كتاب Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers 2nd Ed
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers 2nd Ed

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كتاب Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers 2nd Ed Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers 2nd Ed   كتاب Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers 2nd Ed Emptyالأحد 30 يوليو 2023, 2:29 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers 2nd Ed
Second Edition
Jiri George Drobny

كتاب Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers 2nd Ed H_b_o_23
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface to the Second Edition xvii
Preface to the First Edition . xix
Acknowledgments xxi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Elasticity and Elastomers .1
1.2 Thermoplastic Elastomers 2
1.2.1 Phase Structure 2
1.2.2 Methods of Synthesis of TPEs 3
1.2.3 Phase Separation 4
1.2.4 Classification of TPEs .5
1.2.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of TPEs .7
1.2.6 Demand for TPEs and Their Growth 7
References .10
2 Brief History of Thermoplastic Elastomers 13
References .14
3 Additives 17
3.1 Antioxidants 17
3.2 Light Stabilizers 17
3.2.1 UV Absorbers .18
3.2.2 Quenchers .18
3.2.3 Free Radical Scavengers 18
3.2.4 Evaluation of UV Stability 18
3.3 Nucleating Agents .18
3.4 Flame Retardants 19
3.4.1 Flammability Tests .20
3.5 Colorants .21
3.5.1 Optical Properties of Colorants .21
3.5.2 Characteristics of Colorants .21
3.5.3 Inorganic Pigments 22
3.5.4 Organic Pigments .22
3.5.5 Special Effect Pigments .22
3.5.6 Colorant Forms 23
3.6 Antistatic Agents .23
3.6.1 Types of Antistatic Agents 23
3.6.2 Electrically Conductive Materials .24
vii3.7 Slip Agents 24
3.8 Antiblocking Agents .24
3.9 Processing Aids .24
3.10 Fillers and Reinforcements .24
3.10.1 Fillers Commonly Used in Thermoplastic Polymers 25
3.11 Plasticizers 27
3.11.1 Types of Plasticizers 27
3.11.2 Methods of Incorporation 28
3.12 Other Additives .28
3.13 Selection of Additives .29
3.14 Health, Hygiene, and Safety .29
References .30
4 Processing Methods Applicable to Thermoplastic Elastomers . 33
4.1 Introduction .33
4.1.1 Properties Influencing Processing .33
4.1.2 Preprocessing .38
4.2 Mixing and Blending 41
4.2.1 Basic Concepts Pertaining to Mixing 41
4.2.2 Polymer Blends 44
4.2.3 Mixing Equipment .45
4.2.4 Material Feeding and Feeders .52
4.2.5 Finishing Operations 52
4.3 Extrusion .55
4.3.1 Fundamentals of Extrusion Processes .57
4.3.2 The Extruder 57
4.3.3 Process Control in Extrusion .70
4.4 Injection Molding .71
4.4.1 General Considerations 71
4.4.2 Basic Technology .72
4.4.3 The Process 72
4.4.4 Injection Molding Machinery 72
4.4.5 The Injection Mold 78
4.4.6 Injection Mold Feed Systems 83
4.4.7 Injection Mold Features .88
4.4.8 Materials of Construction 91
4.4.9 Dimensional Stability of Parts .92
4.5 Compression Molding .93
4.5.1 Types of Compression Molds 94
4.5.2 The Compression Molding Press .96
4.5.3 Compression Molding of Thermoplastics .97
4.6 Transfer Molding 97
4.6.1 Background 97
4.6.2 Transfer-In Compression Molding 98
4.6.3 Plunger Molding 98
4.6.4 Screw Transfer Molding 99
viii CONTENTS4.6.5 Types of Transfer Molds 99
4.6.6 Transfer Molding of Thermoplastic Elastomers .102
4.7 Blow Molding .105
4.7.1 Blow Molding Processes .105
4.7.2 Extrusion Blow Molding .107
4.7.3 Injection Blow Molding .109
4.7.4 Stretch Blow Molding 110
4.7.5 Dip Blow Molding .111
4.7.6 Multiblock Blow Molding .111
4.7.7 Coextrusion Blow Molding Techniques 112
4.7.8 Sequential Extrusion 112
4.7.9 Molds for Blow Molding .113
4.7.10 Examples of Blow-Molded Parts .115
4.8 Rotational Molding .115
4.8.1 Background 117
4.8.2 Basic Process Technology .117
4.8.3 Rotational Molding Equipment .119
4.8.4 Equipment and Process Design .120
4.8.5 Operation of Rotomolding Processes 123
4.8.6 Rotolining Process .127
4.8.7 Melting of Polymer and Part Formation .127
4.8.8 Troubleshooting .128
4.8.9 Conclusion .128
4.9 Foaming of Thermoplastics 129
4.9.1 Introduction 129
4.9.2 Background 129
4.9.3 Foaming Technology .130
4.9.4 Foam Manufacturing Processes .133
4.10 Thermoforming .133
4.10.1 Process Basics 133
4.10.2 Process Factors .134
4.11 Calendering .138
4.12 Secondary Manufacturing Processes 138
4.12.1 Film and Sheet Orientation 138
4.12.2 Welding 142
4.12.3 Adhesive Bonding 152
4.12.4 Mechanical Fastening 158
4.12.5 Decorating 159
4.12.6 Cross-linking 161
4.13 General Processing Technology of Thermoplastic Elastomers .162
4.13.1 Compounding of Thermoplastic Elastomers .162
4.13.2 Injection Molding 163
4.14 Process Simulation 165
4.15 3D Printing 165
4.16 Product Development and Testing 166
References .167
CONTENTS ix5 Styrenic Block Copolymers . 175
5.1 Introduction .175
5.2 PolystyreneePolydiene Block Copolymers .176
5.2.1 Synthesis of PolystyreneePolydiene Block Copolymers .176
5.2.2 Morphology of PolystyreneePolydiene Block Copolymers 178
5.2.3 Critical Molecular Weight for Domain Formation .178
5.2.4 Properties of PolystyreneePolydiene Block Copolymers 179
5.2.5 Formulating Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomers 182
5.2.6 Compounding .184
5.2.7 Processing of Compounds from Styrenic Block Copolymers 186
5.3 Styrenic Block Copolymers Synthesized by Carbocationic Polymerization .189
5.3.1 The Polymerization Process 189
5.3.2 Properties of SeIBeS Block Copolymers 189
5.4 New Commercial Developments 191
References .192
6 Thermoplastic Elastomers Prepared by Dynamic Vulcanization . 195
6.1 Introduction .195
6.2 The Dynamic Vulcanization Process 196
6.3 Properties of Blends Prepared by Dynamic Vulcanization 197
6.3.1 Thermoplastic Vulcanizates Based on Polyolefins .197
6.4 Processing and Fabrication of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates 201
6.4.1 Rheology 201
6.4.2 Extrusion 202
6.4.3 Injection Molding 202
6.4.4 Compression Molding 203
6.4.5 Blow Molding 204
6.4.6 Thermoforming 204
6.4.7 Calendering 204
6.4.8 Extrusion Foaming .204
6.4.9 Bonding of TPVs .205
6.5 New Commercial Developments 205
References .206
7 Polyolefin-Based Thermoplastic Elastomers . 209
7.1 Introduction .209
7.2 Thermoplastic Polyolefin Blends 209
7.2.1 Compounding of TPOs 210
7.3 Morphology .211
7.4 Properties of TPOs 211
7.4.1 Mechanical Properties of TPOs .211
7.4.2 Service Temperatures .211
7.4.3 Weathering .212
7.4.4 Chemical Resistance 212
7.4.5 Adhesion 213
7.4.6 Electrical Properties .213
x CONTENTS7.5 Processing of TPOs .213
7.5.1 Injection Molding 213
7.5.2 Extrusion 214
7.5.3 Other Processing Methods .214
7.6 Painting of TPOs .216
7.7 New Commercial Developments 216
References .217
8 Thermoplastic Elastomers Based on Halogen-Containing Polyolefins 219
8.1 Introduction .219
8.2 Blends of PVC with Nitrile Rubber .219
8.2.1 Melt Compounding and Processing .220
8.2.2 Physical and Mechanical Properties 220
8.2.3 Other Properties .221
8.3 Blends of PVC with Other Elastomers 221
8.3.1 Blends of PVC with COPEs 221
8.3.2 Blends of PVC with Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers .222
8.4 Melt-Processable Rubber 223
8.4.1 Physical and Mechanical Properties 223
8.4.2 Chemical Resistance 224
8.4.3 Weather and Flame Resistance 224
8.4.4 Electrical Properties .225
8.4.5 Grades of MPR 225
8.4.6 Blends with Other Polymers 226
8.4.7 Processing 226
8.5 Thermoplastic Fluorocarbon Elastomer .230
8.6 New Commercial Development .231
References .231
9 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers 233
9.1 Introduction .233
9.2 Synthesis of TPUs .234
9.2.1 Raw Materials for TPUs 234
9.3 Morphology .236
9.3.1 Morphology of Hard Segments .236
9.4 Thermal Transitions 237
9.5 Properties 237
9.5.1 Mechanical Properties 238
9.5.2 Thermal Properties .240
9.5.3 Hydrolytic Stability 241
9.5.4 Chemical Resistance 241
9.5.5 Abrasion Resistance .241
9.5.6 Ultraviolet Stability 241
9.5.7 Electrical Properties .242
9.6 Processing of TPUs .242
9.6.1 Rheology of TPUs .242
CONTENTS xi9.6.2 Drying 242
9.6.3 Injection Molding 243
9.6.4 Extrusion 247
9.6.5 Calendering 248
9.6.6 Blow molding .248
9.6.7 Thermoforming 248
9.7 Blends of TPUs with Other Polymers 248
9.8 Bonding and Welding .249
9.8.1 Heat Welding and Sealing .249
9.8.2 Solvent and Adhesive Bonding .249
9.9 Use of Bio-Based Raw Materials in TPUs 249
9.10 New Commercial Development .249
References .250
10 Thermoplastic Elastomers Based on Polyamides . 255
10.1 Introduction .255
10.2 Synthesis .255
10.2.1 Synthesis of PEAs, PEEAs, and PCEAs .256
10.2.2 Synthesis of PE-b-As .256
10.2.3 Synthesis of Other Thermoplastic Polyamide Elastomers 257
10.3 Morphology .257
10.4 StructureeProperty Relationships 258
10.5 Physical and Mechanical Properties .259
10.5.1 Tensile Properties .259
10.5.2 Properties at Elevated Temperatures .260
10.5.3 Tear Strength 260
10.5.4 Abrasion Resistance .262
10.5.5 Compression Set 262
10.5.6 Flex Properties .263
10.6 Chemical and Solvent Resistance .263
10.7 Electrical Properties 263
10.8 Other Properties 263
10.8.1 Weatherability 263
10.8.2 Adhesion 264
10.9 Compounding 264
10.10 Processing .265
10.10.1 Rheology 265
10.10.2 Drying 265
10.10.3 Injection Molding 266
10.10.4 Extrusion 266
10.10.5 Other Processing Methods .266
10.11 Bonding and Welding .267
10.11.1 Bonding 267
10.11.2 Welding 267
10.12 New Commercial Developments 268
References .268
xii CONTENTS11 Thermoplastic Polyether Ester Elastomers . 271
11.1 Introduction .271
11.2 Synthesis .271
11.3 Morphology .272
11.4 Properties of Commercial COPEs 272
11.4.1 StresseStrain Properties 272
11.4.2 Dynamic Properties 273
11.4.3 Cut Growth Resistance 274
11.4.4 Impact Resistance 274
11.4.5 Responses to Changes in Temperature 274
11.4.6 Abrasion Resistance .275
11.4.7 Electrical Properties .275
11.4.8 Chemical Resistance 275
11.4.9 Other Properties .276
11.5 COPE Blends 277
11.5.1 Blends of Different Grades of COPE 277
11.5.2 Blends with Other Polymers 277
11.6 Processing .278
11.6.1 General .278
11.6.2 Melt Rheology .278
11.6.3 Injection Molding 279
11.6.4 Extrusion 282
11.6.5 Blow Molding 283
11.6.6 Melt Casting .284
11.6.7 Rotational Molding 284
11.6.8 Welding and Bonding 285
11.6.9 Finishing .285
References .285
12 Ionomeric Thermoplastic Elastomers 287
12.1 Introduction .287
12.2 Synthesis .288
12.3 Morphology .288
12.4 Properties and Processing .288
12.5 Applications 290
References .290
13 Other Thermoplastic Elastomers . 291
13.1 Elastomeric Star-Block Copolymers 291
13.1.1 General Methods for the Synthesis of Star Copolymers 291
13.1.2 Physical Properties of Star-Block Copolymers .292
13.2 TPEs Based on Interpenetrating Networks 293
13.2.1 Synthesis of Thermoplastic IPNs 293
13.2.2 Properties and Processing of Thermoplastic IPNs 294
13.3 TPEs Based on Polyacrylates .294
13.3.1 Synthesis of Triblock Copolymers Based on Methyl Methacrylate and Butadiene 294
CONTENTS xiii13.3.2 Properties of M-B-M Triblock Copolymers 294
13.3.3 Synthesis of Elastomers Based on Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)
and Poly(tert-Butyl Acrylate) 294
13.3.4 Mechanical Properties of Fully Acrylic Triblock and Branched Block Copolymers 295
References .295
14 Thermoplastic Elastomers Based on Recycled Rubber and Plastics . 297
14.1 Introduction .297
14.2 EPDM Scrap .297
14.3 NBR Scrap 297
14.4 Recycled Rubber .298
14.5 Waste Latex .298
14.6 Waste Plastics 298
References .298
15 Applications of Thermoplastic Elastomers . 301
15.1 Introduction .301
15.2 Applications for Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomers 302
15.2.1 SBCs as Replacement of Vulcanized Rubber .302
15.2.2 SBCs in Adhesives, Sealants, and Coatings 303
15.2.3 Blends of SBC with Other Polymers 309
15.2.4 Modified Asphalt .309
15.3 Applications of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates 310
15.3.1 Introduction 310
15.3.2 Comparison of TPVs and Thermoset Rubber Materials .310
15.3.3 Commercial Applications of TPVs .310
15.4 Applications of Thermoplastic Polyolefins 314
15.4.1 Automotive .314
15.4.2 Wire and Cable 314
15.4.3 Mechanical Goods .315
15.4.4 Other Applications .315
15.5 Applications of Melt-Processable Rubber 316
15.5.1 Industrial Hose .317
15.5.2 Automotive .317
15.5.3 Wire and Cable 317
15.5.4 Elastomeric Sheeting .317
15.5.5 Molded Goods 318
15.5.6 Fabric Coating 318
15.5.7 Other Applications .319
15.6 Applications of PVC Blends 319
15.6.1 PVCeNitrile Rubber Blends .319
15.6.2 PVCeCopolyester Elastomer Blends 320
15.6.3 PVCePolyurethane TPU Blends .320
15.7 Application of Thermoplastic Polyurethanes .320
15.7.1 Introduction 320
15.7.2 Commercial Applications 320
xiv CONTENTS15.8 Application of Thermoplastic Polyether Ester Elastomers 325
15.8.1 General Properties and Processing 325
15.8.2 Commercial Applications 325
15.9 Applications of Polyamide Thermoplastic Elastomers 327
15.9.1 Introduction 327
15.9.2 Commercial Applications 328
15.10 Applications of Ionomeric Thermoplastic Elastomers .330
15.10.1 Introduction 330
15.10.2 Commercial Applications 333
15.11 Applications of Other Thermoplastic Elastomers 333
15.11.1 Applications of Star Block Copolymers .333
15.11.2 Applications of Thermoplastic IPNs .334
15.11.3 Applications of Special Blends and Proprietary Compounds .334
References .334
16 Recycling of Thermoplastic Elastomers 339
16.1 Introduction .339
16.2 Recycling Methods for Thermoplastic Elastomers 339
References .340
17 Recent Developments and Trends 341
17.1 Current State .341
17.2 Drivers for the Growth of TPEs .341
17.3 Trends in Technical Development 342
17.3.1 The Use of Biofeedstocks 342
17.3.2 Single-Ply Roofing Membrane from Thermoplastic Olefin 343
17.3.3 Trends in the Development and Uses of Individual TPEs 343
17.4 Other New Developments .344
References .344
Appendix 1: Books and Major Review Articles 347
Appendix 2: Major Suppliers of Thermoplastic Elastomers and Compounds 349
Appendix 3: ISO Nomenclature for Thermoplastic Elastomers 355
Appendix 4: Processing Data Sheets for Commercial Thermoplastic Elastomers and Compounds . 359
Appendix 5: Technical Data Sheets for Commercial Thermoplastic Elastomers and Compounds . 371
Appendix 6: Recent TPE Patents . 419
Appendix 7: The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry . 421
Abbreviations and Acronyms . 423
Glossary 425
Index . 435
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by f indicate figures; t, tables.
A
Acrylic triblock, 295
AcrylXprene, 205
Additives
antiblocking agents, 24
antimicrobials, 28
antioxidants, 17
antistatic agents
conductive materials, 24
static electricity, 23
surface resistivity, 23, 23t
types of, 23e24
colorants
characteristics, 21e22
colorant forms, 23
inorganic pigments, 22
optical properties, 21
organic pigments, 22
special effect pigments, 22e23
fillers and reinforcements, 24e27
flame retardants, 19e21
fluorescent whitening agents, 28
health risks, 29
light stabilizers, 17e18
liquid additives, 30
nucleating agents, 18e19
plasticizers, 27e28
processing aids, 24
product handling, 29e30
selection of, 29
slip agents, 24
solid additives, 30
Adhesive bonding
application, 157
bond strength measurement, 158,
158fe159f
corona discharge treatment, 154, 154f
dyne liquids, 156
etching and oxidation, 155e156
flame treatment, 153e154
formation, 157
plasma system, 154e155, 155f
polymeric adhesives, 156e157
primers, 156
principles, 152e153, 153f, 153t
AFFINITY GA 1000 R
functionalized polyolefin
elastomer, 383
Aging, 17
ALCRYN, 219
Alumina trihydrate (ATH), 20
Anaerobic adhesives, 156
Anionic polymerization, 4
Antiblocking agents, 24
Antimony trioxide, 20
Antistatic agents
conductive materials, 24
static electricity, 23
surface resistivity, 23, 23t
types of, 23e24
Antithixotropic fluids, 42e43, 42f
Auxiliary ram transfer process, 98e101,
100f, 103f
Azo pigments, 22
B
Banburymixer, 46e47, 47f
Barium sulfate, 25
Batch mixing equipment
internal mixer, 46e47
roll mill, 46, 43f
Biaxial orientation process, 141e142,
142fe143f
Black pigments, 22
Blown film extrusion, 187
Blown film process, 62e63, 63fe64f
Branched block copolymers, 295
Buss KoKneter, 48e49, 49f
Butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber/
polyamides
fillers, 201
plasticizers, 200e201
properties, 200, 200t
self-curing, 199e200
C
Carbocationic polymerization, 4
Carbon black, 26
Cast film extrusion, 59e62, 60fe61f,
61t, 62f
Catalytic copolymerization, 4
Cationic polymerization, 4
Centrifugal pelletizers, 55
Char forming systems, 19
Coextrusion blow molding techniques,
112
Cold runner feed systems, 83fe84f
Colorants
characteristics, 21e22
colorant forms, 23
inorganic pigments, 22
optical properties, 21
organic pigments, 22
special effect pigments, 22e23
Compuplast, 165
Contact adhesives, 156
Continuous mixing equipment
Buss KoKneter, 48e49, 49f
FCM, 48e49, 48f
structure, 48
types, 48
Controlled/living radical polymerization
(CLRP), 4
Copolyester elastomers (COPEs)
abrasion resistance, 275, 275t
ambient temperature, 278, 278f
applications
automotive applications, 325, 325f
electrical/electronics, 325e326, 325f
extruded and molded mechanical
goods, 326, 326fe327f
medical devices, 327, 327f
properties and processing, 325
waterproof and breathable films, 327
blends of, 277e278
blow molding, 283e284, 284t
bonding and adhesion, 285
chemical resistance, 275e276, 276t
cut growth resistance, 274, 274t
dynamic properties, 273, 273te274t
electrical properties, 275, 276t
extrusion, 282
processing conditions, 282e283, 282t
screw design, 282
finishing, 285
flame resistance, 276
impact resistance, 274
435Copolyester elastomers (COPEs)
(Continued)
injection molding
clamping force, 279
molding conditions, 279e280, 279f,
280te281t
molds, 280
overmolding process, 281e282
screw design, 279
shrinkage, 280e281, 281t
ionizing radiation resistance, 276
melt casting, 284
melting characteristics, 277t, 278
melt rheology, 278, 278fe279f
morphology, 272, 272f
permeation resistance, 276
processing data sheets, 369
PVC blends, 221e222
rotational molding, 284e285
stress-strain properties, 272e273,
272fe273f
synthesis, 271
temperature changes, 274, 275f
thermal properties, 276e277, 277f, 277t
weathering resistance, 276
welding, 285
Copolyetherester thermoplastic
elastomers, 13
Cyanoacrylates, 157
D
Degradation, 17
DESMOPAN 445, 398
DESMOPAN 453, 399
Die-face pelletizers, 54, 54f
Dip blow molding process, 111, 111f
Direct copolymerization, 4
Dow ENGAGE POE, XLT grade,
186e189
Dry-cut eccentric pelletizers, 55
DuPont, 13
Dynamic vulcanization process
AcrylXprene, 205
vs. block copolymers, 195
butyl and halobutyl rubber/PP resins,
199, 199t
definition, 195
diene rubbers and polyolefins, 198e199,
198te199t
EPDM-polyolefin blends, 197e198,
198f
EPDM/PP blends, 195, 196t
NBR and PAs
fillers, 201
plasticizers, 200e201
properties, 200, 200t
self-curing, 199e200
polyacrylate rubber and PAs, 201
processing and fabrication
blow molding, 204
bonding, 205
calendering, 204, 204t
compression molding, 203
extrusion/foaming, 202, 204e205,
205t
injection molding, 202e203, 203t
rheology, 201e202, 201fe202f
thermoforming, 204
E
Elastamax EG series typical properties,
187e188, 383
Elastamax styrenic block copolymer,
176e189
ENGAGE POE ethylene butene grades,
185
ENGAGE POE ethylene octene grades,
184e186
ENGAGE POE high melt strength
(HM) grades, 185e186
Epoxy resins, 157
ESTANE ester-based products, 400
ESTANE ether-based products, 401
Esterification, 4
Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer
(EPDM) scrap, 297
Extrusion blow molding process
continuous extrusion, 108, 108f
intermittent accumulator extrusion, 109,
109f
parison head, 107
reciprocating screw intermittent
extrusion, 108e109
single-stage extrusion, 107e108
Extrusion welding process, 150e151,
151f
F
Farrel Continuous Mixer (FCM),
48e49, 48f
Fibrous fillers, 26e27
Flammability tests, 20e21
Flory-Rehner equation, 181e182
Fluorescent pigments, 22e23
FluoroXprene, 230, 231t
Foaming technology
advantages, 129, 130t
cell growth and stabilization, 130e131
chemical foaming, 131, 131t
disadvantages, 130t
flexible, 130
initiation/nucleation, 130
manufacturing processes, 133,
133fe134f
mechanical foaming, 131
physical foaming, 131e132, 132t
rigid, 130
Free radical scavengers, 18
G
Geniomer, 410
Geolast TPV, 188
Green chemistry principles, 210, 421
Ground rubber waste, 297
H
Halogen-containing polyolefins
ALCRYN, 219
melt-processable rubber, 226
calendaring grades/extrusion, 226,
226t, 228e229
chemical resistance, 224
compression molding, 229
electrical properties, 225, 226t
extrusion/blow molding, 227e228,
228t
injection molding/grades, 226e227,
227te228t
physical and mechanical properties,
223e224, 223fe224f
pseudoplastic flow, 226e227, 227f
Rheovibron data, 223, 223f
viscosity vs. shear rate, 226e227,
227f
weather and flame resistance,
224e225
plasticizers, 219
PVC/NBR blends
antioxidant, 221
characteristics, 219
compounding variables, 219
with COPEs, 221e222
melt compounding and processing,
220
physical and mechanical properties,
220, 220f, 221t
swelling, 221
with thermoplastic polyurethane
elastomers, 222e223
thermoplastic fluorocarbon elastomer,
230, 230f, 230te231t
Heat-activated assembly adhesives, 156
Heated tool welding, 142, 144f
High frequency (RF) welding, 146e147,
147f
Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS),
18
Hot gas welding, 143, 144fe145f
436 INDEXHot-melt adhesives, 156
Hot runner systems, 86e87, 87fe89f
HYBRAR triblock copolymer,
176e178
HYTREL RSa series, 405
HYTREL TPC-ET, 404e405
I
Induction welding, 148e149, 149f
INFUSE olefin block copolymer,
186e187, 382
Injection blow molding process,
109e110, 110f
Injection molding processes
clamp unit, 73e74, 74f
components, 80fe81f
construction materials, 91e92, 91t
control systems, 78, 79f, 79t
COPEs
clamping force, 279
molding conditions, 279e280, 279f,
280te281t
molds, 280
overmolding process, 281e282
screw design, 279
shrinkage, 280e281, 281t
crystallinity, 72
dimensional stability, 92, 92f, 92te93t
factors, 79t
features
cooling, 88e89, 90f
ejection, 91
materials, 88
venting, 89e91
feed system, 83
cold runner, 83fe84f
gates, 85e86, 86f
hot runners, 86e87, 87fe89f
sprues, 84e85, 84fe85f
heat, 72
injection unit
concepts, 74e75
event sequences, 76
reciprocating screw injection unit, 75,
75f
residence times, 77, 77f
screw design, 75e76, 76f
power systems, 78
principle, 72, 79f
process, 72, 73f, 73t
stack molds, 82, 82f
three-plate mold, 82, 82f
TPOs, 213e214, 215t
TPUs
desiccant dehumidifying hopper dryer
system, 245, 245f
metal inserts, 246
nonmetalic inserts/overmolding,
246
operating conditions, 246
regrind, 247
two-plate mold, 81e82, 81f
viscosity, 71e72
Interfacial tensions, 44, 45t
Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN)
definition, 293
properties and processing, 294
synthesis, 293e294, 293t
Intumescent systems, 19
Ionomeric elastomers
applications, 290
adhesives, 333
high-melt viscosity, 330e331
sulfonated EPDM, 333
commercial products, 287, 287t
compounding ingredients, 289, 289t
high tensile strength, 288e289
ionic aggregation, 288
morphology, 288
practical formula, 289
property ranges, 289, 289t
synthesis, 288
zinc stearate, 288
Ishape memory polymers, 3
Isocyanate-based adhesives, 157
K
KOPEL KP polyester elastomers,
406
Kraiburg TPE COPEC, 416e417
Kraiburg TPE For-Tec E, 417
Kraiburg TPE HIPEX high performance
thermoplastic elastomer, 389
Kraiburg TPE Thermolast K compound,
182e184
black, 184
low density, 184
Kraton D (IR) polymer grades,
178e179
Kraton D oiled polymer grades,
179e182
Kraton D (SBS) radial polymer grades,
179e180
Kraton D (SIS) polymer grades, 374
Kraton FG 1901 G, 191
Kraton FG polymer grades, 180
Kraton G polymer grades, 375e376
Kraton HT 1200, 191
K-Resin SBC, 181e182
L
Laser welding, 151e152, 152f
Light stabilizers, 17e18
Limiting oxygen index (LOI) test, 21
M
Machine direction orientation (MDO),
139, 140f
M-B-M triblock copolymers, 294
Melt-processable rubber (MPR), 226
architectural extrusions, 319f
automotive applications, 317, 317f
building curtain wall seals, 319f
calendaring grades/extrusion, 226, 226t,
228e229
chemical resistance, 224
compression molding, 229
elastomeric sheeting, 317
electrical properties, 225, 226t
extrusion/blow molding, 227e228, 228t
fabric coating, 318
industrial hose, 317
injection molding/grades, 226e227,
227te228t
molded goods, 318, 318f
physical and mechanical properties,
223e224, 223fe224f
processing data sheets, 45e52
pseudoplastic flow, 226e227, 227f
Rheovibron data, 223, 223f
viscosity vs. shear rate, 226e227, 227f
weather and flame resistance, 224e225
wire and cable applications, 317
Melt-processing methods
blow molding processes. See also
specific blow molding processes
calibrating blow pin, 114, 114f
cooling, 115
extruder, 106
features, 113
gasoline filler necks, 115
needle, 114e115, 114f
parison head, 106e107, 106fe107f
pinch-off zone, 113e114, 114f
venting and surface finish, 115
calendering process, 138, 139f
compounding, 162e163
compression molding
components, 93, 94f
presses, 96, 96t
stages of, 93, 93f
thermoplastics, 97
types, 94e96, 94fe96f
definition, 33
extrusion processes
barrier/melt extraction screw, 58e59,
59f
coating, 70, 70f
INDEX 437Melt-processing methods (Continued)
coextrusion, 64e65, 65fe66f
film and sheet extrusion, 59
grooved feed section of barrel,
58, 59f
melt fracture, 56e57
melt pump, 57, 57f
pipe and tubing, 67e69, 68fe69f
process control, 70e71, 71t
profiles, 69e70, 70f
single-screw extruder, 57e58, 57f
twin-screw extruder, 57e58, 58f
wire coating, 65e67, 66t, 67f
flow properties
advantages and disadvantages, 33, 34t
melt flow rate test, 34
rheology, 33
shear rate, 33e34, 34t
viscosity measurements, 35, 35f
foaming technology
advantages, 129, 130t
cell growth and stabilization,
130e131
chemical foaming, 131, 131t
disadvantages, 130t
flexible, 130
initiation/nucleation, 130
manufacturing processes, 133,
133fe134f
mechanical foaming, 131
physical foaming, 131e132, 132t
rigid, 130
injection molding. See also Injection
molding processes
clamp unit, 73e74, 74f
control systems, 78, 79f, 79t
crystallinity, 72
feed system, 83e87, 83fe88f
heat, 72
injection unit, 74e78, 75fe77f
overmolding, 163e165
power systems, 78
principle, 72
process, 72, 73f, 73t
temperature setting, 163, 164t
viscosity, 71e72
mixing and blending
batch mixer. See Batch mixing
equipment
compound/formulation, 41
continuous mixers. See Continuous
mixing equipment
dicing, 55
die swell, 43
drag flow, 44
feeding and feeders, 52
filtration, 53, 53f
granulation, 55, 56f
melting, 41
pelletizing, 53e55, 54f, 54t
polymer blends, 44e45, 45t
positive displacement, 44
residence/dwell time, 44
rheology, 41
single-screw extruders, 49
SME, 44
time-dependent non-newtonian fluids,
42, 42f
time-independent non-newtonian
fluids, 42, 42f
twin-screw extruders, 49
preprocessing
color-compounded polymers, 40
drying, 39
in-process coloring, 39e40
let-down ratio, 40
masterbatch/colorconcentrate, 40
preprocess coloring, 39e40
process simulation, 165
product development and testing,
166e167
rotational molding, 116f. See also
Rotational molding process
benefits of, 117, 118t
biaxial rotomolding machine, 117,
117f
carousel machine, 119e120, 119f
clamshell rotomolder, 120, 120f
heat transfer, 117, 118f
limitations, 117, 118t
polyethylene, 117
shuttle rotomolder, 120, 120f
secondary manufacturing processes
adhesive bonding, 152e158
applique´s, 152e158
cross-linking, 161e162
electroless/electrolytic plating, 160
film and sheet orientation, 138e142,
139fe143f
flame and/arc spraying, 160
flocking, 161
in-mold decorating, 159
mechanical fastening, 158e159
painting, 159
printing, 161
sputtering, 160
textures and lettering, 161
vacuum metallization, 160
welding techniques. See specific
welding techniques
shrinkage and warping, 39t
fibrous reinforcements, 38
polypropylene homopolymers, PVT,
36e38, 38f
thermal properties
enthalpy, 35
heat requirements, 35e36, 36t
latent heat of fusion, 35e36
spot values, 36, 37t
thermoforming process
forming force, 134e136, 136fe137f
heating process, 138
material input, 137
mold types, 136
principal processes, 133e134, 135t
process phase, 137e138, 137t
3D printing, 165e166
sheet prestretch, 136e137
transfer molding
compression molding, 98, 98f
integral transfer mold, 100, 102f
loose-plate transfer mold, 100, 101f
plunger molding, 97e101, 99fe100f,
103f
pot-type transfer mold, 97, 98f
screw transfer molding, 99, 99f, 101f
semiautomatic floating-plate mold,
100, 102f
thermoplastic elastomers, 102e105,
104f
valves and fittings, 97
Metallic flakes, 22
Microwave welding, 150, 150f
Moisture-cure adhesives, 156
Moldflow, 165
Molecular entanglements, 1, 1f
Multiblock blow molding process,
111e112, 112f
Multifunctional initiation, 177
N
Nanofillers, 27
Natural calcium carbonate, 25
Newtonian behavior, 33e34
Nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) scrap,
297
Nonazo pigments, 22
Nucleating agents, 18e19
O
Olefin block copolymers (OBCs),
216e217
P
Pearlescent pigments, 22
PEBAX, 406
PELLETHANE100 series, 390
PELLETHANE TPU 2102 series, 401
438 INDEXPELLETHANE TPU 2103 series, 402
PELLETHANE TPU 2363 series,
402e403
Peroxide decomposers, 17
Phosphorescent pigments, 22e23
Physical thermoreversible cross-links,
1e2, 1f
Plasticizers, 27e28
Platy fillers, 26
Polyacrylates, 294e295
Polyaddition, 4
Polyamide thermoplastic elastomers
(PAEs)
abrasion resistance, 262, 262t
adhesion, 264
automotive applications, 328, 328f
bonding, 267
chemical and solvent, 263, 264t
compounding, 264e265
compression set, 262e263, 263t
drying, 265e266, 265f
electrical properties, 263, 264t
elevated temperatures, 260, 261t
extrusion, 266, 267t
film pouch, cooking noodles, 332f
flex resistance, 263, 263t
history of, 14
injection molding, 266, 266te267t
keyboard cover, 331f
medical applications, 330, 331f
morphology, 256t, 257e258, 258f
polyether block amide, 268
processing data sheets, 53
protective gloves, 331f
rheology, 265, 265f
sporting goods
alpine boot shell, 328f
athletic shoes sole, 329f
molding of snowboard, 329f
ski goggles, 330f
snowboard protective and decorative
layers, 329f
soccer shoes sole, 329f
swimming goggles, 330f
telemark ski boot shell, 328f
tennis racquets decorative films, 329f
structure-property relationships,
258e259, 259t
synthesis
EMS process, 257
Hu¨ls process, 257
PCEAs, 256
PEAs, 256, 256t
PE-b-As, 256e257, 257t
PEEAs, 256
ube process, 257
tear strength, 260e262, 262t
technical goods, 330, 330f
tensile properties, 259, 259f, 260t
weatherability, 263e264
welding, 267e268
wire and cable applications, 329e330
Polycondensation, 4
Polymerization with Ziegler-Natta
catalysts, 4
Poly(methyl methacrylate), 294e295
Polystyrene-polydiene block copolymers
compounding
dry blending, 185
melt mixing, 184e185, 185t
solution mixing, 185e186
domain formation, 178e179
morphology, 175f, 178, 178f
solution properties, 181, 182f
structure-property relationships
elastomer type, 179e180
hard segment type, 180
molecular weight, 179
polystyrene content, 179
styrenic thermoplastic elastomers
properties, 182, 183t
S-B-S block copolymers, 184
S-EB-S block copolymers, 184
swelling, 181e182
synthesis, 176e178
tensile properties, 180, 180f
viscous and viscoelastic properties,
180e181, 181f
Polyurethane adhesives, 157
Poly(tert-butyl acrylate), 294e295
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
applications
copolyester elastomer blends, 320
and nitrile rubber, 319
polyurethane TPU blends, 320
history of, 13
Power Law Model, 35
Precipitated calcium carbonate, 25
Primary antioxidants, 17
Processing aids, 24
Propagation reaction, 177
Q
Quenchers, 18
R
Recycled rubber, 298
Recycling methods, 339e340
Resistance implant welding, 150, 150f
Rheopectic fluids, 42e43, 42f
Roll mills, 43f, 46
Rotary knife pelletizers, 55
Rotational molding process, 116f
benefits of, 117, 118t
biaxial rotomolding machine, 117, 117f
carousel machine, 119e120, 119f
clamshell rotomolder, 120, 120f
cooling cycle, 125e126, 125t
design considerations, 120te121t
electroformed/vapor-formed nickel, 121
heat transfer, 117, 118f
limitations, 117, 118t
mold surface preparation, 123
oven dwell time, 123
buildup time, 124, 124t
fusion time, 124e125, 124t
particle size, 123
parting lines, 122, 122f
part stripping, 126
part thickness and recommended radii,
122, 123f
polyethylene, 117
polymer and part formation, 127e128,
128f
rotation rate and ratio, 126e127, 127t
rotolining, 127
sheet metals, 121
shuttle rotomolder, 120, 120f
surface texture, 123
troubleshooting, 128, 129t
venting, 126
wall thickness, 123
S
Santoprene TPV, 188e189
Santoprene TPV, 111 series,
189e190
Santoprene TPV, 121 series, 189
SBCs. See Styrenic block copolymers
(SBCs)
Secondary antioxidants, 17
SEPTON K hydrogenated styrenic
block copolymer, 178
Septon Q series, 191
Sequential extrusion blow molding
process, 112e113, 112fe113f
Sheet extrusion process, 63e64, 64f
Sheet molding compounds (SMCs), 309
Silicones, 157
Single-phase melt processable rubber
(MPR)
history of, 14
Single-screw extruders
advantage, 49
components, 50, 50f
flood feeding, 51
geometrical attributes, 50e51, 51f
local screw modifications, 51, 51f
INDEX 439Single-screw extruders (Continued)
screw nomenclature, 50e51, 50f
Slip agents, 24
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS),
236e237
Specific mechanical energy (SME), 44
Spin welding, 145e146,
146f
Spiral flow method, 35
Sprue-gating/direct sprue-gating,
85e86
Star-block copolymers
arm-first method, 291e292
core-first method, 292, 292f
interpenetrating polymer network
definition, 293
properties and processing, 294
synthesis, 293e294, 293t
physical properties, 292, 292t
structure, 291, 291f
Strand pelletizers, 54, 54f
Stretch blow molding processes,
110e111, 111f
Styrene-diene block copolymers, 13
Styrenic block copolymers (SBCs)
adhesives
polyisoprene and S-EB-S copolymers,
1,2-isomer, 304
S-EB-S and S-EP-S types, 303
S-EB-S copolymers with maleic
anhydride, 303e304
S-I-S and S-B-S types, 303
blends of, 309
blow molding, 188
bonding and sealing, 189
carbocationic polymerization, 189e190,
190f, 190t, 191f
coatings, 308
compression molding, 188
extrusion
blown film extrusion, 187
S-B-S block copolymers, 184
S-EB-S block copolymers, 184
injection molding, 187e188. See also
Injection molding
processes
Kraton FG 1901 G, 191
Kraton HT 1200, 191
Kraton Polymer, 191
modified asphalt, 309e310
oil gels, 309
pressure-sensitive adhesives, 308
processing data sheets, 33e40
resins and oils, 308, 308t
sealants, 308
Septon Q series, 191
solvents for, 308, 308t
structure, 175e176, 175f
thermoforming, 188
viscosity index improvers, 309
vulcanized rubber replacement
air conditioner motor cover, 303f
auto floor mat, 303f
automotive parts, 302f
branam pacifier, 305f
CD case, 306f
cooler, 306f
films, 306f
fuel tank filler door gasket, 303f
hand grinder, 303f
head lamp, 304f
headlight seal, 302f
knobs, 305f
pen grips, 307f
plugs, 304f
power cords, 304f
rake handle, 304f
respirator mask, 306f
self-inking stamp, 304f
soft shoe inserts, 305f
super soft clear gel, 307f
swim fins, 307f
toothbrush handles, 305f
Synthetic silica, 26
T
Teknor Apex Sarlink 3100 series,
189e190
TEXIN TPU 200 series, 403e404
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs)
advantages, 7
biomedical applications, 344
block copolymers, 3e4, 4f
classification, 5e7
commercial performance vs. cost, 301,
301f
compounds, 349te354t
definition, 2
demand for, 7e10, 8te10t
disadvantages, 7
ISO nomenclature, 17e21
legislative and environmental pressures,
341
phase separation, 4e5
phase structure, 2e3, 2f, 3t
suppliers, 349te354t
technical development
biofeedstocks, 342e343, 342t
single-ply roofing membrane, 343
styrenic block copolymers, 343
Thermoplastic polyolefins (TPOs)
applications
automotive applications, 314, 315f
bicycle hub, 316f
cutting board, 316f
mechanical goods, 315, 316f
wire and cable applications, 314e315
adhesion, 213
chemical resistance, 213, 213t
compounding, 210e211, 211t
electrical properties, 213, 214t
hard polymer/elastomer blend,
209e210, 210f
history of, 13
log viscosity ratio A/B vs. volume
fraction of B, 209e210, 210f
mechanical properties, 210f, 211,
211te212t
morphology, 211
NEOGOL, 217
NOTIO SN, 217
olefin block copolymers, 216e217
painting, 212f, 216
processing data sheets, 39e40
processing methods
blow molding, 216
calendering, 215e216
extrusion, 214e215, 215t
foamed TPOs, 216
injection molding, 213e214, 215t
slush cast molding, 216
thermoforming, 216
service temperatures, 211e212, 212f,
212t
weathering, 213
Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers
(TPUs)
abrasion resistance, 241, 241t
ABS, 248
adhesives, 322e323
animal tags, 323, 324f
automotive applications
auto tamber door, 321f
car key, 322f
gear shifting handle, 321f
gear shift knobs, 322f
instrument panel skin, 321f
shock absorber elastic element,
321f
bio-based raw materials, 249
blowmolding, 248
calendaring, 248
chemical resistance, 241
components, 233
Desmopan DP 6064A, 249e250
DP 6072A, 249e250
DP 6080A, 249e250
drying, 242e243, 244fe245f
440 INDEXelastomers and plastics bridging,
237e238, 237f
electrical properties, 242, 242t
extrusion, 247e248
film and sheet, 322
hard segment, 233f
melting temperature, 233
morphology, 236
raw materials, 234
heat welding and sealing, 249
hose and tubing, 322
hydrolytic stability, 241
injection molding
desiccant dehumidifying hopper
dryer system, 245, 245f
metal inserts, 246
nonmetalic inserts/overmolding,
246
operating conditions, 246
regrind, 247
lapstation, 323, 324f
materials, 235e236, 235f
mechanical properties
compression set, 239
dynamic properties, 240, 240f
hardness, 239
stiffness, 239
stress-strain curves, 238e239,
238fe239f
polycarbonate, 248
processing data sheets, 49e52
rheology, 242, 243fe244f
sealants, 322e323
seals, 323, 323f
soccer ball, 323, 324f
soft segment, 233f, 234
solvent and adhesive bonding, 249
tennis racquet components, 323, 324f
thermal properties, 240, 240t
thermal transitions, 237, 240t
thermoforming, 248
ultraviolet stability, 241e242
wire and cable applications,
322, 322f
Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs)
architectural and construction,
312e313
automotive applications
automotive steering column collar,
310, 311f
clean air intake duct, 310, 311f
drive shaft boot, 310, 311f
dust seal, 310, 311f
vs. comparison, 310
electrical and electronics properties,
313e314, 314f
history of, 13e14
hose, 311
mechanical rubber and consumer goods
bicycle grip, 312f
camera, 312f
hand drill, 312f
iron grip, 313f
screwdriver grips, 313f
sippy cup, 312f
soft touch applications, 313f
syringe seal, 313f
medical and food contact, 314
processing data sheets, 41
sheeting, 310
tubing, 311
Thixotropic fluids, 42e43, 42f
TPSiV 1180-50D, 413
TPSiV 3010 series, 411
TPSiV 3011 series, 412
TPSiV 3040 series, 412
TPSiV 3111-70A, 414
TPSiV 3340 series, 413
TPSiV 4000 series, 414
TPSiV 4100 series, 415
TPSiV 4200 series, 415
Transesterification, 4
Transverse direction orientation (TDO),
139e141, 140fe141f
Triblock copolymers, 294
Twin-screw extruders, 51
Two-part adhesives, 156
U
UBE PAE, 407
UBESTA XPA 9044 X2, 407
UBESTA XPA 9055 X1, 408
UBESTA XPA 9055 X2, 409
Ultrasonic welding, 144e145,
145f
Underwater pelletizers, 55, 55f
UV absorbers, 18
UV stability, 18
UV stabilizers, 17e18
V
VECTOR styrenic block copolymers,
180e181
Vibration welding, 147e148, 147f
W
Waste latex, 298
Waste plastics, 298
Water ring pelletizer, 55, 56f
Weber Number, 45
White pigments, 22
Z
Zeotherm100 series, 390
Zeotherm 130 and 150 series, 391
Ziegler-Natta catalysts, 4
Zinc borate, 20


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