كتاب Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design - Ninth Edition
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 كتاب Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design - Ninth Edition

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design
Ninth Edition
Richard G. Budynas
Professor Emeritus, Kate Gleason College of Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology
J. Keith Nisbett
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology  

كتاب Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design - Ninth Edition B_s_m_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Brief Contents
Preface xv
Part 1 Basics 2
1 Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design 3
2 Materials 31
3 Load and Stress Analysis 71
4 Deflection and Stiffness 147
Part 2 Failure Prevention 212
5 Failures Resulting from Static Loading 213
6 Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading 265
Part 3 Design of Mechanical Elements 358
7 Shafts and Shaft Components 359
8 Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of
Nonpermanent Joints 409
9 Welding, Bonding, and the Design
of Permanent Joints 475
10 Mechanical Springs 517
11 Rolling-Contact Bearings 569
12 Lubrication and Journal Bearings 617
13 Gears—General 673
14 Spur and Helical Gears 733
15 Bevel and Worm Gears 785
16 Clutches, Brakes, Couplings, and Flywheels 825
17 Flexible Mechanical Elements 879
18 Power Transmission Case Study 933
viiiPart 4 Analysis Tools 952
19 Finite-Element Analysis 953
20 Statistical Considerations 977
Appendixes
A Useful Tables 1003
B Answers to Selected Problems 1059
Index 1065
Preface xv
Part 1 Basics 2
1 Introduction to Mechanical
Engineering Design 3
1–1 Design 4
1–2 Mechanical Engineering Design 5
1–3 Phases and Interactions of the Design
Process 5
1–4 Design Tools and Resources 8
1–5 The Design Engineer’s Professional
Responsibilities 10
1–6 Standards and Codes 12
1–7 Economics 12
1–8 Safety and Product Liability 15
1–9 Stress and Strength 15
1–10 Uncertainty 16
1–11 Design Factor and Factor of Safety 17
1–12 Reliability 18
1–13 Dimensions and Tolerances 19
1–14 Units 21
1–15 Calculations and Significant Figures 22
1–16 Design Topic Interdependencies 23
1–17 Power Transmission Case Study
Specifications 24
Problems 26
2 Materials 31
2–1 Material Strength and Stiffness 32
2–2 The Statistical Significance of Material
Properties 36
2–3 Strength and Cold Work 38
2–4 Hardness 41
2–5 Impact Properties 42
2–6 Temperature Effects 43
Contents
2–7 Numbering Systems 45
2–8 Sand Casting 46
2–9 Shell Molding 47
2–10 Investment Casting 47
2–11 Powder-Metallurgy Process 47
2–12 Hot-Working Processes 47
2–13 Cold-Working Processes 48
2–14 The Heat Treatment of Steel 49
2–15 Alloy Steels 52
2–16 Corrosion-Resistant Steels 53
2–17 Casting Materials 54
2–18 Nonferrous Metals 55
2–19 Plastics 58
2–20 Composite Materials 60
2–21 Materials Selection 61
Problems 67
3 Load and Stress
Analysis 71
3–1 Equilibrium and Free-Body
Diagrams 72
3–2 Shear Force and Bending Moments in
Beams 77
3–3 Singularity Functions 79
3–4 Stress 79
3–5 Cartesian Stress Components 79
3–6 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress 80
3–7 General Three-Dimensional Stress 86
3–8 Elastic Strain 87
3–9 Uniformly Distributed Stresses 88
3–10 Normal Stresses for Beams in Bending 89
3–11 Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending 94
3–12 Torsion 101
3–13 Stress Concentration 110
3–14 Stresses in Pressurized Cylinders 113
3–15 Stresses in Rotating Rings 115
x3–16 Press and Shrink Fits 116
3–17 Temperature Effects 117
3–18 Curved Beams in Bending 118
3–19 Contact Stresses 122
3–20 Summary 126
Problems 127
4 Deflection and
Stiffness 147
4–1 Spring Rates 148
4–2 Tension, Compression, and Torsion 149
4–3 Deflection Due to Bending 150
4–4 Beam Deflection Methods 152
4–5 Beam Deflections by
Superposition 153
4–6 Beam Deflections by Singularity
Functions 156
4–7 Strain Energy 162
4–8 Castigliano’s Theorem 164
4–9 Deflection of Curved Members 169
4–10 Statically Indeterminate Problems 175
4–11 Compression Members—General 181
4–12 Long Columns with Central Loading 181
4–13 Intermediate-Length Columns with Central
Loading 184
4–14 Columns with Eccentric Loading 184
4–15 Struts or Short Compression Members 188
4–16 Elastic Stability 190
4–17 Shock and Impact 191
Problems 192
Part 2 Failure Prevention 212
5 Failures Resulting from
Static Loading 213
5–1 Static Strength 216
5–2 Stress Concentration 217
5–3 Failure Theories 219
5–4 Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
for Ductile Materials 219
5–5 Distortion-Energy Theory for Ductile
Materials 221
5–6 Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile
Materials 228
5–7 Failure of Ductile Materials
Summary 231
5–8 Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory for Brittle
Materials 235
5–9 Modifications of the Mohr Theory for Brittle
Materials 235
5–10 Failure of Brittle Materials
Summary 238
5–11 Selection of Failure Criteria 238
5–12 Introduction to Fracture Mechanics 239
5–13 Stochastic Analysis 248
5–14 Important Design Equations 254
Problems 256
6 Fatigue Failure Resulting
from Variable Loading 265
6–1 Introduction to Fatigue in Metals 266
6–2 Approach to Fatigue Failure in Analysis and
Design 272
6–3 Fatigue-Life Methods 273
6–4 The Stress-Life Method 273
6–5 The Strain-Life Method 276
6–6 The Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics
Method 278
6–7 The Endurance Limit 282
6–8 Fatigue Strength 283
6–9 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors 286
6–10 Stress Concentration and Notch
Sensitivity 295
6–11 Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses 300
6–12 Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating
Stress 303
6–13 Torsional Fatigue Strength under
Fluctuating Stresses 317
6–14 Combinations of Loading Modes 317
6–15 Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative
Fatigue Damage 321
6–16 Surface Fatigue Strength 327
6–17 Stochastic Analysis 330
6–18 Road Maps and Important Design Equations
for the Stress-Life Method 344
Problems 348
Contents xixii Mechanical Engineering Design
Part 3 Design of Mechanical
Elements 358
7 Shafts and Shaft
Components 359
7–1 Introduction 360
7–2 Shaft Materials 360
7–3 Shaft Layout 361
7–4 Shaft Design for Stress 366
7–5 Deflection Considerations 379
7–6 Critical Speeds for Shafts 383
7–7 Miscellaneous Shaft Components 388
7–8 Limits and Fits 395
Problems 400
8 Screws, Fasteners, and the
Design of Nonpermanent
Joints 409
8–1 Thread Standards and Definitions 410
8–2 The Mechanics of Power Screws 414
8–3 Threaded Fasteners 422
8–4 Joints—Fastener Stiffness 424
8–5 Joints—Member Stiffness 427
8–6 Bolt Strength 432
8–7 Tension Joints—The External Load 435
8–8 Relating Bolt Torque to Bolt Tension 437
8–9 Statically Loaded Tension Joint with
Preload 440
8–10 Gasketed Joints 444
8–11 Fatigue Loading of Tension Joints 444
8–12 Bolted and Riveted Joints Loaded in
Shear 451
Problems 459
9 Welding, Bonding,
and the Design
of Permanent Joints 475
9–1 Welding Symbols 476
9–2 Butt and Fillet Welds 478
9–3 Stresses in Welded Joints in Torsion 482
9–4 Stresses in Welded Joints in Bending 487
9–5 The Strength of Welded Joints 489
9–6 Static Loading 492
9–7 Fatigue Loading 496
9–8 Resistance Welding 498
9–9 Adhesive Bonding 498
Problems 507
10 Mechanical Springs 517
10–1 Stresses in Helical Springs 518
10–2 The Curvature Effect 519
10–3 Deflection of Helical Springs 520
10–4 Compression Springs 520
10–5 Stability 522
10–6 Spring Materials 523
10–7 Helical Compression Spring Design
for Static Service 528
10–8 Critical Frequency of Helical Springs 534
10–9 Fatigue Loading of Helical Compression
Springs 536
10–10 Helical Compression Spring Design for Fatigue
Loading 539
10–11 Extension Springs 542
10–12 Helical Coil Torsion Springs 550
10–13 Belleville Springs 557
10–14 Miscellaneous Springs 558
10–15 Summary 560
Problems 560
11 Rolling-Contact
Bearings 569
11–1 Bearing Types 570
11–2 Bearing Life 573
11–3 Bearing Load Life at Rated Reliability 574
11–4 Bearing Survival: Reliability versus
Life 576
11–5 Relating Load, Life, and Reliability 577
11–6 Combined Radial and Thrust Loading 579
11–7 Variable Loading 584
11–8 Selection of Ball and Cylindrical Roller
Bearings 588
11–9 Selection of Tapered Roller Bearings 590
11–10 Design Assessment for Selected
Rolling-Contact Bearings 599Contents xiii
11–11 Lubrication 603
11–12 Mounting and Enclosure 604
Problems 608
12 Lubrication and Journal
Bearings 617
12–1 Types of Lubrication 618
12–2 Viscosity 619
12–3 Petroff’s Equation 621
12–4 Stable Lubrication 623
12–5 Thick-Film Lubrication 624
12–6 Hydrodynamic Theory 625
12–7 Design Considerations 629
12–8 The Relations of the Variables 631
12–9 Steady-State Conditions in Self-Contained
Bearings 645
12–10 Clearance 648
12–11 Pressure-Fed Bearings 650
12–12 Loads and Materials 656
12–13 Bearing Types 658
12–14 Thrust Bearings 659
12–15 Boundary-Lubricated Bearings 660
Problems 669
13 Gears—General 673
13–1 Types of Gear 674
13–2 Nomenclature 675
13–3 Conjugate Action 677
13–4 Involute Properties 678
13–5 Fundamentals 678
13–6 Contact Ratio 684
13–7 Interference 685
13–8 The Forming of Gear Teeth 687
13–9 Straight Bevel Gears 690
13–10 Parallel Helical Gears 691
13–11 Worm Gears 695
13–12 Tooth Systems 696
13–13 Gear Trains 698
13–14 Force Analysis—Spur Gearing 705
13–15 Force Analysis—Bevel Gearing 709
13–16 Force Analysis—Helical
Gearing 712
13–17 Force Analysis—Worm Gearing 714
Problems 720
14 Spur and Helical Gears 733
14–1 The Lewis Bending Equation 734
14–2 Surface Durability 743
14–3 AGMA Stress Equations 745
14–4 AGMA Strength Equations 747
14–5 Geometry Factors I and J (ZI and YJ) 751
14–6 The Elastic Coefficient C
p (ZE) 756
14–7 Dynamic Factor Kv 756
14–8 Overload Factor Ko 758
14–9 Surface Condition Factor Cf (ZR) 758
14–10 Size Factor Ks 759
14–11 Load-Distribution Factor Km (KH) 759
14–12 Hardness-Ratio Factor CH 761
14–13 Stress Cycle Life Factors YN and ZN 762
14–14 Reliability Factor KR (YZ) 763
14–15 Temperature Factor KT (Yθ) 764
14–16 Rim-Thickness Factor KB 764
14–17 Safety Factors SF and SH 765
14–18 Analysis 765
14–19 Design of a Gear Mesh 775
Problems 780
15 Bevel and Worm Gears 785
15–1 Bevel Gearing—General 786
15–2 Bevel-Gear Stresses and Strengths 788
15–3 AGMA Equation Factors 791
15–4 Straight-Bevel Gear Analysis 803
15–5 Design of a Straight-Bevel Gear Mesh 806
15–6 Worm Gearing—AGMA Equation 809
15–7 Worm-Gear Analysis 813
15–8 Designing a Worm-Gear Mesh 817
15–9 Buckingham Wear Load 820
Problems 821
16 Clutches, Brakes, Couplings,
and Flywheels 825
16–1 Static Analysis of Clutches and Brakes 827
16–2 Internal Expanding Rim Clutches and
Brakes 832xiv Mechanical Engineering Design
16–3 External Contracting Rim Clutches and
Brakes 840
16–4 Band-Type Clutches and Brakes 844
16–5 Frictional-Contact Axial Clutches 845
16–6 Disk Brakes 849
16–7 Cone Clutches and Brakes 853
16–8 Energy Considerations 856
16–9 Temperature Rise 857
16–10 Friction Materials 861
16–11 Miscellaneous Clutches and Couplings 864
16–12 Flywheels 866
Problems 871
17 Flexible Mechanical
Elements 879
17–1 Belts 880
17–2 Flat- and Round-Belt Drives 883
17–3 V Belts 898
17–4 Timing Belts 906
17–5 Roller Chain 907
17–6 Wire Rope 916
17–7 Flexible Shafts 924
Problems 925
18 Power Transmission
Case Study 933
18–1 Design Sequence for Power Transmission 935
18–2 Power and Torque Requirements 936
18–3 Gear Specification 936
18–4 Shaft Layout 943
18–5 Force Analysis 945
18–6 Shaft Material Selection 945
18–7 Shaft Design for Stress 946
18–8 Shaft Design for Deflection 946
18–9 Bearing Selection 947
18–11 Key and Retaining Ring Selection 948
18–12 Final Analysis 951
Problems 951
Part 4 Analysis Tools 952
19 Finite-Element Analysis 953
19–1 The Finite-Element Method 955
19–2 Element Geometries 957
19–3 The Finite-Element Solution Process 959
19–4 Mesh Generation 962
19–5 Load Application 964
19–6 Boundary Conditions 965
19–7 Modeling Techniques 966
19–8 Thermal Stresses 969
19–9 Critical Buckling Load 969
19–10 Vibration Analysis 971
19–11 Summary 972
Problems 974
20 Statistical
Considerations 977
20–1 Random Variables 978
20–2 Arithmetic Mean, Variance,
and Standard Deviation 980
20–3 Probability Distributions 985
20–4 Propagation of Error 992
20–5 Linear Regression 994
Problems 997
Appendixes
A Useful Tables 1003
B Answers to Selected
Problems 1059
Index 1065
Index
A
Abrasion, 743
Abrasive wear, 328
Absolute safety, 12
Absolute system of units, 21
Absolute tolerance system, 21
Absolute viscosity, 620
Acme threads, 412
Addendum, 676
Addendum distances, 680
Adhesive bonding
about, 498
adhesive types, 499–501
joint design, 504–506
stress distributions, 501–504
Admiralty metal, 58
AGMA equation factors
allowable bending stress
numbers, 747–749, 800
allowable contact stress, 750–752,
799–800
bending strength geometry factor,
751–754, 793–794
crowning factor for pitting, 793
dynamic factor, 756, 758, 791–792
elastic coefficient, 744, 756–757,
798–799
geometry factors, 751–756,
793–794
hardness-ratio factor, 761, 796
lengthwise curvature factor for
bending strength, 793
load-distribution factor, 759–760, 793
overload factor, 758, 791
pitting resistance geometry factor,
751, 754–756, 793
reliability factors, 763,
797–798
reversed loading, 800
rim-thickness factor, 764
safety factors, 765, 791
size factor, 759, 793
stress-cycle factor, 762, 795–796
surface condition factor, 758
temperature factor, 764, 796
AGMA gear method
bevel gears, 788, 801–802
helical gears, 745–750
spur gears, 745–750, 766–767
worm gears, 809
AGMA transmission accuracy-level
number, 756
Alignment, 607
Allowance, 20
Alloy cast irons, 55
Alloying, 33
Alloy steels
chromium, 52
manganese, 52
molybdenum, 53
nickel, 52
numbering system, 45
quenching, 50
silicon, 52
tempering, 50
tungsten, 53
vanadium, 53
Alternating and midrange von Mises
stresses, 318, 367
Alternating stresses, 266, 301
Aluminum, 55–56
Aluminum brass, 58
Aluminum bronze, 58, 817
American Bearing Manufacturers
Association (ABMA), 12
standard, 573
American Gear Manufacturers
Association (AGMA), 12
approach, 734
American Institute of Steel Construction
(AISC), 12
code, 489–490
American Iron and Steel Institute
(AISI), 12, 45
American National (Unified) thread
standard, 410
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), 12
numbering system, 46
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME), 12, 620
American Welding Society (AWS),
476–478
American Welding Society (AWS), 12
code, 490
Amplitude ratio, 302
Anaerobic adhesives, 500
Angle of action, 682
Angle of approach, 682
Angle of articulation, 908
Angle of recess, 682
Angle of twist, 101–102
Angular-contact bearing, 572
Angular-velocity ratios, 677, 683,
880, 882
Annealing, 49
Annealing effect, 44
Antifriction bearing lubrication, 604
Antifriction bearings, 570
Arc of action, 684
Arc of approach, 684
Arc of recess, 684
Area principal axes, 93
Area reduction, 39
Arithmetic mean, 980–984
Arrow side (weld symbol), 477
ASME-elliptic failure criteria, 305–306,
308, 338, 346, 369
ASM Metals Handbook
(ASM), 269
ASTM fastener specifications, 432
Austenite, 50
Average factor of safety, 249
1065Average film temperature, 645
Average life, 574
Average strain rate, 42
Average tangential stress, 114, 116
Axial clutches, 845
Axial fatigue, 332
Axial layout of components, 363
Axial load support, 363
Axial pitch, 692, 695
Axle, defined, 360
B B
10 life, 574
Babbit, 657
Backlash, 676
Back-to-back (DB) mounting, 606
Bainite, 50
Bairstow, I., 276
Ball bearings, 570
Ball bearings selection, 588–590
Band-type clutches and brakes, 844–845
Barth equation, 739
Base circles, 678, 680
Base pitch, 682
Basic dynamic load rating, 574
Basic load rating, 574
Basic size, 395
Basic static load rating, 580
Baushinger’s theory, 276
Beach marks, 266
Beams
in bending, normal stresses, 89–94
in bending, shear stresses, 94–100
curved beams in bending, 118–122
deflection methods, 152–153
deflections by singularity functions,
156–162
deflections by superposition, 153–156
load and stress analysis, 75–76,
89–100
shear force and bending moments in,
75–76
shear stresses in bending, 93–94
shear stress in rectangular, 95
Bearing alloy characteristics, 657
Bearing characteristic number, 622
Bearing fatigue failure criteria, 573
Bearing film pressure, 625
Bearing housing heat dissipation, 645
Bearing life
life measure of an individual
bearing, 573
recommendations for various classes
of machinery, 583
reliability-life relationship, 570
rolling-contact bearings, 573–574
Bearing load life at rated reliability,
574–575
Bearings
boundary dimensions for, 580
direct mountings of, 591
indirect mountings of, 591
parts of, 570
reliability, 600–603
selection of, 936, 947
shields, 572
stress, 452
suppliers, 591
supports, 372
types, 570–573, 658–659
Belleville springs, 557
Belting equation, 887
Belts, 880–883
centrifugal tension in, 884
tension, 903
Bending factor, 794
Bending moment, 75
Bending strain energy, 163
Bergsträsser factor, 519
Beryllium bronze, 58
Bevel and worm gears
AGMA equation factors, 791–795
bevel gearing, general, 786–788
bevel-gear stresses and strengths,
788–791
Buckingham wear load, 820–821
designing a worm-gear mesh,
817–820
design of a straight-bevel gear mesh,
806–808
straight-bevel gear analysis,
803–805
worm-gear analysis, 813–816
worm gearing-AGMA equation,
809–812
Bevel gearing
force analysis, 709–712
general, 786–788
Bevel-gear mounting, 788
Bevel gears, 674
straight, 690–691
terminology of, 690
tooth forces, 709
Bevel-gear stresses and strengths,
788–791
bending stress, 791
fundamental contact stress equation,
788–790
permissible bending stress
equation, 791
permissible contact stress number
(strength) equation, 791
Bilateral tolerance, 19
Blanking, 49
Bolted and riveted joints loaded in
shear, 451–459
Bolt elongation, 441
Bolt preload, 425
Bolts, loosening of, 448
Bolt spacing, 444
Bolt strength, 432–435
Bolt tension, 437–440
Bolt torque and bolt tension, 437–440
Bottom land, 676
Boundary conditions
axisymmetric beam and the bearing
supports, 972
critical speeds, 383
finite-element analysis, 965–966
geometric, 151
long columns with central
loading, 181
multipoint constraint equations, 966
simply supported beams, 152
superposition, 153
Boundary dimensions for
bearings, 580
Boundary elements, 966
Boundary-lubricated bearings, 660–668
bushing wear, 663–666
linear sliding wear, 661–663
temperature rise, 666–668
Boundary lubrication, 619, 660–661
Boundary representative (B-rep)
techniques, 963
Brake bands and flexible clutch, 844
Brake lining wear, 840
Brakes, operating mechanisms, 840
Brake shoes, self-deenergizing, 827
1066 Mechanical Engineering DesignBrass, 57
5 to 15 percent zinc, 57
20 to 36 percent zinc, 57–58
36 to 40 percent zinc, 58
Breakeven points, 13–14
Brinell hardness, 41, 761
Brittle Coulomb-Mohr (BCM theory),
235–236
Brittle fracture, 44
Brittle materials, 33, 111
fatigue failure criteria, 314
maximum-normal-stress theory
for, 235
meaning of, 238
modifications of the Mohr theory for,
235–237
Smith-Dolan focus, 314
Smith-Dolan fracture criteria for,
338–339
Brittle metal behavior, 218
Bronze, 57, 58
Buckingham Lewis equation, 812
Buckingham method, 848
Buckingham wear equation, 821
Buckingham wear load, 820–821
Buckling, 149
Burnishing, 690
Bushed-pin bearings, 661
Bushings, 618
Bushing wear, 663–666
Butt welds, 478–481
C
Calculations and significant figures,
22–23
Caliper brakes, 849
Cams, 677
Cap screws, 423
Carbon content, 33
Carburization, 51
Cartesian stress components,
79–80
Cartridge brass, 57
Case hardening, 51
Case study
bearing selection, 947–948
deflection check, 946–947
design for stress, 946
gear specification, 939–943
key design, 948–949
problem specification, 934–935
shaft layout, 944–946
speed, torque, and gear ratios,
937–939
Castigliano’s theorem, 164–168, 169,
176, 553, 559
Casting alloys, 56
Casting materials
alloy cast irons, 55
cast steels, 55
ductile and nodular cast iron, 54
gray cast iron, 54
malleable cast iron, 55
white cast iron, 54–55
Cast iron, 283
Cast steels, 55
Catalog load rating, 574
Catastrophic failure, 190
Catenary theory, 892
Cementite, 54
Center distance, 682–683
Centipoise, 620
Centrifugal castings, 47
Centrifugal clutches, 832
Centrifugal extrusions, 687
Centrifugal force, 837
Centrifugal tension in belt, 884
Centroidal axis, 90, 119
Cermet pads, 863
Chain velocity, 909
Charpy notched-bar test, 42
Chevron lines, 267
Chordal speed variation, 910
Chromium, 52
Circular (button or puck) pad caliper
brake, 852–853
Circular pitch, 675, 692
Clamshell marks, 266
Clearance, 19, 648–650, 676
Clearance circle, 676
Closed ends, 520
Closed thin-walled tubes, 107–108
Close running fit, 397
Close-wound springs, 544
Clutch capacity, 856
Clutches
cone, 832
disk, 832
friction materials for, 864
multiple-plate, 832
operating mechanisms, 840
types of, 832
Clutches, brakes, couplings, and
flywheels, 826–887
about, 827–831
band-type clutches and brakes,
844–845
cone clutches and brakes, 853–855
disk brakes, 849–853
energy considerations, 856–857
external contracting rim clutches and
brakes, 840–844
flywheels, 866–871
frictional-contact axial clutches,
845–848
friction materials, 861–864
internal expanding rim clutches and
brakes, 832–840
miscellaneous clutches and
couplings, 864–865
temperature rise, 857–861
Clutches and couplings, 864–865
Codes, 12
Coefficient of friction
of bearing, 625
elements affecting, 438
gears, general, 715–717
Petroff’s equation, 638–639
of power screws, 421
variance of, 837
Coefficient of speed fluctuation, 867
Coefficient of variance (COV), 251, 982
Coining, 49
Cold drawing, 48
Cold forming, 687
Cold rolling, 48, 687
Cold-work factor, 39
Cold working, 38
Cold-working processes, 48–49
Columns
defined, 181
with eccentric loading, 184–188
Euler column formula, 181
intermediate-length, with central
loading, 184
long, with central loading,
181–184
secant column formula, 186
unstable, 181
Index 1067Combinations of loading modes, 273,
317–321, 347
Combined radial and thrust loading,
579–584
Commercial bronze, 57
Commercial FEA packages, 954
Commercial seals, 607
Commercial vendor sources, 8–9
Companion distribution, 987
Completely reversed stress, 275, 285,
301, 317
Completely reversing simple loading,
344–346
Composite materials, 60
Compound gear ratio, 699
Compound reverted gear train, 701
Compression coil springs, 522
Compression members, general, 181
Compression springs, 520–521
Compressive stress, 79, 186, 190
Computational errors, 956
Computational tools, 8–9
Computer-aided design (CAD)
software, 8
Computer-aided engineering
(CAE), 9
Concept design, 6
Cone, 853
Cone angle, 853
Cone clutches, 832, 845, 853
Cone clutches and brakes, 853–855
uniform pressure, 855
uniform wear, 854–855
Conical springs, 558
Conjugate action, 677–678
Constant angular-velocity ratio, 906
Constant-force springs, 558
Constant-life curves, 303
Constructive solid geometry (CSG)
techniques, 963
Contact adhesives, 500
Contact area, 691
Contact fatigue strength, 328
Contact-geometry factor, 794
Contact ratio, 684–685, 738
Contact strength, 328
Contact stresses, 122–126
cylindrical contact, 124–126
spherical contact, 123–124
Contact stress factor, 795
Contact-stress fatigue, AGMA
strength, 762
Contact-stress fatigue failure,
762, 765
Continuous periodic load rotation, 586
Continuous random variable, 979
Continuous varying cyclic load, 587
Coordinate transformation equations, 86
Copper-base alloys
brass with 5 to 15 percent zinc, 57
brass with 20 to 36 percent zinc,
57–58
brass with 36 to 40 percent zinc, 58
bronze, 58
Correlation coefficient, 995
Corrosion, 294
Corrosion-resistant steels, 53
Cost estimates, 15
Coulomb-Mohr theory, 228–230, 255
Counter-rotating rotation, selfenergization for, 842
Counting method for cycles, 322
Coupling clutches, 865
Crack extension, 278
Crack growth, 241, 279, 280–281
Crack modes, and stress intensity factor,
241–245
Cracks
crack stages, 266
cycles to failure at initial crack, 280
fatigue crack growth, 281
fatigue cracks, 267
fracture mechanism, 239
growth of, 267–268, 279
metal spraying and, 294
nucleation, 279
opening crack propagation mode, 241
quasi-static fracture, 240
quenching, 50
rotary fatigue, 327
sliding mode, 241
tearing mode, 241
Creep, 44
Critical buckling load, 969–971
Critical frequency of helical springs,
534–536
Critical load, 181
Critical locations, 366–379
Critical speeds, 383
Critical speeds for shafts, 383–388
Critical stress intensity factor, 245
Critical unit load, 182
Crowned pulleys, 880, 888–889
Crowning factor for pitting, 793
Crystal slip, 278
Cumulative density function (CDF), 979
Cumulative fatigue damage, 273,
321–327
Cumulative probability distribution, 979
Cups, 853
Current gauge length, 34
Curvature effect, 519–520
Curved beams in bending, 118–122
Curved beams in bending, alternative
calculations, 120–122
Cycles, 280, 322
Cyclic frequency, 294
Cyclic plastic strains, 276
Cylindrical contact, 124–126
Cylindrical materials, 317
Cylindrical roller bearings selection,
588–590
D
Damping coefficients, 191
Dedendum, 676
Dedendum distances, 680
Definition of problem, 6
Deflection, 33
critical, 522
modes of, 156
and spring rate, 552–554
vs. strength, 66
Deflection and stiffness, 148–192
beam deflection methods,
152–153
beam deflections by singularity
functions, 156–162
beam deflections by superposition,
153–156
Castigliano’s theorem, 164–168
columns with eccentric loading,
184–188
compression members, general, 181
deflection due to bending,
150–152
deflection of curved members,
168–175
elastic stability, 190
1068 Mechanical Engineering Designintermediate-length columns with
central loading, 184
long columns with central loading,
181–184
shock and impact, 191–192
spring rates, 148–149
statically indeterminate problems,
175–181
strain energy, 162–164
struts or short compression members,
188–189
tension, compression, and
torsion, 149
Deflection considerations, 379–383
Deflection due to bending, 150–152
Deflection of curved members,
168–175
DE-ASME elliptic, 368–369
DE-Gerber equation, 368–369
DE-Goodman equation, 368–369
DE-Soderberg, 368–369
Degrees of freedom (dof’s), 955
Design, 4–5
Design assessment for rolling-contact
bearings, 599–603
Design assessment for selected rollingcontact bearings, 599–603
bearing reliability, 600–603
matters of fit, 603
Design categories, 216
Design considerations, 8
Design engineer’s professional
responsibilities, 10–11
Design factors, 16
and factor of safety, 17–18
in fatigue, 342–343
for static design, 282
Design Manual for Cylindrical
Wormgearing (ANSI/AGMA),
810, 817
Design of a gear mesh, 775–780
gear bending, 776
gear tooth bending, 779
gear tooth wear, 779
gear wear, 776
pinion bending, 776
pinion tooth bending, 778–779
pinion tooth wear, 779
pinion wear, 776
rim, 780
straight-bevel gear mesh, 806–808
worm-gear mesh, 817–820
Design requirements, 25
Design sequence for power
transmission, 935–936
bearing selection, 936
final analysis, 936
force analysis, 935
gear specification, 935
key and retaining ring selection, 936
power and torque requirements, 935
shaft design for deflection, 936
shaft design for stress (fatigue and
static), 935
shaft layout, 935
shaft material selection, 935
Design specifications, 25–26
Design tools and resources, 8–10
Design topic interdependencies,
23–24
Deterministic failure curves for ductile
materials, 338
Deterministic quantity, 982
Deviation, 395
Diameter series, 580
Diametral clearance, 19
Diametral interferences, 399
Diametral pitch, 676
Die castings, 47
Differential damage, 586
Dimensionless multiple of rating
life, 575
Dimensions and tolerances, 19–21
Dimension-series code, 580
Dip, 892
Directional characteristics, 293
Direct load, 456
Direct mountings of bearings, 591
Direct shear, 89
Discontinuities, 110, 267
Discrete frequency histogram, 981
Discrete random variable, 979
Discretization errors, 956
Disk brakes, 849
circular (button or puck) pad caliper
brake, 852–853
uniform pressure, 851–852
uniform wear, 850–851
Disk clutches, 832, 845
Displacement, 165
Distance constraint, 701
Distortion-energy (DE) failure theory,
221–227, 254–255, 368, 523
Distribution curve
lognormal, 576
Weibull, 576
Double-enveloping worm gear sets, 675
Double helical gear (herringbone), 691
Double-lap joints, 501
Double-row bearings, 572
Double-threaded screw, 410
Dowel pins, 391
Dowling method for ductile materials, 302
Drawing, 50
Drive pins, 391
Drum brake, 832
Ductile and nodular cast iron, 54
Ductile cast iron, 54
Ductile materials, 33, 111, 317
ASME-elliptic line for, 338
Coulomb-Mohr theory for, 228–230
deterministic failure curves for, 338
distortion-energy theory for, 221–227
Dowling method for, 302
maximum-shear-stress theory for,
219–221
static loading in, 218
Ductile metal behavior, 218
Ductility, 39
Dunkerley’s equation, 386
Duplexing, 606
Dynamic effects, 734–743
Dynamic equivalent loads, 598
Dynamic factor, 738, 756–758, 791–792
Dynamic loading, 112
Dynamic viscosity, 620
Dyne, 620
E
Eccentricity, 120, 625
Eccentricity ratio, 186
Economics, 12–15
breakeven points, 13–14
cost estimates, 15
large tolerances, 13
standard sizes, 13
Effective arc, 883
Effective coefficient of friction, 900
Effective slenderness ratio, 522
Index 1069Effective stress, 222
Efficiency
belt drive gears, 883
defined, 716
Egs units (special names), 620
Eigenvalues, 971
Elastic coefficient, 744, 756
Elastic coefficient for pitting resistance,
798–799
Elastic creep, 883
Elastic deformation of power
screws, 419
Elasticity, 148
Elastic limit, 33, 36
Elastic loading, 40
Elastic stability, 190
Elastic strain, 87–88
Elastic-strain line, 278
Elastrohydrodynamic lubrication
(EHDL), 604, 619
Electrolytic plating, 294
Element geometries, 957–959
Element library, 957
Element loading, 964
Elimination approach, 961
Enclosures, 607–608
End-condition constant, 182, 522
Endurance limit, 272, 275, 282–283,
330–331
Endurance limit modifying factors
corrosion, 294
cyclic frequency, 294
electrolytic plating, 294
frettage corrosion, 294
loading factor, 290
Marin equation, 331–334
metal spraying, 294
miscellaneous-effects factor, 293–294
reliability factor, 292–293
rotating-beam specimen used,
286–294
size factor, 288–290
surface factor, 287–288
temperature factor, 290–292
types of, 272
Endurance strength Marin equation, 287
Energy considerations of clutches,
brakes, couplings, and flywheels,
856–857
Energy-dissipation rate, 857
Energy method. See Castigliano’s
theorem
Engineering strengths, 35
Engineering stress, 34, 35
Engineering stress-strain diagrams, 34
Engineer’s Creed (National Society of
Professional Engineers), 11
Engraver’s brass, 57
Epicyclic gear trains, 703
Equation of motion of flywheel, 865
Equilibrium, 72
Equilibrium and free-body diagrams,
72–75
Equivalent bending load, 917, 922
Equivalent diameter, 289
Equivalent radial load, 579
Equivalent steady radial load, 584
Equivalent stress, 222
Equivalent von Mises stresses, 318
Euler column formula, 181
Euler columns, 183
Euler’s equation for inertia, 869
Evaluation, 7
Expanding-ring clutches, 832
Extension springs, 542–550
External contracting rim clutches and
brakes, 840–844
External loads, tension joints,
435–437
Extreme-pressure (EP) lubricants, 660
Extrusion, 48, 687
F
Face, 83
Face-contact ratio, 695
Face load distribution factor, 759
Face-to-face mounting (DF), 606
Face width, 698
Factor of safety
average factor of safety, 249
and defects, 183
and design factor, 4, 17–18
fatigue, 446–447, 539, 922
MSS theory vs. DE theory, 183
in shear, 220
significance of, 46
static, 922
strength-to-stress ratio, 247
in wear, 776
of wire rope, 918, 920–921
Failure criteria, 306
Failures
of brittle materials summary, 238
defined, 214
of ductile materials summary,
231–234
Mohr theory of, 228
Failures resulting from static loading,
214–263
about, 214–215
Coulomb-Mohr theory for ductile
materials, 228–230
distortion-energy theory for ductile
materials, 221–227
failure of brittle materials
summary, 238
failure of ductile materials summary,
231–234
failure theories, 219
introduction to fracture mechanics,
239–248
maximum-normal-stress theory for
brittle materials, 235
maximum-shear-stress theory for
ductile materials, 219–221
modifications of the Mohr theory for
brittle materials, 235–237
selection of failure criteria,
238–239
static strength, 216–217
stochastic analysis, 248–254
stress concentration, 27–28
Failure theories, 219
Failure theory flowchart, 255
Failure zone, 342
Fastener specifications, 432
Fastener stiffness, 424–427
Fastening methods, 410
Fatigue axial loading, 432
Fatigue cracks
computer programs and growth, 281
formation and propagation, 267
Fatigue ductile coefficient, 277
Fatigue ductility exponent, 277
Fatigue factor of safety, 446–447,
539, 922
1070 Mechanical Engineering DesignFatigue failure
appearance of, 266
approach in analysis and design,
267–271
from bending, 762
from contact-stress, 762
stages, 266–267
from variable loading, 54
of wire rope, 921
Fatigue failure criteria
brittle materials, 314
fluctuating simple loading, 346
for fluctuating stress, 303–316
for modified Goodman line, 368
Fatigue failure from variable loading
characterizing fluctuating stresses,
300–302
combinations of loading modes,
317–321
cumulative fatigue damage,
321–327
endurance limit, 282–283
endurance limit modifying factors,
286–294
fatigue failure criteria for fluctuating
stress, 303–316
fatigue-life methods, 273
fatigue strength, 283–286
introduction to fatigue in metals,
266–271
linear-elastic fracture mechanics
method, 278–282
road maps and important design
equations for the stress-life
method, 344–347
stochastic analysis, 330–344
strain-life method, 276–278
stress concentration and notch
sensitivity, 295–300
surface fatigue strength, 327–330
torsional fatigue strength under
fluctuating stresses, 317
varying, fluctuating stresses,
321–327
Fatigue in metals, introduction,
266–271
combinations of loading
modes, 273
cumulative fatigue damage, 273
endurance limit modifying
factors, 272
fatigue-life methods, 272
fatigue strength and the endurance
limit, 272
fluctuating stresses, 273
stress concentration and notch
sensitivity, 273
varying, fluctuating stresses, 273
Fatigue-life methods, 272, 273
Fatigue limit. See also endurance
limit
at high temperature, 291
Fatigue loading, 496–497
of helical compression springs,
536–539
of tension joints, 444–451
Fatigue of springs, 521
Fatigue ratio, 330
Fatigue strength, 274, 283–286
coefficients, 277
and endurance limit, 272
exponents, 278
helical coil torsion springs,
554–557
SAE approximation of, 284
Fatigue-stress concentration factors,
295, 490, 752
Fatigue-testing machine, 274
Felt seals, 607
Ferrite, 50
Figure of merit
for belts, 894
for gears, 776, 780, 808
for springs, 528–529, 532, 540
Fillers, 60
Fillet radius of shoulders, 372
Fillet welds, 478–481
Filling notch, 572
Film pressure, 641–642
Final analysis, 936
Finishing, 690
Finite element (FE) programs, 175
Finite element (term), 956
Finite-element analysis (FEA), 218,
954–974
about, 954–955
boundary conditions, 965–966
critical buckling load, 969–971
element geometries, 957–959
finite-element method,
955–957
finite-element solution process,
959–962
load application, 964–965
mesh generation, 962–964
modeling techniques, 966–969
thermal stresses, 969
vibration analysis, 971–972
Finite-element method, 955–957
Finite-element solution process,
959–962
Finite life, 296
Finite-life region, 275
First-cycle localizing yielding, 318
Fit, 603
Fitted bearing, 625
Flat-belt drives, 883–898
Flat belts, 882
Flat metal belts, 895–898
Flat springs, 518
Flexibility, 518
Flexible clutch and brake bands, 844
Flexible mechanical elements
belts, 880–883
flat- and round-belt drives,
883–898
flat metal belts, 895–898
flexible shafts, 924–925
roller chain, 907–915
timing belts, 906–907
V belts, 898–906
wire rope, 916–924
Flexible shafts, 924–925
Flexural endurance limit, 327
Flexure formula, 94
Floating caliper brakes, 849
Fluctuating loads, 317
Fluctuating simple loading,
346–347
Fluctuating stresses, 266, 273
characterization of, 300–302
fatigue failure criteria for,
303–316
stochastic analysis, 338–342
torsional fatigue strength under, 317
varying, 321–327
Fluid lubrication, 618
Index 1071Flywheels, 866–871
equation of motion, 865
function of, 826
inertia, 868
work-input and output, 866–867
Force, 165
Force analysis, 935
bevel gearing, 709–712
helical gearing, 712–714
power transmission case study, 945
spur gearing, 705–706
worm gearing, 714–720
Force-contact ratio, 751
Forced-feed lubrication, 657
Force fit, 397
Forging, 48
Form cutters, 687
Forming, 49
Formulas for sections of curved
beams, 121
Fracture mechanics
about, 239–240
crack modes and the stress intensity
factor, 241–245
design equations, 256
fracture toughness, 245–248
quasi-static fracture, 240–241
Fracture toughness, 245–248
Free-body diagrams, 73
Free-cutting brass, 57
Free running fit, 397
Free-wheeling clutches, 865
Frequency function, 979
Frettage corrosion, 294
Frictional coefficients, 191
Frictional-contact axial clutches, 845–848
uniform pressure, 847–848
uniform wear, 846–847
Friction drives, 895
Friction materials
characteristics of, 861–862
for clutches, 864
clutches, brakes, couplings, and
flywheels, 861–864
Friction variables, 638
Full bearing, 625
Full-film lubrication, 618
Functional products, 4
Fundamental contact stress equation,
788–790
Fundamental critical frequencies, 536
Fundamental deviation, 395–396
Fundamental division, 395
Fundamental frequencies, 535
Fundamentals, 678–684
G
Gamma function, 991, 1058
Gasketed joints, 444
Gauge length, 34
Gaussian (normal) distribution, 37,
985–986
Gear hobbing, 687
Gear mesh. See also design of a gear
mesh
bevel and worm gears, 806–808,
817–820
design decisions for, 775–776
Gears, general, 674–732
AGMA factors, See AGMA equation
factors
conjugate action, 677–678
contact ratio, 684–685
force analysis, bevel gearing, 709–712
force analysis, helical gearing, 712–714
force analysis, spur gearing, 705–706
force analysis, worm gearing,
714–720
fundamentals, 678–684
gear teeth formation, 687–690
gear trains, 698–705
interference, 685–687
involute properties, 678
nomenclature, 675–676
parallel helical gears, 691–695
straight bevel gears, 690–691
tooth systems, 696–698
types of gears, 674–675
worm gears, 695–696
Gear specification, 935, 936–937
Gear supports, shoulders at, 372
Gear teeth, 937
bending strength of, 739
maximum teeth on, 687
Gear teeth formation, 687–690
finishing, 690
hobbing, 689
milling, 688
shaping, 688–689
Gear tooth bending, 770, 773, 779
Gear tooth wear, 770, 773, 779
Gear trains, 698–705
Gear wear, 776, 808
Gear wear equations, 767
General three-dimensional stress, 86–87
Generating centers, 687
Generating line, 679, 682
Geometric stress-concentration
factors, 111
Geometry factors, 751–756
Gerber fatigue failure criteria, 305–307,
342, 346, 368–369, 447
Gib-head key, 392
Gilding brass, 57
Goodman fatigue failure criteria, 305–307,
342, 346, 368–369, 447
Goodman line, 305
Government sources, 8–9
Gravity loading, 965
Gray cast iron, 54
Griffith, A. A., 240–241
Grinding, 690
Grip, 425, 437
Grooved pulleys, 880
Guest theory, 219
H
Hagen-Poiseulle law, 620
Hardness, 41–42
Hardness-ratio factor, 796, 797
Harmonic frequencies, 535
Harmonics, 383
Heading, 49
Heat dissipation of bearing housing, 645
Heat generation, 856
Heat generation rate, 646
Heat treatment, 33
Heat treatment of steel
annealing, 49
case hardening, 51
quenching, 50
tempering, 50–51
Helical coil torsion springs, 550–557
bending stress, 552
deflection and spring rate, 552–554
describing the end location, 551–552
fatigue strength, 554–557
static strength, 554
1072 Mechanical Engineering DesignHelical compression springs
design for fatigue loading, 539–542
design for static service, 528–534
fatigue loading of, 536–539
Helical gearing force analysis, 712–714
Helical gears, 674, 691
parallel, 691–695
Helical springs, 853
critical frequency of, 534–536
deflection, 520
Helix angle, 692
Hertzian endurance strength, 328
Hertzian stresses, 122
Hexagonal nuts, 423
Hexagon-head cap screws, 423
Hidden cycles, 321–322
High-cycle fatigue, 273, 275
High-leaded brass, 57
High temperature, fatigue limit at, 291
Hobbing, 689
Holding power, 388
Hole basis, 395
Hook ends, 542
Hooke’s Law, 33, 87
Hoop stress, 114
Horizontal shear stress, 96
Hot melts, 500
Hot milling, 48
Hot-working processes, 47–48
Hydraulic clutches, 832
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 618
Hydrodynamic theory, 625–629
Hydrostatic lubrication, 619
Hyperbolic stress distribution, 119
Hypoid gears, 674, 787
I
Identification of knowns and
unknowns, 10
Identification of need, 5
Idle arc, 884
Idler pulleys, 880, 892
Impact properties, 42–43
Impact value, 42
Important design equations
Coulomb-Mohr theory, 255
distortion-energy theory, 254–255
failure theory flowchart, 255
fracture mechanics, 256
lognormal-lognormal case, 256
maximum shear theory, 254
modified Mohr (plane stress), 255
normal-normal case, 256
stochastic analysis, 256
Inch-pound-second system (ips), 21
Indirect mountings of bearings, 591
Influence coefficients, 384
Initial crack, cycles to failure at, 280
Initial belt tension, 885, 892
Injection molding, 688
In-line condition shafts, 702
Interference, 20, 249, 397
of gears, 685–687
general, 253–254
Intermediate-length columns with
central loading, 184
Internal expanding rim clutches and
brakes, 832–840
Internal friction theory, 228
Internal gears, 682
Internal shear force, 75
Internal-shoe brake, 832
International Committee of Weights and
Measures (CIPM), 620
International System of Units (SI), 22
International tolerance grade
numbers, 395
Interpolation, 644–645
Intersecting and offset-shaft bevel
gearing, 788
Invention of the concept, 6
Investment casting, 47, 687
Involute curve construction, 679
Involute curves, 678
Involute generating line, 678
Involute helicoil, 691
Involute profile, 677
Involute properties, 678
Isotropic materials, 60
IT numbers, 396
Izod notched-bar test, 42
J
J. B. Johnson formula, 184
Joints
bolted and riveted, 455–459
design, 504–506
fastener stiffness, 424–427
gasketed, 444
member, 427–432
separation, 440–441
shear, with eccentric loading,
455–459
stiffness constant of, 436
Journal bearings
loading on, 631
lubrication for, 618
K
Keys, 364
design safety factors, 391
and pins, 390–394
and retaining ring selection, 936,
948–950
Keyseats, 392
Keyways and stress concentration, 372
Kinematic viscosity, 620
Kinetic energy, 856
Kips, 21
LL
10 life, 574
Labyrinth seals, 607
Laminates, 60
Landgraf, R. W., 276
Langer first-cycle yielding criteria,
306–308
Lapping, 690
Lap-shear joints, 501
Large tolerances, 13
Lead-bronze, 817
Leakage. See side flow
Length/diameter ratio, 664
Lengthwise curvature factor for bending
strength, 793
Lewis bending equation, 734–743
Lewis form factor, 737
Libraries, 8–9
Limits, 19
Limits and fits, 395–400
Linear damage hypothesis, 586
Linear damage rule, 323
Linear elastic fracture mechanics
(LEFM), 239, 273, 278–282
Linear regression, 994–997
Linear sliding wear, 661–663
Index 1073Linear spring, 148
Line elements, 957
Line of action, 677, 679, 682
Line of action and reaction, 73
Line of contact, 125
Load, life and reliability of bearings,
577–579
Load and stress analysis, 410
Cartesian stress components, 79–80
contact stresses, 122–126
curved beams in bending, 118–122
elastic strain, 87–88
equilibrium and free-body diagrams,
72–75
general three-dimensional stress,
86–87
Mohr’s circle for plane stress, 80–86
normal stresses for beams in bending,
89–94
press and shrink fits, 115–117
shear force and bending moments in
beams, 75–76
shear stresses for beams in bending,
94–100
singularity functions, 77–79
stress, 79
stress concentration, 110–113
stresses in pressurized cylinders,
113–115
stresses in rotating rings, 115–116
temperature effects, 117
torsion, 101–110
uniformly distributed stresses, 88–89
Load application, 964–965
Load application factors, 578
Load cycle factors, 762
Load-distribution factor, 759–760, 793
Load eccentricity, 504
Load factor, 440
Loading factor, 290
Loading modes, combination of, 347
Load intensity, 75
Load line, 221, 445
Loads and materials, 656–658
Load-sharing ratio, 752
Load-stress factor, 328
Load zone, 592
Local geometry, 360
Locational clearance fit, 397
Locational interference fit, 397
Logarithmic strain, 34
Lognormal distribution, 987–989
Lognormal distribution curve, 576
Lognormal-lognormal case,
250–251, 256
Long bar, 149
Long columns with central loading,
181–184
Long structural members in
compression, 190
Loose running fit, 397
Loose-side tension, 884
Low-contact-ratio (LCR) helical
gears, 752
Low-cycle fatigue, 273, 275
Lower deviation, 395–396
Lowest critical speed, 383
Low-leaded brass, 57
Lubricants
deterioration of, 631
flow of, 639–641
temperature rise, 642–644
velocity, 652
Lubrication
roller chain, 915
rolling-contact bearings, 603–604
selection, 657
viscosity, 632
Lubrication and journal bearings
bearing types, 658–659
boundary-lubricated bearings,
660–668
clearance, 648–650
design considerations, 629
hydrodynamic theory, 625–629
loads and materials, 656–658
Petroff’s equation, 621–623
pressure-fed bearings, 650–656
relations of the variables, 631–645
stable lubrication, 623–624
steady-state conditions in selfcontained bearings, 645–648
thick-film lubrication, 624–625
thrust bearings, 659–660
types of lubrication, 618–619
viscosity, 619–621
Lubrication types, 618–619
Lüder lines, 219
Lumped masses, Rayleigh’s model
for, 383
M
Macaulay functions, 72, 76
Machine screws, 423
Magnesium, 56
Magnetic clutches, 832
Major diameter, 410
Malleable cast iron, 55
Manganese, 52
Manson-Coffin relationship, 278
Manson’s approach, 325–326
Manual mesh generation, 962–963
Manufacturable products, 5
Margin of safety, defined, 249
Marin equation, 286–287
Marin factors, 287–294
Marin, Joseph, 231
Marin size factor, 759
Marketable products, 5
Martensite, 50, 283
Material efficiency coefficient, 65
Material index, 65
Materials
selection, 61–67
for shafts, 361
strength and stiffness, 32–36
worm gears, 817–820
Material selection charts, 61
Mating materials, 327
Matrix, 60
Maximum film pressure, 653
Maximum-normal-stress theory for
brittle materials, 235
Maximum-shear-stress theory for
ductile materials, 219–221
Maximum shear theory, 254
Maxwells’ reciprocity theorem, 384
McKee abscissa, 623
Mean coil diameter, 518
Mean design failure and probability of
failure, 338
Mean ultimate tensile strength, 331
Mechanical efficiency, 813
Mechanical engineering design, 5
Mechanical springs. See springs
Mechanics of power screws,
414–422
Median life, 574
Medium drive fit, 397
Member joints, 427–432
Mesh, 962
1074 Mechanical Engineering DesignMesh generation, 962–964
manual mesh generation, 962–963
semiautomatic mesh generation, 963
Mesh refinement, 962
Metal-mold castings, 47
Metal spraying, 293, 294
Metric fastener specifications,
412, 432, 435
Metric M and MJ profiles, 410
Metric threads, 411
Microdiscontinuity stress
concentration, 218
Midspan compressive stress, 186
Milling, 688
Miner’s rule, 322
Minimum film thickness, 624, 625,
637–638
Minimum film thickness curve, 650
Minimum life, 574
Minimum proof load, 432
Minimum proof strength, 432
Minimum tensile strength, 282, 432
Minor diameter, 410
Misalignment, 572
Miscellaneous-effects factor, 293–294
Miscellaneous springs, 558–560
Mixed-film lubrication, 660
Model analysis, 971, 972
Modeling techniques, 966–969
Moderate applications, 740
Modern Steels and Their Properties
Handbook (Bethlehem Steel), 52
Modes of deflection, 156
Modifications of the Mohr theory for
brittle materials
brittle-Coulomb-Mohr, 235–236
modified Mohr, 235–237
Modified Goodman criteria, 370
Modified Goodman diagrams, 303–304
Modified Goodman fatigue failure
criteria, 305–307, 342, 346,
368–369, 447
Modified Goodman line, 306
Modified Mohr theory, 235–237, 255
Modified Neuber equation, 335
Module, 676
Modulus of elasticity, 33, 87
of rope in wire rope, 916
and slenderness ratio, 182
Modulus of resilience, 36
Modulus of rigidity, 35, 88
Modulus of roughness, 36
Modulus of rupture, 35
Mohr’s circle diagram, 82
Mohr’s circle for plane stress, 80–86
Mohr’s circle shear convention,
82–84
Mohr theory of failure, 228
Molded-woven-asbestos lining, 863
Molded-woven-asbestos pads, 863
Molybdenum, 53
Moment connection, 482
Moment load, 456
Moments, 76
Monte Carlo computer simulation, 21
Moperay, 223
Mounting and enclosure
alignment, 607
enclosures, 607–608
preloading, 607
rolling-contact bearings, 604–608
Multiple-plate clutches, 832
Multiple-threaded product, 410
Multiple-thread worms, 813
Multiplication method, 52
Multipoint constraint equations, 966
Muntz metal, 58
N
N (factor of safety), 46
Natural frequencies, 535
Naval brass, 58
Needle bearings, 573
Neuber constant, 296
Neuber equation, 296
Neutral axis, 89
Neutral plane, 90
Newtonian fluids, 620
Newtonian heat transfer equation,
858–859
Newton’s cooling model, 858
Newton’s equation for viscous flow, 651
Newton’s third law, 73
Newton’s viscous effect, 619
Nickel, 52
Nickel-bronze, 817
Nodes, 955
Noise, vibration and harshness
(NVH), 499
Nomenclature of gears, 675–676
Nominal mean stress method, 302
Nominal size, 19
Nominal strengths, 35
Nominal stresses, 35, 111
Noncircular cross sections, 92
Nonferrous metals
aluminum, 55–56
copper-base alloys, 57
magnesium, 56
titanium, 57
Noninvolute flank, 685
Nonlinear softening spring, 149
Nonlinear stiffening spring, 148
Normal circular pitch, 692
Normal coupling equation, 250
Normal diametral pitch, 692
Normal distribution, 37, 985–986
Normalizing, 49
Normal-normal case, 249–250, 256
Normal stress, 79
Normal stresses for beams in bending
beams with asymmetrical, 93–94
load and stress analysis, 89–94
two-plane bending, 92
Normal tooth force components, 712
Notch-free materials, 317
Notch sensitivity
defined, 295
and stress concentration, 295–300,
334–335, 338
Notch sensitivity equations, 296
Notch summary, 43
Numbering systems, 45–46
Number of cycles vs. stress
reversals, 277
Nuts
grades of, 433
reuse of, 423
O
Octahedral-shear-stress theory, 223–224
Offset method, 33
Oiles bearings, 661
Oiliness agents, 660
Oilite bearings, 661
Oil outlet temperature, 632
Opening crack propagation mode, 241
Open thin-walled sections, 109–110
Index 1075Optimization, 7
Original area, 35
Other side (weld symbol), 477
Output power of worm gears, 814
Overconstrained systems, 175
Overload factors, 758, 765, 791, 792
Overload release clutches, 864
Overrunning clutch, 865
P
Palmgren linear damage rule, 327
Palmgren-Miner cycle-ratio summation
rule, 322
Parabolic formula, 184
Parallel-axis theorem, 91, 483
Parallel helical gears, 691–695
Parent distribution, 987
Paris equation, 280
Partial bearing, 625
Partitioning approach, 961
Pattern of variation, 978
Pearlite, 54
Pedestal bearings, 645
Peel stresses, 504
Performance factors, 630
Permanent joint design
adhesive bonding, 498–506
butt and fillet welds, 478–481
fatigue loading, 496–497
references, 507
resistance welding, 498
static loading, 492–495
welded joints, strength of, 489–491
welded joints in torsion, stresses in,
482–486
welding symbols, 476–478
Permanent-mold castings, 687
Permissible bending stress equation, 791
Permissible contact stress number
(strength) equation, 791
Peterson, R. E., 218
Petroff’s equation, 621–623
Phases and interactions of the design
process, 5–8
Phosphor bronze, 57, 58
Photoelastic analysis, 480
Piecewise continuous cycle, 585
Pillow-block bearings, 645
Pinion, 675, 682
Pinion bending, 776, 808
Pinion teeth, smallest number of, 687
Pinion tooth bending, 770, 772–773,
778–779
Pinion tooth wear, 770, 773, 779
Pinion wear, 776, 808
Pins, 364
Pitch, 410
Pitch circles, 675, 677
Pitch cones, 690
Pitch diameters, 675, 679
Pitch length, 900
Pitch-line velocity, 679, 707, 792
Pitch point, 677, 679
Pitch radius, 677
Pitting, 743
Pitting failure, 327
Pitting resistance
geometry factor, 754, 793
stress-cycle factor for, 795
Plain ends, 520
Plane of analysis, 220
Plane slider bearing, 626
Plane strain fracture toughness, 245
Plane stress, 80, 220, 254
Plane-stress transformation equations, 80
Planetary gear trains, 703
Planet carrier gears, 703
Planet gears, 703
Plastics, 58–59
Plastic-strain line, 278
Pneumatic clutches, 832
Point of contact, 678
Poise, 620
Poisson’s ratio, 88
Polished materials, 317
Polymeric adhesives, 498
Population, 980
Positioning drives, 895
Positive-contact clutches, 864
Positive lubrication, 657
Potential energy, 162
Pound-force, 21
Powder-metallurgy bushings, 657
Powder-metallurgy process, 47, 687
Power and speed relationship, 707
Power and torque requirements, 935, 936
Power in equals power out
concept, 936
Power ratings, 900
Power screws, 414
coefficient of friction of, 421
elastic deformation of, 419
mechanics of, 414–422
Power takeoff (PTO), 365
Power transmission case study
about, 934
bearing selection, 947–948
deflection check, 946–947
design for stress, 946
design sequence for power
transmission, 935–936
force analysis, 945
gear specification, 936–937, 939–943
key and retaining ring selection,
948–950
key design, 948–949
power and torque requirements, 936
problem specification, 934–935
shaft design for deflection, 946
shaft design for stress, 946
shaft layout, 943
shaft material selection, 945
speed, torque, and gear ratios,
937–939
Power transmission case study
specifications
design requirements, 25
design specifications, 25–26
Preload, 435, 442
Preloading, 607
Presentation, 7
Presetting process, 521
Press and shrink fits, 115–117
Press fits, 365
Pressure angle, 679
Pressure-cone method for stiffness
calculations, 428
Pressure-fed bearings, 650–656
Pressure line, 679, 682
Pressure-sensitive adhesives, 500
Pretension, 425
Primary shear, 456, 482
Principal directions, 81
Principal distribution, 987
Principal shear stresses, 87
Principal straight-bevel gear bending
equations, 801
Principal straight-bevel gearwear
equations, 801
1076 Mechanical Engineering DesignPrincipal stresses, 81, 254
Probability density, 37
Probability density function (PDF), 37,
979, 989
Probability distributions
cumulative, 979
Gaussian (normal) distribution,
985–986
linear regression, 994–997
lognormal distribution, 987–989
propagation of error, 992–994
uniform distribution, 989–990
Weibull distribution, 990–992
Probability function, 979, 991
Probability of failure
and mean design failure, 338
reliability and, 18
Problem analysis, 11
Problem definition, 6, 10
Professional societies, 8–9
Proof load, 432
Proof strength, 432
Propagation of dispersion, 19
Propagation of error, 19,
992–994
Propagation of uncertainty, 19
Proportional limit, 33
Pulley correction factor, 887
Punch presses, 869
Pure, defined, 88
Pure compression, 88
Pure rolling, 715
Pure shear, 88
Pure sliding, 715
Pure tension, 88
Q
Quality numbers, 756
Quasi-static fracture, 240–241
Quench-hardenability, 53
Quenching, 50
R
Rack, 682
Radial clearance, 19, 624
Radial clearance ratio, 622
Rain-flow counting techniques, 322
Random experiments, 978
Random variables, 978–980, 982
Rate of shear, 620
Rating life, 574, 575
Rayleigh’s model for lumped masses, 383
Rectangular beam, shear stress in, 95
Red brass, 57
Redundant systems, 175
Regression, 994
Relations of the variables
coefficient of friction, 638–639
film pressure, 641–642
interpolation, 644–645
iteration technique, 631–632
lubricant flow, 639–641
lubricant temperature rise, 642–644
minimum film thickness, 637–638
viscosity charts, 632–638
Relatively brittle condition, 240
Relative velocity, 716
Reliability, 4, 18–19, 249, 990
Reliability factors, 292–293, 763–764,
797–798
Reliability goal, 579
Reliability-life relationship, 570
Reliability method of design, 18
Reliability versus life, 576–577
Reliable products, 5
Repeated stresses, 266
Residual stresses, 293
Residual stress methods, 302
Resilience, 36
Resistance welding, 498
Resultant forces, 456
Retaining rings, 394–395
Retaining ring selection, 949
Reversed loading, 800
Reversing pulley, 880
Reyn (ips viscosity unit), 620
Reynolds equation for one-dimensional
flow, 629
Right-hand rule
for gears, 698, 718
threaded fasteners, 410
for vectors, 101
Rigid elements, 966
Rim, 780
Rim-thickness factor, 764–765
Ring gears, 682, 703
Rivet joints, 453
Road maps
for bending fatigue failure, 765
for contact-stress fatigue failure, 765
Roadmaps
of gear bending equations, 766
of gear wear equations, 767
of principal straight-bevel gear
bending equations, 801
of principal straight-bevel gearwear
equations, 801
for straight-bevel gear bending, 800
for straight-bevel gearwear
relations, 767
for straight-bevel gear wear
relations, 800
Road maps and important design
equations for the stress-life method
combination of loading modes, 347
completely reversing simple loading,
344–346
fluctuating simple loading, 346–347
Roark’s formulas, 153
Rockwell hardness, 41, 761
Rolled threads, 444
Roller chain, 907–915
Roller chain lubrication, 915
Rolling bearings, 570
Rolling-contact bearings, 570
ball bearings selection, 588–590
bearing life, 573–574
bearing load life at rated reliability,
574–575
bearing survival, 576–577
bearing types, 570–573
combined radial and thrust loading,
579–584
cylindrical roller bearings selection,
588–590
design assessment for, 599–603
lubrication, 603–604
mounting and enclosure, 604–608
relating load, life and reliability,
577–579
reliability versus life, 576–577
tapered roller bearings selection,
590–599
variable loading, 584–588
Roll threading, 49
Root diameter, 410
Rope in wire rope, 916
Rotary fatigue, 327
Index 1077Rotating-beam machine, 274
Rotating-beam specimens, 282
Rotating-beam test, 274
Rotational degrees of freedom, 955
Rotation factor, 580
Roughness, 36
Round-belt drives, 883–898
Running fits, 648
S
SAE approximation of fatigue
strength, 284
SAE fastener specifications, 432
Safety, 765
Safety and product liability, 4, 15
Safety factors
AGMA equation factors, 791
in key design, 391
Saint Venant’s principle, 964–965
Sample, 980–981
Sample mean, 980
Sample space, 978
Sample standard deviation, 981
Sample variance, 980
Sand casting, 46, 687
Saybolt Universal Viscosimeter, 620
Saybolt universal viscosity (SUV)
seconds, 620
Scoring, 743
Screws, self-locking, 416
Seam welding, 498
Secant column formula, 186
Second-area moments, 93
Secondary shear, 456, 482
Section median line, 108
Section modulus, 90
Seireg curve, 655
Selection of failure criteria, 238–239
Self-acting phenomena, 829
Self-aligning bearings, 572, 580, 607
Self-deenergizing brake shoe, 827
Self-energization for counter-rotating
rotation, 842
Self-energizing design, 849
Self-energizing shoes, 840
Self-locking phenomena, 829
Self-locking screws, 416
Semiautomatic mesh generation, 963
Separators, 571
Set removal process, 521
Setscrews, 364, 388–390
Shaft basis, 396
Shaft components, miscellaneous
keys and pins, 390–394
retaining rings, 394–395
setscrews, 388–390
Shaft design for deflection, 936, 946
Shaft design for stress
critical locations, 366–379
fatigue and static, 935
power transmission case study, 946
shaft stresses, 367–372
stress-concentration estimation,
372–378
Shaft layout, 361–366, 935
assembly and disassembly,
365–366
axial layout of components, 363
axial load support, 363
case study gear specification,
944–946
power transmission case study, 943
torque transmission provision


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تاريخ التسجيل : 30/10/2017
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