كتاب Handbook of Thermoset Plastics
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 كتاب Handbook of Thermoset Plastics

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كتاب Handbook of Thermoset Plastics  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Thermoset Plastics    كتاب Handbook of Thermoset Plastics  Emptyالخميس 03 أغسطس 2023, 2:11 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Handbook of Thermoset Plastics
Third Edition
Edited by
Hanna Dodiuk , Sidney H. Goodman
Table of contents

كتاب Handbook of Thermoset Plastics  H_b_o_25
و المحتوى كما يلي :


1. Introduction
History
Definitions
Cross-Linking and Curing
Influence of Time, Temperature, and Mass
Shelf Life and Pot Life
Curing
Staging
Stoichiometric Considerations
Prepolymerization and Adducting
References
Further Reading
2. Phenol–Formaldehydes
Introduction
Raw Materials
Phenol
Resinification (Production) of Phenol–Formaldehyde Resins
Phenolic Resins in Friction Materials
References
Further Reading
3. Polybenzoxazine–new generation phenolics
Introduction
Synthesis of Benzoxazine Monomers (BZ)
Ring-Opening Polymerization of Benzoxazines
Regioselectivity and Cross-Linked Structure
Inter/Intramolecular H-Bonding
Kinetics of Thermal Cure
Structure-Property Relationships
Blends/Composites of Polybenzoxazines
Green Chemistry Approaches in PBZ
Click Chemistry in PBZ
Stability and Degradation
Outlook
Acknowledgments
References
4. Aminos
Introduction
Raw Materials
Chemistry of UF Resins: Urea–Formaldehyde Condensation
Chemistry of MF Resins: Melamine–Formaldehyde Condensation
General Principles of Manufacture and Application
Applications of Amino Resins
References
5. Furans
Introduction
Resins from Furfuryl Alcohol and Furfural
Photocross-Linkable Furan Polyesters
Furan Polyurethane Foams
Photoresists from Pending Furan Chromophores
Ion-Exchange Resins Based on 2-Vinylfuran
Networks Based on Diels-Alder Polycondensations
References
6. Unsaturated Polyesters and Vinyl Esters
Unsaturated Polyesters
Vinyl Ester Resins
Compounding of Unsaturated Polyester and Vinyl Ester Resins
Property Modification of Unsaturated Polyesters
Applicable Manufacturing Processes
References
7. Allyls
Introduction
Polydiallyldiglycolcarbonate (CR-39)
Polydiallyl Phthalates
References
8. Epoxies
Introduction
Detailed Chemistry
Characterization of Epoxies
Applications
References
Further Reading
9. Polyurethanes
Introduction
General Characteristics of Polyurethanes
Raw Materials Used in the Synthesis of Cross-Linked Polyurethanes
Synthesis and Cross-Linking Reactions of Polyurethanes
Morphology of Linear/Branched vs. Cross-Linked Polyurethanes
Manufacturing Methods and Technical and Functional Properties of Thermosetting Polyurethanes
References
10. High-Performance Polyimides and High Temperature Resistant Polymers
Historical Perspective
Polyimides from Condensation Reactions
Thermoplastic Polyimides
Addition-Curable Polyimides and Other Polymers
Nadimide-Terminated Thermosetting Polyimides
Maleimide-Terminated Thermosetting Polyimides
Cyanate-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers
High-Temperature Thermosetting Resins Based on Phthalonitrile
Acetylene-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers
Propargyl-Terminated Oligomers
Phenylethynyl-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers
Applicability of Thermoset Isoimides/Imides to Resin Transfer Molding Processing
Galvanic Corrosion Resistance of Polyimide Composites
High-Performance Polymers for Lightning Strike Protection
Ultrahigh Temperature Resistant Polymers
Chemical Structures Suitable for Ultrahigh Temperature Use
Novel Cross–Linking Mechanisms for Stability at Ultrahigh Temperatures
Thermosets as Dielectric Interlayers in Integrated Circuit (IC) Fabrication
Polymer-Ceramic Materials
Acknowledgments
References
Further Reading
11. Cyanate Esters
Introduction
Chemistry
Characterization and Reaction Monitoring
Processing of Cyanate Ester Resins
Properties of Cyanate Esters
Properties of Cyanate Ester Blends with Epoxy and BMI
Recent Developments
Applications
Trade Names
References
12. Maleimide-Based Alder-Enes
Introduction to Bismaleimides
Maleimide-Based Alder-Ene Polymers
Alder-Ene Polymers from Various Allyl-Maleimide Compounds
Alder-Ene Polymer Blends
Nano-Modified Alder-Ene Polymers
Shape Memory Alder-Ene Polymers
Kinetics of Alder-Ene Polymerization
Outlook
Acknowledgments
References
13. Syntactic Foams
Introduction
Syntactic Foams Based on Thermosets
Recent Advances in Syntactic Foams
Applications of Syntactic Foams
Outlook
Acknowledgments
References
14. Silicones
Introduction
Silicone Elastomers
Silicone Laminates
Silicones in the Medical Device Industry
Special Silicones
Silicone Fluids
Other Fluid Types/Copolymers
References
15. Biobased Thermosets
Polymers from Renewable Sources
Determination of Bio-Based Content in Polymers
Raw Materials for Renewable Sources Polymers
Thermoset from Renewable Sources
References
16. Nanotechnology Based Thermosets
Introduction
Nanoclays
POSS
Nano Silica
Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)
Graphene and Expanded Graphite
Tungsten Disulfide
References
17. Crosslinked Thermoplastics
Introduction
Radiation Cross-Linking of Thermoplastics
Effects of Radiation Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers
Chemical Cross-Linking with Organic Peroxides
Effects of Peroxide Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers
Cross-Linking of Thermoplastics Using Silane Grafting Reagents
Effects of Silane Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers
Comparison of Cross-Linking Methods
Applications of Cross-Linked Thermoplastics
References
18. Processing
Introduction
Processing of Monomers: Online Monitoring of Resin Synthesis
Processing of Pre-Polymers: Online Monitoring of Resin Flow and Resin Cure During Composite Manufacture
References
Appendix. Polybenzoxazines – Commercial Information
Commercial Benzoxazine Marketed by Huntsman
Products by Henkel
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures and tables, respectively.
A
Abietic-type acids, 597598, 598f
Acenaphthylene, 401
Acetoxy cure, for silicones, 558560, 559t
Acidic Ion Exchange Resin (AIER), 581
Acrylation, of epoxidized triglycerides,
582583, 583f
Addition cure, RTV silicones, 561, 562t
vs. condensation cure systems, 563t
Adhesives
phenolic bio-based, 41
PRF, 3940
reduced resorcinol content, 4041
resorcinol, 37
Aerospace industry, syntactic foams in, 546
Albumin, 593
Alder-ene polymer
allyl compounds, 463486
blends, 486495
high-performance blends, 486491
nano-modified, 495497
overview, 462463
polymerization
kinetics, 499504
reaction sequence, 462463, 463f
shape memory, 497498
thermoplastic-toughened, 491495
Alkoxy cure, for silicones, 558559, 559t
Alkyd resins, bio-based, 610611
Allyls
overview, 173174
polydiallyldiglycolcarbonate
(PDADGC), 174180
applications, 178180
formulation, 176
polymerization, 176
properties, 176177
trade names, 180
polydiallyl phthalates, 180187
applications, 185187
chemistry, 181
formulation, 183
general aspects, 180181
polymerization, 181183
properties, 183185
trade names, 187
Aluminium phosphate, 411412
Amide cure, for silicones, 558
Amino resins
adhesive and bonding, 8283, 88
composite wood materials, 88
medium density fiberboard
(MDF), 88
particle board, 88
coatings, 8384
application, 88
paper treatment, 88
protective, 88
textile treatment, 88
laminating, 84
application, 8889
manufacturing, 8087
mixed melamine resins, 7980
molding, 8487
application, 8990
overview, 8889
Anhydride, for curing epoxy syntactic
foams, 523, 523f
Animal proteins, 592593
Applications, 142144
cross-linked thermoplastics, 716734
acrylates, 730733, 731t
fluoride-containing polymers,
733734
heat-shrinkable tubing, 723730, 725t
polyolefin foams, 716719
rotational molding, 719723
cyanate ester resins, 448450
phenolic resins
coating applications, 35
laminating applications, 3132
molding applications, 3234
syntactic foams, 545548
aerospace industry, 546
buoyancy, 545546
furniture, 547
military, 547
miscellaneous, 547548
plug-assist materials, 547
radomes, 546
shielding electronic components, 548
sports industry, 546547
synthetic marble, 547
thermal insulation materials, 546
Art objects, 161
ASTM D6866-11, 578
B
Baekeland, Leo, 2
Beetle grades, 8384
Benzocyclobutene, 399400
Benzoxazines, 514, 514f
curable moieties, 5156
curing, 47, 47f
ortho positions, 48, 48f
regioselectivity, 4749
ring-opening polymerization, 47, 47f
4,40-biamaleimido diphenyl methane
(BMPM), 459
Bio-based content
defined, 578
in polymers, 578579
Bio-based phenolic resins, 611615
Biopolymers, 2
4,40-bis(4-cyanatobenzyl) biphenyl
(BBPCy), 442, 443f
2,20-bis(4-cyanatophenyl)isopropylidene
(DCBA), 433435
Bismaleimide (BMI), 514515
blends with epoxy resins, cyanate ester
resins, 435437
description, 459462
drawbacks, 461
flammability, 461
glass transition temperatures, 514
modification approaches, 462
reaction mechanism, 459, 460f
structure, 532f
synthesis, 459462, 460f, 515f
thermo-mechanical properties,
compared to other high-performing
resin, 461t
761BMI. See Bismaleimide (BMI)
Bulk molding compounds (BMC),
155156
Buoyancy applications, syntactic foams
in, 545546
C
Carbohydrates, 588589
polyols from, 607
Carbon-carbon syntactic foams, 535
applications, 548
Carbon dioxide (CO2), 578
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer
(CFRP), 546
Carbon nanotubes (CNT)
epoxy resin, 656659
overview, 654665
phenolic resin, 659665
polyimides, 659665
polyurethanes, 659665
Cardanol, 592
structure, 592f
Cardanol-formaldehyde resins, 613
Casted giftware, 161
Celluloid, 577
CEN/TS 16137, 578579
CFRP. See Carbon fiber-reinforced
polymer (CFRP)
Chemometrics, 742744
Chemosets, 3
Clay-polymer nanocomposites, 413
Coating applications, phenolic
resins in, 35
Co-condensation, between phenol and
urea, 36
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)
of epoxy syntactic foams, 525
Cold box process, phenolic resin, 31
Collagen, 593
Composite wood products, phenolic
resins, 27
fiber board, 27
particle board, 27
plywood, 2527
strand board, 27
water board, 27
Compression, syntactic foams, 519520,
519f
Condensation cure RTV silicones,
560561, 562t
DBT, 560
STO, 561
vs. addition cure systems, 563t
Core sandwich composites, syntactic
foams, 542543
closed-pore structure, 543
low moisture absorption, 543
one-step compression molding, 543
Cornerstone Research Group (CRG),
544545
Cow milk, 592593
CRG. See Cornerstone Research Group
(CRG)
Cross-linked acrylates, 730733, 731t
Cross-linking, 34
applications, 716734
acrylates, 730733, 731t
fluoride-containing polymers,
733734
heat-shrinkable tubing, 723730, 725t
polyolefin foams, 716719
rotational molding, 719723
comparison methods, 715716
defined, 3
dimensional behavior upon, cyanate
ester, 433
molecular functionality, 4
silane grafting reagents, 712715
effects, 715
wih peroxides, 708
polyethylene, 708711, 709f
polypropylene, 711712
wih radiation. See Radiation crossLinking
Cultured marble and onyx, 161162
Cumene process, for phenol, 15
Cure schedule, 7, 8f
Curing, 78
defined, 5
Curing agent
defined, 56
Cyanate ester resins
applications, 448450
blends with epoxy and BMI,
435437, 436t
curing, 427429
cyclo-trimerization, 430
dimensional behavior upon crosslinking, 433
distinctive features, 426t
epoxy resins, 435436
gelation, 433
glass transition temperature
and tensile elongation-at-break,
431, 432f
heterocyclic aromatic structure, 427
hydrolysis behavior, 433435
industrial demand, 426, 426f
metal catalyst, 430, 431t
monomers, 427, 428t
bio-based raw materials, 442445
conferring flame retardance,
440442
modifying flexibility, 437440
novel, 437445
optical spectroscopy, 429
overview, 437445
processing, 430431
catalyst composition, 430
frontal polymerization, 445446
microwave-assisted polymerization,
446447
nanoconfinement, 448
plasma polymerization, 448
properties, 425, 431435
electrical, 431433
mechanical, 431
physical, 434t
thermal, 431, 432f
Raman spectroscopy, 429
reaction scheme illustrating
formation, 426f
structural unit, 427, 427f
thermal analysis, 429430
trade names, 451, 451t
viscosity, 427
Cyanate esters syntactic foams, 514,
530531
Cymel grades, 84
D
DBT. See Dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBT)
Denaturation, proteins, 592593
Diallyl Bisphenol A (DABA), 532f
Diamines, 459460
Dianhydrohexytols, 588589
Diazine, 401402
Dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBT), 560
Dielectric analysis sensors, 746748, 747f
Differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC), 750751
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
(DGEBA), 512, 512f
9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-
phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide
(DOPO), 442, 443f
Dimethylsilicone fluids, 571, 571t
Dow process, for phenol, 15
Drying oils, 581
DSC. See Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC)
E
EAS. See Epoxidized allyl soyate (EAS)
Eco-Core, 525526
Elastomeric syntactic foams, 535
as stress relief coatings, 535, 548
Elmet GmbH, 567568
Engel Austria GmbH, 567568
Engineering thermosets, 2
Enone-containing triglycerides, 585, 586f
EPB syntactic foam, 531, 532f
modulus, 532, 533f
strength, 532, 533f
Epon resin, 595596
Epoxidation
of catechin using epichlorohydrin,
596597, 597f
of triglycerides, 582, 582f
Epoxidized allyl soyate (EAS), 595596
762 INDEXEpoxidized linseed oil, 597, 597f
Epoxidized oils, 595
chemical modification, 595596
Epoxidized soybean oil (EBSO), 595
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO),
524525, 525f
Epoxy/nanoclay compositions, 625628
Epoxy resins, 8
acid-curing agents, 206210
cyclic anhydrides, 207209
Lewis acids, 206
mercaptans, 209210
organic acids, 207
phenols, 206207
polysulfides, 209210
alkaline curing agents, 201206
aliphatic amines, 202203
amine adducts, 203
aromatic amines, 204205
cyclic amines, 203204
Lewis bases, 201202
polyamides, 205206
applications, 243247
blends with BMI, cyanate ester, 435437
carbon nanotubes (CNT), 656659
characterization, 216243
chemoviscosity, 239240
colorants, 214216
cross-link density, 232240
cross-linking, 200
curing, 199200
curing agents, 200
differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC), 234
temperature-modulated, 234236
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
(DGEBA), 192195
diluents
nonreactive, 212213
reactive, 210211
dyes, 214216
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, 237238
α-epoxy (or 1,2-epoxy), 192
ethylene oxide, 192f
fillers, 213214
formulation principles, 210216
gass transition, 232240
gelation, 240241
glycidyl group, 192f
graphene and expanded graphite,
667671
heat, 220232
historical development, 299314
hydantoin resins, 196
molecular weight, 232240
nanoclays compositions, 625628
novolacs, 195
overview, 297299
peracid resins, 195196
POSS nanocomposites, 638641
resinous modifiers, 211212
rheological additives, 216
stoichiometry, 200201
structure, 532f
Thermally Stimulated Depolarization,
238239
thermomechanical analysis (TMA),
236237
vitrification, 241243
Epoxy syntactic foams, 512, 520525
bulk density, 520521, 521f
coefficient of thermal expansion
(CTE), 525
compressive strength, 520521, 521f
curing agents, 523, 523f
fracture toughness, 523
glass transition temperature,
523524, 523f
materials and process details, 524t
neat resins, 523524, 524f
tensile properties with microballoon
volume fraction, 520, 521f
ESO. See Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO)
Expanded graphite
epoxy resin, 667671
overview, 665674
phenolic resin, 671674
polyimides, 671674
polyurethanes, 671674
F
Fatty acids, 579581, 580t
Fevernova, 546547, 547f
FGSF. See Functionally graded syntactic
foams (FGSF)
Fiber board, 27
Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), 749750,
750f
Fiber optics
embedded, 748749
measurement, 748750
Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams,
535538
flexural strength, 536, 536f
length of fiber, 537538, 538f
short carbon fiber (SCF), 538, 539f
storage modulus, 538, 539f
tensile and flexural properties, 537,
538f
thermal stability, 538, 539f
mechanical properties, 536, 537f
silica fiber, 536, 537f
tensile strength, 536, 536f
Young’s modulus, 537
Fillers, phenolic resins, 2324
Fluoride-containing polymers, 733734
trade names, 734t
Formaldehyde, 1516
Formalin, 1516
impurities, 16
Frontal polymerization, cyanate ester
resins, 445446
Functionalized vegetable oils (FVO),
524525
Functionally graded syntactic foams
(FGSF), 542
RR-type, 542, 543f
VF-type, 542, 543f
Furan resins
chromophores, 101103
Diels-Alder (DA) reaction,
95, 95f
polycondensations, 105107
hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (HMF),
9495, 95f
overview, 9396
photocross-linkable, 100
polyurethane foams, 101
2-vinylfuran (VF), 103105
Furfural (F)
condensation, derivatives with
aldehydes and ketones, 94f
furfuryl alcohol (FA), 93
mechanism of formation, 94f
monomers prepared from, 94f
overview, 93
resins from, 96100
Furfuryl alcohol (FA), 93
resins from, 96100
Furniture, syntactic foams in, 547
FVO. See Functionalized vegetable
oils (FVO)
G
Gelation, cyanate ester resins, 433
General purpose thermosets, 2
Geniomer, 568569, 569f
Gliadin, 593
Global warming, 578
Glycerol, 588
Glycerolysis, 585587, 587f
Graphene and expanded graphite
epoxy resin, 667671
overview, 665674
phenolic resin, 671674
polyimides, 671674
polyurethanes, 671674
Graphite, expanded
epoxy resin, 667671
overview, 665674
phenolic resin, 671674
polyimides, 671674
polyurethanes, 671674
Guaiacol, 614f
H
Hand layup, 150151
HCR. See High consistency silicone
rubber (HCR)
Heat-shrinkable tubing, 723730, 725t
INDEX 763HEXA. See Hexamethylene tetramine
(HEXA)
Hexamethylene tetramine (HEXA), 16
Hexamine. See Hexamethylene tetramine
(HEXA)
High consistency silicone rubber
(HCR), 561563
High temperature vulcanization (HTV),
561566
silicones, 561566
Hydroformylation, of triglycerides, 583, 584f
Hydrolysis behavior, cyanate ester resins,
433435
Hydroxylated oils, maleinization, 585, 586f
Hydroxylation, of triglycerides, 583584
Hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (HMF),
9495, 95f
I
Impranil, 546547
International Confederation for Thermal
Analysis and Calorimetry
(ICTAC), 753
Isocyanate, and phenolic resins, 3637
Isoidide, 588589, 588f
Isomannide, 588589, 588f
Isosorbide, 588589, 588f
K
Kienle, R. H., 610
L
Laccain, 14. See also Phenolic resins
Laminates, silicones, 566
Laminating applications, phenolic resins
in, 3132
LCA. See Life cycle assessment (LCA)
Life cycle assessment (LCA), 577578
Lignin, 443, 444f, 612613, 613f
as additives, 590
in epoxy resin networks, 596
generic structure, 591f
grafting of, 590591
hydrolysis, 590
methylolation, 614615
nonphenolic hydroxypropyl, 590
phenolation or phenolysis, 614615
Lignins, and phenolic resins, 36
Linear polymer, 3, 4f
Lipids, 579
Liquid Silicone Rubbers (LSR), 565
Litidionite, organically modified, 412413
Low dielectric constants, syntactic
foams, 520
LSR. See Liquid Silicone Rubbers (LSR)
M
Maleates, 585587
Maleinization
acrylated epoxidized oils, 583, 584f
hydroxylated oils, 585, 586f
Mannich bridge (CH2-N-CH2), 4849
Mat molding, for UPR and VER, 157
MCR ALS. See Multivariate curve
resolution calculated by alternating
least squares (MCR ALS)
Medical device industry, silicones in,
566567
Melamine, 76
Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins
as adhesives, 7576
condensation, 7880
overview, 75
raw materials, 75
Melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF)
resins, 7980
copolymerization, 7980
phenol, 80
UF and MF mixtures, 7980
Methacrylation, monoglycerides, 587
Methylphenylpolysiloxane fluids,
571573, 572t
Methylpolysiloxane fluids, 569, 570t
Methyl-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride
(MTHPA), 524525, 525f
Microballoon, in syntactic foams,
515517, 517f
Microspheres syntactic foams, 515517
Microwave-assisted polymerization,
cyanate ester resins, 446447
Military, syntactic foams in, 547
Moisture absorption, syntactic foams, 520
Molding applications, phenolic resins in,
3234
Monoglycerides, 585587
methacrylation, 587
Monolithic flooring, 162
Monomers, cyanate ester resins, 427, 428t
bio-based raw materials, 442445
conferring flame retardance, 440442
modifying flexibility, 437440
novel, 437445
MTHPA. See Methyl-tetrahydrophthalic
anhydride (MTHPA)
Multivariate curve resolution calculated
by alternating least squares (MCR
ALS), 744
N
Nanoclays
compositions
epoxy, 625628
phenolic resins, 631633
polyimide, 635637
polyurethane, 633635
unsaturated polyesters, 628631
nanocomposites, 625
overview, 623625
Nanoconfinement, cyanate ester
resins, 448
Nano reinforcement, in syntactic foams,
539540
Nano silica. See Silica nanocomposites
NASA Ames Research Center, 546
Natural oils, 579587. See also
Triglycerides
direct polymerization, 581
double bonds, chemical modification
of, 581585
Natural rubber, 2
Network polymer, 3, 4f
NMR spectroscopy, 750
Novocardt, 598
Novolak phenolic resins, 1920
vs. resole, 20
O
One-component RTV silicones, 557560
acetoxy cure, 558560, 559t
alkoxy cure, 558559, 559t
amide cure chemistry, 558
oxime cure chemistry/by-product, 558
primers, 560
Si-O-Si bonds, 557558
Online monitoring tools
overview, 739
resin flow/cure, 744753
dielectric analysis sensor, 746748
embedded fiber optics, 748749
Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG),
749750
other methods, 750
SMARTweave sensor, 746
thermal analysis, 750753
ultrasonic sensors, 748
resin synthesis, 740744
chemometrics, 742744
general aspects, 740
optical spectroscopy, 740744
Raman spectroscopy, 742
Optical fibers. See Fiber optics
Optical spectroscopy, 740744
FTIR, 741742
infrared (IR), 741742
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),
741742
Optical spectroscopy, cyanate ester
resins, 429
Organically modified litidionite, 412413
Organic peroxides, chemical cross-linking
with, 708
Oxime cure chemistry/by-product,
silicones, 558
Ozonolysis, triglycerides, 583, 585f
P
[2.2]Paracyclophane, 397398
Partially stabilized zirconium oxide
(PSZ), 412
Particle board, 27
764 INDEXPeroxide cross-linking, 708
polyethylene, 708711, 709f
polypropylene, 711712
Peroxide curing agents, silicone, 564t, 565
Phenol, 1516
cumene process, 15
Dow process, 15
Raschig process, 15
urea and, co-condensation between, 36
Phenol-formaldehyde resins. See Phenolic
resins
Phenolic microballoons, in syntactic
foams, 517
Phenolic (P1) and PN resin (PNM),
527, 527f
Phenolic resins
bio-based, 611615
carbon nanotubes (CNT), 659665
coating applications, 35
co-condensation between phenol and
urea, 36
composite wood products, 27
fiber board, 27
particle board, 27
plywood, 2527
strand board, 27
water board, 27
description, 1415
differences between resole and
novolac, 20
fillers, 2324
friction materials, 2941
graphene and expanded graphite,
671674
hexamethylene tetramine (HEXA), 16
as insulation materials, 29
isocyanate, addition of, 3637
laminating applications, 3132
lignins, addition of, 36
modification, 3537
molding applications, 3234
nanoclay compositions, 631633
nanoclays compositions, 631633
novolak, 1920
plywood, 2527
POSS nanocomposites, 641646
PRF. See Phenol-resorcinolformaldehyde (PRF)
processing methods, 2425
properties, 2023
raw materials for, 15
resinification, 1629
polymerization process, 1619
reaction mechanism, 16
resole, 19
silica nanocomposites, 650654
tannins, addition of, 3637
urea, addition of, 3536
Phenolic syntactic foams, 512514,
525528
aldehyde groups, 528, 528f
hollow carbon microspheres, 528,
528f, 529f
mechanical properties, 526527, 526t
microballoon-based, 528
PN resin (PNM), 527, 527f
tensile and flexural strength, 526527
Phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF), 37
adhesives, 3940
Plant oil, 579581
fatty acids, 579581, 580t
polymers, 581
triglycerides, 579581, 579f
Plasma polymerization, cyanate ester
resins, 448
Plasticization, proteins, 592593
Plug-assist materials, syntactic
foams as, 547
Plywood, 2527
Polybenzimidazole syntactic foams, 534
Polybenzoxazines (PBz), 514
bio-based products, 6768
blends, 6167
co-reactive, 6164
non-reactive, 6164
chemical bridge structures, 48, 48f
click chemistry, 6869
composites
fiber, 6566
micro, 6566
cross-linked structure, 4749, 49f
inter/intramolecular H-bonding, 49
main chain, 6061
nanocomposites, 6667
stability and degradation, 69
syntactic foams
mechanical strength, 529, 529f
thermal curing, 4951
unfunctionalized, 5660
Polyester syntactic foams, 534
Polyethylene
peroxide cross-linking, 708711
radiation cross-linking, 703
silane cross-linking, 712715
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes
(POSS)
epoxy, 638641
isocyanate groups, 642643
N-phenylaminomethyl, 643
octa(aminophenyl)-POSS, 644
OpePOSS, 642
overview, 637646
phenolic resin, 644
polyimides (PI), 644645
polyurethanes, 641643
silanols, 646
silsesquioxanes, 644
unsaturated polyester, 643644
Polyimides
acetylene-terminated, 361374
imide oligomers, 364367
oligomers, cure mechanism,
369374
quinoxalines, 362364
sulfones, 364
addition-curable, 335336
adhesive formulations, 388
AFR700B resins, 344
aromatic characteristics, 298f
carbon nanotubes (CNT), 659665
coatings
high-temperature resistant, 388
insulative, 386
condensation reactions, 299314
conductive paint, 388
conductive polymer blends, 386
corrosion
galvanic, 385387
mechanism, 385386
cyanate esters
polyimide-based, 355356
semi-interpenetrating polymer
network (SIPN), 355
cyanate-terminated, 351356
graphene and expanded graphite,
671674
historical perspective, 297299
hydrogen-free, 393395
imide structural analogs, 387
isoimide modification, 367369
low-viscosity SIPN imide blends,
384385
maleimide-terminated, 344350
modified nadimide end-caps, 343344
nanoclay compositions, 635637
nanoclays compositions, 635637
nonmetallic conductive materials, 388
NR-150 (DuPont), 318
phenylethynyl-terminated, 374382
phthalonitrile, 356361
polyamic acid converted to, 298f
polycyanurates
electronic industry, 356
flame retardancy, 356
POSS nanocomposites, 641646
propargyl-terminated oligomers, 374
resin transfer molding (RTM)
aerospace resins, 383384
isoimides/imides applicability,
382385
polyimides, relevance of, 384
silica nanocomposites, 650654
thermoplastic, 314334
Torlon®, 325328
Ultem®, 318324
ultrahigh temperature resistant
polymers, 388389
XU 218 (XIV), 329332
Polyimide syntactic foams, 531532
Polymer-ceramic materials, 409413
INDEX 765Polymer-clay nanocomposites, 625
Polymer concretes, 162164
Polymeric microballoons, in syntactic
foams, 517
Polymerization, cyanate ester resins
frontal, 445446
microwave-assisted, 446447
plasma, 448
Polymerization process, phenolic
resins, 1619
Polymers
biphenylene, 396397
bisazoles, 390393
phthalocyanine, 393
ultrahigh temperature resistant,
388389
Polyolefin foams, 716719
Polyols
from carbohydrates, 607
from lignocellulosic materials, 606
from natural polyphenols, 607
Polyols, from carbohydrates, 607
Polyphenols, 589592
Polypropylene
peroxide cross-linking, 711712
radiation cross-linking, 703707
Polyurethanes (PU), 633635
adhesives, 286287
auxiliary agents, 264266
bio-based, 601610
from vegetable oils, 602606
blowing agents, 264
carbon nanotubes (CNT), 659665
catalysts, 263264
chain extenders, 263
characteristics, 254258
coatings, 286287
cross-linked, 276277
medicine, 287289
cross-linking, 266274
radical reactions, 272274
via allophanate or biuret bonds,
269
via cross-linkers, 267269
via isocyanates dimerization or
trimerization, 270272
via polyols, 266267
foams, 284286
graphene and expanded graphite,
671674
isocyanates, 258261
health hazard evaluation, 258261
linear/branched, 275276
manufacturing methods, 277289
nanoclays compositions, 633635
oligomerols, 261263
derived from glycolysates, 262
other types, 263
from renewable raw materials, 262
unsaturated, 262
overview, 253254
POSS nanocomposites, 641646
raw materials, 258266
silica nanocomposites, 650654
vegetable oils, 602606
Polyurethane syntactic foams, 533534
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 707708
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC)
microspheres, 547
ultra low-density, 547
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 733734
Pot life, 7
Preform molding, for UPR and VER, 157
Premix molding, for UPR and VER, 157
Pre-preg process, 153
Pressure-bag process, 153154
PRF. See Phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde
(PRF)
Primasetr PT-30, 439440, 441f
Prolamine proteins, 593
Propargyl ether novolac (PN)
mechanical properties, 526t
synthesis, 513, 513f
Proteins, 592594
albumin, 593
animal and vegetable, 592593
collagen, 593
cow milk, 592593
denaturation, 592593
gliadin, 593
gluten, 593
plasticization, 592593
prolamine, 593
soy, 593594
whey, 593
zein, 593
Prototype molding, for UPR and VER,
156157
Pultrusion, UPR and VER in, 158
R
Radiation cross-linking, 698703
oxidation, 701702
polyethylene, 703, 706t
polymers, 702t
polypropylene, 703707, 706t
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 707708
Radomes, syntactic foams in, 546
Raman spectroscopy, 742
Raman spectroscopy, cyanate ester
resins, 429
Rapid Thermal Processing, 613
Raschig process, for phenol, 15
Renewable sources polymers
bio-based polymers, 577578
crbon content, 578579
bio-based polyurethanes, 601610
bio-based unsaturated polyester,
598601
epoxy, 594615
natural oils, 579587. See also
Triglycerides
direct polymerization, 581
double bonds, chemical modification,
581585
raw materials for, 579594
Resin, defined, 56
Resin cure modeling, 750753
Resin flow/cure analysis, online
monitoring tools for, 744753
dielectric analysis sensor, 746748
embedded fiber optics, 748749
Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), 749750
other methods, 750
SMARTweave sensor, 746
thermal analysis, 750753
ultrasonic sensors, 748
Resin infusion process, 153154
Resin synthesis, online monitoring tools,
740744
chemometrics, 742744
general aspects, 740
optical spectroscopy, 740744
Raman spectroscopy, 742
Resin transfer molding (RTM), 154155
Resole phenolic resins, 19
vs. novolak, 20
Resorcinol adhesives, 37
Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins, 37
chemistry, 3739
Room-temperature-vulcanizing (RTV)
silicones, 557561
addition cure, 561, 562t
condensation cure, 560561, 562t
DBT, 560
STO, 561
one-component, 557560
acetoxy cure, 558560, 559t
alkoxy cure, 558559, 559t
amide cure chemistry, 558
oxime cure chemistry/by-product, 558
primers, 560
Si-O-Si bonds, 557558
two-component, 560
vs. one-component, 560
Rosin, 597598
Rotational molding, 719723
RR-type FGSF, 542, 543f
RTV. See Room-temperature-vulcanizing
(RTV) silicones
Rubberized syntactic foams, 540542,
542f
S
Saccharides, 588589
Saran microballoons, 517, 547
Sensors
dielectric analysis, 746748, 747f
SMARTweave, 746, 746f
ultrasonic, 748, 748f
766 INDEXSFRSF. See Short fiber-reinforced
syntactic foams (SFRSF)
Shape memory, UPR with, 164
Shape memory polymer (SMP)-based
syntactic foams, 543545
compressed and expanded forms, 545f
DMA studies, 543544, 544f
durability, 544
glass transition temperature, 543544
thermomechanical properties, 544, 545f
ultraviolet radiation, 544
Sheet molding compounds (SMC), 155156
Shelf life, 7
Shell molding process, phenolic resin in, 31
Shielding electronic components, syntactic
foams in, 548
Shirasu microballoons, 517
Shock absorbers, syntactic foams as, 547
Short carbon fiber (SCF), 538, 539f
Short fiber-reinforced syntactic foams
(SFRSF), 538, 539f
Silane cross-linking, 712715
effects, 715
Silica nanocomposites
epoxy resin, 646650
overview, 646
phenolic resin, 650654
polyimides, 650654
polyurethanes, 650654
unsaturated polyesters, 650654
Silicon alkoxide-derived polymer ceramic
materials, 410411
Silicone fluids, 569573
copolymers, 573
dimethylsilicone, 571, 571t
methylphenylpolysiloxane, 571573,
572t
methylpolysiloxane, 569, 570t
temperature on viscosity, effects on,
569, 571t
Silicone/glass microbubble foam, 535
Silicones
compounding, 564
curing, 565566
elastomers, 557
thermoplastic, 568569
fluids. See Silicone fluids
high temperature vulcanization (HTV),
561566
laminates, 566
medical device industry, 566567
overview, 555557
room-temperature-vulcanizing (RTV),
557561
addition cure, 561
condensation cure, 560561
one-component, 557560
two-component, 560
trade names, 573, 573t
UV-activated, 567568
Silicone syntactic foams, 534535
SMARTweave sensors, 746, 746f
Soccer balls, 546547
Soft sensors, 744
Solgel-derived polyimide-silica
nanocomposites, 413
Soy proteins, 593594
Specialty thermosets, 2
Sports industry, syntactic foams in,
546547
Spray layup, 151153
Staging, 810, 8f
Stannous tin octoate (STO), 561
STO. See Stannous tin octoate (STO)
Strand board, 27
Structural reaction injection molding
(S-RIM), 155
Styrene monomer, 111112
Sugar, 588589
Sugar-based epoxy systems, 596
Sulfonalion process, 15
Syntactic foams
applications, 545548
aerospace industry, 546
buoyancy, 545546
furniture, 547
military, 547
miscellaneous, 547548
plug-assist materials, 547
radomes, 546
shielding electronic components, 548
sports industry, 546547
synthetic marble, 547
thermal insulation materials, 546
bismaleimides, 514515
carbon-carbon, 535
core sandwich composites, 542543
cyanate esters, 514, 530531
elastomeric, 535
epoxy, 512, 520525
features, 519520
fiber-reinforced, 535538
functionally graded, 542
matrices used, 511515
microspheres, 515517
nano reinforcement, 539540
overview, 511520
phenolic, 512514, 525528
polybenzimidazole, 534
polybenzoxazines, 529
polyester, 534
polyimide, 531532
polyurethane, 533534
preparation, 518519
coating method, 519
impregnation techniques, 518
properties, 519
compression, 519520, 519f
low dielectric constants, 520
mechanical, 519
moisture absorption, 520
thermal, 520
rubberized, 540542
silicone, 534535
SMP-based, 543545
stress-strain curve for compression
testing, 519520, 519f
structure, 517518
three-phase, 518, 518f
two-phase, 517518, 518f
Synthetic marble, syntactic foams in, 547
Syringol, 614f
T
Tannins, 589, 613614
condensed, 590f
hydrolyzable, 589
Tannins, and phenolic resins, 3637
Tectosil, 561, 563f, 569
Terpene-derived acid anhydride
(TPAn), 597
Thermal insulation materials, syntactic
foams as, 546
Thermal properties, syntactic foams, 520
Thermosets
categories of, 2, 3t
defined, 1
engineering, 2
general purpose, 2
historical milestones of, 3t
relationship in chemistry, 2f
specialty, 2
Three-phase syntactic foams, 518, 518f
Trans-anethol, and cyanate ester
monomers, 443445, 445f
Trelleborg Emerson & Cuming, Inc., 547
2,2,4-tri(4-cyanatophenoxy)-
4,6,6-tris-phenoxy-2?5,4?5,6?5-
[1,3,5,2,4,6]-triazatriphosphine,
442, 442f
Triglycerides, 579581, 579f
acrylation of epoxidized, 582583,
583f
conversion into mono/diglycerides/
simple fatty acids, 585587
double bonds, 581
enone-containing, 585, 586f
epoxidation, 582, 582f
hydroformylation, 583, 584f
hydroxylation, 583584
maleinization
acrylated epoxidized oils, 583, 584f
hydroxylated oils, 585, 586f
oxypolymerization, 581f
ozonolysis, 583, 585f
1,2,3-tris(4-cyanatophenyl) propane,
439440, 441f
Tungsten disulfide
epoxy resin, 675
overview, 674675
INDEX 767Two-component RTV silicones, 560
addition cure, 561, 562t
vs. condensation cure systems, 563t
condensation cure, 560561, 562t
DBT, 560
STO, 561
vs. addition cure systems, 563t
curing, 565566
vs. one-component, 560
U
Ultrasonic sensors, 748, 748f
Unsaturated polyesters
applicable manufacturing processes
overview, 148149
work place safety, 149
bio-based and recycled raw materials,
120122
carbonanotubes, 137139
carbon nanofibers, 137139
cross-linking by copolymerization with
co-monomers, 116118
cured, 123125
chemical resistance, 124125
flexible, 123124
hydrolytical stability, 124125
rigid general purpose (GP), 123
embedding matrix for magnetostrictive
materials, 166
fiber-reinforced, 150160
flame retardance, 139144
inorganic filler materials, 139140
structural modification, 140142
foamed, 166
general aspects, chemistry, 112
in luminescent solar concentrators,
165166
manufacturing, 112116
market situation, 112, 113f
nanoclays as fillers, 137
nanoclays compositions, 628631
nanocomposites, 136139
nanofibrous fillers, 137139
nanoparticles, 139
neat, 122
overview, 111112
polymeric capacitators in printed circuit
boards, 166
POSS nanocomposites, 641646
processing equipment and
manufacturing, 118119
process intensification, 120
property modification, 136148
raw materials, 114t
shrinkage, 144148
anti-shrink additives, 148
anti-shrink units, 148
silica nanocomposites, 650654
styrenated, 122123
trade names & manufacturers, 167t
ultrafine, 166
vinyl ester resins, compounding with,
129136
aromatic tertiary amine/benzoyl
peroxide-based catalysts, 131
commercial pre-promoted resins,
131132
curing systems, 130132
fiber reinforcements, 136
fillers, 134136
handling catalysts and promoters, 132
heat curing systems, 132
inhibitors, 132
ketone peroxide-based catalysts,
130131
metal soaps, 130131
overview, 129130
room temperature (RT) curing,
130132
thickening agents, 136
thixotropic/flow control agents,
132134
ultraviolet absorbers, 132
vs. saturated polyesters, 112
Unsaturated polyesters, bio-based,
598601
Unsaturated polyesters (UP), 628631
Urea, 76
phenol and, co-condensation between, 36
phenolic resin and, 3536
Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins
condensation, 7678
overview, 75
raw materials, 76
Urethane elastomer/glass microbubble
foam, 535
V
Vacuum-bag process, 153
Vegetable oils, 579
copolymerization, 581
polyurethanes from, 602606
Vegetable proteins, 592593
Veriflex SMP, 543
Verilyte®, 544545
VF-type FGSF, 542, 543f
Vinyl ester resins, 125129
overview, 125126
special qualities, 127129
trade names & manufacturers, 167t
with unsaturated polyster,
compounding, 129136
aromatic tertiary amine/benzoyl
peroxide-based catalysts, 131
commercial pre-promoted resins,
131132
curing systems, 130132
fiber reinforcements, 136
fillers, 134136
handling catalysts and
promoters, 132
heat curing systems, 132
inhibitors, 132
ketone peroxide-based catalysts,
130131
metal soaps, 130131
overview, 129130
room temperature (RT) curing,
130132
thickening agents, 136
thixotropic/flow control agents,
132134
ultraviolet absorbers, 132
Vulcanization, 2
W
Wacker Chemie AG, 568
Water board, 27
Water extended polyester (WEP), 161
WEP. See Water extended polyester
(WEP)
Whey proteins, 593
Wood products, composite, phenolic
resins, 27
fiber board, 27
particle board, 27
plywood, 2527
strand board, 27
water board, 27
Working life. See Pot life
Z
Zein proteins, 593


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