كتاب Essential Rubber Formulary - Formulas for Practitioners
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Essential Rubber Formulary - Formulas for Practitioners

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كتاب Essential Rubber Formulary - Formulas for Practitioners  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Essential Rubber Formulary - Formulas for Practitioners    كتاب Essential Rubber Formulary - Formulas for Practitioners  Emptyالخميس 25 مايو 2023, 4:03 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Essential Rubber Formulary - Formulas for Practitioners
V. C. Chandrasekaran

كتاب Essential Rubber Formulary - Formulas for Practitioners  R_f_f_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xvii
Part 1 About Rubber 1
1 Introduction 3
2 Brief Notes on Compounding Ingredients 5
2.1 Accelerators 5
2.2 Vulcanizing Agents 6
2.3 Activators 6
2.4 Antioxidants 6
2.5 Fillers and Reinforcing Agents 6
2.6 Retarders 7
2.7 Process Oils/Softeners 7
3 Some Hints on Rubber Compounding Techniques 8
4 Note on Reclaimed Rubber 11
5 Rubber Content in Products 12
6 Note on Coloring of Rubbers 14
7 Typical Rubber Testing Methods 16
7.1 Prelude 16
7.2 Tests on Unvulcanized Rubber Stocks 17
7.2.1 Plasticity 17
7.2.2 Scorch Time and Rate of Cure 17
7.2.3 Plasticity Retention Index 17
7.3 Tests on Vulcanized Rubbers 17
7.3.1 Hardness 17
7.3.2 Tensile Test 18
7.3.3 Resilience 19
7.3.4 Specific Gravity 19
7.3.5 Abrasion Resistance 19
7.3.6 Spark Testing 19
7.3.7 Accelerated Tests 20
vii7.3.8 Low Temperature Flexibility 20
7.3.9 Chemical Tests 21
7.3.9.1 Total Sulfur 21
7.3.9.2 Ash Content 21
7.3.9.3 Acetone Extract 21
7.3.9.4 Tests for Copper and Manganese 22
Part 2 Formulary 23
8 Thin Coatings 25
8.1 Introduction 25
8.2 The Gray Coating of Hypalon 25
8.3 The Black Coating of Neoprene 26
8.4 Black Brushing 26
8.5 Gray Brushing 27
9 Oil Seals and “O” Rings 28
9.1 Introduction 28
9.2 Rotary Seal (Neoprene)—858A 29
9.3 “O” Ring (Neoprene)—608A 29
9.4 Rotary Seal (Nitrile)—608A 30
9.5 Rotary Seal (Nitrile)—808A 30
9.6 Rotary Seal (Nitrile)—758A 31
9.7 “O” Rings (Nitrile)—658A 31
9.8 “O” Rings (Nitrile 1)—608A 32
9.9 “O” Rings (Nitrile 2)—608A 32
9.10 “O” Ring Compound
(Styrene-Butadiene Rubber, SBR)—558A 33
9.11 Rotary Seal (Natural Rubber)—858A 33
9.12 “O” Rings (Natural Rubber) for Pipe Couplings—608A 34
9.13 Rotary Seal (SBR)—908A 34
9.14 Rotary Seal (Nitrile)—758A 35
9.15 “O” Rings (Nitrile)—608A 35
9.16 Rotary Seal (Blend of Nitrile/SBR)—758A 36
9.17 Rotary Seal (Neoprene)—858A 36
9.18 Rotary Seal (Neoprene)—958A 37
9.19 “O” Ring (Neoprene)—658A 37
9.20 Butyl Rubber Seal—758A 38
9.21 Bromobutyl Seal—708A 38
9.22 “O” Ring Thiokol (Polysulfide Rubber) for Airborne
Applications 39
viii CONTENTSCONTENTS ix
9.22.1 “O” Ring Thiokol—558A 39
9.22.2 “O” Ring Thiokol—658A 39
9.23 Typical Nitrile Sealing Formulations for Airborne
Applications 40
9.24 Rotary Seal (Hypalon) 40
9.24.1 Rotary Seal (Hypalon)—858A 40
9.24.2 Rotary Seal (Hypalon)—708A 41
9.25 Rotary Seal (Nitrile/PVC Blend)—808A 41
9.26 “O” Ring (Nitrile/PVC Blend)—658A 42
9.27 Rotary Seal with Viton for Airborne Applications 42
9.28 Nitrile Rubber Ebonite for Oil Resistant Products 43
10 Beltings—Transmission, Conveyor, and V-Belts 44
10.1 Introduction 44
10.2 V-Belt Inner Layer (Natural Rubber) 45
10.3 Cord Friction Compound 45
10.4 Latex-Based Solution for Cord Dipping 46
10.5 Transmission Belting 46
10.6 Conveyor Belt Cover Compound (Natural Rubber) 47
10.7 Conveyor Belt Cover Compound (Flame Proof) 48
10.8 Conveyor Belt Cover (Natural Rubber/SBR Blend) 49
10.9 Oil Resistant Raw Edge V-Belt 50
11 Auto Rubber Components (Molded) 51
11.1 Introduction 51
11.2 Shock Absorber—558A 51
11.3 Shock Absorber—658A 52
11.4 Shock Absorber 1—608A 52
11.5 Shock Absorber 2—608A 53
11.6 Stabilizer Bar Bush—608A 53
11.7 Stabilizer Bar Bush—678A 54
11.8 Adhesive Bonding Agent for Fabric Insertion Sheets 54
11.9 Repair Cement for Automotive Belts 55
11.10 Metal-Bonded Engine Mountings—458A 55
11.11 Tire Flaps—608A 56
11.12 Window Channel Extrusion for Cars (Natural Rubber) 57
11.13 Window Channel Extrusion for Cars
(Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR)) 58
11.14 Neoprene Dust Covers for the Auto Industry—588A 59
11.15 Automotive Tire Tubes—458A 60
11.16 Low Cost Butyl Tube 6111.17 Car Mat (Natural Rubber)—708A 61
11.18 Bicycle Tube 62
11.19 Wind Screen Wiper for Automobiles 63
11.20 Nitrile Rubber Gasket Molding for Automobiles 64
11.21 Metal-Bonded Engine Mounting for
Automobiles—508A 65
11.22 Head Lamp Gasket for Automobiles
(Nonstaining)—558A 66
11.23 Basic Formula for General-Purpose, Heat Resistant
Gasket (Natural Rubber Without Sulfur)—608A 66
11.24 Basic Formula for Oil Resistant Gasket from
Natural Rubber—658A 67
11.25 General-Purpose Auto Rubber Bush 67
12 Retreading Rubber Compounds and Cements 68
12.1 Introduction 68
12.2 Tire Tread or Camel Back 1 68
12.3 Tire Tread or Camel Back 2 69
12.4 Tire Tread or Camel Back 3 69
12.5 Tire Tread or Camel Back 4 70
12.6 Tire Tread or Camel Back 5 71
12.7 Tire Tread or Camel Back 6 72
12.8 Under Tread Strips 72
12.9 Cushion Gum Compound 73
12.10 Vulcanizing Solution 73
13 Industrial Rubber Rollers 75
13.1 Introduction 75
13.2 Method 75
13.3 Cylinder 38—Paper Mills 76
13.4 Cylinder 44 (White)—Paper Mills 77
13.5 Cylinder 55—Paper Mills 77
13.6 Cylinder 65—Paper Mills 78
13.7 Cylinder 56 (White)—Paper Mills 78
13.8 Cylinder 75—Paper Mills 79
13.9 Cylinder 60—Paper Mills 79
13.10 Cylinder 80—Paper Mills 80
13.11 Cylinder 92—Paper Mills 80
13.12 Cylinder 96—Paper Mills 81
13.13 Cylinder 995—Semi-ebonite 81
13.14 Cylinder for the Steel Industry (Natural Rubber) 82
x CONTENTS13.15 Cylinder A (Green) for Textile Mills 82
13.16 Cylinder E—Textiles 83
13.17 Cylinder G—Textiles 83
13.18 Cylinder N55 84
13.19 Cylinder N70 84
13.20 Neoprene N75 85
13.21 Cylinder N90 86
13.22 Cylinder P72 87
13.23 Printing Roll Nitrile Based (Oil Resistant Printing Roll) 88
13.24 Cylinder “O” for the Textile Industry 88
13.25 Cylinder B (Beige) for the Textile Industry 89
13.26 Cylinder H (Green-Blue) for the Textile Industry 89
13.27 Cylinder C (Red) for the Textile Industry 90
13.28 Cylinder E (Yellow-Green) for the Textile Industry 90
13.29 Cylinder F (Light Brown) for the Textile Industry 91
13.30 Cylinder G (Light Green) for the Textile Industry 91
13.31 Ethylene-Propylene Diene Monomer Roll for
15% Nitric Acid—Electroplating Service 92
13.32 Neoprene Printing Roll—40–458A 93
13.33 Neoprene Hard Roll Compound (Nonblack)—858A 94
13.34 Hypalon Roll (Black)—858A 95
13.35 Hypalon Roll Compound (White)—988A 96
13.36 Rubber Roll for Tannery—608A 96
13.37 Rubber Roll for Tannery—808A 97
14 Tank Linings and Adhesives 98
14.1 Introduction 98
14.2 Rubber Lining of Digesters with Brick Lining for
Sulfuric Acid Conditions at 1008C 99
14.3 Rubber Lining Drum Filters for Handling Sulfuric
Acid Slurry at 658C 100
14.4 Rubber Lining for Iron Ore Slurry (Wear Resistant) 100
14.5 Adhesive Solution for the Abrasion/Wear Resistant
Lining Compound for Slurry Lines 101
14.6 Rubber Lining for Wet Chlorine—Caustic Soda
Industry 101
14.6.1 Base Layer (Semi-ebonite) 102
14.6.2 Lining Layer (True Ebonite) 102
14.7 Adhesive Dissolution to be Used on Cleaned Metal
Surfaces for Ebonite Lining 103
14.8 Lining Formulations for Phosphoric Acid Storage
Tanks 103
CONTENTS xi14.8.1 Natural Rubber 104
14.8.2 Neoprene Rubber 104
14.9 Cold Bond Adhesive Common for Natural, Neoprene,
Butyl, and Hypalon Rubber Sheets 105
14.10 Mixture of Solvents for Evaporation Makeup 105
14.11 Chlorine Resistant Compound Formulation Used in
Mercury Cells in the Caustic Soda Industry 106
14.12 Semi-ebonite Compound Formulation for Extrusion
of Profiles for Drum Filters 107
14.13 Formulation for Sulfuric Acid/Chlorine Solutions in
Drying Towers in the Caustic Soda Industry 108
14.14 Ebonite Based on Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR)
for Making Ebonite Distance Pieces and Internals for
the Chemical Industry 109
14.15 Ebonite Formulation Suitable for the Hot Water Curing
Method 110
14.16 Acid Resistant Strip Extrusion Compound Formulation
(Natural Rubber) 111
14.17 Acid and Ozone Resistant Strip Extrusion Compound
Formulation (Neoprene Rubber) 112
14.18 Nitric Acid Resistant Ethylene-Propylene Diene
Monomer (EPDM) Lining Formulation for the
Electroplating Industry 113
14.19 Bromobutyl Lining Formulation for the Ore/Sand
Beneficiation Industry 114
14.20 White Natural Rubber Compound Formula for Lining
of Equipments in Pigment Plants 115
14.21 White Neoprene Rubber Lining for Pigmentation
Plants 116
14.22 White Natural Rubber/Neoprene Blend for
Pigmentation Plants 117
14.23 Chlorobutyl Adhesive Formulation for Use in Butyl
Lining Formulation 118
14.24 Adhesive for Patchwork in a Rubber-Lined Pipes 118
14.24.1 Compound A 118
14.24.2 Compound B 118
14.25 Butyl Rubber Lining for Acid Regeneration Duty 119
14.26 Flexible Cell Covers 119
14.26.1 Ozone Resistant Neoprene Layer 120
14.26.2 Wet Chlorine Resistant Layer 120
xii CONTENTS14.27 Butyl Rubber/EPDM Membrane for Use in Fishery
Tanks 121
14.28 Low Temperature Curable Bromobutyl Lining for
Digesters in the Ore Industry 122
14.29 Open Steam Curable Phosphoric Acid Resistant
Soft Natural Rubber Compound 123
14.29.1 Master Batch 123
14.29.2 Ultra Accelerator System 123
14.30 Rubber Lining for 20% Hydrochloric Acid at 1008C 124
14.31 Lining of Impellers in Phosphatic Fertilizer Plants
with Tip Velocities of 109–110 m/sec to withstand
Dust and Fumes of Phosphoric Acid 125
14.32 Low Water Absorption Neoprene Lining Formulation
for Chlor-Alkali Plants 125
14.33 Butyl Lining for Digester (Without Mineral Fillers) 126
14.34 Lining for Road Tankers for 80% Phosphoric Acid
or 32% Hydrochloric Acid 127
15 Grooved Rubber Pads for Railways 128
15.1 Introduction 128
16 Paddy Dehusking Rolls 129
16.1 Formulation Based on Natural Rubber 129
16.2 Formulation Based on Carboxylated Nitrile Rubber 130
17 Footwear Rubber Components 131
17.1 Solid Rubber Soling for Footwear 131
17.2 Black Heel for Footwear 132
17.3 Brown Soling for Footwear 133
17.4 Sponge with High Styrene Nitrile Rubber for Soling 134
17.5 Sponge Rubber Soling for Footwear (Natural Rubber) 134
17.6 Rubber Strap for Microcellular/Sponge Soling 135
18 Hoses 136
18.1 Introduction 136
18.2 Nitrile Rubber Hose Outer 136
18.3 Nitrile Rubber Hose Inner 137
19 Typical Ebonite Formulations 138
19.1 Introduction 138
19.2 Fast Curing Ebonite 139
CONTENTS xiii20 Table Mats 140
21 Rubber Erasers 141
21.1 Introduction 141
21.2 Pencil Eraser—Alternate I 141
21.3 Pencil Eraser—Alternate II 142
21.4 Ink Eraser—Alternate I 142
21.5 Ink Eraser—Alternate II 143
21.6 Eraser for Typewriter 144
22 Natural Rubber (NR) Study Formulations—Factory
Trials 145
23 White Rubber Tiles 146
24 Factory Trials of Neoprene Moldables 147
24.1 Introduction 147
25 Proofing Compounds for Clothing and Inflatables 149
25.1 Introduction 149
25.2 Frictioning Compound 149
25.3 Topping Compound 149
26 Wear Resistant Rubber for the Mining Industry 150
26.1 Introduction 150
26.2 Typical Slurry Handling Compound—408A 151
26.3 Typical Chute and Launder Lining Compound—608A 151
27 Neoprene Molded Corks 152
27.1 Introduction 152
28 Low-Cost Chemical Resistant Canvass Reinforced
Neoprene Rubber Sheets 153
29 Battery Box 154
30 Neoprene Washer for Water Taps 155
31 Neoprene Inner Layer for Isocyanate Bonded
Components 156
xiv CONTENTS32 Rubber Bonded Anvil for the Electronics Industry 157
33 Solid Tires for Forklift Trucks 158
33.1 Introduction 158
34 Pharmaceutical Bottle Closures 159
34.1 Introduction 159
Appendices 161
Appendix 1: Scorching of Rubber—A Study Formula 163
Appendix 2: Specific Gravity and Volume Cost 164
Appendix 3: Equivalent Chemical Names for Trade Names 165
Appendix 4: Useful Conversion Tables 169
A4.1 Tensile Strength and Modulus
Conversions (Force/Area) 169
A4.1.1 Tear Strength Conversions (Force/Width) 170
A4.2 Temperature Conversions 171
A4.2.1 Celsius to Fahrenheit 171
A4.2.2 Fahrenheit to Celsius 172
A4.3 Other Conversion Tables 173
A4.3.1 Metric Weight Measures 173
A4.3.2 Pounds to Kilograms 173
A4.3.3 Ounces to Kilograms 174
A4.3.4 Inches to Millimeters 174
A4.3.5 Fractions to Decimals 175
Bibliography 177
Index 17
abrasion resistance
abrasion/wear resistant lining
compound, adhesive solution for, 101
tests, 19
accelerators, 5
alkaline type, 6
inorganic, 5
organic, 5
tests, 20
acetone extract tests, 21–22
acid regeneration duty, butyl rubber lining
for, 119
acid resistant strip extrusion compound
formulation, 111–112
activators, 6
adhesive bonding agents, 54
antimony sulfides, in rubber coloring, 6
antioxidants, 6
ash content tests, 21
auto rubber components (molded), 51–67,
see also shock absorber; window
channel extrusion
adhesive bonding agent for fabric
insertion sheets, 54
automotive tire tubes, 45°A, 60
belts, repair cement for, 55
bicycle tube, 62
car mat (natural rubber), 70°A, 61
general-purpose auto rubber bush, 67
head lamp gasket for automobiles
(nonstaining), 55°A, 66
heat resistant gasket (natural rubber
without sulfur), 60°A, 66
low cost butyl tube, 61
metal-bonded engine mountings
45°A, 55–56
for automobiles, 50°A, 65
neoprene dust covers in, 58°A, 59
nitrile rubber gasket molding for
automobiles, 64
oil resistant gasket from natural rubber,
65°A, 67
repair cement for automotive belts, 55
stabilizer bar bush, 60°A, 53
tire flaps, 60°A, 56
tire tubes, 45°A, 60
battery box, 154
beltings, 44–50, see also under
transmission belts; conveyor belts;
V-belts
cord friction compound, 45–46
latex-based solution for cord dipping,
46
bicycle tube, 62
black brushing, 26
bromobutyl
lining
formulation, 113
in ore industry, 122
seal, 70°A, 38
butyl rubber seal, 75°A, 38
cadmium sulfides, in rubber coloring, 6
camel back, 68–72
car mat (natural rubber), 70°A, 61
carboxylated nitrile rubber, 130
caustic soda industry, rubber lining in,
101, 106, 108
chemical tests, 21–22
acetone extract, 21–22
ash content, 21
for copper, 22
for manganese, 22
for total sulfur, 21
chlor-alkali plants, rubber lining in, 125
chlorobutyl adhesive formulation, 118
chromium oxides, in rubber coloring, 6
clothing and inflatables, proofing
compounds for, 149
frictioning compound, 149
topping compound, 149
coloring of rubbers, 14–15
pale crepe rubber, 6
smoked sheets, 6
compounding ingredients, 5–7
accelerators, 5, see also separate entry
activators, 6
179
Index180 INDEX
compounding ingredients (contd.)
antioxidants, 6
fillers, 6, see also separate entry
process oils/softeners, 7
reinforcing agents, 6
retarders, 7
vulcanizing agents, 6
compounding techniques, 8–10
basic design considerations of, 9
in formulation, 98
vital points in, 8
conveyor belts, 44–50
cover compound
flame proof, 48
natural rubber, 47
natural rubber/SBR blend, 49
copper, tests for, 22
cord friction compound, 45–46
cushion gum compound, 73
ebonite formulations, 138–139
fast curing ebonite, 139
elasticity minimum, 20
elastomers, 3
elongation at break, 18
erasers, 141–144
ink eraser, 142–143
pencil eraser, 141–142
for typewriter, 144
fabric insertion sheets, adhesive bonding
agent for, 54
fillers, 6
inert fillers, 6
reinforcing fillers, 6
fishery tanks, butyl rubber/EPDM
membrane for, 121
footwear rubber components, 131–135
black heel, 132
brown soling, 133
rubber strap for microcellular/sponge
soling, 135
solid rubber soling, 131
sponge rubber soling (natural rubber),
134
sponge with high styrene nitrile rubber
for soling, 134
frictioning compound, 149
general-purpose auto rubber bush, 67
gray brushing, 27
grooved rubber pads for railways, 128
hardness tests, 17–18
head lamp gasket for automobiles
(nonstaining), 55°A, 66
heat resistant gasket (natural rubber
without sulfur), 60°A, 66
Hevea brasiliensis, 3
hoses, 136–137
nitrile rubber hose outer, 136
nitrile rubber hose inner, 137
hot water curing method, ebonite
formulation for, 110
hydrochloric acid, rubber lining for, 125
hypalon roll
black, 85°A, 95
gray coating of, 25
white, 98°A, 96
industrial rubber rollers, 75–97
cylinder “O” for the textile industry, 88
cylinder 38, 76
cylinder 44 (white) (paper mills), 77
cylinder 55 (paper mills), 77
cylinder 56 (white) (paper mills), 78
cylinder 60 (paper mills), 79
cylinder 65 (paper mills), 78
cylinder 75 (paper mills), 79
cylinder 80 (paper mills), 80
cylinder 92 (paper mills), 80
cylinder 96 (paper mills), 81
cylinder 995 (semi-ebonite), 81
cylinder a (green) for textile mills, 82
cylinder B (Beige) for the textile
industry, 89
cylinder C (Red) for the textile
industry, 90
cylinder E (textiles), 83
cylinder E (yellow-green) for the textile
industry, 90
cylinder F (light brown) for the textile
industry, 91
cylinder for the steel industry (natural
rubber), 82
cylinder G (light green) for the textile
industry, 91INDEX 181
cylinder G (textiles), 83
cylinder H (Green-Blue) for the textile
industry, 89
cylinder N55, 84
cylinder N70, 84–85
cylinder N90, 86
cylinder P72, 87
in electroplating service, 92
hypalon roll
black, 85°A, 95
white, 98°A, 96
method, 75
neoprene hard roll compound
(nonblack), 85°A, 94
neoprene N75, 85
neoprene printing roll, 40–45°A, 93
printing roll nitrile based (oil resistant
printing roll), 88
rubber roll for tannery
60°A, 96
80°A, 97
inert fillers, 6
ink eraser, 142–143
International Rubber Hardness Degrees
(IRHD), 18
iron ore slurry, rubber lining for, 100
iron oxides, in rubber coloring, 6
latex, 3
latex-based solution for cord dipping,
46
linings of rubber, see under tank linings
and adhesives
low-cost chemical resistant canvass
reinforced neoprene rubber sheets, 153
low temperature flexibility tests, 20–21
manganese, tests for, 22
metal-bonded engine mountings, 45°A,
55–56
for automobiles, 50°A, 65
metal surfaces, adhesive dissolution on,
103
mining industry, wear resistant rubber for,
150–151
molded rubber components, see under
auto rubber components (molded)
Mooney viscosity/viscometer, 9, 17
natural rubber (NR)
definition, 3
in linings, 104
in pigment plants, 115, 117
study formulations, factory trials, 145
neoprene
black coating of, 26
dust covers for the auto industry, 58°A,
59
hard roll compound (nonblack), 85°A, 94
inner layer for isocyanate bonded
components, 156
in linings, 104
moldables, factory trials of, 147–148
molded corks, 152 N75, 85
printing roll, 40–45°A, 93
rubber seals, 28
washer for water taps, 155
nitric acid resistant EPDM lining
formulation, 113
nitrile rubber
ebonite for oil resistant products, 43
gasket molding for automobiles, 64
nitrile seals, 28
formulations for airborne applications,
40
oil resistant gasket from natural rubber,
65°A, 67
oil seals, 28–43, see also individual
entries; “O” rings
rotary seal (blend of nitrile/SBR),
75°A, 36
rotary seal (hypalon)
70°A, 41
85°A, 41
rotary seal (natural rubber), 85°A, 33
rotary seal (neoprene)
85°A, 29, 36
95°A, 37
rotary seal (nitrile)
60°A, 30
75°A, 31, 35
80°A, 30
rotary seal (nitrile/PVC blend), 80°A, 41
rotary seal (SBR), 90°A, 34
rotary seal with viton for airborne
applications, 42182 INDEX
“O” rings, 28–43, see also oil seals
“O” ring (neoprene)
60°A, 29
65°A, 37
“O” ring (nitrile/PVC blend), 65°A, 42
“O” ring thiokol (polysulfide rubber)
for airborne applications, 39
“O” ring Thiokol
55°A, 39
65°A, 39
“O” rings (natural rubber) for pipe
couplings, 60°A, 34
“O” rings (nitrile)
60°A, 35
65°A, 31
nitrile 1, 60°A, 32
nitrile 2, 60°A, 32
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR),
55°A, 33
ozone resistant neoprene layer, 120
paddy dehusking rolls, 128
formulation
natural rubber based, 128
carboxylated nitrile rubber based,
130
pale crepe rubber, 6
paraffin waxes, 7
pencil eraser, 141–142
peptizing agents, 7
pharmaceutical bottle closures, 159
phosphatic fertilizer plants, rubber lining
for, 125
phosphoric acid resistant soft natural
rubber compound, 123
phosphoric acid storage tanks, rubber
lining for, 103
plasticity, 16–17
plasticity retention index (PRI), 16–17
prelude, 16
process oils/softeners, 7
proofing compounds for clothing and
inflatables, 149
reclaimed rubber, 11
advantages, 4
reinforcing agents, 6
repair cement for automotive belts, 55
resilience testing, 19
retarders, 7
retreading rubber compounds and
cements, 68–74
camel back 1, 68–69
camel back 2, 69
camel back 3, 69–70
camel back 4, 70
camel back 5, 71
camel back 6, 72
cushion gum compound, 73
under tread strips, 72
vulcanizing solution, 73–74
road tankers, rubber lining for, 127
rubber
classification, 3, see also natural
rubber; synthetic rubber
compounding ingredients, 5–7, see also
separate entry
compounding techniques, 8–10, see
also separate entry
definition, 3–4
erasers, 141–144, see also separate entry
in products, 12–13
rubber bonded anvil for the electronics
industry, 157
rubber rollers, 75–97, see also under
industrial rubber rollers
rubber-lining, see under tank linings
and adhesives
shock absorber
55°A, 51
60°A, 52, 53
65°A, 52
slurry lining, 101
smoked sheets, 6
solid tires for forklift trucks, 158
spark testing, 19–20
specific gravity tests, 19
stabilizer bar bush
60°A, 53
67°A, 54
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), 55°A,
33
sulfur master batch (SMB), 98
sulphuric acid handling, rubber linings
for, 100
synthetic rubber, 3, 8INDEX 183
table mats, 140
tank linings and adhesives, 98–127
in acid regeneration duty, 119
adhesive dissolution to be used on
cleaned metal surfaces, 103
adhesive solution for the abrasion/wear
resistant lining compound, 101
base layer (semi-ebonite), 102
butyl lining
for digester, 126
formulation, 118
for the chemical industry, 109
for chlor-alkali plants, 125
chlorine resistant compound
formulation, 106
of digesters at 100ºC, 90
of drum filters, 100
ebonite based on SBR for, 109
in electroplating industry, 113
for evaporation makeup, 105
in fishery tanks, 121
for flexible cell covers, 119
for hot water curing method, 110
for 20% hydrochloric acid, 124
lining layer (true ebonite), 102
for natural, neoprene, butyl, and
hypalon rubber sheets, 105
natural rubber, 104
neoprene rubber, 104
open steam curable phosphoric acid
resistant soft natural rubber
compound, 123
in ore industry, 122
ore/sand beneficiation industry, 114
ozone resistant neoprene layer, 120
in phosphatic fertilizer plants, 125
for phosphoric acid storage tanks, 103
in pigment plants, 115
for road tankers, 127
rubber-lined pipes, 118
rubber lining for iron ore slurry, 100
semi-ebonite compound formulation, 107
for wet chlorine, 101
wet chlorine resistant layer, 120
tensile tests, 18
testing methods of rubber, 16
prelude, 16
quality aspects, 16
on unvulcanized rubber stocks, 17, see
also under unvulcanized rubber
stocks
on vulcanized rubbers, 17–32, see also
under vulcanized rubbers
tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMT), 6
thin coatings, 25–27
black brushing, 26
black coating of neoprene, 26
gray brushing, 27
gray coating of hypalon, 25
thiokol (polysulfide) rubbers, 28
tire flaps, 60°A, 56
titanium oxides, in rubber coloring, 6
topping compound, 149
total sulfur tests, 21
transmission belts, 44–50, 46
ultimate elongation, 18
under tread strips, 72
unvulcanized rubber stocks, tests on, 17
plasticity, 16–17
scorch time and rate of cure, 17
V-belts, 44–50
oil resistant raw edge V-belt, 50
V-belt inner layer (natural rubber), 45
vulcanized rubbers
tests on, 17–32
abrasion resistance, 19
accelerated tests, 20
chemical tests, 21–22, see also
separate entry
hardness, 17–18
low temperature flexibility, 20–21
resilience, 19
spark testing, 19–20
specific gravity, 19
tensile test, 18
vulcanizing agents, 6, 73–74
wear resistant rubber for the mining
industry, 150–151
chute and launder lining compound,
151
slurry handling compound, 151
wet chlorine resistant layer, 120
white rubber tiles, 146Williams plasticity test, 17
wind screen wiper for automobiles, 63
window channel extrusion for cars
natural rubber, 57
SBR, 58
zinc oxide, 6
zinc salt of mercaptobenzothiazole
(ZMBT)), 76
zinc stearates, 6


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