كتاب Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design - Eighth Edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design - Eighth Edition

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Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design
Eighth Edition
Budynas, Nisbett

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Contents
Budynas−Nisbett • Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, Eighth Edition
Front Matter 1
Preface 1
List of Symbols 5
I. Basics 8
Introduction 8
1. Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design 9
2. Materials 33
3. Load and Stress Analysis 72
4. Deflection and Stiffness 145
II. Failure Prevention 208
Introduction 208
5. Failures Resulting from Static Loading 209
6. Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading 260
III. Design of Mechanical Elements 349
Introduction 349
7. Shafts and Shaft Components 350
8. Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of Nonpermanent Joints 398
9. Welding, Bonding, and the Design of Permanent Joints 460
10. Mechanical Springs 501
11. Rolling−Contact Bearings 550
12. Lubrication and Journal Bearings 597
13. Gears — General 652
14. Spur and Helical Gears 711
15. Bevel and Worm Gears 762
16. Clutches, Brakes, Couplings, and Flywheels 802
17. Flexible Mechanical Elements 856
18. Power Transmission Case Study 909
IV. Analysis Tools 928
Introduction 928
19. Finite−Element Analysis 929
20. Statistical Considerations 952
iiiBack Matter 978
Appendix A: Useful Tables 978
Appendix B: Answers to Selected Problems 1034
Index 103
List of Symbols
This is a list of common symbols used in machine design and in this book. Specialized
use in a subject-matter area often attracts fore and post subscripts and superscripts.
To make the table brief enough to be useful the symbol kernels are listed. See
Table 14–1, pp. 715–716 for spur and helical gearing symbols, and Table 15–1,
pp. 769–770 for bevel-gear symbols.
A Area, coefficient
A Area variate
a Distance, regression constant
aˆ Regression constant estimate
a Distance variate
B Coefficient
Bhn Brinell hardness
B Variate
b Distance, Weibull shape parameter, range number, regression constant,
width
bˆ Regression constant estimate
b Distance variate
C Basic load rating, bolted-joint constant, center distance, coefficient of
variation, column end condition, correction factor, specific heat capacity,
spring index
c Distance, viscous damping, velocity coefficient
CDF Cumulative distribution function
COV Coefficient of variation
c Distance variate
D Helix diameter
d Diameter, distance
E Modulus of elasticity, energy, error
e Distance, eccentricity, efficiency, Naperian logarithmic base
F Force, fundamental dimension force
f Coefficient of friction, frequency, function
fom Figure of merit
G Torsional modulus of elasticity
g Acceleration due to gravity, function
H Heat, power
HB
Brinell hardness
HRC Rockwell C-scale hardness
h Distance, film thickness
h¯ C R Combined overall coefficient of convection and radiation heat transfer
I Integral, linear impulse, mass moment of inertia, second moment of area
i Index
i Unit vector in x-direction
xxiiiBudynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
6 Front Matter List of Symbols © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2008
J Mechanical equivalent of heat, polar second moment of area, geometry
factor
j Unit vector in the y-direction
K Service factor, stress-concentration factor, stress-augmentation factor,
torque coefficient
k Marin endurance limit modifying factor, spring rate
k k variate, unit vector in the z-direction
L Length, life, fundamental dimension length
LN Lognormal distribution
l Length
M Fundamental dimension mass, moment
M Moment vector, moment variate
m Mass, slope, strain-strengthening exponent
N Normal force, number, rotational speed
N Normal distribution
n Load factor, rotational speed, safety factor
n
d Design factor
P Force, pressure, diametral pitch
PDF Probability density function
p Pitch, pressure, probability
Q First moment of area, imaginary force, volume
q Distributed load, notch sensitivity
R Radius, reaction force, reliability, Rockwell hardness, stress ratio
R Vector reaction force
r Correlation coefficient, radius
r Distance vector
S Sommerfeld number, strength
S S variate
s Distance, sample standard deviation, stress
T Temperature, tolerance, torque, fundamental dimension time
T Torque vector, torque variate
t Distance, Student’s t-statistic, time, tolerance
U Strain energy
U Uniform distribution
u Strain energy per unit volume
V Linear velocity, shear force
v Linear velocity
W Cold-work factor, load, weight
W Weibull distribution
w Distance, gap, load intensity
w Vector distance
X Coordinate, truncated number
x Coordinate, true value of a number, Weibull parameter
x x variate
Y Coordinate
y Coordinate, deflection
y y variate
Z Coordinate, section modulus, viscosity
z Standard deviation of the unit normal distribution
z Variate of z
xxiv Mechanical Engineering DesignBudynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
Front Matter List of Symbols © The McGraw−Hill 7
Companies, 2008
List of Symbols xxv
α Coefficient, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, end-condition for
springs, thread angle
β Bearing angle, coefficient
 Change, deflection
δ Deviation, elongation
ǫ Eccentricity ratio, engineering (normal) strain
Normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of s
ε True or logarithmic normal strain
Ŵ Gamma function
γ Pitch angle, shear strain, specific weight
λ Slenderness ratio for springs
L Unit lognormal with a mean of l and a standard deviation equal to COV
µ Absolute viscosity, population mean
ν Poisson ratio
ω Angular velocity, circular frequency
φ Angle, wave length
ψ Slope integral
ρ Radius of curvature
σ Normal stress
σ′ Von Mises stress
S Normal stress variate
σˆ Standard deviation
τ Shear stress
 Shear stress variate
θ Angle, Weibull characteristic parameter
¢ Cost per unit weight
$ Cost
Budynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill 1039
Companies, 2008
1044 Mechanical Engineering Design Useful Tables 1044
1044
Index
A
Abrasion, 723
ABS group, 54
Absolute system of units, 21
Absolute tolerance system, 20
Absolute viscosity, 600
Acetal group, 54
Acme threads, 398–400
Acrylic, 54
Actual stress, 30
Adams, R. D., 483, 489
Addendum, 656
Addendum circle, 656
Adhesive bonding, 480–489
Adhesive joint design, 486–488
Admiralty metal, 53
AGMA equations/standards
bevel gears, 769–783
spur and helical gears, 715–716,
725–745
worm gears, 789–792
AISC code, 471, 472
Algor, 934
Alkyd, 55
Allowance, 19
Alloy cast irons, 50
Alloy steels, 47–48
Allylic, 55
Aluminum, 51–52
numbering system, 41
physical constants, 987
tensile tests, 1023
Aluminum alloy, 51–52, 637, 1023,
1027
Aluminum alloy designations, 41
Aluminum brass, 53
Aluminum bronze, 53–54
American Gear Manufacturers
Association (AGMA), 714. See
also AGMA equation/standards
American Standard Pipe, 1019
Amino group, 55
Anaerobic adhesives, 482
Analysis and optimization, 7
Analysis tools, 912–982
case study. See Power transmission
case study
FEA, 933–955. See also Finiteelement analysis (FEA)
statistics, 957–982. See also
Statistical considerations
Anderson, G. P., 489
Angle of action, 662
Angle of approach, 662
Angle of articulation, 888
Angle of recess, 662
Angle of twist, 95, 97
Angular-contact bearing, 551, 552
Annealing, 45
Annular-pad segment of a caliper brake,
830
Anodizing, 51
Answers to selected problems,
1039–1043
ANSYS, 934
Antiflutter adhesive bonding, 481
Antifriction-bearing lubricant, 587
Antifriction bearings, 550. See also
Rolling–constant bearings
Arc of action, 664
Arc of approach, 664
Arc of recess, 664
Arc-weld symbol, 459
Argyris, J. H., 935n
Arithmetic mean, 960
Ashby charts, 59–62
Ashby, Mike F., 57–62
ASM Metals Handbook, 261
ASME-elliptic failure criterion,
297–300
ASTM numbering system, 41
ASTM specifications (steel bolts), 419
Atkins, Anthony G., 231n
Automated mesh generation, 943
Automobile body, 481
Automotive axle, 348
Automotive disk brake, 829
Average life, 554
AWS code, 472
AWS standard welding symbol, 458
Axial pitch, 672, 675
Axle, 348
BB
10 life, 554
Backlash, 656
Bainite, 45
Bairstow, L., 268n
Ball bearings, 550. See Rolling-constant
bearings
Ball bushings, 553
Band-type clutches/brakes, 824–825
Barsom, J. M., 272
Barth, Carl G., 719
Barth equation, 719
Base circle, 658, 660
Base pitch, 662
Base units, 21
Bathe, K. J., 953n
Bazant, Z. P., 182n
BCM theory, 227
Beach marks, 258
Beam. See also Shear, moment and
deflection of beams
asymmetrical sections, 89–90
bending moments, 71–72
bending stresses, 85–90
curved, in bending, 112–116
deflection, 146–156
shear force, 71–72
shear stresses, 90–95
two-plane bending, 88
Beam deflection methods, 146–156
Bearing alloys, 637
Bearing characteristic number, 602
Bearing life, 553
Bearing load-life log-log curve, 554
Bearing mountings, 571, 573, 587–590
Bearing pressure, 899–900
Bearing Selection Handbook–Revised,
571, 572
Bearing stress, 437
Beer, F. P., 102n, 147n, 173n
Belegundu, A. D., 941n
Belleville springs, 539, 540
Belt, 860–887
flat. See Flat belts
nonreversing/reversing drives, 861
round, 860. See also Flat belts
timing, 860, 862–863, 886–887
types, 860
V. See V belts
Belting equation, 865, 867
Belt-tension schemes, 872
Bending and deflection, 144–146Budynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
1040 Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2008
Bending moments (beams), 71–72
Bending properties (fillet welds), 470
Bending strength geometry factor,
732–733, 773, 774
Bending strength stress-cycle factor,
743
Bending stress
beams, 85–95
bevel gears, 771, 779–782,
787–788
Lewis bending equation, 714–723
spur and helical gears, 725–731, 746,
750, 752–753
torsion springs, 534
welded joints, 469–471
Bennett, S. J., 489
Bergsträsser factor, 501, 519
Beryllium bronze, 54
Beryllium copper, 987
Beryllium-copper wire, 508
Bethlehem Steel, 47
Bevel gears, 655, 670–671, 766–788.
See also Gears
AGMA equation factors, 769–783
bending stress, 771, 779–782,
787–788
carburized case-hard materials,
782–783
contact stress, 768–771, 778, 779,
788
design of straight-bevel gear mesh,
786–788
dynamic factor, 771–772
elastic coefficient, 778
force analysis, 689–692
geometry factors, 773, 774
hardness-ratio factor, 776, 777
intersecting- vs. offset- shaft, 768
load-distribution factor, 773
overload factor, 771
reliability factors, 777, 778
safety factors, 771
size factor, 773
straight-bevel gear analysis,
783–785
stress cycle factors, 775, 776
stresses/strengths, 768–771, 778–782,
787–788
through-hardening, 782
tooth system, 677
types, 670–671, 766–768
wear equations (summary), 781
Bevel lap joint, 483
Beyer, William H., 1038
Bilateral tolerance, 19
Binding head screw, 410
Bis-maleimide adhesive, 482
Blake, J. C., 423n
Boedo, S., 934n
Bolt preload, 411
Bolt strength, 417–421
Bolt torque/bolt tension, 422–425
Bolted and riveted joints loaded in
shear, 435–443
Bonding, 480–489. See also Welding
and bonding—permanent joints
Book, overview, 4
Booser, E. R., 625n
Boresi, Arthur P., 117n, 215n
BOST-FLEX, 845
Bottom land, 656
Boundary conditions, 945–946
Boundary elements, 946
Boundary lubrication, 599, 641
Boundary representation (B-rep), 943
Boundary-lubricated bearings, 640–648
bushing wear, 643–646
linear sliding wear, 641–643
temperature rise, 646–648
Bowman Distribution, 424, 427
Boyd, John, 611–612
Brake linings, 843
Brakes, 805–858. See also Clutches,
brakes, etc.
Brandes, E. A., 283n
Brass, 52–53, 987
Breakeven points, 13–14
B-rep, 943
Brinell hardness, 36
Brinson, H. F., 489
Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory,
227
Brittle materials, 29, 106, 226–230. See
also Failure of brittle materials
Broek, D., 231n
Broghamer, E. I., 723n
Bronze, 53–54
Brown, Thomas H., Jr., 46n, 47n, 165n,
275n, 349n, 370n, 379n, 507n,
508, 738n
Bubble chart, 59
Buckingham, Earle, 319–321, 792, 800,
801
Buckingham load-stress factor, 320
Buckingham wear load, 800–801
Buckingham's adaptation of Lewis
equation, 792
Budynas, Richard G., 83n, 97n, 107n,
113n, 147n, 157, 163n, 228n,
946n, 949n
Burnishing, 670
Bushed-pin bearings, 641
Bushing, 598, 638
Bushing wear, 643–646
Butt and fillet welds, 460–463. See also
Fillet welds
Butt strap lap joint, 483
Button-pad caliper brake, 832, 833
C
CAD software, 8–9, 934. See also
Finite-element analysis (FEA)
Cadmium, 637
CAE, 9
Calculations and significant figures,
22–27
Caliper brakes, 829–833
Cantilever
end load, 993
intermediate load, 993
moment load, 994
uniform load, 994
Cap-screw heads, 409
Carbon steel, 987, 1030
Carburized case-hard materials,
782–783
Carlson, Harold C. R., 506
Cartesian stress components, 75–76
Cartridge brass, 53
Case hardening, 47
Case study. See Power transmission
case study
Case-hardened part, 285–286
Cast iron, 41, 49–50. See also Gray
cast iron
Cast steels, 51
Castigliano's theorem, 158–163, 502
Casting alloys, 51
Castings materials, 49–57
Catalog load rating, 554
Catenary theory, 872
CD steel, 1020
CDF, 959
Cedolin, L., 182n
Cellosics adhesive, 482
Centipoise (cP), 600
Centistokes (cSt), 600
Central loading
columns, 173–176
fixed supports, 999
one fixed and one simple support,
998
simple supports, 995
Centrifugal castings, 42, 667
Centrifugal clutch, 812
Centroidal axis, 85, 113
Ceramics, 57
Cermet pads, 843
CES Edupack, 57
cgs units, 600
Chain drives, 887–895. See also
Roller chain
Chain velocity, 889
Chains for Power Transmission and
Materials Handling, 891
Chandrupatla, T. R., 941n
Charpy notched-bar test, 38, 39
Chevron lines, 259
Index 1045Budynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill 1041
Companies, 2008
Chilled-cast gears, 790
Chordal speed variation, 890
Choudury, M., 415n, 416
Chrome-silicon wire, 506–508
Chrome-vanadium wire, 506–508
Chromium, 47
Chromium-nickel stainless steels, 49
Circle, 1016
Circular pitch, 655, 656, 672
Circular-pad caliper brake, 832, 833
Clamshell marks, 258
Class frequency, 32
Claussen, G. E., 462n
Clearance
defined, 19
gears, 656
journal bearings, 628–630
worm gears, 792
Clearance circle, 656
Clearance fits, 385
Close running fit, 385
Closed thin-walled tubes, 102
Close-wound, 526
Clough, R. W., 936n
Clutches, brakes, etc., 805–858
band-type clutches/brakes, 824–825
brake linings, 843
cone clutches/brakes, 833–835
couplings, 806, 844–845
disk brake, 829–833
drum brake, 812–824, 829
energy considerations, 836–837
external contracting clutches/brakes,
820–824
factors to consider, 806
flywheel, 806, 846–851
friction materials, 841–844
frictional-contact axial clutch,
825–828
internal expanding clutches/brakes,
812–820
overload release clutch, 844, 845
overrunning clutch/coupling, 845
rim clutches/brakes, 812–820
self-acting/self-locking phenomenon,
809
self-deenergization, 807
self-energization, 807, 829
shaft couplings, 845
slippage, 806
square-jaw clutch, 844, 845
static analysis, 807–811
temperature rise, 837–841
Coarse-pitch threads, 398, 399
Code, 12
Coefficient of friction
boundary-lubricated bearings, 642
clutches/brakes, 809
journal bearings, 618, 619
screw threads, 407, 408
worm gears, 795
Coefficient of speed fluctuation, 847
Coefficient of variation, 962
Coffin, L. F., Jr., 270n
Cold drawing, 44
Cold forming, 667
Cold rolling, 44, 667
Cold working, 33–35
Cold-drawn (CD) steel, 1020
Cold-finished bars, 44
Cold-rolled bars, 44
Cold-work factor, 34
Cold-working processes, 44
Collins, J. A., 272n, 296, 319n
Columns, 173. See also Compression
members
Combination of loading modes,
309–313, 339
Commercial bronze, 52
Commercial seal, 590
Companion distribution, 967
Completely reversed sinusoidal
stress, 293
Completely reversing simple loads, 309,
337–338
Composite materials, 55–56
Compound reverted gear train, 681, 914
Compression members, 173–181
columns with eccentric loading,
176–180
intermediate-length columns with
central loading, 176
long columns with central loading,
173–176
struts, 180–181
Compression springs, 502–503. See also
Mechanical springs
end-condition constant, 504
fatigue loading, 518–524
spring ends, 502–503
static loading, 510–516
Compressive strengths, 30–31
Compressive stress, 75, 182
Computational errors, 936
Computational tools, 8–9
Computer-aided design (CAD), 8–9,
934. See also Finite–element
analysis (FEA)
Computer-aided engineering (CAE), 9
Comyn, J., 483, 489
Concept design, 6–7
Cone angle, 833
Cone clutches/brakes, 833–835
Conical spring, 540
Conjugate action, 657
Constant-force spring, 540, 541
Constructive solid geometry (CSG), 943
Contact adhesives, 482
Contact fatigue strength, 320
Contact geometry factor, 773, 774
Contact ratio, 664–665
Contact strength, 320
Contact stress, 117–120. See also Stress
Contact stress cycle factor for pitting
resistance, 775
Continuous random variable, 959
Cook, R. D., 949n, 953n
Copper, 987
Copper-base alloys, 52–54
Copper-lead, 637
Correlation coefficient, 975
Corrosion, 286
corrosion-resistant steels, 48–49
Cost, 12–15
Cost estimates, 15
Coulomb-Mohr theory, 219–222
Couplings, 806, 844–845. See also
Clutches, brakes, etc.
Courant, R., 935n
cP, 600
Crack formation, 259
Crack growth, 232, 271–273
Crack propagation modes, 233
Crafts, W., 47n
Creep, 39
Creep-time curve, 40
Critical buckling load, 949–951
Critical frequency of helical springs,
516–518
Critical speeds, 371–376
Critical stress intensity factor, 234
Critical unit load, 174
Crossed belt, 861, 863
Crowned pulleys, 860
Crowning factor for pitting, 773
CSG, 943
cSt, 600
Cumulative density function (CDF), 959
Cumulative fatigue damage, 313–319
Cumulative frequency distribution, 960
Cumulative probability distribution, 959
Curvature effect, 501–502
Curved beams in bending, 112–116
Curved members and deflection, 163–167
Curved-beam theory, 534
Cyanoacrylate adhesive, 482
Cyclic frequency, 286
Cylinder, 1018
Cylindrical contact, 118–120
Cylindrical fit, 384
D
Dahleh, Marie Dillon, 184n, 371n, 372n
Damage theories, 313–319
Damage-tolerant design, 231
Dandage, S., 615
1046 Mechanical Engineering DesignBudynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
1042 Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2008
Daniel, I. M., 55n
Datsko, Joseph, 34n, 1023
DB mounting, 589
DCM theory, 219–222
DE theory, 213–219, 246
De Wolf, J. T., 102n
Decimal inches (preferred sizes), 1015
Dedendum, 656
Dedendum circle, 656
Deep-groove bearing, 551
Definition of problem, 6
Deflection
FEA, 946
helical springs, 502
power transmission systems, 926–927
shaft, 367–370
SI units, 987
springs, 502, 534–536
stiffness. See Deflection and stiffness
torsion springs, 534–536
Deflection and stiffness, 141–203. See
also Shear, moment and deflection
of beams
beam deflection methods, 146–156
bending and deflection, 144–146
Castigliano's theorem, 158–163
compression members, 173–181. See
also Compression members
curved members, 163–167
elastic stability, 182–183
impact, 183–184
shock, 183–184
spring rates, 142–143
statically indeterminate problems,
168–173
strain energy, 156–158
suddenly applied loading, 184–186
superimposition, 147–150
tension, compression, torsion, 143
variable-cross-section punch-press
frame, 166–167
Degrees of freedom (dof's), 935, 939
Derived unit, 21
Design, 4–5
Design considerations, 8
Design factor, 17–18
Design factor in fatigue, 334–336
Design process, 5–7
Design tools and resources, 8–10
Deterministic method, 16–17
Deterministic quantity, 962
Deviation, 383
DeVries, K. L., 489
DeWolf, J. T., 147n, 173n
DF mounting, 589
Diameter series, 560
Diametral clearance, 19
Diametral pitch, 656
Diamond Chain Company, 894
Die castings, 42, 667
Dieter, George E., 8n
Dillard, David A., 480n
Dimensioning, 19–21
Dimension-series code, 560
Direct load, 440
Direct mounting, 571, 573
Directional characteristics, 285
Discontinuity, 259
Discrete frequency histogram, 961
Discrete random variable, 959
Discretization errors, 936
Disk brake, 829–833
Disk friction member, 826
Distortion-energy (DE) theory,
213–219, 246
dof's, 935, 939
Dolan, Thomas J., 296, 723n
Doorstop, 807, 808
Double butt trap lap joint, 483
Double helical gears, 671
Double V-groove weld, 460
Double-enveloping worm-gear set, 655
Double-lap joint, 483, 484
Double-row bearings, 551, 552
Double-strand roller chain, 887
Double-threaded, 396
Douglas fir, 987
Dowel pin, 379
Dowling, N. E., 222, 228, 270n, 272,
294n
Drawing, 46
Drive pin, 379
Drum brake, 812–824, 829
DT mounting, 589
Ductile cast iron, 50
Ductile Coulomb-Mohr (DCM) theory,
219–222
Ductile materials, 29, 30, 211–225. See
also Failure of ductile materials
Ductility, 34
Dudley, Darle W., 730
Dunkerley's equation, 374
Duplexing, 589
Dyn, 600
Dynamic equivalent radial loads,
578–579
Dynamic factor
bevel gears, 771–772
spur and helical gears, 736–738
Dyne (dyn), 600
E
Eccentric loading
columns, 176–180
shear joints, 439–443
Eccentrically loaded column, 176–180
Eccentrically loaded strut, 180
Eccentricity, 605
Eccentricity ratio, 177, 605
Economics, 12–15
Edge shearing, 436, 437, 439
Effective arc, 863
Effective dimension, 281
Effective slenderness ratio, 504
EHD, 587, 599
Elastic coefficient, 724
bevel gears, 778
spur and helical gears, 736, 737
Elastic creep, 863
Elastic limit, 29
Elastic machine elements. See Flexible
mechanical elements
Elastic stability, 182–183
Elastic strain, 83–84
Elasticity, 142
Elastic-strain line, 270
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHD),
587, 599
Elastomers, 58
Electrolytic plating, 286
Element geometries, 937–939
Element library, 937
Element loads, 945
Elimination approach, 941
End load, cantilever, 993
End-condition constant, 174, 504
End-of-chapter problems, answers,
1039–1043
Endurance limit, 264, 274–275
case-hardened part, 285–286
corrosion, 286
cyclic frequency, 286
directional characteristics, 285
electrolytic plating, 286
frettage corrosion, 286
loading factor, 282
metal spraying, 286
miscellaneous-effects factor, 285–286
modifying (Marin) factors, 278–286,
323–326
reliability factor, 284, 285
residual stress, 285
size factor, 280–281
stochastic analysis, 322–326
surface factor, 279
temperature factor, 282–284
Endurance limit modifying factors,
278–286, 323–326
Energy
brakes/clutches, 836–837
strain, 156–158
Engineering, 264
Engineering stresses/strengths, 30, 31
Engineering stress-strain diagrams, 30
Engineer's creed, 11
Engraver's brass, 53
Index 1047Budynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill 1043
Companies, 2008
Ensign, C. R., 318n
EP lubricants, 640
Epicyclic gear trains, 683
Epoxy, 55
Eppinger, Steven D., 15n
Equation
AGMA. See AGMA
equations/standards
Barth, 719
belting, 865, 867
Dunkerley's, 374
Euler's, 849
Lewis bending, 714–723
Marin, 279
modified Neuber, 327
multipoint constraint, 946
Neuber, 288
Newton's energy loss, 838–839
normal coupling, 241
Petroff's, 602
piecewise differential, 184
plane-stress transformation, 76
Rayleigh's, 371
Reynolds, 609
Equilibrium, 68
Equivalent bending load, 897, 902
Equivalent radial load, 559, 560
Euler column formula, 174
Euler's equation, 849
Evaluation, 7
Expanding-ring clutch, 812
Extension springs, 524–532
External contracting clutches/brakes,
820–824
External self-aligning bearing, 551
Extreme-pressure (EP) lubricants, 640
Extrusion, 43, 667
F
Face width, 678
Face-contact ratio, 731
Factor of safety, 17
Factors of safety. See Safety factors
Failure of brittle materials, 226–230
BCM theory, 227
MM theory, 227–228
MNS theory, 226–227
selection flowchart, 230
summary, 229–230
Failure of ductile materials, 211–225
Coulomb-Mohr theory, 219–222
DE theory, 213–219
MSS theory, 211–212
selection flowchart, 230
summary, 222–225
Failure prevention, 204–345
brittle materials, 226–230. See also
Failure of brittle materials
ductile materials, 211–225. See also
Failure of ductile materials
failure theory selection flowchart,
230
fatigue failure, 257–345. See also
Fatigue failure—variable loading
static loading, 205–255. See also
Failure—static loading
Failure theory selection flowchart, 230
Failure—static loading, 205–255
brittle materials, 226–230. See also
Failure of brittle materials
compression springs, 510–516
ductile materials, 211–225. See also
Failure of ductile materials
failure theory selection flowchart,
230
fracture mechanics, 231–240
photographs of failed parts, 206–208
static strength, 208–209
stochastic analysis, 240–246
stress concentration, 106, 209–210
welding, 474–477
Fastener, 408–410. See also Screws and
fasteners—nonpermanent joints
Fastener stiffness, 410–413
Fatigue crack growth, 271–273
Fatigue ductility coefficient, 269
Fatigue ductility exponent, 269
Fatigue factor of safety, 299, 300
Fatigue failure, 258–263
Fatigue failure—variable loading,
257–345
ASME-elliptic line, 297–300
ball bearings, 564–568
combination of loading modes,
309–313, 339
completely reversing simple loads,
309, 337–338
cumulative fatigue damage, 313–319
design factor, 334–336
endurance limit, 274–275. See also
Endurance limit
fatigue failure, 258–263
fatigue strength, 275–278
fluctuating simple loads, 309,
338–339
fluctuating stress, 292–309, 330–334
Gerber line, 297–299
Langer line, 297–300
linear-elastic fracture mechanics
method, 270–274
Manson method, 318
Marin factors, 278–286
Miner rule, 314–317
modified Goodman diagram, 295
modified Goodman line, 297–299
notch sensitivity, 287–292, 326–330
overview, 264–265
Smith-Dolan locus, 306
Soderberg line, 297–298
strain-life method, 268–270
stress concentration, 287–292,
326–330
stress-life method, 266–268
surface fatigue strength, 319–322
torsional fatigue strength (fluctuating
stress), 309
Fatigue loading
compression springs, 518–524
tension joints, 429–435
welding, 478–480
Fatigue ration, 322, 324
Fatigue strength, 267, 275–278
Fatigue strength coefficient, 269
Fatigue strength exponent, 270
Fatigue stress-concentration factor,
287, 732
Fatigue-life methods, 265–274
linear-elastic fracture mechanics
method, 270–274
strain-life method, 268–270
stress-life method, 266–268
Fazekas, G. A., 833
FEA, 933–955. See also Finite-element
analysis (FEA)
Felbeck, David K., 231n
Felt seal, 590
Ferritic chromium steels, 49
Field, J., 47n
Filler, 55
Fillet, 661
Fillet welds, 460–463
bending properties, 470
parallel, 463
stress distribution, 463
symbols, 459
torsional properties, 466
transverse, 461
Filling notch, 551, 552
Fillister head screw, 409, 410
Film pressure, 621–622
Fine-pitch threads, 398, 399
Finishing the tooth profiles, 670
Finite-element analysis (FEA), 933–935
boundary conditions, 945–946
critical buckling load, 949–951
deflection, 946
element geometries, 937–939
elimination approach, 941
errors, 935–936
historical overview, 935–936
load application, 944–945
mesh generation, 941
modal analysis, 951–952
modeling techniques, 946–949
nodes, 937
partitioning, 941
1048 Mechanical Engineering DesignBudynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
1044 Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2008
reference books, 953
solution process, 939–942
sources of information, 953
stress concentration, 943, 948
thermal stress, 949
vibration analysis, 951–952
Finite-life region, 267
Firbank, T. C., 863–864
First-cycle yield (Langer), 297–300
Fit, 383–388
Fitted bearing, 605
Fixed supports
center load, 999
intermediate load, 1000
uniform load, 1000
Fixed-pad thrust bearing, 639
Flanged two-piece bearings, 638
Flat belts, 860, 862, 863–878
analysis, 868
belting equation, 865, 867
belt-tension schemes, 872
crown height, 869, 871
decision set, 873
efficiency, 863
Firbank's theory, 863–864
flat metal belts, 875–878
geometry, 860, 861
initial tension, 872
materials, 869
pulley correction factor, 869, 871
pulley sizes, 869
tensions, 875
Flat head screw, 410
Flat metal belts, 875–878
Flat springs, 500
Flexible clutch and brake bands,
824–825
Flexible mechanical elements, 859–911
belt. See Belt
flexible shafts, 904–905
inspection schedule, 860
roller chain, 887–895. See also Roller
chain
wire rope, 896–904. See also Wire
rope
Flexible shafts, 904–905
Flexural endurance limit, 319
Flexure formula, 90
Floating caliper brake, 829
Floating shoe, 812, 813
Fluctuating simple loads, 309, 338–339
Fluctuating stress, 292–309, 330–334
Fluid lubrication, 598
Fluoroplastic group, 54
Flywheel, 806, 846–851. See also
Clutches, brakes, etc.
Foams, 58
Force analysis
bevel gears, 689–692
helical gears, 692–694
power transmission system, 925
spur gears, 685–689
worm gears, 694–697
Force fit, 385
Forging, 43
Form cutting, 667
Formulated hot melt adhesive, 482
Forrest, P. G., 325n
Forys, Edward, 503n
Fourier series, 147
fps system, 21–22
Fraction of inches (preferred sizes),
1015
Fracture mechanics, 231–240, 270–274
Fracture toughness, 236
Free running fit, 385
Free-body diagram, 69
Free-cutting brass, 53
Frequency distribution, 959
Frequency function, 959
Fresche, J. C., 318n
Frettage corrosion, 286
Friction
coefficient. See Coefficient of friction
internal-friction theory, 219
Friction drives, 875–878
Friction variable, 618
Frictional-contact axial clutch, 825–828
Fuchs, H. O., 272n
Full bearing, 605
Full-film lubrication, 598
Full-gasketed joints, 429
Fully automated mesh generation, 943
Fundamental deviation, 383
G
Gamma function, 1038
Gasketed joints, 429
Gas-weld symbols, 459
Gates Rubber Company, 880, 884
Gauges, 1031–1032
Gaussian distribution, 965–966,
1001–1002
Gear reducer, 70
Gear train, 678–685
Gears, 653–804
bevel. See Bevel gears
conjugate action, 657
contact ratio, 664–665
drawing gear teeth, 658–664
finishing the tooth profiles, 670
force analysis, 685–697. See also
Force analysis
forming of gear teeth, 667
gear train, 678–685
helical. See Spurs and helical gears
hobbing, 669
interference, 665–667
involute properties, 658
milling, 668
nomenclature, 655–656
power transmission system, 916–923
shaping, 668–669
spur. See Spur gears
tooth systems, 676–678
types, 654–655
worm. See Worm gears
General three-dimensional stress, 82–83
Generating cutters, 667
Generating line, 659
Genetic properties, 1016–1018
circle, 1016
cylinder, 1018
hollow circle, 1016
hollow cylinder, 1018
quarter-circle, 1017
rectangle, 1016
rectangular prism, 1018
right triangle, 1017
rods, 1018
round disk, 1018
Geometrix stress-concentration
factor, 105
Geometry factors
bevel gears, 773, 774
spur and helical gears, 731–736
Gerber, 298
Gerber failure criterion, 297–299
Gere, J. M., 182n
Gib-head key, 380
Gilding brass, 52
Glass, 58, 987
Global instabilities, 182
Goodier, J. N., 103n
Goodman failure criterion, 297–299
Goodman line, 297
Gordon, S. A., 275, 322n, 1030
Gough's data, 322
Gravitational system of units, 21
Gravity loading, 945
Gray cast iron, 49, 106, 987, 1026
Green, I., 415n, 416
Grinding, 670
Grip, 411
Groove welds, 460
Grooved pulleys, 860
Grossman, M. A., 47n
Grover, H. J., 275, 296, 322n, 1030
Guest theory, 211
H
Hagen-Poiseuille law, 600
Hard-drawn wire, 506–508
Index 1049Budynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill 1045
Companies, 2008
Hardness, 36–37
Hardness-ratio factor
bevel gears, 776, 777
spur and helical gears, 741–742
Haringx, J. A., 504n
Haugen, E. B., 284n, 1029
HD spring, 506–508
Heading, 44
Heat-treated steel, 44–47, 1021–1022
Heavy hexagonal screws, 1034
Helical coil compression springs. See
Compression springs
Helical coil extension spring, 524–532
Helical coil torsion springs, 532–539
bending stress, 534
deflection, 534–536
end location, 533–534
fatigue strength, 536–537
spring rate, 534
static strength, 536
where used, 533
Helical gears, 654, 671–675, 692–694.
See also Spur and helical gears
Helical rollers, 552
Helical springs. See Mechanical
springs
Helical-gear geometry factors, 734
Helix angle, 672
Hellan, Kåre, 231n
Hertzian endurance strength, 320
Hertzian stress, 117, 724
Hexagonal nuts, 409, 1035
Hexagonal socket head, 409, 410
Hexagon-head bolt, 408, 409
Hexagon-head cap screw, 409, 1034
Heywood, R. B., 327n
Heywood's parameter, 327
Hidden cycle, 313, 314
High-cycle fatigue, 267
High-leaded brass, 53
Hobbing, 669
Holding power, 376
Hole basis, 383
Hollow circle, 1016
Hollow cylinder, 1018
Hooke's law, 29
Hoop stress, 108
Hopkins, Bruce R., 370n
Horger, Oscar J., 279n, 280, 296, 518n
Horizontal shear stress, 94
Hot rolling, 43
Hot-rolled (HR) steel, 1020
Hot-working processes, 43
HR steel, 1020
Hrennikoff, A., 935n
Hybrid materials, 58
Hydraulic clutch, 812
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 598
Hydrodynamic theory, 605–609
Hydrostatic lubrication, 599
Hypoid gears, 767, 768
I
Identification of need, 5–6
Idle arc, 864
Impact, 183–184
Impact load, 37
Impact properties, 37–39
Impact value, 38
Impact wrenching, 422
Inch-pound-second system (ips), 21
Inconel, 987
Inconel alloy, 508
Indexing, 514
Indirect mounting, 571, 573
Induction motor, 850
Infinite-life region, 267
Influence coefficients, 372
Information sources, 9
Injection molding, 668
Instrument bearings, 553
Interference, 240
defined, 19
gears, 665–667
static loading, 244–246
Interference fits, 385–388
Intermediate load
cantilever, 993
fixed supports, 1000
one fixed and one simple support,
998
simple supports, 995
Internal expanding clutches/brakes,
812–820
Internal gear and pinion, 662, 663
Internal shear force, 71
Internal-friction theory, 219
Internal-shoe device, 812–820
International System of Units. See
SI units
International tolerance grades, 383, 384,
1002, 1004
Intersecting-shaft bevel-type gearings,
768
Invention of the concept, 6–7
Investment casting, 42, 667
Involute curve, 659
Involute helicoid, 671
Involute profile, 657
Involute properties, 658
Involute-toothed pinion and rack, 662
ips system, 21–22
Ishai, O., 55n
IT numbers, 383, 384, 1002, 1004
Ito, Y., 413n
Izod notched-bar test, 38, 39
J
J. B. Johnson formula, 176
Jackson, L. R., 275, 322n, 1030
Jam nut, 410
Jensen, J. K., 760n
J-groove weld, 460
Joerres, Robert E., 309, 507n, 508
Johnson, J. E., 182n
Johnston, E. R., Jr., 102n, 147n, 173n
Joint, 395–497. See also Screws and
fasteners–nonpermanent joints
Jominy test, 47
Journal, 598
Journal bearings. See Lubrication and
journal bearings
Joyce worm-gear screw jack, 400
Juvinall, R. C., 267, 294n
K
Karelitz, G. B., 625n
Kelsey, S., 935n
Kennedy, J. B., 325n
Key, 378–382, 928–929
Kilopound, 21
Kinematic viscosity, 600
Kinloch, A. J., 489
Kip, 21
Krause, D. E., 37n
Kuguel, R., 281n
Kurtz, H. J., 423n
LL
10 life, 554
Labyrinth seal, 590
Lamont, J. L., 47n
Landgraf, R. W., 268n, 270n
Langer line, 297–300
Lang-lay ropes, 896
Lapping, 670
Law of action and reaction, 69
lbf · s2/ft, 21
lbf · s2/in, 21
LCR helical gears, 732
Lead, 396, 676, 987
Lead angle, 676
Lead-base babbitt, 637
Leaded bronze, 637
Leather, 869
Lees, W. A., 489
LEFM, 231, 270–274
Leibensperger, R. L., 587n
Lemmon, D. C., 625n
Lengthwise curvature factor for bending
strength, 773
Levy, S., 935n
1050 Mechanical Engineering DesignBudynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
1046 Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2008
Lewis bending equation, 714–723
Lewis form factor, 717, 718
Lewis, Wilfred, 714
Light-duty toothed coupling, 845
Limits, 19
Limits and fits, 383–388
Line elements, 937
Line of action, 657, 659, 662
Line of contact, 120
Linear damage hypothesis, 566
Linear damage theory, 564
Linear elastic fracture mechanics
(LEFM), 231, 270–274
Linear regression, 974–977
Linear sliding wear, 641–643
Linear spring, 142
Lined bushing, 638
Link plates, 891
Link-type V belts, 880
Lipp, Robert, 665n, 674n
Lipson, C., 279n, 280
Little, R. E., 414n
Load. See Load/loading
Load and stress analysis, 67–139
beams—bending stresses, 85–90
beams—shear stresses, 90–95
bending moments (beams), 71–72
Cartesian stress components, 75–76
contact stress, 117–120
curved beams in bending, 112–116
elastic strain, 83–84
equilibrium, 68
free-body diagrams, 69
general three-dimensional stress, 82–83
Mohr's circle, 76–82
press and shrink fits, 110–111
pressurized cylinders—stress,
107–109
rotating rings—stress, 110
shear force (beams), 71–72
singularity functions, 73–75
stress, 75
stress concentration, 105–107. See
also Stress concentration
temperature effects, 111–112
torsion, 95–104
uniformly distributed stresses, 84–85
Load factor, 425
Load intensity, 71
Load zone, 572
Load-distribution factor
bevel gears, 773
spur and helical gears, 739–740
Loading factor, 282
Load/loading
ball bearings—combined radial and
thrust loading, 559–564
ball bearings—variable loading,
564–568
central. See Central loading
critical buckling load, 949–951
direct load, 440
eccentric. See Eccentric loading
end load, cantilever, 993
fatigue. See Fatigue loading
FEA, 944–945, 949–951
impact load, 37
intermediate load. See Intermediate
load
journal bearings, 636–638
overhanging load, simple supports, 997
proof load, 417
reverse loading, 780
shear. See Shear, moment and
deflection of beams
static load, 206. See also Failure—
static loading
suddenly applied loading, 184–186
transmitted load, 686, 689, 693
twin loads, simple supports, 997
uniform load. See Uniform load
variable load. See Fatigue failure—
variable loading
Load-sharing ratio, 733
Load-stress factor, 320
Local instabilities, 182
Locational clearance fit, 385
Locational interference fit, 385
Locational transition fit, 385
Logan, D. L., 953n
Logarithmic strain, 30
Lognormal distribution, 967–969
Long-time creep test, 39
Loose running fit, 385
Loose-side tension, 864
Low brass, 53
Low-contact-ratio (LCR) helical gears,
732
Low-cycle fatigue, 267
Lower deviation, 383
Low-leaded brass, 53
Lubricant, 598
Lubricant flow, 619–621
Lubricant sump, 621, 622, 625
Lubricant temperature rise, 622–624
Lubrication and journal bearings,
597–651. See also Rolling-constant
bearings
angular speed, 610
boundary-lubricated bearings,
640–648. See also
Boundary–lubricated bearings
bushing, 638
clearance, 628–630
coefficient of friction, 618, 619
design, 609–625
film pressure, 621–622
fitted bearing, 605
full bearing, 605
groove patterns, 638, 639
hydrodynamic theory, 605–609
interpolation, 624–625
loads, 636
lubricant flow, 619–621
lubricant temperature rise, 622–624
materials, 637–638
minimum film thickness, 616–618
nomenclature, 604
partial bearing, 604, 605
Petroff's equation, 601–603
pressure-fed bearings, 630–636
radial clearance, 628–630
Raimondi-Boyd analysis, 611–612,
616–625
relationships between variables,
609–610, 611–625
roller bearings, 587–588
self-contained bearings, 625–628
stable lubrication, 603–604
thick-film lubrication, 604–605
thrust bearings, 639, 640
Trumpler's design criteria, 610–611
types of lubrication, 598–599, 640–641
viscosity, 599–601
viscosity charts, 612–615
Lüder lines, 211
M
M profile, 396, 397
Mabie, H. H., 723n
Macaulay functions, 72–75, 150–156
Macaulay, W. H., 72n
McHenry, D., 935n
Machine-screw head styles, 409, 410
McKee, S. A., 603n
McKee, T. R., 603n
McKee abscissa, 603
Magnesium, 52, 987
Magnesium alloys, 52
Magnetic clutch, 812
Major diameter, 396, 397
Major Poisson's ratio, 56
Malkus, D. S., 953n
Malleable cast iron, 50
Manganese, 48
Manson, S. S., 318n
Manson method, 318
Manson-Coffin relationship, 270
Manual-control shaft, 904
Margin of safety, 240
Marin equation, 279
Marin factors, 278–286, 323–326. See
also Endurance limit
Marin, Joseph, 222n, 279n
Marin loading factor, 325, 326
Marshek, K. M., 294n
Index 1051Budynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill 1047
Companies, 2008
Martensite, 45, 46, 275
Martin, H. C., 936n
Material efficiency coefficient, 60
Material families and classes, 57–58
Material index, 61
Material selection, 56–63
Materials, 27–65
alloy steels, 47–48
aluminium. See Aluminum
belt drives, 869
boundary-lubricated bearings, 641
brakes/clutches, 841–844
cast iron, 41, 49–50. See also Gray
cast iron
casting, 49–51
cold working, 33–35
cold-working processes, 44
composite, 55–56
corrosion-resistant steels, 48–49
finite life fatigue tests, 1029
flat metal belts, 877
hardness, 36–37
heat-treated steel, 44–47
hot-working processes, 43
impact properties, 37–39
investment casting, 42
journal bearings, 636–638
nonferrous metals, 51–54
numbering systems, 40–41
physical constants, 987
plastics, 54–55
powder-metallurgy process, 42–43
sand casting, 41–42
selection, 56–63
shaft, 348–349
shell molding, 42
spring, 505–510
stainless steel. See Stainless steel
statistical significance, 32
steel. See Steel
stochastic yield, 1028
strength and stiffness, 28–31
temperature effects, 39–40
ultimate strength, 1028
wire rope, 897
Materials selection charts, 57
Matrix, 55
Matthews, F. L., 489
Maximum load, 618
Maximum-normal-stress (MNS) theory,
226–227
Maximum-shear-stress (MSS) theory,
211–212
Maxwell's reciprocity theorem,
194, 372
Mean coil diameter, 500
Mechanical engineering design, 5
Mechanical springs, 499–547
Belleville springs, 539, 540
compression springs. See
Compression springs
conical spring, 540
constant-force spring, 540, 541
critical frequency, 516–518
curvature effect, 501–502
deflection, 502
extension springs, 524–532
materials, 505–510
spring ends, 503, 525
stability, 504
stresses, 500–501
surge, 516–518
torsion springs, 532–539. See also
Helical coil torsion springs
translational vibration, 516
volute spring, 540, 541
Median life, 554
Medium drive fit, 385
Member stiffness, 413–417
Mesh, 942
Mesh density, 942
Mesh generation, 941
Mesh refinement, 942
Metal belts, 875–878
Metal spraying, 286
Metal-mold castings, 42
Metals, 57
Metric system. See SI units
Metric threads, 397, 398
Microreyn (mreyn), 600
Millimeters (preferred sizes), 1015
Milling, 668
Miner, M. A., 314n
Miner rule, 314–317, 884
Minimum coefficient of friction, 618
Minimum film thickness, 604, 605,
616–618
Minimum life, 554
Minimum parasitic power loss, 618
Minimum weld-metal properties, 472
Minor diameter, 396, 397
Minor Poisson's ratio, 56
Miscellaneous-effects factor, 285–286
Mischke, Charles R., 35n, 46n, 47n,
147n, 165n, 167n, 228n, 275n,
280n, 322n, 349n, 370n, 379n,
480n, 507n, 508, 738n, 971n,
1023
Mitchiner, R. G., 723n
Mixed-film lubrication, 640–641
MJ profile, 396–397
MM theory, 227–228
N/P, 603
MNS theory, 226–227
Modal analysis, 951–952
Mode I crack, 233
Mode I, plane strain fracture
toughness, 236
Modern Steels and Their Properties
Handbook, 47
Modified Goodman diagram, 295
Modified Goodman failure criterion,
297–299
Modified Goodman line, 298
Modified Mohr (MM) theory, 227–228
Modified Neuber equation, 327
Modified phenolic adhesive, 482
Module, 656
Modulus of elasticity, 29, 83
Modulus of resilience, 65
Modulus of rigidity, 31
Modulus of rupture, 31
Modulus of toughness, 65
Mohr theory of failure, 219
Mohr's circle, 76–82
Mohr's circle diagram, 78, 79
Molded-asbestos lining, 843
Molded-asbestos pads, 843
Molybdenum, 48, 987
Moment. See Shear, moment and
deflection of beams
Moment connection, 464
Moment load, 441
cantilever, 994
simple supports, 996
Moment of area, 86
Moment-area method, 147
Monel metal, 987
Monte Carlo computer simulations, 21
Mounting antifriction bearings, 571,
573, 587–590
reyn, 600
MSC/NASTRAN, 953
MSS theory, 211–212
Multiple-threaded, 396
Multipoint constraint equations, 946
Muntz metal, 53
Murakami, Y., 234n
Music wire, 506–508
N
Nachtigall, A. J., 318n
Nagata, S., 413n
NASA/FLAGRO 2.0, 273
NASTRAN, 934
Naval brass, 53
Neale, M. J., 630
Necking, 30
Needle bearings, 552, 553
Neuber constant, 288
Neuber equation, 288
Neutral axis, 85
Neutral plane, 85
Neville, A. M., 325n
Newmark, N. M., 935n
Newton (N), 21
1052 Mechanical Engineering DesignBudynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
1048 Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2008
Newtonian fluids, 600
Newton's cooling model, 838
Newton's energy loss equation, 838–839
Newton's third law, 69
Newton's viscous effect, 599
Nickel, 48
Nickel silver, 987
Nickel steel, 987
Nine-hoist problem, 901–902
Nitralloy, 731
Nitriding, 730
Nodal loads, 945
Node, 935, 937
Nodular cast iron, 50
Noll, C. J., 279n, 280
Nominal mean stress method, 294
Nominal size, 19
Nominal stress, 105
Nominal stresses/strengths, 31
Nonferrous metals, 51–54
Nonlinear softening spring, 142, 143
Nonlinear stiffening spring, 142
Nonpermanent joints. See Screws and
fasteners—nonpermanent joints
Nonprecision bearings, 553
Nonreversing open belt, 861
Nonsinusoidal fluctuating stress, 293
Normal circular pitch, 672
Normal coupling equation, 241
Normal diametral pitch, 672
Normal distribution, 965–966, 1001–1002
Normal stress, 75
Normalizing, 45
Norris, C. H., 462n
Notch sensitivity, 287–292, 326–330
Notched-bar tests, 38
Notch-sensitivity charts, 287, 288
Numbering systems, 40–41
Numerical integration, 147
Nylon, 54
O
Octahedral shear stress, 215
Octahedral surfaces, 216
Octahedral-shear-stress theory, 215
Offset method, 29
Offset-shaft bevel-type gearings, 768
Oil quench, 45
Oil-actuated multiple-disk clutch-brake,
826
Oiles bearings, 641
Oiliness agents, 640
Oilite bearings, 641
Oil-tempered wire, 506–508
One fixed and one simple support
center load, 998
intermediate load, 998
uniform load, 999
One-dimensional flow, 609
Open thin-walled sections, 103–104
Open-belt drive, 861, 863
Opening crack propagation mode, 233
OQ&T wire, 506–508
Osgood, C. C., 414n
Oval head screw, 410
Overhanging load, simple supports, 997
Overload factor
bevel gears, 771
spur and helical gears, 738
Overload release clutch, 844, 845
Overview of book, 4
P
P, 600
Palmgren, A., 314n
Palmgren-Miner cycle-ratio summation
rule, 314
Parabolic formula, 176
Parallel fillet welds, 463
Parallel helical gears, 671–675. See also
Spur and helical gears
Parent distribution, 967
Paris, P. C., 231n, 234n
Partial bearing, 604, 605
Particulate composite, 56
Partitioning, 941
Pa·s, 600
Pascal-second (Pa·s), 600
PDF, 959
Pedestal bearings, 625
Performance factors, 610
Permanent joints. See Welding and
bonding—permanent joints
Permanent-mold casting, 667
Peterson, R. E., 210, 723n. See also
Pilkey, Walter D.
Petroff's bearing model, 602
Petroff's equation, 602
Phenolics, 55
Phenylene oxide, 54
Phosphor bronze, 53, 987
Phosphor-bronze wire, 507, 508
Physical constants of materials, 987
Piecewise differential equations, 184
Pilkey, Walter D., 210n, 234n, 380n,
429n, 948n
Pillow-block bearings, 625
Pin, 378–379
Pinion, 655, 656
Pinion cutter, 668
Piotrowski, George, 467n
Pipe (American Standard Pipe), 1019
Pitch, 396, 397
Pitch circle, 655, 656, 657
Pitch diameter, 396, 397, 655, 656, 675
Pitch length, 880
Pitch point, 657, 659
Pitch radius, 657
Pitch-line velocity, 687, 691, 698
Pitting, 723
Pitting resistance geometry factor, 734,
773, 774
Pitting resistance stress-cycle factor,
743
Plane slider bearing, 606
Plane stress, 76
Plane-stress transformation
equations, 76
Planetary gear trains, 683, 684
Plastics, 54–55
Plastic-strain line, 270
Plesha, M. E., 953n
Pneumatic clutch, 812
Pocius, A. V., 481, 489
Poise (P), 600
Poisson's ratio, 56, 63, 84, 387, 724, 876
Polyamide, 869
Polycarbonate, 54
Polyester, 54
Polyimide, 54
Polyimide adhesive, 482
Polymeric adhesives, 481
Polymers, 58
Polyphenylene sulfide, 54
Polystyrene group, 54
Polysulfone, 54
Polyvinyl chloride, 54
Pope, J. A., 322n
Population, 960
Positioning drives, 875
Potential energy, 156
Pound-force, 21
Powder-metallurgy process, 42–43, 667
Power screws, 400–408
Power transmission case study, 913–931
bearings, 927–928
design requirements, 23
design sequence, 915–916
design specifications, 24
final analysis, 931
force analysis, 925
gears, 916–923
key, 928–929
power requirements, 916
retaining ring, 929–931
shaft design for deflection, 926–927
shaft design for stress, 926
shaft layout, 923–925
shaft material selection, 925
torque, 916
Power-drive shaft, 904
Preferred sizes, 1015
Preload, 421, 425–428
Preloading, 590
Presentation, 7
Index 1053Budynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill 1049
Companies, 2008
Presetting, 503
Press and shrink fits, 110–111, 353
Pressure angle, 659
Pressure line, 659
Pressure-fed bearings, 630–636
Pressure-sensitive adhesives, 482
Pressurized cylinders, 107–109
Pretension, 411
Primary shear, 440, 464
Principal directions, 77
Principal distribution, 967
Principal shear stresses, 83
Principal stresses, 77
Probability density, 32
Probability density function (PDF), 32,
959
Probability distribution, 959, 965–972
Probability function, 959
Problems, answers, 1039–1043
Product liability, 15
Professional responsibilities, 10–11
Professional societies, 11
Proof load, 417
Proof strength, 417
Propagation of dispersion, 19
Propagation of error, 19, 972–974
Propagation of uncertainty, 19
Proportional limit, 29
Protein-based adhesive, 482
Puck-pad caliper brake, 832, 833
Pugh method, 7n
Pugh, Stuart, 7n
Pulley correction factor, 869, 871
Pulsating torsional fatigue, 309
Punch press, 849–850
Pure compression, 84
Pure shear, 84
Pure tension, 84
PVAc emulsion adhesive, 482
Q
Quarter-circle, 1017
Quarter-twist belt drive, 862
Quasi-static fracture, 232
Quenching, 45
R
R. R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam
machine, 266
Rack, 662
Rack cutter, 668, 669
Radial clearance, 19, 604, 628–630
Radial clearance ratio, 602
Radial interference, 110
Raimondi, Albert A., 611–612
Raimondi-Boyd analysis, 611–612,
616–625
Rain-flow counting technique, 314
Random experiment, 958
Random variables, 958
Randomly oriented short fiber
composite, 56
Rao, S. S., 952n
Rating life, 554
Rayleigh's equation, 371
RB&W, 426–427, 447
Real numbers, 22
Rectangle, 1016
Rectangular prism, 1018
Red brass, 52
Reddy, J. N., 953n
Reece, C. K., 760n
Reemsnyder, Harold S., 272n, 273
Regression, 974–977
Regular-lay ropes, 896
Relatively brittle, 231
Reliability, 18–19, 240
Reliability factors, 284, 285
bevel gears, 777, 778
spur and helical gears, 743, 744
Reliability method of design, 19
Remote-control shaft, 904
Renard numbers, 1015
Repeated stress, 293
Residual stress, 285
Residual stress method, 294
Resistance welding, 480
Retaining ring, 382, 929–931
Reverse loading, 780
Reversing crossed belt, 861
Reversing open-belt drive, 861
Reyn, 600
Reynolds equation for one-dimensional
flow, 609
Reynolds, Osborne, 600, 605–606
Right triangle, 1017
Right-hand rule, 396
Rigid elements, 946
Rim clutches/brakes, 812–820
Rim-thickness factor, 744–745
Ring gear, 662
Rippel, Harry C., 639n
Riveted and bolted joints loaded in
shear, 435–443
Roark's formulas, 147
Rockwell hardness, 36
Rockwell hardness scales, 36
Rods, 1018
Rolfe, S. T., 272
Roll threading, 44
Roller chain, 887–895
capacities, 890–891
chain velocity, 889
dimensions, 888
failure, 890
horsepower capacity, 891–892
link plates, 891
lubrication, 895
maximum speed, 894
multiple-strand factors, 893
nomenclature, 887
sprocket, 889
tooth correction factors, 893
tooth counts, 892
Rolling bearings. See Rolling-constant
bearings
Rolling-constant bearings, 549–595. See
also Lubrication and journal
bearings
bearing-life recommendations, 563
boundary dimensions, 560
catalog load rating, 554
combined radial and thrust loading,
559
design assessment, 582–586
dimensions/load ratings, 561, 562
distributional curve fit, 555
equivalent radial load, 559, 560
fatigue criterion, 553
life measures, 553–554
load life at rated reliability,
554–555
load-application factors, 563
load-life-reliability relationship,
557–558
lubrication, 587–588
matters of fit, 586
mounting, 571, 573, 587–590
reliability-life relationship,
554–557
sealing methods, 590–591
selection of ball and cylindrical roller
bearings, 568–571
tapered roller bearings. See Tapered
roller bearings
types of bearings, 550–553
variable loading, 564–568
Rolovic, R. D., 210n
Rope. See Wire rope
Rotating ring, 110
Rothbart, H. A., 407, 408
Rotscher's pressure-cone method, 414
Round belts, 860. See also Flat belts
Round disk, 1018
Round head screw, 410
Round key, 378
Round pin, 378
Round tubing, 992
Rounding off, 22
R-series numbers, 1015
Rubber-based adhesive, 482
Rubber-modified acrylic adhesive, 482
Rubber-modified epoxy adhesive, 482
Russell, Burdsall & Ward Inc. (RB&W),
426–427, 447
1054 Mechanical Engineering DesignBudynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
1050 Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2008
S
SAE approximate, 276
SAE Fatigue Design and Evaluation
Steering Committee report, 268–270
SAE specifications (steel bolts), 418
Safety factors, 240, 299, 300
bevel gears, 771
spur and helical gears, 745
wire rope, 898–899
Saint-Venant, Jean Claude, 97, 944
Salakian, A. G., 462n
Salmon, C. G., 182n
Samónov, Cyril, 501n, 502n, 504n
Sample, 960
Sample mean, 960
Sample space, 958
Sample standard deviation, 961
Sample variance, 960
Sand casting, 667
Sand casting, 41–42
Sand-cast gears, 790
Saybolt universal viscosimeter, 600
Saybolt universal viscosity (SUV), 600
Scale (of spring), 502
Scarf lap joint, 483
Schmidt, Richard J., 117n, 215n
Schwerdlin, Howard B., 738n
Scoring, 723
Screw bearing pressure, 407
Screw threads, 396–400
Screws and fasteners—nonpermanent
joints, 395–456
bolt strength, 417–421
bolt torque/bolt tension, 422–425
bolted and riveted joints loaded in
shear, 435–443
fastener stiffness, 410–413
fatigue loading of tension joints,
429–435
gasketed joints, 429
member stiffness, 413–417
power screws, 400–408
preload, 421, 425–428
shear joints with eccentric loading,
439–443
statically loaded tension joint with
preload, 425–428
tension joints—external load,
421–422
thread standards/definitions, 396–400
threaded fasteners, 408–410
Sealant, 481. See also Adhesive bonding
Sealed bearing, 551
Sealing methods (bearings), 590–591
Seam welding, 480
Secant column formula, 177
Secondary shear, 441, 464
Section modulus, 86
Seireg, A. S., 615
Self-acting/self-locking phenomenon,
402, 809
Self-aligning bearing, 551, 559
Self-aligning thrust bearing, 551
Self-contained bearings, 625–628
Self-deenergization, 807
Self-energization, 807, 829
Self-locking, 402, 809
Semiautomatic mesh generation, 943
Set removal, 503
Setscrews, 376–378
Shaft, 347–394
assembly/disassembly, 353–354
axial layout of components, 351
critical speeds, 371–376
defined, 348
deflection, 367–370
deviations, 1003, 1005
fundamental durations, 1003, 1005
keys, 378–382
layout, 349
limits and fits, 383–388
materials, 348–349
pins, 378–379
power transmission system, 923–927
retaining ring, 382
setscrews, 376–378
stress, 354–367
stress concentration, 360–361
supporting axial loads, 351
torque transmission, 351–353
Shaft basis, 384
Shaft couplings, 845
Shaping, 668–669
Shaving, 670
Shear. See also Shear stress
beams. See Shear, moment and
deflection of beams
internal shear force, 71
MSS theory, 211–212
primary, 440, 464
pure, 84
secondary, 441, 464
Volkersen shear-lag model, 483,
486, 487
Shear, moment and deflection of beams,
993–1000
cantilever—end load, 993
cantilever—intermediate load, 993
cantilever—moment load, 994
cantilever—uniform load, 994
fixed supports—center load, 999
fixed supports—intermediate load,
1000
fixed supports—uniform load, 1000
one fixed and one simple support—
center load, 998
one fixed and one simple support—
intermediate load, 998
one fixed and one simple support—
uniform load, 999
simple supports—center load, 995
simple supports—intermediate load,
995
simple supports—moment load, 996
simple supports—overhanging load,
997
simple supports—twin loads, 997
simple supports—uniform load, 996
Shear force (beams), 71–72
Shear joints with eccentric loading,
439–443
Shear loading of bolted/riveted
connection, 435–443
Shear modulus, 31
Shear stress
beams in bending, 90–95
horizontal, 94
octahedral, 215
principal, 83
tangential, 75
vertical, 94
Shear tear-out, 436
Shear-energy theory, 215
Shear-lag model, 483
Shear-stress correction factor, 501
Sheet-metal gauges, 1031–1032
Shell molding, 42, 667
Shigley, Joseph E., 35n, 46n, 47n, 147n,
165n, 167n, 275n, 349n, 370n,
379n, 480n, 507n, 508, 735n,
738n, 971n, 1023
Shock, 183–184
Short compression members, 180–181
SI units, 21–22
conversion factors, 986
deflection, 987
deviations—shafts, 1003
international tolerance grades, 1002
prefixes, 985
stress, 987
washers, 1037
Sib, G. C., 234n
Significance figures, 22
Silicon, 48
Silicon bronze, 53
Silicones, 55
Silver plus overlay, 637
Simple compression, 84, 85
Simple supports
center load, 995
intermediate load, 995
moment load, 996
overhanging load, 997
twin loads, 997
uniform load, 996
Sines failure criterion, 518
Sines, George, 287
Index 1055Budynas−Nisbett: Shigley’s
Mechanical Engineering
Design, Eighth Edition
Back Matter Index © The McGraw−Hill 1051
Companies, 2008
Single bevel weld, 460
Single V-groove weld, 460
Single-enveloping worm-gear set,
655, 675
Single-lap joint, 483
Single-row bearings, 552
Single-row deep-groove bearings, 550
Singularity functions, 73–75
Sintered-metal pads, 843
Sinusoidal fluctuating stress, 293
Size factor, 279–280
bevel gears, 773
spur and helical gears, 739
Sizes, preferred, 1015
Sleeve bearings. See Lubrication and
journal bearings
Sleeve bushings, 638
Slenderness ratio, 174
Sliding bearings. See Lubrication and
journal bearings
Sliding fit, 384, 385
Sliding mode, 233
Slug, 21
Smith, G. M., 517n
Smith, James O., 309n
Smith-Dolan failure criterion, 331
Smith-Dolan locus, 306
S-N diagram, 266–267
Snug-tight condition, 422
Socket setscrews, 377
Soderberg failure criterion, 297–298
Soderberg line, 298
Softening spring, 142, 143
Solid bushing, 638
Solid elements, 938
Solid-film lubricant, 599
Sommerfeld, A., 609n
Sommerfeld number, 602, 610, 617, 634
Sorem, J. R., Jr., 210n
Sources of information, 9
Special-purpose elements, 938
Speed ratio, 734
Spherical contact, 117–118
Spherical-roller thrust bearing, 552, 553
Spinning, 44
Spiral angle, 766
Spiral bevel gears, 766–768
Spiroid gearing, 767, 768
Splines, 353
Split tubular spring pin, 378
Spot welding, 480
Spotts, M. E., 884n
Spring. See also Mechanical springs
classification, 500
defined, 142
linear, 142
softening, 142, 143
stiffening, 142
Spring constant, 143
Spring ends, 503, 525
Spring materials, 505–510
Spring rate, 411, 502
Spring surge, 516
Spring wires, 505–508
Spur and helical gears, 654, 671–675,
713–763. See also Gears
AGMA strength equations, 727–731
AGMA stress equations, 725–726
AGMA symbols, 715–716
analysis, 745–755
bending equations (summary), 746
crossed helical gears, 789. See also
Worm gears
design of gear mesh, 755–760
dynamic factor, 736–738
elastic coefficient, 736, 737
force analysis (helical gears),
692–694
force analysis (spur gears), 685–689
geometry factors, 731–736
hardness-ratio factor, 741–742
Lewis bending equation, 714–723
load-distribution factor, 739–740
overload factor, 738
parallel helical gears, 671–675
reliability factors, 743, 744
rim-thickness factor, 744–745
safety factors, 745
size factor, 739
stress cycle factors, 742, 743
stresses/strengths, 725–731, 746, 750,
752–573
surface condition factor, 738
surface durability, 723–725
temperature factor, 744
tooth system, 676, 677
wear equations (summary), 747
Spur-gear geometry factors, 733
Square bolts, 1033
Square butt-welded, 460
Square key, 379
Square threads, 398, 399
Square-jaw clutch, 844, 845
St, 600
Stable lubrication, 603–604
Stage I fatigue, 258, 270
Stage II fatigue, 258–259, 270
Stage III fatigue, 259, 271
Stainless steel
friction drives, 876
major characteristics, 48
physical constants, 987
springs, 507, 508
tensile tests, 1023
types, 48–49
UNS designations, 41
Stamping, 44
Standard, 12
Standard deviation, 961
Standard Handbook of Machine
Design, 47
Standard sizes, 13
Standard-setting organizations, 12
Starch-based adhesive, 482
Static equilibrium


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