كتاب Non-Destructive Testing Techniques
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Non-Destructive Testing Techniques

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب Non-Destructive Testing Techniques  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Non-Destructive Testing Techniques    كتاب Non-Destructive Testing Techniques  Emptyالأحد 04 يونيو 2023, 4:20 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Non-Destructive Testing Techniques
RAVI PRAKASH
Dean, Research & Consultancy Division Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani, India

كتاب Non-Destructive Testing Techniques  N_d_t_14
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Preface v
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . 1–9
1.1 Definition of Non-Destructive Testing . 1
1.2 Need for NDT Techniques and its Applications 2
1.3 Types of NDT Techniques 4
1.4 Benefits from Non-Destructive Testing 4
1.5 Nature of Flaws 5
1.6 Various Steps involved in Non-Destructive Testing . 6
1.7 Uses of NDT Techniques for Applications other than Flaw Detection 8
1.8 Concluding Remarks 9
CHAPTER 2 ULTRASONIC TESTING 10–34
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Frequency of Ultrasonic Waves 11
2.3 Generation of Ultrasonic Waves . 11
2.4 Piezo-electric Materials for Ultrasonic Transducers 12
2.5 Different Kinds of Ultrasonic Transducers 12
2.6 Types of Ultrasonic Waves 15
2.7 Acoustic Impedance and the Need for Coupling Medium . 16
2.8 Reflection, Refraction and Scattering of Ultrasonic Beams . 17
2.9 Ultrasonic Attenuation 18
2.10 Working of Ultrasonic Flaw Detectors . 19
2.11 Industrial Applications 20
2.12 Pulse-echo and Through Transmission Testing 21
2.13 Scanner Assemblies for Transmission and Pulse-echo Techniques 25
2.14 Types of Scan 26
2.15 Shear Wave Applications . 28
Contents2.16 Surface Wave Applications 29
2.17 Typical Indications . 30
2.18 Test Blocks and Evaluating Flaw Size . 31
2.19 Resonance Technique . 32
2.20 Use of Ultrasonics for Thickness Measurement 33
2.21 A Few Applications of Ultrasonics in Medical Sciences . 34
2.22 Determination of Grain Size using Ultrasonics 34
CHAPTER 3 EDDY-CURRENT TESTING . 35–54
3.1 Electrical Properties of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics . 35
3.2 Principle of Eddy-current Testing 36
3.3 Application of Eddy-current Testing 36
3.4 Eddy-current Path 37
3.5 Eddy-current Coils/Probes . 38
3.6 Edge-effect . 38
3.7 Recent Trends in Eddy-current Testing . 38
3.8 High Frequency Eddy-current Test 38
3.9 Electrical Analogue of Eddy-current Test 39
3.10 Theoretical Analysis of Eddy-current Circuit 40
3.11 Fibre Volume Fraction Measurement by Eddy-current Technique . 44
3.12 Determination of Lay-up Order in Cross-plied CFRP Laminates . 47
3.13 Conclusion and Future Potential 54
CHAPTER 4 MAGNETIC PARTICLE FLAW DETECTION . 55–73
4.1 Principle of Magnetic Flaw Detection 55
4.2 Types and Methods of Magnetisation . 56
4.3 Magnetic Particles 59
4.4 Dry and Wet Methods of Magnetic Particle Inspection 59
4.5 Use of Fluorescent Coated Magnetic Particles 60
4.6 Industrial Applications 60
4.7 Working of a Few Commercially Available Magnetic Crack Detectors 61
4.8 Flaw Detection in Rods and Pipes 64
4.9 Flaw Detection in a Short Workpiece . 66
4.10 Precautions . 67
4.11 Limitations 68
4.12 Residual Magnetism 69
4.13 Need for Demagnetisation . 69
4.14 Relevant and Non-relevant Indications . 71
viii CONTENTS4.15 Physical Properties Determination 72
4.16 Research Techniques using Magnetic Particle Method 72
CHAPTER 5 LIQUID PENETRANT INSPECTION . 74–85
5.1 Historical Background . 74
5.2 Oil and Chalk-Dust Method 74
5.3 Principle of Liquid Penetrant Method 75
5.4 Inspection Technique . 77
5.5 Commercially Available Dye-penetrant Inspection Kits 81
5.6 Industrial Applications 81
5.7 Precautions and Limitations . 82
5.8 Test Blocks 83
5.9 Fluorescent Penetrant Testing 84
5.10 Detection of Through Leaks 84
5.11 Typical Indications Associated with Liquid Penetrant Testing and their
Interpretations . 85
CHAPTER 6 X-RADIOGRAPHY 86–94
6.1 Introduction 86
6.2 Properties and Production of X-rays . 86
6.3 Working Principle of X-Radiography 88
6.4 Various Methods for Detecting Modulated Intensity of X-rays Beam 91
6.5 Applications of X-Radiographic Technique 92
6.6 Safety Aspects related to X-Radiographic Testing 93
6.7 Concluding Remarks 94
CHAPTER 7 ACOUSTIC EMISSION TESTING AND ACOUSTO-ULTRASONIC
TESTING 95–105
7.1 Introduction 95
7.2 Need for Detecting Equipment 95
7.3 Historical Background . 95
7.4 Basic Principle of Acoustic Emission Testing Technique . 96
7.5 Empirical Relationships Associated with Acoustic Emission Technique 99
7.6 Acoustic Emission Response from Ductile and Brittle Materials 100
7.7 Applications of Acoustic Emission Technique . 100
7.8 Acoustic Emission Instrumentation/Equipment . 101
7.9 Acousto-Ultrasonic Technique 103
CONTENTS ixCHAPTER 8 MISCELLANEOUS NDT METHODS . 106–122
8.1 Visual Inspection and Optical Techniques 106
8.2 Pressure and Leak Testing 108
8.3 Resistance Strain Gauge . 109
8.4 Brittle Coatings 111
8.5 Spot Test . 112
8.6 Spark Testing . 113
8.7 Sulphur Printing 114
8.8 Thermal Methods . 115
8.9 Electrical Methods . 117
8.10 Dynamic Testing . 119
8.11 Spectrochemical Analysis 120
8.12 Thickness Measurement using Beta Gauge and Beta Backscatter Gauge . 121
Bibliography . 123–125
Index . 127–134
x CONTENTS127
A
A-scan 26
A.C. circular field demagnetisation 70
Absorption type beta gauge 121
Accumulation technique 109
Acid digestion 47
Acoustic emission 4, 7, 95
Acoustic emission sensor 103
Acoustic emission technique 3, 100, 101
Acoustic emission testing 4, 5
Acoustic energy 95
Acoustic impedance 16
Acousto-ultrasonic technique 103
Acousto-ultrasonic testing 4, 5
Adhesive bonds 101
Adhesively bonded structures 9
Aggregated effect 25
Air pressure testing 108
Airframe components 20
Amplitude of transmitted signal 18
Angle beam contact ultrasonic transducers 13
Angle of incidence 17
Angle of reflection 17
Attenuation 2
Attenuation of X-ray 87
Attenuation rate 119
Audible frequency range 10
Automation 21
B
B-scan 27
Back-wall echo 22
Backscatter type beta gauge 121
Backscattered radiation 122
Barium titanate 12
Beneficial defects 3
Beryllium window 87
Beta backscatter gauge 8, 122
Beta gauge 121
Beta ray 8
Biomedical engineering 9
Black light 63, 78, 84
Blow-holes 5, 6, 92
Bond strength 2
Bone plates 9
Boroscopes 107
Breakdown 5
Brittle coatings 111
Brittle lacquer 8, 111
Built-in attenuators 19
Burn-off technique 8, 47
Burst 1
C
C-scan 27
Cable magnetisation 66
Cable-coil 62
Calibrated attenuation switches 19
Calibrated attenuator 20
Calibration 8, 112
Capillary action 74
Carbon fibre reinforced plastic
composite specimen 96
Carbon fibre reinforced plastics 35
Cassettes 94
Catastrophic failures 5
Central conductor 59, 65
Ceramic type brittle coatings 112
Characterization of material properties 1
Characteristic loop 54
Chemical composition 5
Index128 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNIQUES
Chemical/fertiliser plants 1
Circuit 50
Circular magnetic field 64
Circular magnetisation 56, 65
Circular probe 37
Cleaner 77
Cleaner-jet 79
Cleaner-tank 79
Cleaning tanks 78
Closed cracks 83
Coercive force 71
Coil magnetisation 59
Coin tapping technique 119
Compressional wave transducers 14
Compressional waves 15
Computerised tomography 91
Connecting rods 61
Contact type 21
Contact type pulse-echo technique 21
Continuous method 69
Contrast 87, 91
Conveyer belt 64
Corrosion 6
Corrosion fatigue 6
Corrosion rate 119
Corrosions pits 92
Couplant 12
Coupling medium 16
Crack initiation 100
Crack propagation 100
Cracks 3, 6
Crank-shafts 61
Creep 10
Critical angle 15, 17
Cumulative acoustic emission counts 99
Customer satisfaction 4
D
D.C. yokes 70
Damping measurement technique 120
Debonding 100
Decarburisation 6
Defect echo 22
Defect-free 2, 5
Defect-free zone 23
Defects 5
Deformation processes 101
Delaminations 5, 6
Delayed sweep circuits 26
Demagnetisation of components 70
Demagnetiser 64
Depth of peneration 36
Detecting sensors and equipments 95
Developer 79
Differential absorption 86
Dilational or irratitonal waves 15
Double transducer 21
Drop lights 106
Dry method 59
Dye-etching technique 112
Dye-pen 112
Dye-penetrant inspection kit 81
Dye-penetrant technique 74
Dynamic testing 119
E
Edde-effect 38
Eddy-current path 37
Eddy-current probe 2
Eddy-current testing 4, 35, 114
Eddy-scan 45
Elastic radiation 95
Electrical analogue 39, 50
Electrical anisotropy 35
Electrical interference 101
Electrical methods 117
Electrified particle technique 112
Electromagnetic induction 35
Electromagnetic noises 102
Electromagnetic radiation 86
Electromagnetic vibrators 120
Electromagnetic yokes 63
Electromagnets 57
Electromechanical transducers 11
Electronic background noises 101
Electronic gate 28
Embrittlement 6, 101
Emission count 97
Emission rate 98INDEX 129
Endoscopes 107
Endurance limit 104
Engineering postmortem 4
Etching 74
Evaluation of defects 1
Event 98
Excess penetrant 79
Exciting 38
Exciting coil 36
Expanding spherical wave packet 96
Experimental stress analysis 110
External fixators 9
F
Factor of ignorance 1
Factor of safety 1
False indications 71
Fatigue 6
Fatigue behavior 3
Fatigue cracks 5, 6, 61
Fatigue failure 6
Fatigue strength 9
Feeble indications 83
Felicity effect 96
Ferromagnetic materials 55, 68
Ferrous forging 20
Ferrous welds 20
Fibre breakage 100
Fibre composite pressure vessels 101
Fibre pull-outs 3
Fibre reinforced plastic composites 3
Fibre volume fraction 2, 3, 36
Fibre wash 6, 54, 92
Fibre weight fraction 47
Fibre-kinks 6
Film to focus distance 90
Fine grain film 91
Finger damping 28
Flakes 5
Flat-bottomed hole 31
Flaws 5
Fluorescent coated magnetic particles 59, 63
Fluorescent magnetic ink 63
Fluorescent paste 60
Fluorescent penetrant inspection kits 81
Fluorescent penetrant technique 74
Fluorescent screens 91
Fluoroscopy 92
Focal width 90
Focused ultrasonic transducers 14
Fog 91
Fogging 87
Forster 72
Forster probe 72
Frequency 10
Frequency deviation meter 45
Frequency discriminator circuit 49
Frequency of ultrasonic waves 11
Frequency response 119
Fundamental frequency 33
G
Gamma radiography 86
Gamma rays 8, 86
Gas-holes 6
Generation of ultrasonic waves 11
Gentle wiping 75, 77
Good transmission 16
Grain size 2, 3, 10, 34
Grease 16
Grinding cracks 6
Grinding defects 6
Gross crack 10
Grossly distributed defects 25
Grossly distributed porosities 25
H
Harmless defects 3
Health hazard 10
Heat treatment 5
Heat-affected zones 6, 92
Heat-treatment cracks 61
Helium leak detection technique 4, 108, 109
Heyn and Bauer sulphur printing technique 115
High density fillers 94
High mechanical stresses 5
Higher reliability of the product 4
Horse shoe eddy-current probe 37
Horse-shoe probe 49
Hot drying 80130 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNIQUES
Hydrostatic failure 1
Hydrostatic testing 108
I
Immersion type pulse-echo technique 21
Immersion type testing 24
Immersion type ultrasonic transducers 13
Impending failure 111
Improper penetration 29
In-service embrittlement 8
Incident beam 18
Incipient failure detection system (IFDS) 8, 101
Inclusions 3, 5, 6, 90
Induced current vibrators 120
Induced eddy-currents 36
Induced magnetic field 57
Industrial radiography 86
Industry 1
Infra-red cameras 117
Infra-red photographic films 117
Infra-red photography 117
Infra-red thermography 116
Inherent flaws 5, 6
Inhomogeneity 5
Initial pulse 22
Inplaner crack 92
Inplaner defects 20
Inplaner voids 92
Inspection in railways 20
Intensifying screens 91
Interaction of sound-waves 10
Interfaces 17
Internal flaws 6, 10
Internal structure 10
International Institute of Welders 31
Interpretation of results 6, 7
Ionization of gas 91
Iron filings 56
Irrotational waves 15
J
Jet engine rotors 20
K
Kaiser effect 96
L
Lamb waves 16
Laminar sandwich type materials 14
Latent-defects 101
Lay-up order 8, 36
Lead sheets 93
Lead zirconate titanate 12
Leakage flux 56
Liquid penetrant inspection 4, 74
Lockout time 98
Longitudinal conductivity 35
Longitudinal cracks 64
Longitudinal magnetisation 56, 62, 66
Longitudinal resistivity 35
Longitudinal wave transducers 14
Longitudinal waves 15
Love waves 16
Low amplitude vibration 11
Lubricating oils 16
M
Machining marks 6
Magnetic bath 60
Magnetic core 36
Magnetic crack detector 66
Magnetic field 55, 60
Magnetic fluid bath 63
Magnetic hysteresis 72
Magnetic ink 60
Magnetic particle flaw detection 4, 55
Magnetic particles 7, 59
Magnetic paste 60
Magnetic permeability 37, 59, 72
Magnetic rubber 4, 73
Magnetizing yokes 57
Magnifying lenses 107
Maintenance inspection 20
Mallet tapping 119
Mass absorption coefficient 87
Material anisotropy 37
Material calibration control 20
Material sorting 5
Materials attenuation 19
Matrix cracking 100, 101INDEX 131
Mechanical behaviour 5
Mechanical noise 101
Mechanical testings 1
Medical radiography 86
Metal sorting 36
Metallic 20
Metallurgical properties 5
Micro and macro-voids 103
Micro-structural environment 103
Micrographic polishing 45
Micrographic study 8
Micrographic test facilities 34
Microradio graphy 91
Microvoids 3
Miscellaneous NDT techniques 4
Missiles 9
Modified Kaiser effect 96
Modulated coil impedance 36
Modulated ultrasonic signal 7
Modulus of elasticity 3
Moire method 8
Mutual inductance 51
N
Non-metallic inclusions 20
Non-relevant indications 68
Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques 2
Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques 1
Nonferrous forging 20
Nonferrous welds 20
Nuclear establishments 1
Nuclear reactors 9
O
Oil and chalk-dust method 74
On-line monitoring 3, 5
Optimum dwell time 9
P
Pacemakers 9
Parallel magnetisation 66
Penetrant 78
Penetrant leak testing 108
Penetration depth 87
Penumbral width 91
Periodic inspection 1
Periscopes 107
Permanent magnets 57
Perspex shoes 30
Phosphor coatings 116
Photo-cells 107
Photoelasticity 8
Photometer 7
Phototubes 107
Pick-up coils 38
Piezo-electric transducers 11
Piezoelectric materials 12
Pits 6
Plastic deformation 98
Plastic wedge 13
Polishing 34
Porosities 5, 6, 90
Potassium-iodide sheet 94
Powder pattern 62
Power plants 1
Preferential path 55
Preparation of test surface 6
Pressure and leak testing 108
Pressurisation technique 109
Primary beam 91
Primary impedance 40
Probe impedance 44
Processing flaws 5, 6
Prod type magnetic crack detector 61, 62
Production processes 5
Productivity 4
Propagating crack 3
Pulse-echo technique 10, 21
Q
Quantitative microscopic technique 8
Quantitative microscopy 47
Quartz 12
Quenching cracks 61, 81
R
Radiation detector 109, 122
Radiation monitoring badge 93
Radioactive leak technique 108, 109
Radioactive leak testing 108132 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNIQUES
Radiograph 90
Radiography (X-ray, Gamma Ray and Neutron) 4
Radiography technique 20
Railroad axles 74
Rayleigh or Lamb wave type 96
Ratio of the amplitudes of ultrasonic beam 16
Rayleigh waves 16
Reactance of the probe 44
Reading lenses 107
Receiver 21
Receiver transducer 12
Reflection 17
Reflection coefficient 18
Refraction 17
Reliability 1
Remainder life 5
Residual magnetism 63, 69
Residual method 69
Residual strength 5
Residual stresses 6
Resin crazing 103
Resin rich areas 6
Resin type 111
Resistance strain gauge technique 109
Resistive path 39
Resonance technique 32
Ring-down count 97
RL circuits 50
RLC 50
RMS meter 98
Rocket motor casings 20
Rockets 9
Roentgenography 86
Rolling and plating defects 5
Routine inspection 5
Rubber spray bulbs 60
S
Safe-ultraviolet light 63
Sand blasting 75
Scanner assemblies 25, 45
Scanning electron microscopy 4
Scattering 17, 91
Scattering of ultrasonic beam 18
Seams 5
Secondary beams 91
Secondary coil 36
Segregation 5
Senstivity 89
Service cost 4
Service cracks 81
Service flaws 5, 6
Shear wave transducers 14
Shear waves 16
Shock wave lithotripsy 34
Short wave train 12
Shot blasting 7
Shrinkage cracks 6
Shut-downs 5
Signal amplitude threshold 97
Silver bromide printing paper 114
Skin-effect 25
Slag 6
Slag inclusions 29
Smudging of developer 80
Snell’s law 17
Sonic 108
Sonic leak detection technique 109
Space applications 1
Spacecrafts 9
Spark test 8
Spark testing 113
Spectrochemical analysis 8, 114, 120
Spinal rectangles 9
Spot test 8, 112, 113
Spray-gun 78
Spurious indications 82
Spurious signals 30
Standard test blocks 31, 82
Standing wave pattern 32
Stationary units 63
Step blocks 33
Stored elastic energy 95
Straight beam contact ultrasonic transducers 12
Straight beam faced ultrasonic transducers 13
Strength 1
Stress concentration 8
Stress corrosion 6
Stress intensity 99
Stress wave emission 95INDEX 133
Stress wave factor 2, 103
Stress-concentrators 6
Sub-surface flaws 5, 6
Sulphur 114
Sulphur printing 8, 114
Supersonic aircrafts 9
Surface attenuation 19
Surface cracks 5, 6
Surface finish 8
Surface flaws 6
Surface pits 82
Surface texture 82
Surface wave ultrasonic transducers 15
Surface waves 15
Surgical implants 9
T
Telescopes 107
Temperature indicating lacquers 116
Temperature sensitive phosphors 116
Temperature sensitive pigments 116
Tensile strength 3
Test block 22, 31, 83
Test coil 36
Thermal anisotropy 6
Thermal cracks 5
Thermal methods 115
Thermocouples 116
Thermography 116
Thickness measurement 8
Thickness of non-conducting films
on metallic base 36
Threading bar method 65
Threshold strain value 8
Through leaks 84
Tool marks 6
Total attenuation 19
Total reflection 15
Totaliser 102
Translaminar cracks 92
Transmission coefficient 18
Transmission technique 10
Transmitted beam 18
Transmitter 20, 21
Transmitting transducer 12
Transverse cracks 64
Transverse defects 20
Transverse resistivity 35
Transverse waves 15
Transverse wave ultrasonic transducers 14
Triangulation techniques 99
Twin transducer 21
U
Ultimate tensile strength 2
Ultrascan 27
Ultra-violet light 60, 78
Ultrasonic attenuation 8, 18
Ultrasonic CAT scanner 34
Ultrasonic energy 23
Ultrasonic flaw detector 19
Ultrasonic foetal detector 34
Ultrasonic leak detection technique 108
Ultrasonic leak testing 109
Ultrasonic probes 11
Ultrasonic pulsar 103
Ultrasonic testing 4, 10
Ultrasonic therapy 34
Ultrasonic thickness 8
Ultrasonic thickness gauge 33
Ultrasonic velocity 2
Ultrasonography 34
Ultraviolet/black light source 59
Unwanted signals 28
V
Viscosity 75
Visual inspection 106
Voids 3, 5, 6
Voltage gradient 12
W
Wave train 19
Wave ultrasonic transducers 15
Wavelength 11, 33, 91
Wear 6
Welding defects 3, 92
Weldments 61
Wet-combustion process 47134 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNIQUES
Wet-method 59
Wheatstone bridge 111, 118
White X-rays 87
Wide shallow cracks 83
Workpieces 66
X
X-radiography 86
X-ray dosimeter 93
X-ray film 7, 86
X-ray tubes 87
X-rays 20, 86, 91
X-Y recorder 26
Z
Zero risk 5


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