كتاب Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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 كتاب Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers

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كتاب Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers    كتاب Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers  Emptyالأربعاء 12 يوليو 2023, 9:55 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers 3rd ed
Laurence McKeen

كتاب Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers  P_p_o_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of contents
Dedication
Series Page
Preface
1. Introduction to Permeation of Plastics and Elastomers
1.1. History
1.2. Transport of Gases and Vapors through Solid Materials
1.3. Multiple-Layered Films
1.4. Permeation of Coatings
1.5. Permeation and Vapor Transmission Testing
1.6. Summary
2. Introduction to Plastics and Polymers
2.1. Polymerization
2.2. Copolymers
2.3. Linear, Branched, and Cross-Linked Polymers
2.4. Polarity
2.5. Unsaturation
2.6. Steric Hindrance
2.7. Isomers
2.8. Inter- and Intramolecular Attractions in Polymers
2.9. General Classifications
2.10. Plastic Compositions
2.11. Summary
3. Production of Films, Containers, and Membranes
3.1. Extrusion
3.2. Blown Film
3.3. Calendering
3.4. Casting Film Lines
3.5. Post Film Formation Processing
3.6. Web Coating
3.7. Lamination
3.8. Orientation
3.9. Membrane Production
3.10. Molding of Containers
3.11. Fluorination
3.12. Coatings
3.13. Summary
4. Markets and Applications for Films, Containers, and Membranes
4.1. Barrier Films in Packaging
4.2. Containers
4.3. Automotive Fuel Tanks and Hoses
4.4. Coatings
4.5. Gloves
4.6. Membranes
5. Styrenic Plastics
5.1. Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene Copolymer
5.2. Acrylonitrile–Styrene–Acrylate
5.3. Polystyrene
5.4. Styrene–Acrylonitrile Copolymer
6. Polyesters
6.1. Liquid Crystalline Polymers
6.2. Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT)
6.3. Polycarbonate (PC)
6.4. Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene Terephthalate
6.5. Polyethylene Naphthalate
6.6. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
7. Polyimides
7.1. Polyamide–Imide
7.2. Polyetherimide
7.3. Polyimide
8. Polyamides (Nylons)
8.1. Amorphous Polyamide (Nylon)
8.2. Polyamide 6 (Nylon 6)
8.3. Polyamide 11 (Nylon 11)
8.4. Polyamide 12 (Nylon 12)
8.5. Polyamide 66 (Nylon 66)
8.6. Polyamide 66/610(Nylon 66/610)
8.7. Polyamide 6/12 (Nylon 6/12)
8.8. Polyamide 666 (Nylon 666 or 6/66)
8.9. Polyamide 6/69 (Nylon 6/6.9)
8.10. Polyarylamide
8.11. Polyphthalamide/High Performance Polyamide
9. Polyolefins, Polyvinyls, and Acrylics
9.1. Polyethylene
9.2. Polypropylene
9.3. Polybutadiene
9.4. Polymethylpentene
9.5. Cyclic Olefin Copolymer
9.6. Ethylene–Vinyl Acetate Copolymer
9.7. Ethylene–Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
9.8. Polyvinyl Butyral
9.9. Polyvinyl Chloride
9.10. Polyvinylidene Chloride
9.11. Polyacrylics
9.12. Acrylonitrile–Methyl Acrylate Copolymer
9.13. Ionomers
Chapter 10. Fluoropolymers
10.1. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
10.2. Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP)
10.3. Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA)
10.4. Hexafluoropropylene, Tetrafluoroethylene, Ethylene Terpolymer (HTE)
10.5. Tetrafluoroethylene, Hexafluoropropylene, Vinylidene Fluoride Terpolymer (THV™)
10.6. Amorphous Fluoropolymer (AF)—Teflon AF®
10.7. Polyvinyl Fluoride (PVF)
10.8. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
10.9. Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)
10.10. Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer (ETFE)
10.11. Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer (ECTFE)
11. High-Temperature and High-Performance Polymers
11.1. Polyether Ether Ketone
11.2. Polysiloxane
11.3. Polyphenylene Sulfide
11.4. Polysulfone
11.5. Polyethersulfone
11.6. Polybenzimidazole
11.7. Parylene (poly(p-xylylene))
11.8. Polyoxymethylene (POM or Acetal Homopolymer)/Polyoxymethylene Copolymer (POM-Co or Acetal Copolymer)
12. Elastomers and Rubbers
12.1. Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers (TPU)
12.2. Olefinic TPEs (TPO)
12.3. Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomers (TPE-E or COPE)
12.4. Thermoplastic Polyether Block Polyamide Elastomers (PEBA)
12.5. Styrenic Block Copolymer (SBC) TPEs
12.6. Ethylene Acrylic Elastomers (AEM)
12.7. Bromobutyl Rubber
12.8. Butyl Rubber
12.9. Chlorobutyl Rubber (Polychloroprene)
12.10. Ethylene–Propylene Rubbers (EPM, EPDM)
12.11. Epichlorohydrin Rubber (CO, ECO)
12.12. Fluoroelastomers (FKM)
12.13. Natural Rubber
12.14. Acrylonitrile–Butadiene Copolymer (NBR)
12.15. Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR)
13. Environmentally Friendly Polymers
13.1. Cellophane™
13.2. Nitrocellulose
13.3. Cellulose Acetate
13.4. Ethyl Cellulose
13.5. Polycaprolactone
13.6. Poly(Lactic Acid)
13.7. Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate
14. Multilayered Films
14.1. Metalized Films
14.2. Silicon Oxide Coating Technology
14.3. Co-continuous Lamellar Structures
14.4. Multilayered Films
Appendix A. Conversion Factors
Appendix B. Reference Fuel Compositions
Appendix C
Index
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by f indicate figures and t indicate tables.
2-layer barrier film structures: oxygen permeation
through EVOH/LDPE, 314t
3-layer barrier film structures:
oxygen permeation through EVOH and PVDC barrier
layers, 310t, 311t, 312t, 313t
oxygen permeation through nylon/EVOH/LDPE,
314t
oxygen permeation through PET/EVOH/LDPE,
314t
3-layer blown film die, 42f
9-layer blown film die, 43f
10-layer stacked die, 40f
A
ABS see acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
Accelerated Keeping Test (AKT), 56, 57t
acetal copolymer, 247e250
acetal homopolymer, 247e250
Aclar Multilayer films (Honeywell), 315t
Aclar PCTFE film (Honeywell), 217t, 218t
acrylics, 145, 145f
acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR), 281e284
applications, 281
monomer/polymer structure, 281f
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 77e80
gas permeation, 78t, 79t, 80f
INEOS ABS Lustran 246 ABS, 80f
permselectivity vs. temperature, 80f
Sabic Innovative Plastics Cycolac ABS, 78t
water vapor permeation, 78t, 79t
acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate (AMA), 188e189
applications, 188
carbon dioxide permeation, 189f
chemical structure, 188f
gas permeation, 188t
INEOS Barex Acrylonitrile-Methyl Acrylate
Copolymers, 188t
oxygen permeation, 189f
water vapor permeation, 188t
acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA), 80e82
gas permeation, 81t, 82t
water vapor permeation, 82t
addition polymerization, 21
additives, 31e37
Adflex PP (LlyondellBasell):
carbon dioxide permeation, 158t
oxygen permeation, 158t
adhesion tests, 17e19
Advanced Elastomer Systems Santoprene TPO:
gas permeation, 256t
water vapor transmission, 256t
Aegis Nylon 6 films (Honeywell), 128t
Aegis Nylon 6/66 films (Honeywell), 139t
AEM see ethylene acrylic elastomers
AF see amorphous fluoropolymer
agricultural chemicals/films, 60e65
AKT see Accelerated Keeping Test
alkenes, 145
alternating copolymers, 22
AMA see acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate
American Society for Testing and Materials see ASTM
amide-imide polymers, 108t, 109t
amino acids, 122f
amorphous fluoropolymer (AF), 214e215
applications, 215
chemical structure, 214f
pure gas permeation, 214t
amorphous PET, 105f
amorphous plastics, 29e30
See also individual plastics
amorphous polyamide (nylon), 122e126
applications, 123
carbon dioxide permeation, 123t
chemical structure, 122f
nitrogen permeation, 123t
oxygen permeation, 123t, 125f, 126f
water vapor permeation, 123t
amorphous regions, 196
Ansell gloves: permeation/degradation resistance chart,
323e328
antiblock additives, 34
antistats, 36e37
Arkema PEBAX Breathable PEBA films,
262f
329Arkema PEBAX films:
helium permeation, 260t
oxygen permeation, 260t
propane permeation, 261t
water vapor permeation, 259t, 261t
Arkema Rilsan PA11, 132t
Arkema Voltalef PCTFE film, 219t
Arrhenius equation, 8e9
ASA see acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate
Asahi Glass AFLAS Fluoroelastomer, 278f
Ashland Aqualon Ethyl Cellulose, 299t
ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials):
reference fuels, 321
standards, 11te12t
atactic polypropylene, 26
atlas cell test, 17, 18f
atmospheric gases, 59e60
automotive fuel hoses/tanks, 67e68
B
bags, 62, 60e65
ball-and-stick model: molecules, 24e25
barrier coatings see coatings
barrier films, 59e65
See also films
BASF AG Lupolen V EVA, 161f
BASF AG Polystyrol 168 N GPPS film, 84t
BASF AG Terluran ABS films:
gas permeation, 79t
water vapor permeation, 79t
BASF AG Ultradur PBT, 93t
BASF Elastollan TPUs:
gas permeation, 253t
water vapor permeation, 254t
BASF Luran SAN:
oxygen permeation, 87t
water vapor permeation, 87t
BASF Luran S ASA films:
gas permeation, 81t, 82t
water vapor permeation, 82t
BASF Styrolux films:
carbon dioxide permeation, 262t
nitrogen permeation, 262t
oxygen permeation, 262t
BASF Udel PSU:
gas permeation, 239t
water vapor permeation, 239t
BASF Ultramid A5 Nylon 66 film:
oxygen and carbon dioxide permeation, 135t
water vapor permeation, 136t
BASF Ultramid C35 Nylon6/66 film, 140t
Bayer Lanxess Butyl Butyl Rubber, 268t
Bayer Lanxess Krylene Styrene-Butadiene Rubber, 284t
Bayer Lanxess Krynac Nitrile Rubber:
air permeation, 282t
air vs. temperature, 283f
gas permeation, 282t
Bayer MaterialScience Makrolon PC:
carbon dioxide permeation, 96te97t
nitrogen permeation, 95te96t
oxygen permeation, 94te95t
Bayer MaterialScience Texin TPU, 254f, 255f
beer packaging, 65
belt film casting machines, 44f
BESNO P40TL Nylon 11 (Rilsan), 132f, 133f
BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) model, 6e7, 6f
biaxial orientation, 51
biodegradable plastics, 287
See also environmentally friendly polymers
bisphenol diamine PMDA polyetherimide, 114f
blends, 30e31
blistering, 18f, 16
blister packs, 62, 64f
block copolymers, 22
blocking, 34
blow molding, 54
blown film:
orientation, 52, 53f
process, 39e41
bottles, 60e65
BPADA-DDS polyetherimide sulfone, 114f
BPADA monomer structure, 114f
BPADA-PPD polyetherimide, 113f
Brampton Engineering 10-layer stacked die, 40f
branched polymers, 22e23
bromobutyl rubber, 264e266
applications, 264e266
crosslinking, 265f
structural units, 264f
bromoisobutylene-isoprene copolymer, 266f
Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) model, 6e7, 6f
butyl rubber, 266
air permeation, 267t, 268f
applications, 266e268
chemical structure, 266f
Exxon Butyl Rubber, 267t
gas permeation, 267t, 268t
oxygen permeation, 267t
C
calendering, 41e42, 43f, 44f
Capran Oxyshield 1545 and 2545 (Honeywell), 313t
Capran Oxyshield Plus (Honeywell), 313t
Capron Nylon 6 films (Honeywell):
gas permeation, 128t
water vapor permeation, 128t
caps, 67
Carbon-Filled DuPont Teflon PTFE, 199t
casting film lines, 42e44, 44f
catalysts, 35
330 INDEXCelazole PBI membrane (PBI Performance
Products Inc.):
carbon dioxide permeation, 245f
hydrogen permeation, 244f
Celcon M25/M90/M270 POM Copolymer (Ticona),
248t
cellophane, 291e292
applications, 291
gas permeation, 292t
oxygen/water vapor transmission, 292t
cellulose acetate, 294
applications, 294
chemical structure, 294f
common gas permeation, 295f, 296f
Dense and High-Flux, 294t
gas permeation, 294t, 295f, 296f
hydrogen sulfide permeation vs. temperature, 297f
noble gas permeation, 295f, 296f
cellulose to viscose conversion, 291f
chain entanglement, 27e28
chemical product packaging, 60e65
Chevron Philips Marlex HDPE, 154t
Chevron Philips Ryton PPS films:
gas permeation, 238t
liquid vapor transmission, 238t
chlorobutyl rubber (polychloroprene), 268e270
Exxon Chlorobutyl 1068 Chlorobutyl Rubber, 270t
chloroprene polymerization, 268f
closures, 67
coatings, 68
corrosion protection, 10
gravure coating, 45e46
immersion coating, 47, 49f
knife on roller coating, 46
metering rod coating, 47, 48t
permeation, 10
testing, 15e19
reverse roller coating, 46
slot die coating, 47
vacuum deposition coating, 47e48, 49f
web coating, 44e49
COC see cyclic olefin copolymer
co-continuous lamellar structures, 306e310
CO, ECO see epichlorohydrin rubber
coefficient of friction (COF), 34
coextrusion, 39, 40
combustion modifiers, 33
composites, 31e33
compression film polypropylene, 60e65
condensation polymerization, 21, 22f
condiment bottles, 60e65
containers, 65e67
molding, 53e56
permeation tests, 56e57
production, 39
conversion factors, 319e320
COPE (thermoplastic copolyester elastomers),
257e259
copolymers, 21e22
corrosion, 10
coupling agents, 36
crosslinking:
chemical structure, 265f
polymers, 22e23
crystalline plastics/polymers, 29e30
cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), 160e161
applications, 160
chemical structure, 160f
Topas Advanced Polymers TOPAS COC, 160t
water vapor permeation, 160t, 161t
Cycolac ABS (Sabic Innovative Plastics), 78t
D
Daikin Industries Neoflon PCTFE film, 218t
Daikin Neoflon FEP film, 207f
dairy containers, 66
Darcy’s law, 1e2, 2f
Dartek Nylon 66 films (Exopack Performance
Films Inc.), 135t
degree of unsaturation (DoU), 24
Delrin POM Homopolymer (DuPont), 249t
deposition coating, vacuum, 47e48, 49f
Deutsches Institut fu¨r Normung see DIN
device packaging, 62e65
diacids, 122f
dialysis membranes, 69e70
diamines, 122f
dimethylsilicone rubber, 235t
DIN (German Institute for Standardization) standards,
13t, 321e322
dip coating, 47, 49f
dope, 43
DoU see degree of unsaturation
Dow Calibre PC:
carbon dioxide permeation, 97t
nitrogen permeation, 97t
oxygen permeation, 97t
Dow Chemical Attane Blown film:
carbon dioxide permeation, 150t
oxygen permeation, 150t
water vapor permeation, 150t
Dow Chemical Low Acrylonitrile ABS film, 78t
Dow Chemical Low-Density Polyethylene:
gas permeation, 151t
solvent vapor permeation, 152t
Dow Chemical Medium Acrylonitrile Content
ABS film, 78t
Dow Chemical Styron PS film, 85f
Dow Chemical Trycite Oriented PS film, 84t
Dow Chemical Tyril Low Acrylonitrile Content SAN, 87t
INDEX 331Dow Ethocel ethyl cellulose film, 298f
Dow Saranex 25 Co-extruded Barrier film, 315t
Dow Saranex 650, 652 Co-extruded Barrier film,
315t
Dow Saranex PVDC, 185f
Dow Saranex PVDC Multilayer films:
oxygen permeation, 183t
water permeation, 183t
Dow Saran PVDC films:
gas permeation, 184t
hydrogen sulfide permeation, 185f
oxygen permeation, 182t
water vapor permeation, 184t
drink containers, 66
drug encapsulation, 67
dual-mode sorption, 7, 7f
DuPont Delrin POM Homopolymer, 249t
DuPont Elastomers Vamac AEM, 263f, 264t
DuPont Elastomer Viton Elastomers, 276t, 277t
DuPont Elvax EVA:
oxygen permeation, 162t
water vapor permeation, 162t
DuPont Fluorocarbon FEP film:
gas permeation, 203t
vapor permeation, 203te204t
DuPont Hyrtel Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer,
257t, 258t
DuPont Kapton film:
gas permeation, 119t
oxygen permeation vs. temperature, 119f
water vapor permeation, 119t, 120t
DuPont Lamellar Structured Containers:
oxygen permeation, 308t
water vapor transmission, 308t
DuPont Mylar PET, 105f
DuPont Nafion, 192, 192f
DuPont nylon, 6, 130f
DuPont Nylon/HDPE Lamellar Structured Containers:
oxygen permeation, 308t
water vapor transmission, 308t
DuPont Performance Elastomers Neoprene
Polychloroprene Rubber Vulcanizate, 269t,
270t
DuPont Selar amorphous polyamide:
oxygen permeation vs. relative humidity, 126f
oxygen permeation vs. temperature, 125f
DuPont Selar with nylon 6, 127f
DuPont Selar PA Amorphous Nylon, 124t
DuPont Selar RB Polyolefin Lamellar Structured
Containers, 309t, 310t
DuPont SP TTR10AH9 Transparent High Gloss
PVF film, 216t
DuPont Surlyn Sodium Ion Type Ionomer film:
oxygen permeation, 191t
water vapor permeation, 191t
DuPont Surlyn Zinc Ion Type Ionomer film:
oxygen permeation, 190t
water vapor permeation, 191t
DuPont Tedlar PVF, 216t
DuPont Teflon AF, 214e217, 214t
chemical structure, 214f
pure gas permeation coefficients, 214t
DuPont Teflon FEP copolymer:
ammonia permeation, 205t
gas permeation, 206f
hydrogen permeation, 204t
oxygen permeation, 205t
DuPont Teflon NXT, 200t, 202t
DuPont Teflon PFA film, 208t
DuPont Teflon PTFE:
ammonia permeation, 198t
carbon-filled, 199t
hydrogen permeation, 197t
nitrogen permeation, 197t, 199t
oxygen permeation, 198t
DuPont Tefzel, 224t
DuPont Teijin films Mylar PET films:
carbon dioxide permeation, 101t
nitrogen permeation, 101t
oxygen permeation, 101te102t
water vapor permeation, 102t
DuPont Viton Fluoroelastomer, 275t
DuPont Zytel 42 Nylon 66 film, 136t
dyes, 36
Dyneon 500 THV:
hydrogen chloride permeation, 213t
oxygen permeation, 213t
water vapor permeation, 213t
Dyneon 1700 HTE:
gas permeation, 212t
water vapor transmission, 212t
Dyneon 6235G ETFE:
carbon dioxide permeation, 225t
oxygen permeation, 224t
water vapor permeation, 225t
Dyneon 6510N PFA:
gas permeation, 209t
water vapor permeation, 209t
Dyneon FEP, 206t
Dyneon TF 1750 PTFE, 199t
Dyneon TFM 1700 PTFE, 201t
gas permeation, 200t
water vapor permeation, 201t
Dyneon TFM 1750 PTFE, 201t
Dyneon TFM PTFE, 201t
E
Eastman Eastar 5445 PCTG Copolyester film, 99t
Eastman Ecdel 9966 Thermoplastic Copolyester
Elastomer, 258t
332 INDEXeasy-peel film, 60e65
Ecdel 9966 Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer
(Eastman), 258t
ECO see epichlorohydrin rubber
ECTFE see ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer
effusion, 2e3
egg cartons, 66
EIS (electro-impedance spectroscopy), 16
Elastollan TPUs (BASF):
gas permeation, 253t
water vapor permeation, 254t
elastomers, 31, 251e284
definition, 251
ethylene acrylic elastomers, 263e264
olefinic TPEs, 256e257
styrenic block copolymer TPEs, 262
thermoplastic copolyester elastomers, 257e258
thermoplastic polyether block polyamide elastomers,
259e262
thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers, 251e255
See also individual makes
Electometer Payne permeability cups, 10t, 15, 15f
electro-impedance spectroscopy (EIS), 16
electronegativity, 23
Elvax EVA (DuPont):
oxygen permeation, 162t
water vapor permeation, 162t
EMS Chemie Grivory G16 Amorphous Nylon:
carbon dioxide and nitrogen permeation, 123t
oxygen permeation, 123t
water vapor permeation, 123t
EMS-Grivory Grilamid L 25 Nylon 12 Resin, 134t
EMS-Grivory Grilon BM 13 SBG, 141t
EMS-Grivory Grilon BM 20 SBG, 137t
EMS-Grivory Grilon F 34 Type 6 Nylon, 129t
EMS-Grivory Grilon F 50 Type 6 Nylon, 129t
EMS-Grivory Grilon Nylon 6/12 films,
137t, 138t
water vapor permeation, 139t
environmentally friendly polymers, 287e304
cellophane, 291e292
cellulose acetate, 294
ethyl cellulose, 295e299
nitrocellulose, 293
poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, 303e304
polycaprolactone, 299e301
polylactic acid, 301e303
trademarks, 288te290t
EPDM (ethylene-propylene rubbers), 270e271
epichlorohydrin rubber (CO, ECO), 272e273
applications, 273
gas permeation, 273f
monomer/polymer structure, 272f
Zeus Chemicals Hydrin Epichlorohydrin Polymers,
272t, 273t
epichlorohydrin terpolymer (GECO), 272f
EPM, EPDM (ethylene-propylene rubbers), 270e271
EPS (expanded polystyrene), 82e83
ETFE see ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer
Ethocel ethyl cellulose film (Dow), 298f
ethyl cellulose, 295e299
applications, 295
chemical structure, 297f
Dow Ethocel film, 298f
gas permeation, 298t, 298f, 299t
ethylene acrylic acid copolymer (EAA), 190
applications, 190
chemical structure, 190f
ethylene acrylic elastomers (AEM), 263e264
gas permeation, 263t, 264t
liquid permeation, 264t
structural units, 263f
ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE),
226e230
ammonia permeation, 227t
applications, 226
carbon dioxide permeation, 229f
chemical structure, 226f
chlorine permeation, 230f
helium permeation, 229f
hydrogen chloride/sulfide permeation, 230f
nitrogen permeation, 227t, 229f
oxygen permeation, 229f
solvent permeation, 228t
water vapor permeation, 228f
See also Solvay Solexis Halar ECTFE
ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPM, EPDM), 270e271
ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE),
223e226
applications, 224
carbon dioxide permeation, 225t
chemical structure, 223f
chlorine gas permeation, 223f
gas permeation, 226f
oxygen permeation, 224t
water vapor permeation, 225t
ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), 161e163
applications, 163
oxygen permeation, 161f, 162t
polymer structures, 161f
water vapor permeation, 162t, 163f
ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH), 163e178
applications, 164
chemical structure, 163f
copolymer/PE multilayer film, 317f
See also EVAL.; Nippon Gohsei Soarnol EVOH
EVA see ethylene-vinyl acetate
EVAL EF-XL Biaxially Oriented EVOH film:
organic solvents, 171t
oxygen permeation, 169t
INDEX 333EVAL E Series Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
(EVOH) Resins:
carbon dioxide permeation, 176f
gas permeation, 168t
organic solvents, 172t
oxygen permeation, 170t
oxygen transmission, 166t
EVAL Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (EVOH):
fluorocarbon permeation, 166t
Polymer Grade Series, 164t
Resin Grades, 164te165t
EVAL EVOH films, 174f, 175f, 176f
EVAL EVOH Grades, 168t
EVAL F Series Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
(EVOH) Resins:
organic solvents, 172t
oxygen permeation, 170t, 171t
oxygen transmission rate, 165t
EVAL G Series Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
(EVOH) Resins, 167t
EVAL H Series Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
(EVOH) Resins:
gas permeation, 169t
oxygen permeation, 167t
EVAL K Series Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
(EVOH) Resins, 167t
EVOH see ethylene-vinyl alcohol
Exopack Performance films Inc. Dartek Nylon 66 films,
135t
Exopack Scairfilm LWS-1/LWS-2 Laminating MDPE
films, 153t
Exopack Sclairfilm LX-1 LLDPE film, 151t
expanded polystyrene (EPS), 82e83
Extem XH 1015 PEI membranes, 116t
extenders, 36
extruded polystyrene (XPS), 82e83
extrusion, 39, 47
blow molding, 54
blown film process, 39e41
consumer packaging polystyrene, 60e65
Exxon Butyl Rubber, 267t
Exxon Chlorobutyl 1068 Chlorobutyl Rubber, 270t
ExxonMobil Chemical Model Formula Compounds, 265t
Exxon Vistalon Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Copolymer
(EPM) Rubbers, 271t
F
fabric film laminates, 62e65
FEP see fluorinated ethylene propylene
Ferro-Advanced Polymer Alloys Alcryn AEM:
gas permeation, 263t
liquid permeation, 264t
fiber extruder process, 53f
fiber spinning process, 53f
Fick’s law of diffusion, 3, 4
fillers, 31e33
film dies, 40f, 42f, 43f
films:
lamination, 49e50
post-production, 44e45
production, 39e57
purpose, 59
solvent-casting process, 42e44, 44f
See also barrier films; individual makes of film;
membranes; polymer films
fire retardants, 33
FKM see fluoroelastomers
flame lamination, 49e50
flame retardants, 33
flavor permeation: packaging, 60
Flory-Huggins model, 6, 6f
fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 203e207
ammonia permeation, 205t
applications, 203
chemical structure, 203f
fuel vapor permeation, 206t
gas permeation, 203t, 206f, 207f
helium permeation, 206f
hydrogen permeation, 204t
nitrogen permeation, 206f
oxygen permeation, 205t
vapor permeation, 203te204t
fluorination, 56e57
Fluorocarbon FEP film (DuPont):
gas permeation, 203t
vapor permeation, 203te204t
fluoroelastomers (FKM), 273e278
applications, 275
curing chemistry, 274t, 275t
monomer structures, 274f
Solvay Solexis Tecnoflon FKM Fluoroelastomers, 276t
fluoropolymers, 195e230
amorphous fluoropolymer, 214e215
ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer, 226e230
ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer, 223e226
fluorinated ethylene propylene, 203e207
hexafluoropropylene, tetrafluoroethylene, ethylene
terpolymer, 212
melting point ranges, 196t
monomer structures, 195f
perfluoroalkoxy, 207e210
polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 217e219
polytetrafluoroethylene, 196e202
polyvinyl fluoride, 215e217
polyvinylidene fluoride, 219e222
Teflon AF, 214e215
tetrafluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene, vinylidene
fluoride terpolymer, 212e214
foam extrusion thermoforming, 62e65
food wrap film, 62e65
334 INDEXFord reference fuels, 321e322
form fill and seal packaging, 60e65
fruit trays, 66
fuel composition references, 321e322
fuel hoses/tanks, 67e68
G
gases:
effusion, 2e3
transport through solid materials, 2e9
gas permeation:
history, 1, 2
test cells, 14
gas separation membranes, 71
GECO (epichlorohydrin terpolymer), 272f
general purpose polystyrene see polystyrene
geomembranes, 62e65
geometric isomers, 25e26
Geon 101-EP-100 PVC film (Polyone), 180f
German Institute for Standardization see DIN
glassy polymers, 8f
gloves, 68e69
permeation/degradation resistance chart, 323e328
GPPS (general purpose polystyrene) see polystyrene
graft copolymers, 22
Graham’s law, 2e3
Graham, Thomas, 1, 2
gravure coating, 45e46
’green’ polymers see environmentally friendly polymers
Grilon see EMS-Grivory Grilon.
Grivory see EMS.
H
Halar ECTFE see Solvay Solexis Halar ECTFE
HDPE see high-density polyethylene
head-to-tail isomers, 25
heat resistant film, 62e65
heat seal resins, 62e65
heat-shrinkable polypropylene film, 62e65
Henry’s law, 3, 4, 6f
hexafluoropropylene, tetrafluoroethylene, ethylene
terpolymer (HTE), 212
gas permeation, 212t
water vapor transmission, 212t
high-clarity LLDPE film, 62e65
high-density polyethylene (HDPE), 153e156
ammonia permeation, 155t
fuel tanks, 67
gas permeation, 154t, 156f
hydrogen permeation, 154t
nitrogen permeation, 155t
NOVA Chemicals Sclair HDPE films, 154t
oxygen permeation, 154t, 155t
high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), 22, 83, 83f
high-performance polyamide, 142e144
high-performance/temperature polymers, 233e250
HIPS see high-impact polystyrene
history, 1e2
hollow fiber modules, 72e73
homopolymer PTFE, 197e202
homopolymers, 21e22, 156, 197e202
Honeywell Aclar Multilayer films, 315t
Honeywell Aclar PCTFE film, 217t, 218t
Honeywell Aegis Nylon 6/66 films, 139t
Honeywell Capran Oxyshield 1545 and 2545, 313t
Honeywell Capran Oxyshield Plus, 313t
Honeywell Plastics Aegis Nylon 6 films, 128t
Honeywell Plastics Capron Nylon 6 films:
gas permeation, 128t
water vapor permeation, 128t
Honeywell Series R PMP films, 160t
hoses: fuel, 67e68
Hostaform POM Copolymer (Ticona), 249t, 250f
Hostaphan RN 25 Biaxially Oriented PET Release film
(Mitsubishi):
aroma permeation, 104t
gas permeation, 103t
vapor permeation, 104t
hot roll/belt lamination, 49, 50f
HTE see hexafluoropropylene, tetrafluoroethylene,
ethylene terpolymer
Hydrin Epichlorohydrin Polymers (Zeus Chemicals),
272t, 273t
hydrogen bonding, 27
Hyflon MFA (Solvay Solexis):
oxygen and water permeation, 211f
vapor permeation, 210te211t
Hyflon PFA (Solvay Solexis), 210f
Hyrtel Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer (DuPont),
257t, 258t
I
IBM (injection blow molding), 54
immersion coating, 47, 49f
impact copolymers, 156
impact modifiers, 35
Imperm 105 nanoclay-filled nylon-MXD6 PAA films
(Nanocor), 143f
industrial films, 62e65
INEOS ABS Lustran 246 ABS:
gas permeability coefficients, 80f
permselectivity vs. temperature, 80f
INEOS Barex Acrylonitrile-Methyl Acrylate
Copolymers:
gas permeation, 188t
water vapor permeation, 188t
injection blow molding (IBM), 54
Innovative Plastics see Sabic
Innovia Cellophane films, 292t
instron peel test, 18, 18f
INDEX 335inter/intramolecular attractions, 27e28
ionomers, 190e192
IPA (isophthalic acid), 142e143
isomers, 25e27
geometric isomers, 25e26
stereoisomers, 26e27
structural isomers, 25
isophthalic acid (IPA), 142e143
isoprene, 278f
ISO standards, 12te13t
isotactic polypropylene, 26
J
JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards), 13t
juice packaging, 66
K
Kapton film (DuPont):
gas permeation, 119t
oxygen permeation vs. temperature, 119f
water vapor permeation, 119t, 120t
kinetic diameter, 3, 3t
knife on roller coating, 46
L
lactic acid to polylactic acid conversion, 301f
lamellar structures, 306e310
injection molding, 307t
oxygen permeation, 308t
solvent permeation, 309t, 310t
water vapor transmission, 308t
See also DuPont Lamellar Structured Containers;
DuPont Nylon/HDPE Lamellar Structured
Containers; DuPont Selar RB Polyolefin Lamellar
Structured Containers
lamination, 49e50
flame lamination, 49e50
hot roll/belt lamination, 49, 50f
Langmuir model, 6e7, 6f
Lanxess Baypren Polychloroprene Rubber Vulcanizate,
269t
Lanxess Butyl Butyl Rubber (Bayer), 268t
Lanxess Krylene Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (Bayer), 284t
Lanxess Krynac Nitrile Rubber (Bayer):
air permeation, 282t
air vs. temperature, 283f
gas permeation, 282t
LCP see liquid crystalline polymers
LDPE see low-density polyethylene
linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), 151
linear polymers, 22e23
liquid crystalline polymers (LCP), 89e92
applications, 89
carbon dioxide permeation, 92t
chemical structure, 90f
hydrogen permeation, 91t
oxygen permeation, 91t
Ticona Vectra A950 LCP, 90f, 91t
Ticona Vectra LCP films, 91t, 92t
water vapor transmission, 92t
LISIM Technology, 52f
LLDPE (linear low-density polyethylene), 151
LlyondellBasell Adflex PP:
carbon dioxide permeation, 158t
oxygen permeation, 158t
LlyondellBasell polyolefins polypropylene, 157t
LlyondellBassell polyolefins polyethylene:
gas permeation, 147f
solvent vapor transmission, 148f
water vapor transmission, 147f
low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 151e152
gas permeation, 151t
solvent vapor permeation, 152t
lubricants, 34
Lubrizol Estane Breathable TPU, 252t
Lubrizol Estane TPU:
gas/vapor permeation, 252t
solvent vapor permeation, 253t
Lucite Diakon Polymethyl Methacrylate:
gas permeation, 186t
water vapor permeation, 187t
Lupolen V EVA (BASF AG), 161f
Luran SAN (BASF):
oxygen permeation, 87t
water vapor permeation, 87t
Luran S ASA films (BASF):
gas permeation, 81t, 82t
water vapor permeation, 82t
M
machine direction orientation (MDO), 51
Makrolon PC (Bayer MaterialScience), 94te95t,
95te96t, 96te97t
Marlex HDPE (Chevron Philips), 154t
MDO (machine direction orientation), 51
MDPE (medium-density polyethylene), 153e156
measurement:
diffusivity units, 4
permeability, 14
solubility units, 4
standard units, 4
vapor transport, 14
meat trays, 66
medical molds/packaging, 62e65
medium-density polyethylene (MDPE), 153e156
melting points: fluoropolymers, 196t
membranes:
commercial processes, 69e75
dialysis, 69e70
gas separation, 71
336 INDEXpervaporation, 70e71
processes, 69e75
production, 39e57, 52e53
purpose, 59
reverse osmosis, 70
structures, 72e75
See also films
metalized films, 305
oxygen/water vapor transmission, 306t
Vacmet Metalized Plastic films, 306t
metering rod coating, 47, 48t
Meyer rod coating, 47, 48t
MFA copolymer, 210e212
mica, 36
milk packaging, 66
Mirrex PVC (VPI):
oxygen permeation, 180t
water vapor permeation, 180t
Mitsubishi gas chemical nylon-MXD6 PAA films, 142f
Mitsubishi Polyester film Hostaphan RN 25 Biaxially
Oriented PET Release film:
aroma permeation, 104t
gas permeation, 103t
vapor permeation, 104t
modified atmosphere packaging, 62e65
modified PTFE, 202
moisture protection: packaging, 59
molding of containers, 53e56
molecules:
dipole moments, 23t
molecular weight, 28e29
steric hindrance, 24e25
See also polymers
monomers: molecular arrangement, 22
mulch films, 60e65
multilayered films, 9, 39, 40, 65, 65fe66f, 305e317
lamellar structures, 306e310
metalized films, 305
oxygen permeation vs. relative humidity,
316f, 317f
silicon oxide coating technology, 305e306
xylene permeation, 316f
multiphase polymer blends, 30e31
Mylar PET (DuPont), 105f
N
Nafion (DuPont), 192, 192f
Nanocor Imperm 105 nanoclay-filled nylon-MXD6 PAA
films, 143f
natural rubber, 278e280
air permeation, 279f, 279t
gas permeation, 280f
NBR see acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer
Neoflon FEP film (Daikin), 207f
Neoflon PCTFE film (Daikin Industries), 218t
Neoprene Polychloroprene Rubber Vulcanizate (DuPont),
269t, 270t
network polymers, 22e23
nine-layer blown film die, 43f
Nippon Gohsei Soarnol EVOH:
chloroform permeation, 174t
kerosene permeation, 174t
oxygen permeation vs.
ethylene content, 177f
film thickness, 177f
relative humidity, 178f
temperature, 178f
water vapor permeation, 173t
nitrile rubber, 282te283t, 283f
nitrocellulose, 293
chemical structure, 293f
gas permeation, 293t
Nollet, Jean-Antoine, 1
non-Fickian diffusion, 5
nonporous dense polymer membranes, 4
NOVA Chemicals Sclair HDPE films, 154t
nylons see polyamide.
O
odor permeation: packaging, 60
olefinic TPEs (TPO), 256e257
applications, 256
gas permeation, 256t
water vapor transmission, 256t
OPS films, 83
optical brighteners, 35
orientation of polymers, 30, 50e52
oriented/un-oriented nylon 6, 129t
P
packaging:
ASTM standards, 11te12t
atmospheric gas transmission, 59e60
barrier films, 59e65
categories, 59
DIN standards, 13t
flavor permeation, 60
ISO standards, 12te13t
JIS standards, 13t
odor permeation, 60
oxygen transmission, 59e60
water vapor protection, 59
PAI see polyamide-imide
parylene (poly(p-xylylene)), 245e247
applications, 247
gas permeation, 246t
polymer molecule structures, 246f
water vapor permeation, 247t
PB see polybutadiene
PBI see polybenzimidazole
INDEX 337PBI Performance Products Inc. Celazole
PBI membrane:
carbon dioxide permeation, 245f
hydrogen permeation, 244f
PBT see polybutylene terephthalate
PC see polycarbonate
PCT see polycyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate
PCTFE see polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PDMS see polydimethyl siloxane
PE see polyethylene
PEBA see thermoplastic polyether block polyamide
elastomers
PEBAX films see Arkema
PEEK see polyetheretherketone
PEI see polyetherimide
PEN see polyethylene naphthalate
perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 207e211
applications, 208
chemical structure, 208f
comonomers, 207t
gas permeation, 208t, 209t, 210f
Solvay Solexis Hyflon PFA, 210f
water vapor permeation, 209t
perfluoropolymers see fluoropolymers
perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA), 192
permeability coefficients:, 319e320
permeability cups, 10t, 15, 15f
permeants: Arrhenius equation parameters, 8t
permeation: definition, 1
permselectivity, 71
pervaporation membranes, 70e71
PES see polyethersulfone
PE shrink film, 62e65
PET see polyethylene terephthalate
PFA see perfluoroalkoxy
PFSA see perfluorosulfonic acid
PGA see polyglycolic acid
PH3B, 303f
PHA see poly-3-hydroxybutyrate
pharmaceutical blister packs, 62, 64f
PHBV: chemical structure, 303f
PHV: chemical structure, 303f
PI see polyimide
pigments, 36
PLA see polylactic acid
plastic beads, 39, 39f
plastic compositions, 30e37
plasticizers, 7f, 35
plate and frame modules, 72
PMMA see polymethyl methacrylate
PMP see polymethylpentene
polarity, 23
poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHA), 303e304
applications, 303e304
permeability coefficients, 304t
polyacrylics, 186e187
polyamide 6 (nylon 6), 126e131
applications, 127
carbon dioxide permeation, 130f
chemical structure, 127f
gas permeation, 128t, 129t
hydrogen sulfide permeation, 130f
oxygen permeation, 127f, 129t
water vapor permeation, 128t
polyamide 6/12 (nylon 6/12), 137e139
applications, 137
chemical structure, 137f
oxygen and carbon dioxide permeation,
137t, 138t
water vapor permeation, 139t
polyamide 6/69 (nylon 6/69), 140e141
polyamide 11 (nylon 11), 131e133
applications, 131
chemical structure, 131f
gas permeation, 132f, 132t, 133f
polyamide 12 (nylon 12), 133e134
chemical structure, 133f
gas permeation, 134t, 134f
natural gas permeation vs. temperature, 134f
water vapor permeation, 134t
polyamide 66 (nylon 66), 135e136
applications, 135
carbon dioxide permeation, 135t
chemical structure, 135f
gas permeation, 136t
oxygen permeation, 135t
water vapor permeation, 135t, 136t
polyamide 66/610 (nylon 66/610), 136e137
applications, 136
chemical structure, 136f
gas/water vapor permeation, 137t
polyamide 666 (nylon 666 or 6/66), 139e140
polyamide-imide (PAI), 107e113
applications, 107
carbon dioxide permeation, 112f
chemical structures, 107f, 108f
gas permeation, 110t, 111f
methane permeation, 113f
nitrogen permeation, 111f
oxygen permeation, 112f
polyamides (nylons), 121e144
amino acids, 122f
amorphous polyamide, 122e123
diacids, 122f
diamines, 122f
generalized reaction, 121f
monomers, 121t
polyamide 6, 126e131
polyamide 6/12, 137e139
polyamide 6/69, 140e141
338 INDEXpolyamide 11, 131e133
polyamide 12, 133e134
polyamide 66, 135e136
polyamide 66/610, 136e137
polyamide 666, 139e140
polyarylamide, 141e142
polyphthalamide, 142e144
polyanhydrides, 287e288, 287f
polyarylamide, 141e142
applications, 142
chemical structure, 141f
polybenzimidazole (PBI), 243e245
applications, 244
carbon dioxide permeation, 245f
chemical structure, 244f
hydrogen permeation, 244f
PBI Performance Products Inc. Celazole PBI
membrane, 244f, 245f
polybutadiene (PB), 158e159
applications, 159
nitrogen and helium permeation coefficients, 159f
structural isomers, 158f
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 92e93
applications, 93
chemical structure, 93f
gas/water vapor permeation, 93t
polycaprolactone, 299e301
applications, 299
chemical structure, 299f
oxygen permeation, 300t, 301t
starch and glycerol blends, 300t, 301t
water vapor permeation, 300t
polycarbonate (PC), 93e99
applications, 94
carbon dioxide permeation, 96te97t, 99f
chemical structure, 89f, 93f, 94f
helium permeation, 98f
methane permeation, 98f
nitrogen permeation, 95te96t, 97t
oxygen permeation, 94te95t, 97t
polychloroprene, 268e270
polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 217e219
applications, 217
chemical structure, 217f
gas permeation, 218t, 219t
water vapor permeation, 217t, 218t
polycyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate (PCT), 99
applications, 99
chemical structure, 99f
polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS):
gas permeation, 235f, 237f
gas separation, 236f
helium and nitrogen permeation, 236f
polyesters, 89e105
liquid crystalline polymers, 89e92
polybutylene terephthalate, 92e93
polycarbonate, 93e99
polycyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate, 99
polyethylene naphthalate, 100
polyethylene terephthalate, 100e105
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 233
amorphous/crystalline permeation, 234t
chemical structure, 233f
VICTREX Morphology PEEK-Based APTIV film,
234t, 234t
water vapor transmission, 234t
polyetherimide (PEI), 113e118
applications, 115
chemical structures, 113f, 114f, 114f
gas/water vapor permeation, 115t, 116t, 118f
hydrogen/ethane, hydrogen/methane and hydrogen/
nitrogen permeation vs. pressure differential,
117f
hydrogen/propane permeation selectivity vs. pressure
differential, 117f
Sabic Innovative Plastics Ultem 1000 PEI, 116t
Westlake Plastics Tempalux PEI film, 115t
polyethersulfone (PES), 241e243
applications, 241
carbon dioxide permeation, 243f
chemical structure, 241f
gas permeation, 242t
helium permeation, 242f
methane permeation, 243f
Sabic Innovative Plastics Ultem 1000 PES, 242t
polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 100
applications, 100
chemical structure, 100f
polyethylene (PE), 145e156
applications, 146
crystal structure, 146f
gas permeation, 147f, 149f
high-density polyethylene, 153e156
linear low-density polyethylene, 151
low-density polyethylene, 151e152
medium-density polyethylene, 153
solvent vapor transmission, 148f
sulfur dioxide permeation, 149f
types, 146f
ultra-low density polyethylene, 150
unclassified polyethylene, 146e149
water vapor transmission, 147f
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 100e105
applications, 101
aroma permeation, 104t
carbon dioxide permeation, 101t
chemical structure, 100f
containers, 66
gas permeation, 105f, 103t
hydrogen sulfide permeation, 105f
INDEX 339polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (Continued)
Mitsubishi Polyester Film Hostaphan RN Biaxially
Oriented PET Release film, 103t, 104t
nitrogen permeation, 101t
oxygen permeation, 101te102t
vapor permeation, 104t
water vapor permeation, 102t
polyglycolic acid (PGA), 288, 288f
polyhydro-xyalkanoates, 303f
polyimide (PI), 118e120
applications, 118
chemical structures, 118f
monomer structures, 118f
polyimides, 107e120
monomer structures, 115f
polyamide-imide, 107e113
polyetherimide, 113e118
polyimide, 118e120
polyisoprene, 278f
polyketones see polyetheretherketone
polylactic acid (PLA), 301e303
applications, 301
carbon dioxide/methane permselectivity vs.
temperature, 303f
carbon dioxide permeation coefficient vs. temperature,
302f
conversion from lactic acid, 301f
methane permeation coefficient vs. temperature, 302f
nitrogen permeation coefficient vs. temperature, 302f
oxygen permeation coefficient vs. temperature, 303f
polymer films:
ASTM standards, 11te12t
DIN standards, 13t
ISO standards, 12te13t
JIS standards, 13t
pore-flow model, 4
solution-diffusion model, 4, 4f
polymerization, 21
polymers:
additives, 31e37
Arrhenius equation parameters, 8t
blends, 30e31
chain entanglement, 27e28
classification, 28e30
definition, 21
film-casting processes, 45t
fluorination, 56e57
hydrogen bonding, 27
inter/intramolecular attractions, 27e28
molecular weight, 28e29
orientation, 30, 50e52
polarity, 23
unsaturation, 23e24
Van der Waals forces, 27
See also molecules
polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 186
chemical structure, 186f
gas permeation, 186t
Lucite Diakon Polymethyl Methacrylate,
186t
permeability data, 187f
water vapor permeation, 187t
Wood-Adams polymethyl methacrylate, 187f
polymethylpentene (PMP), 159e160
applications, 159e160
chemical structure, 159f
water transmission, 160t
polyolefins, 145e192
LlyondellBasell polyolefins polyethylene,
147f, 148f
LlyondellBasell polyolefins polypropylene,
157t
monomer structures, 145f
Polyone Geon 101-EP-100 PVC film, 180f
polyoxymethylene (POM), 247e248
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 234e237
applications, 237
chemical structure, 237f
gas permeation, 238t
liquid vapor transmission, 238t
polyphthalamide (PPA), 142e144, 143f
polypropylene (PP), 26, 156e158
applications, 156
carbon dioxide permeation, 158t
gas permeation, 157t
oxygen permeation, 158t
poly(p-xylylene), 245e247
polysiloxane, 233e234
chemical structure, 234f
helium permeation, 235f
polystyrene (PS), 82e86
chemical structure, 82f
gas/water vapor permeation, 84t, 85f, 86f
Polystyrol 168 N GPPS film (BASF AG), 84t
polysulfone (PSU), 237e241
applications, 237e238
carbon dioxide permeation, 240f, 241f
chemical structure, 238f
gas permeation, 239t
helium permeation, 239f
methane permeation, 240f
water vapor permeation, 239t
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 196e202
ammonia permeation, 198t
chemical structure, 196f
gas permeation, 200t
hydrogen chloride permeation, 201t
hydrogen permeation, 197t
nitrogen permeation, 197t, 199t
oxygen permeation, 198t, 199t
340 INDEXpermeation comparisons, 200t
sulfur dioxide permeation, 202f
water vapor permeation, 201t
polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 182e186
chemical structure, 182f
gas permeation, 184t, 186f
hydrogen sulfide permeation, 185f
oxygen permeation, 182t, 183t
oxygen transmission, 185f
water permeation, 186f, 183t
water vapor permeation, 184t
polyvinyl butyral (PVB), 179
chemical structure, 179f
gas permeation, 179t
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 179e181
applications, 179
carbon dioxide permeation, 180f
hydrogen permeation, 180f
oxygen permeation, 180t
oxygen permeation vs.
plasticizer level, 181f
temperature, 181f
Polyone Geon 101-EP-100 PVC film, 180f
VPI Mirrex PVC, 180t
water vapor permeation, 180t
polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 215e217
applications, 215
chemical structure, 215f
gas permeation, 216t
hydrogen permeation, 217f
vapor permeation, 216t
polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC):
applications, 182
coated cellophane film, 291t
coated nylon/EVOH copolymer/PE multilayer film,
316f
Dow Saranex PVDC, 185f
Dow Saranex PVDC Multilayer films, 183t
Dow Saran PVDC, 182t, 184t, 185f
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 219e223
applications, 219
Arrhenius plot, 9f
chemical structure, 219f
gas permeation, 221f, 220t
Solvay Solexis Solef 1008 PVDF, 220t
Solvay Solexis Solef PVDF film, 221f, 222f
water permeation, 222f
water vapor permeation, 221f
polyvinyls, 145e192
monomer structures, 145f
POM (polyoxymethylene), 247e250
pore-flow model, 3e9
post film formation processing, 44e45
poultry trays, 66
PP see polypropylene
PPA (polyphthalamide), 142e144
PP/EVOH copolymer/PE multilayer film, 317f
PP liners, 60e65
PPS see polyphenylene sulfide
pressure: solution-diffusion, 5e8
PS see polystyrene
PSU see polysulfone
PTFE see polytetrafluoroethylene
pull-off adhesion tests, 18e19, 19
PVB see polyvinyl butyral
PVC see polyvinyl chloride
PVDC see polyvinylidene chloride
PVDC-coated nylon/EVOH copolymer/PE multilayer
film, 316f
PVDF see polyvinylidene fluoride
PVF see polyvinyl fluoride
R
random copolymers, 22, 156
reference fuel compositions, 321e322
reinforced plastics, 31e33
release agents, 33e34
renewable plastics, 287
reverse osmosis membranes, 70
reverse roller coating, 46
Rilsan BESNO P40TL Nylon, 11, 132f, 133f
Rilsan PA11 (Arkema), 132t
Riteflex Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer (Ticona),
257f
rotational molding/rotomolding, 55e56
rubbers, 251e284
acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, 281e283
bromobutyl rubber, 264e266
butyl rubber, 266e268
chlorobutyl rubber, 268e270
epichlorohydrin rubber, 272e273
ethylene-propylene rubbers, 270e271
fluoroelastomers, 273e278
natural rubber, 278e280
styrene-butadiene rubber, 283e284
See also individual rubbers
rubbish bags, 62e65
Ryton PPS films (Chevron Philips):
gas permeation, 238t
liquid vapor transmission, 238t
S
Sabic Innovative Plastics Cycolac ABS, 78t
Sabic Innovative Plastics Ultem 1000 PEI, 116t
Sabic Innovative Plastics Ultem 1000 PES, 242t
salt spray/humidity test, 16e17
SAN see styrene-acrylonitrile
sauce bottles, 60e65
SBC see styrenic block copolymer
SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber), 283e284
INDEX 341Scairfilm LWS-1/LWS-2 Laminating MDPE films
(Exopack), 153t
Scairfilm LX-1 LLDPE film (Exopack), 151t
Sclair HDPE films (NOVA Chemicals), 154t
Sealed House for Evaporation (SHED) test, 67
Selar amorphous polyamide (DuPont), 125f, 126f
Selar with nylon 6 (DuPont), 127f
Selar PA Amorphous Nylon (DuPont), 124t
Selar RB Polyolefin Lamellar Structured Containers
(DuPont), 309t, 310t
SHED (Sealed House for Evaporation) test, 67
sheeting standards, 11te12t, 12te13t
shipping sacks, 62e65
shrink bundling film, 62e65
silage films, 60e65
silicone rubber, 233
silicon oxide coating technology, 305
simultaneous stretching line (LISIM Technology), 52f
single-layer film: time-lag plot, 5f
SiOx-Coated PET film, 306t
SiOx coating, 305
slip additives, 34
slot die coating, 47
smoke suppressants, 33
Soarnol EVOH see Nippon Gohsei Soarnol EVOH
Solef 1008 PVDF (Solvay Solexis), 220t
Solef PVDF film (Solvay Solexis):
gas permeation, 221f
water permeation, 222f
Solexis see Solvay Solexis.
solid materials: transport of gases/vapors, 2e9
solubility pressure, 5e8
solution-diffusion model, 2e9
Solvay Advanced Polymers Amodel PPA, 144t
Solvay Solexis AQUIVION PFSA Membranes, 192t
Solvay Solexis Halar ECTFE:
ammonia permeation, 227t
carbon dioxide permeation, 229f
chlorine permeation, 230f
helium permeation, 229f
hydrogen chloride/sulfide permeation, 230f
nitrogen permeation, 227t, 229f
oxygen permeation, 229f
solvent permeation, 228t
water vapor permeation, 228f
Solvay Solexis Hyflon MFA:
oxygen and water permeation, 211f
vapor permeation, 210te211t
Solvay Solexis Hyflon PFA, 210f
Solvay Solexis Solef 1008 PVDF, 220t
Solvay Solexis Solef PVDF film:
gas permeation, 221f
water permeation, 222f
Solvay Solexis Tecnoflon FKM Fluoroelastomers, 276t
solvent-casting process, 42e44, 45t
soprene-based structural units, 264f
spectroscopy, 16
spiral wound modules, 73e75
stacked dies, 40f
standards:
ASTM, 11te12t
DIN standards, 13t
JIS standards, 13t
stationery films, 62e65
stereoisomers, 26e27
steric hindrance, 24e25
sterile packaging, 62e65
stretch blow molding, 54e55
stretch film, 62e65
structural isomers, 25
styrene: chemical structure, 77f
styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), 77, 86e87
chemical structure, 86f
gas permeation, 87t
water vapor permeation, 87t
styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), 283e184
styrenic block copolymer (SBC) TPEs, 262
applications, 262
carbon dioxide permeation, 262t
nitrogen permeation, 262t
oxygen permeation, 262t
styrenic plastics, 77e87
Styrolux films (BASF):
carbon dioxide permeation, 262t
nitrogen permeation, 262t
oxygen permeation, 262t
Styron PS film (Dow Chemical), 85f
Styron Styron PS, 83t
sugar drink containers, 66f
Surlyn Sodium Ion Type Ionomer film (DuPont):
oxygen permeation, 191t
water vapor permeation, 191t
Surlyn Zinc Ion Type Ionomer film (DuPont):
oxygen permeation, 190t
water vapor permeation, 191t
syndiotactic polypropylene, 26e27
T
Tedlar PVF (DuPont), 216t
Teflon see DuPont Teflon.
Tefzel (DuPont), 224t
Teijin films Mylar PET films (DuPont):
carbon dioxide permeation, 101t
nitrogen permeation, 101t
oxygen permeation, 101te102t
water vapor permeation, 102t
Tempalux PEI film (Westlake Plastics), 115t
ten-layer stacked die, 40f
tenter frames, 52f, 51
terephthalic acid (TPA), 142e143
342 INDEXTerluran ABS films (BASF AG):
gas permeation, 79t
water vapor permeation, 79t
terpolymers, 21e22
tests:
Accelerated Keeping Test, 56, 57t
adhesion tests, 17e19
atlas cell test, 17, 18f
coatings, 15e19
electro-impedance spectroscopy (EIS), 16
fluorinated containers, 56e57
gas permeation test cells, 14
humidity test, 16e17
instron peel test, 18f, 18
permeation, 10e19
pull-off adhesion tests, 18e19
salt spray/humidity test, 16e17
SHED test, 67
vapor permeation cup tests, 14e15
vapor transmission, 10e19
tetrafluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene, vinylidene
fluoride terpolymer (THV), 212e214
applications, 213
hydrogen chloride permeation, 213t
oxygen permeation, 213t
water vapor permeation, 213t
Texin TPU (Bayer MaterialScience), 254f, 255f
thermal stabilizers, 36
thermoplastic copolyester elastomers (TPE-E or COPE),
257e258
thermoplastic polyether block polyamide elastomers
(PEBA), 259e262
applications, 259
helium permeation, 260t
oxygen permeation, 260t
propane permeation, 261t
water vapor permeation, 259t, 261t
thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU), 251e255
gas permeation, 252t, 253t, 255f
Lubrizol Estane Breathable TPU, 252t
Lubrizol Estane TPU, 252t, 253t
molecular structure, 252f
solvent vapor permeation, 253t
water vapor permeation, 252t, 254t
water vapor transmission, 254f
thermoplastics, 29
thermosets, 29
three-layer barrier film structures:
oxygen permeation through EVOH and PVDC barrier
layers, 310t, 311t, 312t, 313t
oxygen permeation through nylon/EVOH/LDPE, 314t
oxygen permeation through PET/EVOH/LDPE, 314t
three-layer blown film die, 42f
THV see tetrafluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene,
vinylidene fluoride terpolymer
Ticona Celcon M25/M90/M270 POM Copolymer,
248t
Ticona Hostaform POM Copolymer, 249t, 250f
Ticona Riteflex Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer,
257f
Ticona Vectra A950 LCP:
chemical structure, 90f
oxygen permeation, 91t
Ticona Vectra LCP films:
carbon dioxide permeation, 92t
hydrogen permeation, 91t
water vapor transmission, 92t
time-lag measurement, 4, 5, 5f
Topas Advanced Polymers TOPAS COC, 160t, 161t
tortuous path effect, 32, 33f
tougheners, 35
TPA (terephthalic acid), 142e143
T-Peel Test, 18, 18f
TPE-E (thermoplastic copolyester elastomers), 257e258
TPO see olefinic TPEs
TPU see thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers
transport of gases/vapors, 2e9
transverse direction orientation, 51
trash bags, 62e65
Trycite Oriented PS film (Dow Chemical), 84t
tubular membrane modules, 73, 74f
two-layer barrier film structures: oxygen permeation
through EVOH/LDPE, 314t
Tyril Low Acrylonitrile Content SAN
(Dow Chemical), 87t
U
UBE 303 XA Nylon 12 Resin, 134t
UBE Industries Upilex films:
gas permeation, 120t
water vapor permeation, 120t
Udel PSU (BASF):
gas permeation, 239t
water vapor permeation, 239t
Ultem 1000 PEI (Sabic Innovative Plastics), 116t
Ultem 1000 PES (Sabic Innovative Plastics), 242t
Ultradur PBT (BASF AG), 93t
ultrafiltration, 73
ultra-low density polyethylene, 150
Ultramid C35 Nylon 6/66 film, 140t
unclassified polyethylene, 146e149
units see measurement
unsaturation, 23e24
Upilex films (UBE Industries), 120t
UV stabilizers, 35
V
Vacmet Metalized Plastic films, 306t
vacuum deposition coating, 47e48, 49f
Vamac AEM (DuPont), 264t
INDEX 343Van der Waals forces, 27
vapor permeation:
cup testing, 14e15
rates, 320
vapor transmission, 2e9
ASTM standards, 11te12t
DIN standards, 13t
ISO standards, 12te13t
JIS standards, 13t
tests, 10e19
Vectra LCP films (Ticona):
carbon dioxide permeation, 92t
hydrogen permeation, 91t
water vapor transmission, 92t
vegetable trays, 66
VICTREX Morphology PEEK-Based APTIV film:
amorphous/crystalline permeation, 234t
water vapor transmission, 234t
vinyl benzene see styrene
viscose: conversion from cellulose, 291f
Vistalon Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Copolymer Rubbers
(Exxon), 271t
Viton Elastomers (DuPont), 276t, 277t
Viton Fluoroelastomer (DuPont), 275t
Voltalef PCTFE film (Arkema), 219t
VPI Mirrex PVC:
oxygen permeation, 180t
water vapor permeation, 180t
vulcanization, 265f
W
water permeation: history, 1
water vapor protection: packaging, 59
web coating, 44e49
Westlake Plastics Tempalux PEI film, 115t
wet adhesion, 10
Wood-Adams polymethyl methacrylate, 187f
X
XPS (extruded polystyrene), 82e83
Z
Zeus Chemicals Hydrin Epichlorohydrin Polymers,
272t, 273t
Zytel 42 Nylon 66 film (DuPont), 136t


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