كتاب Stretch Blow Molding
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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 كتاب Stretch Blow Molding

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Stretch Blow Molding
Third Edition
O. Brandau
Member of Society of Plastics Engineers
Member of Mensa Canada

كتاب Stretch Blow Molding  S_b_m_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface to the Third Edition
Acknowledgments
Introduction
1: Short History of Stretch Blow Molding
Abstract
2: Material Basics
Abstract
2.1. Manufacture and States of PET
2.2. Crystallization of PET
2.3. Drying of PET
2.4. Other Consequences of Insufficient Drying
2.5. Behavior in the Injection Mold
2.6. Behavior in the Blow Mold
3: Reheat Stretch Blow Machine (RSBM) Types
Abstract
3.1. Overview
3.2. Differences Between Rotary Machines of Different Manufacturers
3.3. Orientation of Preforms and Bottles
3.4. Movement Actuation
3.5. Shape and Location of Oven Section
3.6. Blow Mold Actuation
3.7. Preform Seal
3.8. Synchronization and Crash Protection
4: Machine Details
Abstract
4.1. Oven Section
4.2. Transfer Functions
4.3. Blow Wheel/Blow Clamp
4.4. Machine Timing
4.5. Rotary Machines Comparison
5: Blow Molds
Abstract
5.1. Design
5.2. Base Mold
5.3. Making a Mold
5.4. Venting
5.5. Stretch Rod
6: Fundamentals of the Blow Process
Abstract
6.1. Process Overview
6.2. Stretch Ratios
6.3. Types of Heat Transfer
6.4. Light Absorption Characteristics of PET
6.5. Optimal Preform Temperature
7: The Blowing Process
Abstract
7.1. Reheating Preforms
7.2. Blowing Bottles
7.3. Air Valve Control
8: Injection Stretch Blow Molding Machines
Abstract
8.1. Four-Station Machines
8.2. Machine Controls
8.3. Injection Controls
8.4. Interaction Between Injection and Blow
8.5. Conditioning
8.6. Container Blowing
8.7. Hot Runners
8.8. Integrated Two-Stage Stretch Blow Molding
8.9. Single or Two Stage—That is the Question
9: Special Applications
Abstract
9.1. Simulation of the Blow Process
9.2. Stretch Blow Molding of Oriented Polypropylene
9.3. Plant-Based Plastics
9.4. Blow Process for Hot-Fill Applications
9.5. Preferential Heating
9.6. Direct Feeding of Preforms into the Blow Machine
9.7. Vision Inspection
9.8. Barrier Enhancing Technologies
9.9. Blow-and-Trim Process
9.10. CSD Bottle Base Failures
9.11. Recycling of PET Bottles
9.12. Preform Aesthetics in the Two-Stage Process
9.13. Blowing Thick-Walled Preforms
10: Troubleshooting of Blowing Problems
Abstract
10.1. General Guidelines
10.2. Starting a New Process
10.3. Preblow Pressure Control
10.4. Changing Preform Temperatures
10.5. Output Control
10.6. Troubleshooting of Specific Problems
10.7. Defects Particular to Single-Stage Molding
10.8. Summary of Preform Quality Checks
11: Economics
Abstract
11.1. Container Types
11.2. Business Models
11.3. Tooling Costs
11.4. Lightweighing of Bottles and Caps
11.5. Resin Prices
11.6. Bottle Production Costs
11.7. Starting with a New Product
11.8. Recommended Laboratory Equipment for RSBM Plants
11.9. Western Versus Asian Machinery
11.10. Bottle Storage and Transport
12: Preform Design for Single- and Two-Stage Processing
Abstract
12.1. Two-Stage Process Injection Molding
12.2. Single-Stage Process Injection Molding
12.3. Goals and Conditions
12.4. The Mechanics of Preform Design
12.5. Putting it all Together
13: Auxiliary Equipment
Abstract
13.1. Compressors
13.2. Chillers
13.3. Conveyors and Bottle Storage Devices
14: Training of Operators
Abstract
14.1. Current State of Training
14.2. Obstacles to Training Programs
14.3. Rethinking Abstract Concepts
14.4. Language Structure
14.5. Converting Formulas Into Common English Sentences
14.6. Substituting Uncommon Arithmetical Operators
14.7. Presentation Style
14.8. Translating Graphs into Common-Day Language
14.9. Choosing Easy-to-Understand Drawings
14.10. Computer Simulations
14.11. Comprehensive Coverage
14.12. Trainees Involvement
14.13. Assessments
14.14. Conclusions
Index
x
A
Acetaldehyde (AA), 7, 21, 268
Additives in injection molding, 198
nanoclays, 200, 201
scavengers, 199
Airback phase, 71
Air consumption, 70
cost, 72
Air conveyors, 44
Air-cooled chiller, 323
advantages and disadvantages
of, 324
flow in, 326–327
Air valve control, 101
Alkali cleaning agents, 207
Antislip agents, 44
Aspect ratio, 168
B
Balayage process, 153
Baled bottles, 212
Barrier enhancing technologies, 189
additives in injection molding, 198
nanoclays, 200, 201
scavengers, 199
blowing of multilayer preforms,
193–196
multilayer die, 195
SurShield multilayer structure,
195
evaluating barrier solutions, 202
average oxygen concentration
post N2 purge, 203
external coatings, 197
solutions, 156
internal plasma coatings, 196–197
companies made developments
in, 196–197
methods of barrier enhancements,
193
monolayer solutions, 200
permeation rate, 190
factors, 190
product types, 191
beer, 193
carbonated soft drinks, 192
chemicals, 193
cosmetics, 192
juices and functional drinks, 192
milk, 192
Base cup, 2
Base inserts, 73
Base with hole
screen shot, 184
Beer bottles, 268
Bekum’s double-sided extrusion, 2
Blow cavity
air flow, 101
Blow clamp, 63
Blow dome, 47
Blow-fill-seal systems, 291
Blowing, problems solving
criteria for, inspection of incoming
preforms, 261
guidelines, 224
CSD bottles, section weighing,
227, 228
heater lamp settings, correlation,
224
neck support ring (NSR), 224
reheat characteristics, PET, 224
Hall effect sensor, 226346 Index
material distribution, effect of
various parameters, 249
new process, 227
bottle wall thickness, checking
of, 230
lamp settings, 228
pearlescence, 230, 231
preform cooling, 228
pressure setting, 230
reheat and blow, 229
rupture problems, 230
start-up heat profile for,
preform, 229
output control, 233
in fastest rotary machines, 233
limit of, 233
quality bottles, yielding of, 234
single-stage machines, preform
temperature distribution, 234
in two-stage machines, 233
preblow pressure control, 231
blow of bubble, 231
bottles made with preblow
pressure, 231
preblow audit, 231
preform temperature, 231
pressure setting, 232
preform temperatures, changing,
232
in single stage machines, 233
in two-stage machines, 232
preform with scratches, location of
lamps, 225, 226
single-stage molding, defects
bottle cloudiness, 255
bubbles in, preform/bottle, 256
gate/body splay, 259–260
preform stringing, 256–258
short shots, 260–261
sink marks, 258
specific problems, troubleshooting of
base of bottle candle stick,
excessive material, 236–237
bottle body, rings forming in,
245–246
bottle split-line, flats on, 244–245
bottle volume with age, excessive
changes, 247
burst test, 247–248
circumference of bottle, 246
cracked gates, 251–252
CSD bottles, cracking of,
249–251
drop impact, failure, 252
haze in bottle walls, 239–241
material folding, neck area, 236
neck area, internal folding
in, 235
necks, deform, 243–244
off-center gate, 238–239
panel sink, 253–255
pearlescence/stress whitening,
241–242
preform gate, position of, 238
top load test, failure, 253
underblown bottle, 244
uneven axial wall distribution,
249
stretching, 226
Blow machine
effective air cooling feature, 88
thermocouple, 88
variable speed motor, 88
Blow mold halves
base insert, 74
in and out of mold base, 74
Blow molding, 208, 337
machines, 1
plants, 337
Blow molds, 18, 69, 91
actuation, 46
air valves, use of, 101
dead air loss minimization, 101
aluminum type used, 73
AL 7075 T6, 73
alumenec 89, 73
T-2024, 73
Blowing, problems solving (cont.)Index 347
base mold formation, 76
behavior, 18
design, 73–75
in double-row machine, 122
inside pressure curve, 100
optional air recovery, with, 100
mold-making process, 76
natural stretch ratio, 18
stretch rods, role of, 78–79
venting, 77
Blown bottles, 25
wall thickness measurement
by infrared sensors, 186
Blow process
for hot-fill applications. See
Blow process, for hot-fill
applications
overview, 81
Blow process, for hot-fill applications
amorphous PET, 158
blow mold coating, 163–165
electroless nickel (EN) plating
process, 164
blow molds for hot-fill bottles,
162–163
cooling channel layout, 162
preform temperatures
incorporation, on mold
surfaces, 163
cold aseptic filling, 160
clean room specifications, 161
crystallized neck, 152
demands on bottle, 149–151
concept drawing for hot-fill
bottle, 151
double-blow/two-wheel process,
156–159
bottle mold and container
dimensions, affect of
temperatures, 159
heat setting with cooling air
blowing through the stretch
rods, 159
heat-set wide-mouth jars, 157
neck finish, during hot-fill
process, 158
preforms, reheated in the neck
down position, 158
specially designed jar bottom,
160
economic considerations, 160
first bottle mold, 159
and heat-set wide-mouth jars, 157
hot-fill process, 148–149
temperatures in a glass and PET
bottle behave and controlled
distortion, 149
vacuum panels contract in, 150
materials for hot-fill bottles, 165
molds for heat set, 154
panel-less designs, 166
percentage of shrinkage, 155
process, 151–153, 156
crystallized neck, 152
heat set, made from stainless
steel, 154
thermo image, preform for heat
set, 153
standard heat setting, 159
standard process, 158
thermo image, preform for heat set,
153
volume shrinkage test, 154–156
percentage of shrinkage, 155
Blow process, simulation of, 136
applications, 139–140
costs and benefits, 140
and output, 137–139
preparations, 136–137
Blow station, 112
Blow wheel, 63
Bottle failures, 208
Bottle production. See also Business
models; Production costs,
bottle
build machine output, 286
capital cost, major influence on part
cost, 297348 Index
cause and effect, machine output,
287
demand and supply, 285
fully automatic test machine, 295
high-cavitation machines, 288
planning process, 292
process flow, 288
blow-fill-seal systems, 291
blow molding machine, 289
buffer time, 289, 290
cost and heat history, 290
downstream equipment, 289
Monobloc configuration, 291
overflow bottles and deliver, 290
palletizing/depalletizing
systems, 289
types of packing, 288
value-added services, 288
process selection, 286
RSBM machines, 287
scrap rate, 298
seasonal demand, 286
SKUs, 287
storage and transport, 298–299
transportation costs, 288
Western vs. Asian machinery,
293–297
Bottles
blowing, 91, 93–99
high-pressure blow, 98–99
mechanical adjustment
careful point, 93
mold closed, 94
mold opening, 99
preblow pressure, role of, 96–97
stretch rod at base insert, 97–98
stretch rod engagement, 95
stretch speed, role of, 97
set value base weight, 187
wall thickness
monitoring system, 188
Bottle-to-bottle recycling, 211
Bubble
cavity filling, 98
delaying high-pressure blow, 99
Burst test, 247–248
Business models
axial stretch ratio, 270
blow ratio, 270
bottle production costs, 282–285
bottles and caps, lightweighing
of, 272
lighter caps, 273
lighter necks, 272
new bottle designs, 277
special machines, 279
converters, 269
internal hoop stretch ratio, 270
machine setup sheets, 271
PCO 1881 closure, 275, 276
PET bottles manufacturing, ways
to, 269
preform body and gate wall
thickness, 271
preforms and bottles, 269
preform temperatures, 271
preform weight, 270
resin prices, 280
banding agreements, 281
costs balancing, 281
HDPE, 281
LDPE, 281
market, 281
PE, 281
PET, 281
raw materials, 280
supply and demand, 280
tooling costs
neck size for, categories of
CSD, 270
rationalization, 270
selection of tooling components,
matching range, 270
Western vs. Asian machinery,
293–297
Bottle production. See also Business
models; Production costs,
bottle (cont.)Index 349
C
Cam-driven movements, 46
Cam-driven pneumatic cylinders, 69
Candle stick, 236
Cappello design, 279, 280
Carbonated soft drinks (CSD), 2, 67,
207, 263
base design, 264
bottles, 301
base failures, 207
burst test for, 247
common neck finishes for, 265
containers, 77
cracking of, 249
maximum carbonation loss, 265
petaloid base, 264
Catalysts, 7
Caustic soda, 214
Central water chilling system, 325
Champagne style base, 92
Changeover times, 68
CHDM. See Cyclohexane dimethanol
(CHDM)
Chiller refrigeration cycle, 323
Chillers
air-cooled system, 323
auxiliaries cooling, 328
capacity, units used to describe, 327
chilled water requirements,
calculation of, 327
correction factor/relative
humidity, 322
hydraulic oil cooling, 328
process cooling, 328
pump sizing, 329
refrigeration cycle, 323
water-cooled system, 323
Coating technologies, 4
Compressor
air delivery capacity, impact, 320
air requirements, calculation of
compressor cycle, 318
constant-volume/variable-pressure
machines, 317–319
discrete steps, 317
function of, 317–319
relevant correction factors, 321
selection, 320
site air demand (SAD), 320
Conditioning core
for oval container, 121
Conditioning station machine, 120
Container blowing, 121–123
Convectional heat, 55
Conventional oven system, 54
Conveyors, 219, 329
soft-drop type, 219
Conveyors and bottle storage devices
conveyors, 329
palletizer/depalletizer systems, 330
Silos, 330
unscramblers, 332
feature rotating disks, 333
Cooling time, 17
Copolymer resins, 5
Cost-effective operation, 14
Crystallization, 9
CSD. See Carbonated soft drinks
(CSD)
Custom containers
neck finishes of, 267
Plastic Bottle Institute, 266
reheat stretch blow molding
(RSBM) process,
advantages, 267
Cyclohexane dimethanol (CHDM), 8
Cylinder-driven movements, 46
D
Decontamination, 215
DEG. See Diethylene glycol (DEG)
Diethylene glycol (DEG), 7
E
Eastman chemicals, 281
EG. See Ethylene glycol (EG)
Ejection station, 112
Elastic deformation, 19, 20350 Index
Electrically operated valve
air-operated, switch to, 101
Electromagnetic spectrum, 84
Equilibration time, 339
ESL. See Extended shelf life (ESL)
Ethylene glycol (EG), 6
Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), 143
Extended shelf life (ESL), 4
Extruder
melting in, 112–113
throat, 112
F
Fan cooling, 57
FDA. See US Food and Drug
Administration (FDA)
First-in first-out (FIFO), 299
Flakes, 206, 212, 215, 216
Four-station machines, 108–111
conditioning, 120–121
device
heater bands, 120
temperature-controlled
conditioning cores, 120
function, 121
G
Gas chromatograph, 25
Gripper, 44
H
Hall effect sensor, 226
HDPE. See High-density polyethylene
Heating configuration
mandrels spinning prevention, 170
Heat-set bottles, 266
High-density polyethylene (HDPE),
140, 281
and PET prices, diverged over
time, 282
High-quality bottle, blow molds,
importance of, 73
High-speed machines, 44
air conveyors, 44
antislip agents, 44
gripper, 44
transfer ring, 44
Homopolymer, 5
Hopper, 30
Hot-fill bottle
bottle bottom use, 167
hole vents, 78
Hot runners, 123–129
brazing, 127
curved melt paths, 127
flow channel design, 123–128
gate mechanism, 128–129
single-stage molding, 124
single-stage setup
melt distribution, 126
thermally gated nozzle, 128
husky injection molding systems, 279
I
Infrared lamps, 53, 83, 85
emission peaks, 53
pinch sections, 53
quartz, 53
typical range of emitted
wavelength, 85
Injection
controls, 114–118
hold pressure, 116
hold time, 116
injection pressure, 114–115
injection speed, 114–115
transition point, choosing
of, 116
interaction with blow, 118–119
tools, 110
two-stage molding, 126
vertical tooling, 109
advantage, 109
disadvantage, 111
Injection controls
cooling time, 116
cushion control, 117
practical example, 118Index 351
Injection mold
behavior, 14
components, 14
Injection molding machine, 215
Injection stretch blow molding
(ISBM), 107
four-station process, 109
machine
cold start, 113
integrated two-stretch blow
molding (ITSBM), 108
soft start, 113
three or four station, 108
Integrated two-stretch blow molding
(ITSBM), 108, 130–131
Intrinsic viscosity (IV), 7, 97
IPA. See Isophthalic acid (IPA)
Irregular shaped bottles
hoop extension
calculation method, 168
ISBM. See Injection stretch blow
molding (ISBM)
Isophthalic acid (IPA), 8
ITSBM. See Integrated two-stretch
blow molding (ITSBM)
IV. See Intrinsic viscosity (IV)
L
Laminar flow, velocity profile in, 327
Lamp adjustment, 91
Lamp control, 55
Layout, 50
close spacing, 50
infrared lamps, 50
LDPE. See Low-density polyethylene
(LDPE)
Lightweight bottles, 28
Linear condensation polymer, 7
Linear continuous motion machines, 34
Linear machines, 61
Linear ovens, 38, 92
U-shaped track system, with, 92
Linear RSBM machine
typical mold design, 74
Linear shuttle type machines, 30
Locking mechanisms, 63
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE),
140, 281
M
Machine controls, 112–113
melting in extruder, 112–113
Machine cutter path creation
computer-aided design (CAD)/
computer-aided manufacture
(CAM) programs, role of, 76
Machine timing, 63
Magna-Mike, 226
Maximum drying temperature, 13
Melt channel
ring-shaped temperature spike, 125
Melt phase condensation, 6
Microwaves, 46
stations, 54
Modern ovens, 92
Mold assembly, 95
Mold close signal, 122
Mold-making process
three-dimensional (3D) computer
model, 76
Mold movements, 46
Movement actuation, 46
N
Near-infrared (NIR), 54
Neck support ring (NSR), 59, 82, 91
Neutraceuticals, 4
NIR. See Near-infrared (NIR)
NSR. See Neck support ring (NSR)
O
OPP. See Oriented polypropylene (OPP)
Optimal preform temperature, 88–89
Oriented polypropylene (OPP)
stretch blow molding, 140
applications, 142–143
hot-fill bottle in OPP, 144
OPP and PET preforms for
same bottle, 143352 Index
HDPE, 140
LDPE, 140
multilayer, 143
construction OPP/EVOH/OPP,
145
EVOH or nylon, as barrier
layer, 143
wheel machines, use of, 144
and PET, 141
process difference, 141–142
Oven section, 46, 49
location, 46
shape, 46
P
Palletizer/depalletizer systems, 330
Pancake cylinders, 46, 75
Pearlescence, 88, 89, 230, 231
Pellets, 215
PEN. See Polyethylene naphthalate
Permeation rate, 190
factors, 190
Petaloid base, 2
PET bottle, 209
challenge test, 214
recycling, 210
PIA. See Purified isophthalic acid (PIA)
Piston compressor
air delivery capacity, impact, 320
air requirements, calculation of,
319–320
compressor cycle, 318
constant-volume/variable-pressure
machines, 317–319
discrete steps, 317
function of, 317–319
relevant correction factors, 321
selection, 320
site air demand (SAD), 320
Planar stretch ratio (PSR), 304
Plant-based plastics, 145
emission of carcinogens and
ecotoxicity, 145
main characteristics, overview, 147
processing PLA, 147–148
Plastic Bottle Institute, 266
PLC. See Programmable logic
controller (PLC)
Pneumatic cylinders, 70
Polycarbonate (PC), 220
Polyethylene (PE), 281
Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 268
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 1, 5,
76, 96, 263, 301
acetaldehyde in, 21
bottle shapes and applications, 264
crystallization, 9
drying, 12
glass transition temperature of, 299
growth rate of, 280
infrared lamps output absorbtion,
85, 86
light absorption characteristics of,
84–88
linear condensation polymer, 7
manufacture, 5
microcracks, 88
production and solid-stating, 281
property data, 21
self-leveling, 128
states, 5
stringing, 128
temperature process window, 88
time of blowing, 121
United States, production in, 281
Polymerization, 5
Polyolefins, 214
Polypropylene (PP), 281
Preblow pressure, 95–97
bubble creation, 97
Preblow setting
adjustment by base weight, 189
Preferential heating, 166–170
wall thickness distribution,
improvement, 169
Preform design
bottle and, 307
Oriented polypropylene (OPP) (cont.)Index 353
calculations in, spread sheet, 312, 314
completed preform, 313
draw ratio, 313
internal hoop stretch ratio, 309
1 L bottle, sketch, 311, 312, 315
mechanics of, 304
3D computer-aided design
programs, 305
degree of orientation, 304
length of, 305
planar stretch ratio (PSR), 304
parameters, 307
PCO 1810 neck, 309
shapes, 305
software reveals, weight of, 314
spreadsheet in, 310
thick bottle bases wide-mouth
preforms, with large
tapers, 308
transition area, 306
transition ratio for, 306
transition zone, 311
typical ratios for, applications, 305
wall thickness, 310
Preforms, 45, 73, 79, 108–111, 114,
120, 122, 126, 130, 132
blowing temperature, 86
blowing thick-walled, 220
bubbles in, 256
for carbonated beverages, 82
cooling, 228
design. See Preform design
direct feeding into blow machine,
170–181
conveyors, 176–177
economical considerations,
179–180
general observation, 170–171
layout, 177
operation, 178
other automation, 180
temperatures, 172–175
examination, 92
gate, position of, 238
incoming, inspection criteria for, 261
inside and outside wall
graph of empirical temperature
data, 86, 87
inspection, 185
movement by high-pressure
blow, 100
orientation, 45
O-ring, 94
air exchange inhibition, role
in, 94
O-ring, sealing by, 94
production, 208
reheating, 84, 91–93, 168
scratches, location of lamps,
225, 226
seal. See Preform seal
single-stage machines, temperature
distribution for, 234
start-up heat profile for, 229
temperature, 126
computer simulation, 119
infrared photograph, 126
temperature, changing, 231, 232
thermo image, at oven exit, 89
transfer to mandrels, 130
wall thickness, 92
Preform seal, 47
Production costs, bottle, 282–285
compressor power consumption, 285
preform costs, 282
cost of manufacturing, widemouth containers, 284
economy of scale, 283
high-capacity injection systems,
283
high-cavitation tools, 96-cavity
tool, 283
maximum mold cavitation, 284
three/four postmold cooling
stations, 283
water-cooled take-out tubes, 283
typical bottle production costs, 284
typical energy costs in, 285354 Index
Programmable logic controller
(PLC), 58
Purified isophthalic acid (PIA), 8
Purified terephthalic acid (PTA), 280
R
Reciprocating piston compressors, in
PET, 322
Recommended cooling time
vs. preform wall thickness, 117
Recommended hold time
vs. preform wall thickness, 117
Recommended injection fill time
vs. preform weight, 115
Recycled polyethylene terephthalate
(RPET), 211
Reflectors oven systems, 57
Reheat stretch blow machine
types of heat transfer, 84
conduction, 84
convection, 84
radiation, 84
Reheat stretch blow machines, 27
Reheat stretch blow molding (RSBM),
18, 73, 267, 317
capital and operating costs, 293
equipment for, quality control
functions, 294
laboratory equipment for, 293
quality control and manufacturing,
293
zero defect procedures, 293
Reynolds number, 327
Rotary blow machine, 169
Rotary high-speed machines, 3
Rotary machines, 1, 37, 58, 73
blow mold with locking
mechanism, 75
blow wheel movement, 91
comparison, 66
crash protection, 48
by different manufacturers, 45
mandrel chain speed, 91
synchronization, 48
Rotary stretch blow molding machine
cycle diagram, 93
Rotating dials, 29
RPET. See Recycled polyethylene
terephthalate (RPET)
RSBM. See Reheat stretch blow
molding (RSBM)
S
Screw, 112, 114
diameter, 116
metering zone, 112
rotational speed, 112
stroke, 116, 117
transition or switchover point, 115
Semiautomatic machines, 28
Servo-driven stretch rods, 46
Servomotors, 69
Servo motor system, 46
Shelf life, 4
Shell molds, 73
Short shot, 125
Sidel blow molder
with vision inspection, 182
Silos, 330–332
bottle size and, 332
storage capacity, 332
Single-stage machines, 27
blow function, trigger of
by timers, 123
Single-stage molding
stretch rods, role of, 80
Single stage process, 217. See also
Single-stage machines;
Single-stage process
injection molding
advantage, 131
disadvantage, 131
vs. two stage, 131–133
Single-stage process injection molding.
See also Preform design
beneficial feature of, 303
blow molding process, 303
conditions, 304Index 355
goals, 303
mechanics, preform design, 304
planar stretch ratio (PSR), 304
preform shapes, 305
typical ratios for, applications, 305
Solid state polycondensation
(SSP), 216
Solid stating, 7, 281
Spin preform, 169
Standard process
wall thickness distribution
limit, 169
Steep angles, 92
Stock keeping units (SKU), 287
Storage placement, 219
Strain hardening, 20
effect, 128
Stress cracking, 209
agents, 207
testing, 209
Stress-crack resistance, 8
Stress-induced crystallinity, 10
Stretch blow molding, 1, 10
Stretch blow process, 166
Stretch ratios, 81–83
axial, 82
hoop, 82
Stretch rods, 122
adjustment, 46
preform lower part, engagement, 96
prevention of cooling effect, 79
stops, 69
Surface contaminants, 212
closures, 212
ink, 212
labels, 212
SurShield multilayer structure, 195
Synchronization, 48
T
Temporization, 97, 98
Terephthalic acid (TPA), 6
Thermally gated hot runners
vs. valve-gated hot runners, 129, 132
Thermocouples, 57
TPA. See Terephthalic acid (TPA)
Training, of operators
arithmetical operators, substituting
uncommon, 338
assessments, 342
blow molding process, 337
choosing easy-to-understand
drawings, 339
common-day language, translating
graphs, 338, 339
comprehensive coverage, 340
computer simulations, 340
current state of, 335
english sentences, converting
formulas to, 337
equilibration time, 339
in-plant, 342
language structure, 337
obstacles to, programs, 336
off-plant, 342
preform/bottle with mark, 341
presentation style, 338
rethinking abstract concepts, 337
trainees involvement, 340
Transfer ring, 44
Two-stage process, 217. See also
Two-stage process injection
molding
advantage, 132
disadvantage, 132
preform aesthetics, 217
Two-stage process injection molding.
See also Preform design
carbonated soft drinks (CSD)
bottles, 301
conditions, 304
goals, 303
mechanics, preform design, 304
planar stretch ratio (PSR), 304
polyethylene terephthalate
(PET), 301
preform shapes, 305
typical ratios for, applications, 305356 Index
U
Uneven axial wall distribution, 249
United States
recycling rates, 212
resin production, 281
US Food and Drug Administration
(FDA), 214
V
Valve engagement, stages
blow phase, start of, 103
exhaust phase, 105
high-pressure blow, 104
high-pressure phase, end of, 104
mold close position, 102
preblow phase, 103
start position, 102
Valve gated hot runners
vs. gate vestige of preforms, 129
Virgin resin production, 211
Viscous heating, channel walls
friction, 125
Vision inspection, 181–188
applications, 183
beyond, 185–188
installed on blow molder, 184
system equipped cameras, 183
system overview, 182–183
Voltage regulators, 55
W
Water bottles, 67. See also
Production costs
bottom layer of pallet, static load
over period of time, 279
injection molding process, 266
lightweight sparkling bottle, 280
load of empty and bottles in
kilogram, 278
neck finishes, 266
new designs, 277
preform design, improved, 278
twenty six millimeter caps, 276
Water-cooled system, 323
advantages and disadvantages of, 324
antifreeze, in cooling, 324
flow in, 326–327
Y
Yield stage, 19, 20, 97


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