كتاب Specialized Injection Molding Techniques
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 كتاب Specialized Injection Molding Techniques

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Specialized Injection Molding Techniques
Edited by
Hans-Peter Heim
Universität Kassel, Institut für Werkstofftechnik,
Kunststofftechnik, Kassel, Germany

كتاب Specialized Injection Molding Techniques  S_i_m_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface
Reference
1. Multicomponent Technologies
Abstract
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Motivation
1.3 Basic Bonding Mechanism
1.4 Influences of Material and Process Control on the Basic Bonding Mechanism
1.5 Machines and Processes
References
2. Foam Injection Molding
Abstract
2.1 Why Foam Injection Molding?
2.2 Foaming Mechanism
2.3 Process Route
2.4 Variants of Foaming Techniques
References
3. Gas- and Fluid-Injection Technique
Abstract
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Description of the GIT Procedure
3.3 Typical Applications and Tasks
3.4 Mechanisms of Gas Penetration
3.5 Influencing the Form and Position of the Gas Bubble
3.6 Influencing the Surface Quality
3.7 Influence of Material Properties
3.8 GIT Tools and Machine Technology
3.9 Design of GIT Components and Tools
3.10 Variants of Fluid Injection Technology
References
4. Injection Molding of Multimaterial Systems
Abstract
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Bonding Mechanisms in Plastic–Metal Systems
4.3 The Influence of the Material, the Geometry, and the Process Parameter on the Component Properties
4.4 Processing Variants
4.5 Production of Injection Molded Organic Sheet Parts
References
5. Injection Molding of Bio-Based Plastics, Polymers, and Composites
Abstract
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Materials
5.3 Specific Injection Molding Behavior
5.4 Process Variants
References
x
Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
A
Acetal copolymers, 190
Adhesion, 36, 24, 166171, 166f
mechanical, 169171
specific, 166169
types, 195196
Adsorption theory, 167
“Airing”. See Precision mold opening
(PMO)
Amylopectin, 223
Amylose, 223
Anisotropy, 177178, 229
AquaCells, 231
B
Back-pressure-method, 161
Basic bonding mechanism, 39
adhesion, 46
diffusion, 69
influences of material and process
control on, 1026
connection design/interface
geometry, 23
contact time, 20
crystallinity, 13
injection and holding pressure,
25
injection speed, 2526
interface compatibility, 1116
interface stresses, 2126
interface temperature, 1620
intermediate cooling time, 20
mass temperature/injection
sequence, 1720
mold design, 24
mold temperature, 20
molecular orientations, 14
molecular weight, 13
polarity, 14
shrinkage, 2122
surface and interface tension,
1112
surface pretreatment,
16
surface roughness, 2324
thermal expansion behavior, 25
thermodynamic compatibility/
miscibility, 1516
Bi-injection, 2930
Bio-based plastics
injection molding of, 211
materials, 212225
Biocomposites, 212, 219220,
224226
Bioplastics, 211212, 214219,
225
biopolyamides with a vegetable oil
basis, 217218
linkage between biopolymer and,
212f
polylactic acid (PLA), 219
starch blends, 215216
thermoplastic starch (TPS),
214215
Biopolyamides with a vegetable oil
basis, 217218
Biopolymers, 211212, 214
Biot number, 151152
Blowing agents, 56, 62, 8082
chemical blowing agent, 6465,
8081
concentration, 8283
239Blowing agents (Continued)
physical blowing agents, 6264,
8182, 96
supercritical points of, 6364
Bonding mechanism, 1026
connection design/interface
geometry, 23
contact time, 20
crystallinity, 13
injection and holding pressure, 25
injection speed, 2526
interface compatibility, 1116
interface stresses, 2126
interface temperature, 1620
intermediate cooling time, 20
mass temperature/injection
sequence, 1720
mold design, 24
mold temperature, 20
molecular orientations, 14
molecular weight, 13
polarity, 14
shrinkage, 2122
surface and interface tension,
1112
surface pretreatment, 16
surface roughness, 2324
thermal expansion behavior,
25
thermodynamic compatibility/
miscibility, 1516
“Breathing tool”. See Precision mold
opening (PMO)
C
Cadmoulds, 109
Carbon dioxide, 8182
CellMoulds, 9697
Cellulosic fibers, 219222
Chemical blowing agents, 6465,
8081
foaming using, 7577
Chemisorption, 5, 166
Coalescence, 59
Cohesion, 4
Composites, injection molding of,
211
Compressibility of the fluid,
influence of, 153154
Connection design/interface
geometry, 23
Constructive connection design,
192193, 192f
Contact time, 20, 21f
“Core back expansion”. See Precision
mold opening (PMO)
Core back technique, 3738, 38f
Core-pull method, 107108, 150
Crystallinity, 13
Cube technology, 4546, 46f
double cube technology, 4748
D
Decompression, tools with, 8890
precision mold opening (PMO),
8890
pull-and-foam method, 90
Demolding shrinkage, 21
Differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC), 215
Diffusion, 4, 69, 25, 5758
Einstein equation, 89
reptation model, 9
Diffusion theory, 6, 167
Double cube technology, 4748
Draping, 199
Draping simulation, 205206
DSC. See Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC)
Dynamic mixing elements, for
injection molding, 76f
Dynamic pressure, 8687
E
Einstein equation, 89
Electrostatic theory, 5, 167
Elongational viscosity, 135136
Endothermic blowing agents, 6465
240 INDEXErgocell, 9697, 98f
EUROMAP interface, 137
Exothermic blowing agents, 6465,
8081
F
Fault-tolerant positioning elements, 193
FEMs. See Finite element methods
(FEMs)
Fiber composite technology, 194
Fiber-reinforced plastics, 175, 192,
232234
glass, 226
natural, 219220, 226
Filling/reinforcement materials,
influences of, 136
FIM. See Foam injection molding
(FIM)
Finger effect, 33, 126127, 127f, 128f
Finite element methods (FEMs), 109,
170
Flexural modulus, 70, 91f
Fluid injection technology, 107,
147161
GITBlow (GIT combined with
blow molding), 155159
multilayered hollow parts
manufactured using GIT and
WIT, 159160
overflow cavity method, 147150
push-back and core-pull methods,
150
surface optimization, measures for,
161
water injection technology,
150154
Foam injection molding (FIM),
5357, 231232
decompression, tools with, 8890
precision mold opening (PMO),
8890
pull-and-foam method, 90
foaming mechanism, 5773
cell growth, 5860
chemical blowing agents,
6465
mechanical and optical
properties, 6773
mechanical properties, 6772
morphology of foams, 6567
nucleation, 58
optical properties, 7273
physical blowing agents, 6264
solubility and diffusion, 5758
stabilizing effects, 6162
gas counter pressure (GCP)
method, 9093
general idea, 5355
physical foaming techniques,
96100
CellMoulds, 9697
Ergocell, 97
MuCells, 96
Optifoams, 98
ProFoam, 99
SmartFoams, 99100
process route, 7387
blowing agent concentration,
8283
chemical blowing agent, 8081
chemical blowing agents,
foaming using, 7577
dynamic pressure, 8687
injection speed, 86
mass temperature, 8384
mold temperature, 8586
physical blowing agents, 8182
physical blowing agents,
foaming using, 77
standard tool technique, 7879
static mixing elements for
distributing gas in the melt,
7778
sandwich technique, 9495
typical applications, 5657
for use in nonvisible areas, 56f
variothermic mold temperature,
9394
INDEX 241Form bound shrinkage, 22, 22f
Form-fitting connection options,
172
Free shrinkage, 22, 22f
G
Gas counter pressure (GCP)
technique, 55, 9093, 161
Gas injection molding, 112
Gas injection technology (GIT),
107
components and tools, design of,
139147
gas-guiding geometries,
designing, 145147, 145t
melt and gas injection points,
determination of, 139144
fluid injection technology, variants
of, 147161
GITBlow, 155159
multilayered hollow parts
manufactured using GIT and
WIT, 159160
overflow cavity method,
147150
push-back and core-pull
methods, 150
surface optimization, measures
for, 161
water injection technology,
150154
form and position of gas bubble,
influencing, 125128
geometric groups, 111112, 113t
machine setup for, 137f
material properties, influence of,
130136
Carreau parameter, 131133,
134f
elongational viscosity, 135136
filling/reinforcement materials,
influences of, 136
shear viscosity, 133
structural viscosity, 133135
mechanisms of gas penetration,
115124, 116t
cooling phase/formation of the
quality features in the
component, 121124
gas injection/remaining filling,
117121
injection/partial filling, 110f,
115116, 116f, 117f
procedure, description of,
110112
shrinkage, 128130
surface quality, influencing,
128130
tools and machine technology,
136139
gas injector, 137139
gas sourcepressure
generationgas control, 137
typical applications and tasks,
112114, 114t
Gas-holding pressure, 121
GCP technique. See Gas counter
pressure (GCP) technique
GIT. See Gas injection technology
(GIT)
GITBlow (GIT combined with blow
molding), 155159
one-step method, 156157
two-step method, 155
Glass fiber-reinforced plastics,
226
Glass mat-reinforced thermoplasts
(GMTs), 194, 199, 203, 205
GMTs. See Glass mat-reinforced
thermoplasts (GMTs)
H
Heat capacity/storage capacity,
influence of, 150152
Heat transition coefficient and heat
conductivity, influence of,
152
Heterogeneous nucleation, 58
242 INDEXHolding pressure, 25, 88, 185
Hollow space, 107, 111, 115, 123,
130, 147, 154
Homogeneous nucleation, 58
I
IMC. See Injection-molding
compounder (IMC)
Infrared radiators, 203204
Injection and holding pressure, 25
Injection sequence, 3637
sequential process control, 37
simultaneous process control, 36
Injection speed, 2526, 86, 185
Injection-molding compounder
(IMC), 232234
Insert molding technology, 186188,
186f, 187f
plasticmetal connection in, 187f
Insert technique, 40f
Institute of Plastics Processing, 9899
Interface, structure of, 168f
Interface compatibility, 1116
Interface stresses, 2126
Interface temperature, 1620
Interface tension, 12
Intermediate cooling time, 20
Internal stresses, 80, 129, 175,
180183
bonding at, 196197
K
Key technology, 1
L
Linear thermal expansion coefficient,
179
Load-bearing plasticmetal
structures, 191193
Localized shrinkage compensation,
160161
M
Machines and processes, 2648
material combination, 2729
point of material joining, 2936
bi-injection, 2930
injection sequence, 3637
marbling technique, 3436
sandwich technique, 3034
tool technologies, 3748
horizontal turning technologies,
4548
index plate, 4344
linear systems, 4445
rotary disks, 4143
slider technology, 3739
transfer process, 3941
Marbling technique, 3436
Mass temperature, 1720, 8384
Material combination, 2729
Material joining, 2936
bi-injection, 2930
injection sequence, 3637
sequential process control,
37
simultaneous process control,
36
marbling technique, 3436
sandwich technique, 3034
basic method, 33
general information, 3233
monosandwich method, 31f, 34
traditional technique, 31f
Mechanical adhesion, 56,
169171
Melt and gas injection points,
determination of, 139144,
141t
Melt temperature, 17, 85, 183184
Metal insert, 176, 193
temperature of, 184
Metals, surface pretreatments for,
168, 169t
Microcellular foams, 55
Mold design, 24
Mold temperature, 20, 8586,
184185
variothermic, 9394
INDEX 243Moldexs, 109
Moldflows, 109
Molecular orientations, 14, 2526,
178, 185
Molecular weight, 13
Monosandwich technique, 31f, 34
Morphology of foams, 6567
Motivation, 23
MuCells, 8283, 96, 97f, 231
Multicomponent technologies, 1
Multilayered hollow parts,
manufacturing
using GIT and WIT, 159160
Multimaterial systems, injection of,
165
construction, 174177
component design, 175177
selection of materials, 174175
injection-molded organic sheet
parts, production of, 194207
process technology, 197207
thermoplastic composites,
bonding mechanisms of,
194197
material effects, 177183
anisotropy, 177178
internal stresses, 180183
linear thermal expansion
coefficient, 179
plasticmetal systems, bonding
mechanisms in, 166172
adhesion, 166171
form-fitting connections, 172
processing variants, 186193
insert technology, 187188
load-bearing plasticmetal
structures, 191193
outsert technology, 188191
process parameters, 183185
holding pressure, 185
injection speed, 185
melt temperature, 183184
mold temperature, 184185
temperature of the insert, 184
N
Natural fiber, 220221
classification of, 219f
plant-based, 221
-reinforced plastics, 219220, 224,
226, 231
“Negative injection compression
molding”. See Precision mold
opening (PMO)
Nitrogen gas, 8182
Nucleation, 58
O
Optifoams, 96, 98, 99f
Organic sheet parts, injectionmolded, 194207
process technology, 197207
process sequences, 200207
process structure, 198200
thermoplastic composites, bonding
mechanisms of, 194197
bonding at internal stresses,
196197
types of adhesion, 195196
Organic sheets, 165, 194
preparation of, 202203
Outsert molding technology,
188191
plasticmetal connection
in, 190f
Overflow cavity method, 109111,
147150
P
PAs. See Polyamides (PAs)
PBT. See Polybutylene terephthalate
(PBT)
PC. See Polycarbonate (PC)
PE. See Polyethylene (PE)
PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate
(PET)
Physical blowing agents, 6264,
8182
foaming using, 77
244 INDEXPhysical foaming techniques,
96100
CellMoulds, 9697
Ergocell, 97
MuCells, 96
Optifoams, 98
ProFoam, 99
SmartFoams, 99100
Plant-based natural fibers, 221
Plastic composites, injection molding
of
basic bonding mechanism, 39
adhesion, 46
diffusion, 69
basic bonding mechanism, material
and process control on,
1026
connection design/interface
geometry, 23
contact time, 20
crystallinity, 13
injection and holding pressure,
25
injection speed, 2526
interface compatibility, 1116
interface stresses, 2126
interface temperature, 1620
intermediate cooling time, 20
mass temperature/injection
sequence, 1720
mold design, 24
mold temperature, 20
molecular orientations, 14
molecular weight, 13
polarity, 14
shrinkage, 2122
surface and interface tension,
1112
surface pretreatment, 16
surface roughness, 2324
thermal expansion behavior,
25
thermodynamic compatibility/
miscibility, 1516
machines and processes, 2648
material combination, 2729
point of material joining, 2936
tool technologies, 3748
motivation, 23
multicomponent technologies, 1
Plasticmetal composite, 165,
173174, 176, 177f, 179, 183
Plasticmetal hybrid injection
molding, 186f, 191, 193
Plasticmetal systems, bonding
mechanisms in, 166172
adhesion, 166171
mechanical adhesion, 169171
specific adhesion, 166169
form-fitting connections, 172
Plastic-plastic composites, injectionmolded, 2
Plastics
fiber reinforcement, 192
shrinking behavior of, 190, 191f
structural viscosity of, 133135
PMO. See Precision mold opening
(PMO)
Polarity, 14
Polarization theory, 5, 167
Polyamides (PAs), 190, 217
with vegetable oil basis, 217218
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT),
217
Polycarbonate (PC), 6970, 83
Polyethylene (PE), 226227
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 217
Polylactic acid, 219
Polymer-gas mixture, 57, 7374, 79,
98
Polymers, injection molding of, 211
Polypropylene (PP), 81, 226227
Polysaccharides, 213214
Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT),
217
Polyurethane (PUR), 217
Pore density, 6869, 8283
Postshrinkage, 21
INDEX 245PP. See Polypropylene (PP)
Precision mold opening (PMO), 8890
Preheating, 203206
“Process Sequences”, 195196,
200207
Processing shrinkage, 21
Processing variants, 186193
insert technology, 187188
load-bearing plasticmetal
structures, 191193
outsert technology, 188191
ProFoam, 99
PTT. See Polytrimethylene
terephthalate (PTT)
Pull-and-foam method, 90, 91f
Pulling injectors, 139
PUR. See Polyurethane (PUR)
Push-back method, 121, 150
Push-button effect, 170
PvT-behavior, 180
R
Reflection electron microscopy
(REM), 229230
Relocating technique, 40f
REM. See Reflection electron
microscopy (REM)
Remaining wall thickness (RWT),
115, 123, 130131
definition of, 131f
measurement, 130
rheological influences on, 132f
Rotary central block, 4546
Rotary disk and cube mold, 188, 189f
Roughness
geometries of, 170f
surface roughness, 2324, 92, 92f,
95
RWT. See Remaining wall thickness
(RWT)
S
Sandwich technique, 3034, 9495
basic method, 33
general information, 3233
monosandwich method, 31f, 34
traditional technique, 31f
SB. See Styrene butadiene (SB)
Semicrystalline plastics, 7, 13,
1517, 175
Shear viscosity, 133
Shrinkage, 2122, 4041, 6162
demolding, 21
form bound, 22, 22f
free, 22, 22f
localized shrinkage compensation,
160161
postshrinkage, 21
processing, 21
Side cavity method. See Overflow
cavity method
SIGMASOFTs, 109
Single-material systems, 194,
196197
Single-phase polymer-gas mixture,
57, 7374, 8687
SmartFoams method, 99100
Solidworkss, 109
Solubility, 5758
Specific injection-molding behavior,
225230
injection molding, characteristics
in, 225226
biocomposites,
226
bioplastics, 225
process-induced material
properties, 226230
process variants, 231234
foam injection molding,
231232
injection-molding compounder,
232234
Stabilizing effects, 6162
Stack turning technologies, 4548
Starch as filling material, 222223,
223t
Starch blends, 215216
246 INDEXStatic mixing elements for
distributing gas in the melt,
7778
Stationary injectors, 139
Stiffness of the foam core, 7071
Structural viscosity, 133135
Styrene butadiene (SB), 151152
Supercritical fluid, 63f
Supersaturation, 8283
Surface and interface tension, 1112
Surface optimization, measures for,
161
Surface pretreatment, 16
for metals, 169t
Surface roughness, 2324, 92, 92f
Surface tension, 1112
T
Temperature-dependent reptation
time, 9
TGA. See Thermogravimetric
analysis (TGA)
Thermal expansion behavior, 25
Thermodynamic compatibility/
miscibility, 1516
Thermodynamic theory, 56
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),
221222
Thermoplastic composites, bonding
mechanisms of, 194197
Thermoplastic foam injection
molding. See Foam injection
molding (FIM)
Thermoplastic starch (TPS),
214215
Tool technologies, 3748
classification of, 38f
horizontal turning technologies,
4548
index plate, 4344
linear systems, 4445
rotary disks, 4143
slider technology, 3739
transfer process, 3941
TPS. See Thermoplastic starch (TPS)
Trellis effect, 205
U
Upstream thermoforming, 198199
V
Variotherm method, 55, 9394
Variothermic mold temperature,
9394
Vegetable oils, 217
Vertical injection-molding machine
technology, 198
W
Water injection technology (WIT),
107109, 150154
influence of the compressibility of
the fluid, 153154
influence of the heat capacity/
storage capacity, 150152
influence of the heat transition
coefficient and the heat
conductivity, 152
pressure-controlled, 115
systems technology requirements
for, 154
volume flow controlled, 115
Weak Boundary Layer Model, 167
Weak boundary layer theory, 6
WIT. See Water injection technology
(WIT)
WittmannBattenfeld injectionmolding machines, 9697
Wood as filling material, 223224
Y
Young’s modulus, 70


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