t, 254
Polyesters, 3338
hydrolytic degradation mechanism
of, 52f
polycondensation and hydrolysis
of, 33, 34f
structure of, 34f
Polyethylene (PE), 1112, 127
bio-derived, 127131
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
1112, 3133, 114115, 244
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs),
3334, 83t, 104108
applications of, 109f
function of, 25t
structure of, 105f
typical properties of, 108t
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB),
108111
commercial
products, 112t
life cycle of, 111f
Polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate
(PHBV), 166167, 186
Polyisocyanates, 51, 52f
Polyketals, 252, 252f
Polylactic acid (PLA), 7, 3132, 81,
83t, 112, 114118, 154,
161166, 165f, 180, 182, 197,
213, 227, 255
INDEX 283Polylactic acid (PLA) (Continued)
applications of, 115f
glass transition and melting
temperatures, comparison, 116f
glass transition temperatures for, 117f
main products of, 119t
PLA golf tee, 237f
PLA/PLGA biopolymers, 261263
synthesis of, 116f, 134f
thermal degradation of, 117, 118f
Polymer degradation, mechanisms of,
31
modes and corresponding factors
of, 33t
polyacetals, 5356
hydrolysis, 5556
photo-oxidation, 54
thermal oxidation, 53
polyamides, 3843
photo-oxidation, 4143
thermal degradation, 3941
thermal oxidation, 43
polycarbonates, 4451
polyesters, 3338
polyurethanes, 5153
Polymer drying, 180
Polymer matrix characteristics, 239
Polymeric materials, biodegradation
of, 23f
Polymers, defined, 19, 31
Polyolefins, 156
PolyOne, 166167, 170
OnCap bioadditives, 171f
Polyoxymethylene (POM), 53
degradation mechanisms of, 53
thermal degradation of, 53, 54f
Polyphenols, function of, 25t
Polyphosphates, function of, 25t
Polypropylene (PP), 157159
Polypropylene/polylactic acid (PP/
PLA), 244
Polysaccharides, function of, 25t
Polysulfates, function of, 25t
Polyurethanes (PU), 5153, 51f
POM. See Polyoxymethylene (POM)
PPSu. See Poly(propylene succinate)
(PPSu)
Processability, 163165, 173
Processing aids, 153
Processing of biopolymers, 211
Processing temperature profile, 183t
1, 3 Propanediol (PDO), 134135
Proteins, function of, 25t
Proton-initiated degradation, 4142
Pseudomonas, 3334, 104
Pulverization screw design, 220221
Purac, 257
Pyranose rings, structure of, 93f
Q
QMILK, 266, 266f
R
Reactive extrusion, 221222
two-stage screw design for, 223f
types of, 223t
Reactive extrusion screw design,
221223
Recycled chicken feathers, 265, 265f
Recycled polymers, 252253
Recycled wood by-product, 252253,
253f
Reedy International, 167
Regional standards, 6467
Renewable polymers, 82, 85
Resin synthesis, bio-based building
blocks, 141t
Respirometric system, 7476
MSU respirometric systems,
7476
UMIC Lab I, 76
Ribonucleic acid (RNA), chemical
structure of, 24f
Ro¨chling automotive, 244246, 246f
S
Safoam RPC-20MS1 and 20MS2, 167
Scarpa, 267, 267f
284 INDEXScrew flight circulation channel
geometry, 219f
Seeding strips, 234, 234f
Semicrystalline polyesters, 34
Simulation tests, 68f, 70
Single-screw extruders, 211212,
212f, 216
Single-stage stretch blow molding,
195
Ski boot, 267
SMR. See Sulzer Mixer Reactor
(SMR)
Solanyl (Rodenburg Biopolymers,
Netherlands), 119t
Solaplast compostable films, 236f
Solaplast mulching films, 234235
Solaplast resins, 228230, 230f
Solid-state shear pulverization
(SSSP), 220221, 221f, 222f
Sorona EP PTT polyester, 243
Spandex, 85
Spin pack, 201, 202f
Spinning temperature, 200
Spunbond Ingeo PLA fiber, 203f
SSSP. See Solid-state shear
pulverization (SSSP)
Stabilizers, 153
for translucent celluloid, 102
Standardization procedure, tests
under, 68t
Stannous octoate, 118119, 125126
Starch, 83t
Starch extrusion, 216217
screw designs in, 217f
Starch synthetic aliphatic polyester
blends, 8990
Starch-based PCL polymers, 90t
Starch-based polymers, 8692, 227
starchPBS/PBSA polyester
blends, 91
starchPVOH blends, 9192
starch synthetic aliphatic polyester
blends, 8990
thermoplastic starch (TPS), 8789
Starch-based resins, 7
StarchPBS/PBSA polyester blends,
91
StarchPVOH blends, 9192
Stretch blow molding, 194196
single-stage, 195
two-stage, 195196, 195f
Succinic acid, 136
applications of, 137t
products of, 136f
Sukano PLA im S550, 172
Sulzer Chemtech, 255, 257
Sulzer Mixer Reactor (SMR), 255
Superoxide dismutase, 252
SUPLA, 240
Surface erosion
of polycaprolactone, 120121
of polyesters, 3435
SurModics, 254
Symmetrical splined screw shafts,
214, 215f
SynBiosys, 254
Synbra Technology, 257
Synthetic biodegradable polymers,
112127, 113t
poly(glycolide)/poly(glycolic acid),
121123
poly(lactic acid), 114118
poly(lactide-co-glycolide),
125127
poly(p-dioxanone), 123125
poly(ε-caprolactone), 118121
Synthetic polymers, 19, 3132, 81,
204205
T
Tapes, 234, 234f
Tetra Pak, 129, 269
milk cartons, 269f
Textile fiber and bioplastic, 266, 266f
Thermoforming, 197199
Thermoplastic starch (TPS), 8789
formulation of wheat starch-based,
89t
INDEX 285TianAn Biologic, 167168, 186
processing conditions for, 186t
Toray, 258259
Toughness, 160163, 172173
Toyota, 244
TSE. See Twin-screw extruder (TSE)
Turbo-Screw design, 218220
Twin-bed desiccant dryers, 180
Twin-screw extruder (TSE), 212f, 213
high-speed energy input TSEs, 215
low-speed late fusion TSEs, 215
Twin-screw extrusion, 214
Two-stage stretch blow molding,
195196, 195f
TYRX absorbable antibacterial
envelope, 238, 238f
U
Ultimate biodegradability, 65t
UMIC Lab I, 76
Unsaturated polyesters (UPEs),
136139
UPE. See Unsaturated polyesters
(UPEs)
US Department of Agriculture
(USDA), 13
USDA BioPreferred Program, 139
V
Vehicles containing bio-based
plastics, 245f
Virgin biopolymers, mechanical
properties of, 175
Virgin PLA resins, 167168
W
Wautersia eutropha, 104
Witasek, 267268
Y
Yogurt, 270f
Z
Zeolite, 255
ZIEHL-ABEGG, 268269
Bionic Bio-Fan, 268269
ZinCo GmbH, 268


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