كتاب Polypropylene - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Polypropylene - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Polypropylene - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook    كتاب Polypropylene - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook  Emptyالإثنين 22 مايو 2023 - 2:12

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Polypropylene - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook
Clive Maier , Teresa Calafut
Plastics Design Library Table of Contents

كتاب Polypropylene - The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook  P_t_d_10
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents .i
Figures . viii
Graphs .xiv
Tables xviii
Introduction .1
1 Chemistry .3
1.1 Polymerization reaction 3
1.2 Stereospecificity . 3
1.3 Effect on characteristics of polypropylene 4
1.3.1 Stereochemistry 4
1.3.2 Molecular weight and melt flow index .4
1.3.3 Molecular weight distribution .5
1.3.4 Oxidation .6
1.3.5 Electrical conductivity 7
1.3.6 Chemical resistance 7
1.4 Catalysts . 7
1.4.1 Ziegler-Natta catalysts 7
1.4.2 Characteristics of polypropylene produced using Ziegler-Natta catalysts .8
1.4.3 Metallocene catalysts 8
1.4.4 Characteristics of polypropylene produced using metallocene catalysts 9
2 Morphology and Commercial Forms .11
2.1 Crystal structure and microstructure 11
2.2 Polymorphism . 12
2.2.1 α-form of isotactic polypropylene 12
2.2.2 β-form of isotactic polypropylene 12
2.2.3 γ-form of isotactic polypropylene .12
2.2.4 Syndiotactic polypropylene .13
2.2.5 Mesomorphic polypropylene .13
2.2.6 Amorphous polypropylene 13
2.3 Effect of morphology on characteristics of polypropylene 14
2.3.1 Melting point 14
2.3.2 Glass transition .14
2.3.3 Mechanical properties .15
2.3.4 Haze 15
2.3.5 Sterilization .15
2.4 Orientation 16
2.4.1 Fibers and films .16
2.4.2 Effect of orientation on characteristics of fibers and films .16
2.4.3 Injection molding .17
2.4.4 Effect of orientation on characteristics of injection molded parts 18
2.4.5 Living hinges .18
2.5 Commercial Forms of Polypropylene 19
2.5.1 Homopolymers 19
2.5.2 Random copolymers .19
2.5.3 Impact copolymers 21ii
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2.5.4 Random block copolymers . 23
2.5.5 Thermoplastic olefins . 23
2.5.6 Thermoplastic Vulcanizates 24
3 Additives .27
3.1 Antioxidants 27
3.1.1 Primary antioxidants . 27
3.1.2 Secondary antioxidants 28
3.1.3 Antioxidant selection . 29
3.2 Acid scavengers . 29
3.3 Metal deactivators 30
3.4 Light stabilizers . 30
3.4.1 UV absorbers . 30
3.4.2 Quenchers 32
3.4.3 Peroxide decomposers . 32
3.4.4 Free radical scavengers . 32
3.4.5 Screeners . 34
3.4.6 Evaluation of UV stability 34
3.4.7 Use of light stabilizers . 34
3.5 Nucleating agents . 34
3.6 Flame retardants 35
3.6.1 Fire . 35
3.6.2 Free radical scavengers . 36
3.6.3 Magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide . 38
3.6.4 Phosphorus 38
3.6.5 Test methods 38
3.7 Colorants 39
3.7.1 Optical effects of pigments . 39
3.7.2 Pigment characteristics 40
3.7.3 Inorganic pigments . 40
3.7.4 Organic pigments . 41
3.7.5 Special effect pigments. . 42
3.7.6 Colorant forms 42
3.8 Antistatic agents . 44
3.8.1 Electrostatic charges 44
3.8.2 Types of antistatic agents . 44
3.8.3 Electrically conductive materials . 45
3.9 Slip agents 45
3.10 Antiblocking agents . 45
3.11 Lubricants . 45
3.12 Blowing or foaming agents . 45
3.12.1 Physical blowing agents . 45
3.12.2 Chemical blowing agents 46
3.12.3 Available forms of blowing agents 47
4 Fillers and reinforcements .49
4.1 Characteristics of fillers 49
4.2 Calcium carbonate 50
4.3 Barite 51iii
Plastics Design Library Table of Contents
4.4 Talc . 51
4.5 Mica 52
4.6 Wollastonite 53
4.7 Organic fillers 53
4.8 Glass spheres . 54
4.9 Glass fibers . 54
4.10 Carbon fibers 55
4.11 Applications of filled polypropylene . 55
5 Films .57
5.1 Unoriented film . 57
5.2 Cast film 57
5.3 Biaxially oriented film 57
6 Sheets .61
7 Fibers 63
7.1 Monofilaments 63
7.2 Multifilaments 63
7.2.1 Continuous filament and bulked continuous filament yarns 64
7.3 Fiber staple . 65
7.4 Slit Tape 66
7.5 Spunbonded and melt-blown 66
8 Foams .69
8.1 General characteristics of polymeric foams 69
8.2 Comparison with other foamed polymers . 69
8.3 Polypropylene foam processing properties . 69
8.4 Properties of polypropylene foams . 70
8.5 Applications of polypropylene foams 71
9 Recycling 75
9.1 Mechanical recycling 76
9.2 Feedstock recycling 77
9.3 Thermal recycling . 77
9.4 Design for recycling 77
10 Safety and Health .79
10.1 Hazardous substances . 79
10.1.1 Polypropylene 79
10.1.2 Propylene 79
10.1.3 VOC emissions .79
10.1.4 Additives 80
10.2 Potable water 81
10.3 Food Contact Applications 82
10.3.1 US food packaging regulations .82
10.3.2 Canadian food packaging regulations .82
10.3.3 European food packaging regulations .83
10.4 Medical Devices 83iv
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10.4.1 Migration of toxic substances . 83
10.4.2 Regulatory guidelines . 84
11 Applications 87
11.1 Automotive applications 87
11.1.1 Exterior automotive applications . 87
11.1.2 Interior automotive applications 89
11.1.3 Under-the-hood automotive applications 90
11.2 Medical Applications . 92
11.3 Appliances 92
11.3.1 Small appliances 92
11.3.2 Large appliances 94
11.4 Textiles and nonwovens 97
11.4.1 Floor coverings and home furnishings . 97
11.4.2 Automotive 97
11.4.3 Apparel . 97
11.4.4 Industrial applications and geotextiles 97
11.4.5 Non-wovens 99
11.5 Packaging . 99
11.5.1 Plastics vs. other packaging materials 99
11.5.2 Use of polypropylene in packaging . 99
11.5.3 High crystallinity and high melt strength grades . 100
11.5.4 Clarified polypropylene . 100
11.5.5 Metallocene polypropylene . 100
11.5.6 Rigid packaging 101
11.5.7 Film . 102
11.5.8 Barrier packaging . 103
11.6 Consumer products 106
11.7 Building and construction . 107
12 Design principles .109
12.1 Design fundamentals 109
12.1.1 Design overview . 109
12.1.2 Causes of failure . 111
12.2 Properties influencing design . 112
12.2.1 Mechanical properties 112
12.2.2 Thermal properties . 120
12.2.3 Chemical resistance . 123
12.2.4 Electrical properties 124
12.2.5 Environmental stress cracking 126
12.2.6 Water absorption 127
12.2.7 Permeability 127
12.2.8 Food and water contact 129
12.2.9 Sterilization . 129
12.2.10 Transparency and optical properties 131
12.2.11 Fire behavior . 131
12.2.12 Weathering and light stability 132
12.2.13 Surface properties 134
12.3 Other factors influencing design . 135
12.3.1 Orientation 135
12.3.2 Distinction between homopolymer, random copolymer, block copolymer 136v
Plastics Design Library Table of Contents
12.3.3 Additives 137
12.3.4 Influence of metallocene technology .143
13 Processing fundamentals .145
Processing overview 145
13.1 Properties influencing processing . 145
13.1.1 Flow properties .145
13.1.2 Thermal properties 148
13.1.3 Shrinkage and warping .151
13.2 Pre-processing . 152
13.2.1 Drying .153
13.2.2 Coloring .153
13.2.3 Safety precautions 155
14 Injection molding .159
Introduction 159
14.1 The process 159
14.2 Injection molding machinery . 159
14.2.1 Clamp unit .159
14.2.2 Injection unit 161
14.2.3 Power systems 166
14.2.4 Control systems 167
14.3 Process conditions for polypropylene . 168
14.3.1 Filling .168
14.3.2 Clamp 170
14.3.3 Shrinkage and warping .171
14.3.4 Injection molding long-fiber reinforced grades 173
14.3.5 Injection molding metallocene grades .173
14.3.6 Trouble shooting 173
14.4 Injection molds 176
14.4.1 Introduction .176
14.4.2 Injection Mold Components 177
14.4.3 Injection Mold Types 177
14.4.4 Injection Mold Feed system 179
14.4.5 Injection Mold Features .185
15 Blow molding .189
Introduction 189
15.1 Blow molding processes . 189
15.1.1 The extruder 190
15.1.2 The parison head 190
15.1.3 Extrusion blow molding .192
15.1.4 Injection blow molding .194
15.1.5 Stretch blow molding .195
15.1.6 Dip blow molding .197
15.1.7 Multibloc blow molding 197
15.1.8 Other blow molding techniques .198
15.2 Blow molds . 200
15.2.1 Basic features .200
15.2.2 Materials of construction .201
15.2.3 Pinch-off zone .201vi
Table of Contents Plastics Design Library
15.2.4 Blowing and calibrating devices 201
15.2.5 Venting and surface finish . 202
15.2.6 Cooling . 202
16 Extrusion .205
Introduction 205
16.1 Extrusion processes . 205
16.1.1 The extruder . 205
16.1.2 Film extrusion . 207
16.1.3 Extrusion coating 213
16.1.4 Sheet extrusion . 213
16.1.5 Fiber extrusion 215
16.1.6 Pipe and tube extrusion 218
16.1.7 Coextrusion 221
17 Thermoforming .223
Introduction 223
17.1 Process basics . 223
17.2 Process factors . 224
17.2.1 Forming force . 224
17.2.2 Mold type 225
17.2.3 Sheet pre-stretch 226
17.2.4 Material input 227
17.2.5 Process phase 227
17.2.6 Heating . 228
17.3 Thermoforming Processes . 229
17.3.1 Basic vacuum forming 230
17.3.2 Basic pressure forming . 230
17.3.3 Drape 230
17.3.4 Snap back . 231
17.3.5 Billow 231
17.3.6 Plug assist 231
17.3.7 Billow plug assist 232
17.3.8 Air slip . 232
17.3.9 Air slip plug assist . 232
17.3.10 Matched mold forming 232
17.3.11 232
17.3.11 Twin sheet forming 232
17.3.12 Trimming . 232
17.4 Thermoforming molds 233
17.5 Thermoforming with polypropylene 234
18 Fabricating and Finishing 237
18.1 Joining 237
18.1.1 Heated Tool Welding . 237
18.1.2 Hot Gas Welding . 240
18.1.3 Vibration welding 241
18.1.4 Spin welding . 243
18.1.5 Ultrasonic welding 244
18.1.6 Induction welding 248
18.1.7 Radio Frequency Welding . 250vii
Plastics Design Library Table of Contents
18.1.8 Microwave welding 250
18.1.9 Resistance welding .251
18.1.10 Extrusion Welding .252
18.1.11 Infrared Welding 253
18.1.12 Laser Welding .254
18.1.13 Adhesive and solvent bonding 255
18.1.14 Mechanical Fastening .261
18.2 Decorating 265
18.2.1 Appliqués 265
18.2.2 Coloring .266
18.2.3 Painting .266
18.2.4 Metallization 266
18.2.5 Printing 267
18.2.6 Other processes 267
19 Polypropylene Data Collection .268
19.1 Data Sheet Properties 268
19.2 Film Properties . 274
19.3 Stress vs. Strain Curves . 275
19.4 Temperature-Mechanical Property Relationship . 279
19.5 Composition-Mechanical Property Relationship . 284
19.6 Temperature-Thermal Property Relationship 285
19.7 Creep and Stress Relaxation 286
19.8 Viscosity . 300
19.9 Thermodynamic Property . 304
19.10 Fatigue 306
19.10.1 Factors Affecting Fatigue Performance .306
19.10.2 Fatigue Properties .307
19.10.3 Effect of Glass Reinforcement on Fatigue Behavior 307
19.10.4 Effect of Molecular Weight on Fatigue Behavior 308
19.11 Permeability 316
19.11.1 Some Notes About The Information In This Section .316
19.11.2 Transport of Gases and Vapors in Barrier Materials .317
19.11.3 Permeation Coefficient and Vapor Transmission Rate 317
19.12 Effect of Weather and UV Light . 323
19.12.1 Weather Defined .323
19.12.2 Variations In Natural Weathering .323
19.12.3 Testing For Weatherability .324
19.12.4 Effect of White Pigments on Weatherability 324
19.13 Effect of Sterilization Methods 331
19.13.1 Ethylene Oxide 331
19.13.2 Irradiation 331
19.13.3 Steam 332
19.13.4 Dry Heat 332
19.13.5 Radiation Resistance 332
19.13.6 Gamma Radiation Resistance 332
19.13.7 Ethylene Oxide (EtO) Resistance .334
19.13.8 Steam Resistance .335
19.14 Chemical and Environmental Stress Crack Resistance 346viii
Table of Contents Plastics Design Library
Glossary of Terms 373
Index .407
Sources .415
Supplier Directory .429
Figures
Figure 1.1 Molecules of propylene and polypropylene 3
Figure 1.2 Stereochemical configurations of polypropylene. 4
Figure 1.3 Graph of broad and narrow molecular weight distributions in polypropylene. . 5
Figure 1.4 Influence of the molecular weight distribution of a polypropylene resin on shear
sensitivity. 6
Figure 1.5 Structure of one type of metallocene catalyst 9
Figure 2.1 A Maltese cross pattern of birefringence obtained using optical microscopy under
crossed polarizers. 11
Figure 2.2 An optical micrograph showing the effect of a nucleating agent on spherulite size . 12
Figure 2.3 Reflection optical micrograph of lamellae in isotactic polypropylene arranged in
feather-like structures. . 13
Figure 2.4 A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) melting scan of injection molded
polypropylene. . 14
Figure 2.5 Drawing of a shish-kebab structure in polypropylene. . 17
Figure 2.6 Formation of a living hinge, shown for a fishing tackle box 19
Figure 2.7 Random and impact copolymers, shown using ethylene as the copolymer . 20
Figure 2.8 The relationship between impact strength and flexural modulus of impact
copolymers at –30°C (–22°F). . 22
Figure 2.9 Low voltage scanning electron micrographs (LVSEM) of elastomer dispersions in
polypropylene. . 23
Figure 3.1 Stabilization reactions of primary antioxidants. . 27
Figure 3.2 Molecular structures of commonly used phenolic primary antioxidants. . 28
Figure 3.3 Stabilization reactions of secondary antioxidants 28
Figure 3.4 Structures of phosphite antioxidants 29
Figure 3.5 Structure of 2-hydroxy-4-octoxybenzophenone, a UV absorber used in
polypropylene (Uvinul 3008; BASF) . 31
Figure 3.6 Examples of benzotriazole UV absorbers used in polypropylene 31
Figure 3.7 Tautomerism in ultraviolet absorbers. 31
Figure 3.8 The structure of tetramethyl piperidine, the basic structure for hindered amine light
stabilizers . 32
Figure 3.9 Examples of hindered amines used as free radical scavengers in polypropylene . 32
Figure 3.10 The stabilization mechanism of HALS . 33
Figure 3.11 Micrograph of a spherulite of polypropylene formed in the presence of a nucleating
agent 34
Figure 3.12 A candle flame . 35
Figure 3.13 Temperature changes during stages of a fire. . 36ix
Plastics Design Library Table of Contents
Figure 3.14 Examples of brominated flame retardants used in polypropylene 37
Figure 3.15 The UL 94 vertical burn test .39
Figure 3.16 The static decay rate of an insulating polymer and a polymer containing a
conductive filler 44
Figure 4.1 Glass fiber-filled polypropylene. .50
Figure 4.2 Effect of coupling on tensile strength, flexural modulus, and heat deflection
temperatures of glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene. .50
Figure 4.3 Micrographs of spherically shaped mineral fillers .51
Figure 4.4 Micrograph of Chinese talc particles 52
Figure 4.5 Micrograph of mica flakes. .53
Figure 4.6 The effect of glass fiber reinforcement on mechanical properties of polypropylene. .54
Figure 4.7 Examples of applications of reinforced polypropylene .56
Figure 7.1 A monofilament fiber or yarn 63
Figure 7.2 A multifilament fiber or yarn. 64
Figure 7.3 Bulked continuous filament yarn. .64
Figure 7.4 Staple fibers. 66
Figure 8.1 Microstructure of a typical microcellular foamed polymer. .69
Figure 8.2 Properties of expanded polypropylene .70
Figure 8.3 The dynamic cushioning performance of expanded polypropylene .71
Figure 8.4 A bicycle helmet with an integral skin, molded from expanded polypropylene (BASF). 72
Figure 8.5 A steering wheel molded from a blend of 60% general purpose polypropylene and
40% foamable polypropylene .72
Figure 9.1 Recycling of post cosumer waste plastic in Europe in 1994. .75
Figure 9.2 Types of recycling .75
Figure 9.3 Diagram of the polypropylene recycling process at Hoechst. 76
Figure 11.1 Rigidity and impact strength necessary for high impact automotive applications. .87
Figure 11.2 Impact resistance of automobile applications at low temperatures 87
Figure 11.3 A bumper made from talc-reinforced, elastomer-modified polypropylene 88
Figure 11.4 Automotive applications for expanded polypropylene foam 88
Figure 11.5 The side rubbing or protector strip on the Audi A4, produced from a polypropylene
mineral-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer .89
Figure 11.6 Pillar trim of the Volkswagon Polo, made with 20% talc-reinforced polypropylene .89
Figure 11.7 Fascia on the Opel Corsa, made from 40% mineral-reinforced polypropylene 90
Figure 11.8 Polypropylene door handles on the BMW 3 series 90
Figure 11.9 Under-the-hood applications of polypropylene .91
Figure 11.10 Various medical applications of polypropylene .93
Figure 11.11 Applications of polypropylene in small appliances .95
Figure 11.12 Polypropylene applications in large appliances 96
Figure 11.13 Polypropylene applications in textiles and nonwoven fabrics. 98
Figure 11.14 Applications of polypropylene in rigid packaging 102
Figure 11.15 Applications of polypropylene films in packaging. 104
Figure 11.16 Polypropylene applications in housewares .105
Figure 11.17 A cordless lawnmower 106
Figure 11.18 Drive wheel on the Ryobi self-propelled, battery-operated lawnmower, made from a
long glass reinforced, chemically coupled polypropylene composite .106
Figure 11.19 Pipe applications of polypropylene .107x
Table of Contents Plastics Design Library
Figure 12.1 Polypropylene share of world 1996 thermoplastics consumption 109
Figure 12.2 Unit volume cost of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. 109
Figure 12.3 Comparative unit volume cost of polypropylenes. . 110
Figure 12.4 Phenomenological causes of failure in plastics articles . 111
Figure 12.5 Human causes of failure in plastics articles . 112
Figure 12.6 Tensile behavior of polypropylene 114
Figure 12.7 Temperature dependence of tensile modulus for BASF polypropylene homopolymer
(Novolen 1100L), block coplymer (Novolen 2300L and Novolen 2600M), and
nucleated random copolymer (Novolen 3240NC) 115
Figure 12.8 Temperature dependence of torsional shear modulus for BASF polypropylene
homopolymer (Novolen 1100L), block copolymer (Novolen 2300L and Novolen
2600M), and nucleated random copolymer (Novolen 3240NC). . 115
Figure 12.9 Temperature dependence of Charpy notched impact strength for examples of BASF
polypropylene homopolymer (Novolen 1100L), block copolymer (Novolen 2300L
and Novolen 2600M), and nucleated random copolymer (Novolen 3240NC). 116
Figure 12.10 Isochronous stress/strain creep plots for Hoechst Hostalen PPH 1050
polypropylene homopolymer 116
Figure 12.11 Flexural creep modulus for Hoechst Hostalen PPH 1050 polypropylene
homopolymer. 117
Figure 12.12 Tensile creep modulus for Hoechst Hostalen PPH 1050 polypropylene
homopolymer. 117
Figure 12.13 Tensile relaxation modulus at 23°C for Hoechst Hostalen PPH 1050 polypropylene
homopolymer. 117
Figure 12.14 Flexural creep modulus at 23°C of Hoechst Hostacom filled and reinforced
polypropylenes . 117
Figure 12.15 Flexural creep modulus at 80°C of Hoechst Hostacom filled and reinforced
polypropylenes . 118
Figure 12.16 Low frequency (0.5 Hz) fatigue performance of polypropylene compared with some
other semi-crystalline thermoplastics. . 119
Figure 12.17 Low frequency (0.5 Hz) fatigue performance of polypropylene (semi-crystalline)
compared to polycarbonate (amorphous). 120
Figure 12.18 Wöhler (S-N) plot for Hoechst Hostacom M2 N01 20% talc filled polypropylene at
23°C and 10Hz. . 120
Figure 12.19 Wöhler (S-N) plot for Hoechst Hostacom G3 N01 30% coupled glass fiber
reinforced polypropylene at 23°C and 10Hz. . 120
Figure 12.20 Smith diagram for Hoechst Hostalen PPH 2250 polypropylene homopolymer at
23°C and 10 Hz, based on alternating tensile and compressive stress, and
repeated tensile stress. . 121
Figure 12.22 Service life of polypropylene 123
Figure 12.23 The dissipation factor of polypropylene is relatively unaffected by temperature and
frequency. 125
Figure 12.24 Temperature dependence of polypropylene to gas permeability and water vapor
transmission rate. 129
Figure 12.25 Effect of UV stabilizers on polypropylene block copolymer 133
Figure 12.26 Flow of thermoplastics material in a channel . 135
Figure 12.27 Variation of shear rate and orientation across the flow channel. . 136
Figure 12.28 Consumption of polypropylene types in Western Europe, 1995. . 136
Figure 12.29 Polypropylene forms compared by elongation at elastic limit as a function of flexural
modulus. 137xi
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Figure 12.30 Polypropylene forms compared by flexural modulus as a function of tensile stress at
the elastic limit 137
Figure 12.31 Polypropylene forms compared by notched Izod impact strength as a function of
melt flow index 137
Figure 12.32 Polypropylene forms compared by brittleness temperature as a function of melt flow
index .137
Figure 12.33 Polypropylene forms compared by melting point as a function of flexural modulus. 138
Figure 12.34 Polypropylene forms compared by Vicat softening point as a function of flexural
modulus 138
Figure 12.35 Effect of 20% coupled and non-coupled glass fiber reinforcements on tensile
strength of polypropylene .139
Figure 12.36 Effect of glass fiber reinforcement type and content on tensile strength of
polypropylene .140
Figure 12.37 Effect of glass fiber reinforcement type and content on heat deflection temperature
of polypropylene .140
Figure 12.38 Improvement in polypropylene properties produced by long-fiber reinforcement
compared with short fibers .140
Figure 13.1 Processing methods for polypropylene, USA, 1996. [1216] .145
Figure 13.2 Typical viscosity curves at 260°C for some PCD polypropylene grades. .146
Figure 13.3 Spiral flow length of some reinforced Hoechst polypropylenes at 750 and 1130 bar
injection pressure .147
Figure 13.4 Approximate relationship between melt flow index and spiral flow length 147
Figure 13.5 Comparison of broad and narrow molecular weight distributions .147
Figure 13.6 Comparison of shear sensitivity for broad and narrow molecular weight
distributions. .147
Figure 13.7 Effect of vis-breaking on the molecular weight distribution of polypropylene. 148
Figure 13.8 Effect of vis-breaking on the melt viscosity and shear sensitivity of polypropylene 148
Figure 13.9 Melt viscosity behavior of controlled rheology polypropylene compared with
conventional polypropylene 148
Figure 13.10 Temperature dependency of specific heat of polypropylene (PP) 149
Figure 13.11 Enthalpy of melt for some reinforced Hoechst polypropylenes .150
Figure 13.12 PVT plot for Hoechst Hostalen PPN 1060 polypropylene homopolymer, measured
during heating up. 151
Figure 13.13 Shrinkage of some particulate-reinforced Hoechst polypropylenes. 152
Figure 13.14 Shrinkage of fiber-reinforced polypropylenes .152
Figure 13.15 Typical materials safety data sheet for polypropylene. .155
Figure 14.1 Typical injection molding machine 159
Figure 14.2 Average mold pressure as a function of wall thickness for BASF Novolen1100L
polypropylene homopolymer at 230°C. 160
Figure 14.3 Typical direct hydraulic clamp unit 160
Figure 14.4 Typical toggle clamp unit. .160
Figure 14.5 Typical reciprocating screw injection unit. 162
Figure 14.6 Features of a typical injection screw .162
Figure 14.7 Material residence times. .166
Figure 14.8 Example of computer-predicted pressure drops for a balanced 8-cavity mold using
Pro-fax SB–823 polypropylene .166
Figure 14.9 Principal elements of the injection molding cycle .167
Figure 14.10 Temperature profile for DSM Stamytec high crystallinity polypropylene .169xii
Table of Contents Plastics Design Library
Figure 14.11 Flow path length as a function of melt temperature for various grades of Hoechst
Hostalen polypropylene. 169
Figure 14.12 2mm thick flow path length as a function of specific injection pressure for various
grades of Hoechst Hostalen polypropylene. 170
Figure 14.13 Flow path length as a function of wall thickness for various reinforced grades of
Hoechst Hostacom polypropylene . 170
Figure 14.14 Flow path length as a function of wall thickness and injection pressure for talc filled
grades of Hoechst Hostacom polypropylene. 171
Figure 14.15 Chart for determination of clamp force. . 171
Figure 14.16 Shrinkage as a function of part thickness and gate area . 172
Figure 14.17 Example of injection mold illustrating principal component parts. . 176
Figure 14.18 Sequence of mold operations 177
Figure 14.19 Schematic of 2-plate mold. 178
Figure 14.20 Schematic of 3-plate gate 178
Figure 14.21 Schematic of stack mold 178
Figure 14.22 Common runner configurations. 179
Figure 14.23 Equivalent hydraulic diameters for common runner configurations. 179
Figure 14.24 Balanced and unbalanced runner layouts. 180
Figure 14.25 Suggested approximate sprue and runner sizes. 180
Figure 14.26 Typical cold sprue design. . 181
Figure 14.27 Example of heated sprue bush 181
Figure 14.28 Examples of various gate types . 182
Figure 14.29 Schematic of hot runner mold 183
Figure 14.30 Some types of direct hot runner gate. . 183
Figure 14.31 Advanced hot runner gates 184
Figure 14.32 Cooling arrangements for cores of various sizes . 186
Figure 14.33 Cooling channel considerations . 187
Figure 14.34 Bad and good cooling channel layouts. . 187
Figure 14.35 Recommended vent dimensions for use with polypropylene . 188
Figure 15.1 Polypropylene share of Western European 1996 blow molding consumption. 189
Figure 15.2 Blow molding processes 190
Figure 15.3 Typical parison head 191
Figure 15.4 Principle of parison wall thickness control by axial movement of the mandrel. . 192
Figure 15.5 Typical extrusion blow molding machine 192
Figure 15.6 Basic extrusion blow molding process . 193
Figure 15.7 Example of accumulator parison head by Bekum. 194
Figure 15.8 Injection blow molding stations. . 194
Figure 15.9 Single-stage injection stretch blow process . 196
Figure 15.10 Temperature range for stretch blow molding polypropylene. . 196
Figure 15.11 Stages in the dip blow molding process. . 197
Figure 15.12 Multibloc process . 198
Figure 15.13 Typical 6-layer coextruded blow molded bottle. . 198
Figure 15.14 Three-layer coextrusion parison head with die profiling. . 199
Figure 15.15 Article produced by sequential extrusion blow molding . 199
Figure 15.16 Stages in the blow/fill/seal process 200
Figure 15.17 Placo process for 3D blow molding. 200xiii
Plastics Design Library Table of Contents
Figure 15.18 Principal features of an extrusion blow mold 201
Figure 15.19 Pinch-off zones. .201
Figure 15.20 Example of calibrating blow pin 202
Figure 15.21 Example of blow needle. 202
Figure 16.1 Polypropylene extrusion processes, USA, 1996. .205
Figure 16.2 Typical single-screw extruder with a vented barrel .206
Figure 16.3 Features of a typical extrusion screw .206
Figure 16.4 Mixing elements for polypropylene extrusion. 207
Figure 16.5 Grooved feed section of barrel. 207
Figure 16.6 Section of barrier screw 207
Figure 16.7 Typical slit die for cast film 208
Figure 16.8 Typical chill roll cast film line .208
Figure 16.9 Detail of chill roll process. 209
Figure 16.10 Typical water quench film line. .210
Figure 16.11 Water quench process for blown film. 211
Figure 16.12 Blown process for biaxially oriented film. .212
Figure 16.13 Tenter process for biaxially oriented film. .213
Figure 16.14 Typical sheet extrusion die. 214
Figure 16.15 Three-roll sheet cooling stack. .214
Figure 16.16 North American fibers market 1995; market share by process. .214
Figure 16.17 Relationship between polypropylene fiber processes 215
Figure 16.18 Fiber types and applications. .215
Figure 16.19 Typical multifilament melt spinning system .216
Figure 16.20 Typical monofilament yarn line. 217
Figure 16.21 Typical slit film tape line 217
Figure 16.22 Typical spun bonded fiber extrusion line. .218
Figure 16.23 Typical spider-type tube die for pipe and tube extrusion. .219
Figure 16.24 Vacuum sizing tank used for pipe and tube extrusion. .219
Figure 16.25 Recommended relationship between pipe diameter and screw diameter 220
Figure 16.26 Creep rupture strength of pipes made from Hoechst Hostalen homopolymer (PPH
2250) and copolymer (PPH 2222) polypropylene. .220
Figure 16.27 Schematic of coextrusion feedblock .221
Figure 16.28 Three-layer multi-manifold coextrusion die .221
Figure 17.1 Influence of plug profile on sheet thinning 226
Figure 17.2 Effect of plug pre-stretch timing on the crush resistance of cups thermoformed from
Finapro PPH 4042 S polypropylene homopolymer. .227
Figure 17.3 Process phases for thermoforming polypropylene .228
Figure 17.4 Effect of sheet forming temperature on the crush resistance of cups thermoformed
from Finapro polypropylenes 229
Figure 17.5 Basic vacuum forming process. [1181] .230
Figure 17.6 Basic pressure forming process .230
Figure 17.7 Drape forming process. [1182] .230
Figure 17.8 Billow forming process. 231
Figure 17.9 Basic plug assist process .231
Figure 18.1 Microstructure of a hot plate weld joint .239xiv
Table of Contents Plastics Design Library
Figure 18.2 Manual hot gas welding . 240
Figure 18.3 Linear Vibration Welding 241
Figure 18.4 Polarization micrographs showing microstructure of three typical vibration welds of
a polypropylene homopolymer . 242
Figure 18.5 Microstructure of a vibration weld joint 243
Figure 18.6 Spin Welding 244
Figure 18.7 Components of an ultrasonic welder 245
Figure 18.8 Ultrasonic welding using an energy director. . 246
Figure 18.9 A step joint with energy director . 248
Figure 18.10 The induction welding process. . 249
Figure 18.11 Panels composed of a GMT 40% glass mat composite used to produce station
wagon structural load floors . 250
Figure 18.12 The resistance welding process. . 251
Figure 18.13 Micrograph of a polypropylene infrared weld showing the three weld zones . 254
Figure 18.14 Transmitted polarized light micrograph of a polypropylene laser weld . 255
Figure 18.15 The effect of plasma treatment on wettability . 259
Figure 18.16 Common types of self-tapping screws . 262
Figure 18.17 A cantilever beam snap-fit. 264
Figure 18.18 Staking . 265
Graphs
Graph 19.1 Stress vs. strain in tension for BASF AG Novolen 1100H polypropylene (melt
volume index: 2.5 cc/ 10 min @ 230°C/ 2.16 kg, 4 cc/ 10 min @ 190°C/ 5 kg).
Tested according to DIN 53455 at a strain rate of 5 mm/min 275
Graph 19.2 Stress vs. strain in tension for BASF AG Novolen 1100L polypropylene (melt
volume index: 7 cc/ 10 min @ 230°C/ 2.16 kg, 13 cc/ 10 min @ 190°C/ 5 kg). Tested
according to DIN 53455 at a strain rate of 5 mm/min. 275
Graph 19.3 Stress vs. strain in tension for BASF AG Novolen 1300L polypropylene (melt
volume index: 7 cc/ 10 min @ 230°C/ 2.16 kg, 10 cc/ 10 min @ 190°C/ 5 kg). Tested
according to DIN 53455 at a strain rate of 5 mm/min. 276
Graph 19.4 Stress vs. strain in tension for BASF AG Novolen 1111LXGA6 PP (30% glass; melt
volume index: 2.4 cc/ 10 min @ 230°C/ 2.16 kg, 5.4 cc/ 10 min @ 190°C/ 5 kg).
Tested according to DIN 53455 at a strain rate of 5 mm/min 276
Graph 19.5 Stress vs. strain in tension for BASF AG Novolen 1111LXGB6 polypropylene (30%
glass; melt volume index: 1.6 cc/ 10 min @ 230°C/ 2.16 kg, 5.2 cc/ 10 min @ 190°C/
5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53455 at a strain rate of 5 mm/min .277
Graph 19.6 Stress vs. strain in tension for BASF AG Novolen 1111HXTA4 polypropylene (20%
mineral; melt flow rate: 5 g/10 min.). Tested according to DIN 53455 at a strain rate
of 5 mm/min 277
Graph 19.7 Stress vs. strain in tension for BASF AG Novolen 1111JXTA8 polypropylene (40%
mineral; melt flow rate: 5 g/10 min.). Tested according to DIN 53455 at a strain rate
of 5 mm/min 278
Graph 19.8 Stress vs. strain in tension for BASF AG Novolen 1181RCXTA2 polypropylene (10%
mineral; melt volume index: 28 cc/ 10 min @ 230°C/ 2.16 kg, 52 cc/ 10 min @ 190°C/
5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53455 at a strain rate of 5 mm/min .278
Graph 19.9 Stress vs. strain in tension for Eastman Tenite 4240 polypropylene (melt flow rate:
10 g/ 10min.). Tested at a strain rate of 5.2 %/min 279xv
Plastics Design Library Table of Contents
Graph 19.10 Flexural modulus of elasticity vs. temperature for Phillips Marlex polypropylene. 279
Graph 19.11 Flexural modulus of elasticity vs. temperature for Chisso high crystallinity
polypropylene . 280
Graph 19.12 Flexural modulus of elasticity vs. temperature for Chisso Olehard glass/ mineral
filled polypropylene . 280
Graph 19.13 Tensile modulus of elasticity vs. temperature for BASF AG Novolen polypropylene. . 281
Graph 19.14 Shear modulus vs. temperature for BASF AG Novolen 1100RC polypropylene
homopolymer 281
Graph 19.15 Tensile strength at break vs temperature for 20% glass fiber Thermofil
Polypropylene . 282
Graph 19.16 Tensile strength at break vs temperature for glass fiber/ mineral filled Chisso
Olehard Polypropylene . 282
Graph 19.17 Notched Charpy impact strength vs. temperature for BASF AG Novolen
polypropylene . 283
Graph 19.18 Flexural modulus of elasticity vs glass fiber content for Thermofil Polypropylene 284
Graph 19.19 Tensile strength at break vs glass fiber content for Thermofil polypropylene. 284
Graph 19.20 Coefficient of thermal expansion vs. temperature for Hoechst AG Hostacom
polypropylene. Measured in flow direction. 285
Graph 19.21 Coefficient of thermal expansion vs. temperature for Hoechst AG Hostacom
polypropylene. Measured in flow direction. 285
Graph 19.22 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 23°C for Novolen 1100H polypropylene
(homopolymer; melt volume index: 2.5 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg, 4 cc/10 min.
@190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 286
Graph 19.23 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 40°C for Novolen 1100H polypropylene
(homopolymer; melt volume index: 2.5 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg, 4 cc/10 min.
@190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 286
Graph 19.24 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 100°C for Novolen 1100H polypropylene
(homopolymer; melt volume index: 2.5 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg, 4 cc/10 min.
@190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 287
Graph 19.25 Isochronous stress vs. strain in compression @ 23°C for Novolen 1100H
polypropylene (homopolymer; melt volume index: 2.5 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg,
4 cc/10 min. @190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 287
Graph 19.26 Isochronous stress vs. strain in compression @ 40°C for Novolen 1100H
polypropylene (homopolymer; melt volume index: 2.5 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg,
4 cc/10 min. @190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 288
Graph 19.27 Isochronous stress vs. strain in compression @ 80°C for Novolen 1100H
polypropylene (homopolymer; melt volume index: 2.5 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg,
4 cc/10 min. @190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 288
Graph 19.28 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 23°C for Novolen 1100L polypropylene
(homopolymer; melt volume index: 7 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg, 13 cc/10 min.
@190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 289
Graph 19.29 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 40°C for Novolen 1100L polypropylene
(homopolymer; melt volume index: 7 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg, 13 cc/10 min.
@190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 289
Graph 19.30 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 100°C for Novolen 1100L polypropylene
(homopolymer; melt volume index: 7 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg, 13 cc/10 min.
@190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 290
Graph 19.31 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 23°C for Novolen 1300L polypropylene
(homopolymer; melt volume index: 7 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg, 10 cc/10 min.
@190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 . 290xvi
Table of Contents Plastics Design Library
Graph 19.32 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 40°C for Novolen 1300L polypropylene
(homopolymer; melt volume index: 7 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg, 10 cc/10 min.
@190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444. 291
Graph 19.33 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 100°C for Novolen 1300L polypropylene
(homopolymer; melt volume index: 7 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg, 10 cc/10 min.
@190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444. 291
Graph 19.34 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 23°C for Novolen 1111LX GA6
polypropylene (30% glass fiber; melt volume index: 2.4 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16
kg, 5.4 cc/10 min. @190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444. .292
Graph 19.35 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 40°C for Novolen 1111LX GA6
polypropylene (30% glass fiber; melt volume index: 2.4 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16
kg, 5.4 cc/10 min. @190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444. .292
Graph 19.36 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 100°C for Novolen 1111LX GA6
polypropylene (30% glass fiber; melt volume index: 2.4 cc/10 min. @ 230°C, 2.16 kg,
5.4 cc/10 min. @190°C, 5 kg). Tested according to DIN 53444 .293
Graph 19.37 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 23°C for Novolen 1111HX TA4 polypropylene (20% mineral filler; melt flow: 5 g/10 min.). Tested according to DIN 53444 293
Graph 19.38 Isochronous stress vs. strain in tension @ 23°C for Novolen 1111JX TA8 polypropylene (40% mineral filler; melt flow: 5 g/10 min). Tested according to DIN 53444 .294
Graph 19.39 Tensile creep strain vs time for Himont Profax polypropylene (homopolymer). 294
Graph 19.40 Tensile creep strain vs time for Himont Profax polypropylene copolymer .295
Graph 19.41 Flexural creep strain vs time for LNF Thermocomp MF1008 40% glass reinforced
polypropylene. 295
Graph 19.42 Tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C for BASF AG Novolen 1100L polypropylene
homopolymer. .296
Graph 19.43 Tensile creep modulus vs. time at 40°C for BASF AG Novolen 1100L polypropylene
homopolymer. .296
Graph 19.44 Tensile creep modulus vs. time at 80°C for BASF AG Novolen 1100L polypropylene
homopolymer. .297
Graph 19.45 Tensile creep modulus vs. time at 100°C for BASF AG Novolen 1100L
polypropylene homopolymer .297
Graph 19.46 Tensile creep modulus vs. time at 120°C for BASF AG Novolen 1100L
polypropylene homopolymer .298
Graph 19.47 Tensile creep modulus vs. time at 80°C and 27.6 MPa for Himont HiGlass 40%
glass fiber reinforced polypropylene. 298
Graph 19.48 Typical tensile creep rupture stress vs time to rupture @ 20°C for polypropylene
homopolymer (source: R.Kahl, 1979, paper from Principles of Plastics Materials
seminar, Center for Professional Advancement). .299
Graph 19.49 Tensile stress relaxation modulus vs time for Hoechst AG Hostalen PPH 1050
polypropylene homopolymer .299
Graph 19.50 Viscosity vs. shear rate for BASF AG Novolen 1100L polypropylene homopolymer .300
Graph 19.51 Viscosity vs. shear rate for BASF AG Novolen 1127N polypropylene (homopolymer,
film grade) .300
Graph 19.52 Viscosity vs. shear rate for Hoechst AG Hostacom M2N01 20% talc filled
polypropylene. 301
Graph 19.53 Viscosity vs. shear rate for Hoechst AG Hostacom M4N01 40% talc filled
polypropylene. 301
Graph 19.54 Viscosity vs. shear rate for Hoechst AG Hostacom M1U01 10% talc filled
polypropylene. 302xvii
Plastics Design Library Table of Contents
Graph 19.55 Viscosity vs. shear rate for Hoechst AG Hostacom M2U01 20% talc filled
polypropylene . 302
Graph 19.56 Viscosity vs. shear rate for Hoechst AG Hostacom G2N01 20% glass fiber
reinforced polypropylene. . 303
Graph 19.57 Viscosity vs. shear rate for Hoechst AG Hostacom G2U02 20% glass fiber
reinforced polypropylene. . 303
Graph 19.58 Viscosity vs. shear rate for Hoechst AG Hostacom G3N01 30% glass fiber
reinforced polypropylene. . 304
Graph 19.59 Specific volume vs temperature for Hoechst AG Hostalen PPH 1060 polypropylene
homopolymer. Measured during heating up. 304
Graph 19.60 Specific heat vs temperature for polypropylene at constant pressure 305
Graph 19.61 Enthalpy vs temperature for Hoechst AG Hostacom polypropylene . 305
Graph 19.62 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for 50% Glass Fiber Reinforced
Polypropylene with Different Molecular Weights . 308
Graph 19.63 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for Hoechst Hostalen PPN
7180TV20 Polypropylene. 309
Graph 19.64 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for Hoechst Hostalen PPN 7790
GV2/30 Polypropylene 309
Graph 19.65 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for Hoechst Hostalen PPN 7790
GV2/30 Polypropylene 310
Graph 19.66 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for Hoechst Hostacom G3N01
Polypropylene . 310
Graph 19.67 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for Long Glass Fiber Reinforced
Polypropylene . 311
Graph 19.68 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for Long and Short Glass Fiber
Reinforced Polypropylene. . 311
Graph 19.69 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for Hoechst Hostacom G3N01
Polypropylene . 312
Graph 19.70 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for Hoechst Hostacom M2N01
Polypropylene . 312
Graph 19.71 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Flexure for Glass Fiber Reinforced LNP
Polypropylene . 313
Graph 19.72 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Tension for 25% Glass Fiber Reinforced
Polypropylene . 313
Graph 19.73 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Tension for Long and Short Glass Reinforced
Polypropylene . 314
Graph 19.74 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Tension at Low Test Frequency for Polypropylene. 314
Graph 19.75 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Initial Strain in Tension at Different Test Frequencies
for Unreinforced and 25% Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene. 315
Graph 19.76 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Initial Strain in Tension at Low Test Frequency for
Polypropylene . 315
Graph 19.77 Fatigue Cycles to Failure vs. Stress in Tension at Low Test Frequency for Polypropylene. 316
Graph 19.78 Oxygen Permeability vs. Relative Humidity through Polypropylene. 323
Graph 19.79 Outdoor Exposure Time vs. Chip Impact Strength of Polypropylene Copolymer . 328
Graph 19.80 Outdoor Exposure Time vs. Delta E Color Change of Polypropylene Copolymer 329
Graph 19.81 Outdoor Exposure Time vs. Flexural Strength of Polypropylene Copolymer 329
Graph 19.82 Outdoor Exposure Time vs. Tangent Modulus of Polypropylene Copolymer 330
Graph 19.83 Outdoor Exposure Time vs. Tensile Strength of Polypropylene Copolymer 330xviii
Table of Contents Plastics Design Library
Tables
Table 1.1 Effect of Atacticity on Polypropylene Properties 5
Table 1.2 Effect of Increasing Molecular Weight on Properties of Polypropylene . 5
Table 2.1 Effect of Increasing Biaxial Orientation on Properties of Polypropylene 17
Table 3.1 Comparison of Coloring Techniques 43
Table 3.2 Classifications of Surface Resistivity . 44
Table 4.1 Physical Properties of Commonly Used Minerals 52
Table 5.1 Properties of Oriented Polypropylene Films 58
Table 5.2 Properties of Novolen cast film (50 µm gauge) . 59
Table 6.1 Properties of Versadur Polypropylene Sheet . 61
Table 7.1 Useful Properties of Polypropylene in Fiber Applications 63
Table 7.2 Properties and Applications of Multifilaments 64
Table 8.1 Properties of Microfoam Extruded Foam Sheet 70
Table 8.2 Permeability of Microfoam1 to Gases and Moisture . 71
Table 8.3 Typical Mechanical Properties of Parts Made with 100% Foamable Polypropylene 73
Table 8.4 Mold Shrinkage of Parts Made with Foamable Polypropylene . 73
Table 10.1 Fumes Emitted during Tape Extrusion of Polypropylene (Tenax absorbent) 80
Table 10.2 Fumes Emitted during Tape Extrusion of Polypropylene (Chromosorb absorbent) . 80
Table 10.3 Occupational Exposure Limits (USA) for Selected Compounds 81
Table 10.4 Component migration from polypropylene into aqueous extracts 82
Table 10.5 Some identified toxic substances in plastic medical devices . 84
Table 10.6 Parts of ISO 10993: Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices 84
Table 10.7 ISO 10993–1 biocompatibility tests and FDA modifications 85
Table 12.1 Mechanical properties of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. . 113
Table 12.2 Mechanical properties of polypropylenes with various fillers, reinforcements, and
modifiers. . 114
Table 12.3 Common time intervals for creep testing . 116
Table 12.4 Dynamic low frequency (0.5 Hz) fatigue stress at 20°C and zero tension of
polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics . 118
Table 12.5 Dynamic low frequency (0.5 Hz) fatigue strain at 20°C and zero tension of
polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. . 119
Table 12.6 Suggested design safety factors for polypropylene. 120
Table 12.7 Thermal properties of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. 121
Table 12.8 Thermal properties of polypropylenes with various fillers, reinforcements and
modifiers. . 122
Table 12.9 Glass transition and crystalline melting points of polypropylene compared with
other thermoplastics. . 123
Table 12.10 Thermal conductivity of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. . 124
Table 12.11 Solubility parameters of some common plastics 124
Table 12.12 Effect of fillers on thermal conductivity of polypropylenes. 124
Table 12.13 Chemical resistance basic guide for polypropylene . 125
Table 12.14 Electrical properties of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. 126
Table 12.15 Electrical properties of polypropylenes with various fillers, reinforcements and
modifiers. 127
Table 12.16 Water absorption of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. . 128xix
Plastics Design Library Table of Contents
Table 12.17 Water absorption of polypropylenes with various fillers, reinforcements and modifiers. 128
Table 12.18 Water vapor transmission of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics .129
Table 12.19 Gas vapor transmission of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. .130
Table 12.20 Optical properties of polypropylene random copolymer. .131
Table 12.21 Fire behavior of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. 132
Table 12.22 Fire behavior of polypropylenes. 132
Table 12.23 Compounds produced by polypropylene at three stages of fire in low ventilation. 133
Table 12.24 Hardness of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics .134
Table 12.25 Dynamic coefficient of friction for polypropylene compared with other basic grades of
thermoplastics .134
Table 12.26 Abrasion resistance of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. 135
Table 12.27 Principal characteristics of polypropylene forms 137
Table 12.28 Effect of form in fillers and reinforcements. 138
Table 12.29 Normal loading range for fillers and reinforcements in polypropylene 138
Table 12.30 Effect of polypropylene processing on reinforcing glass fibers. 140
Table 12.31 Effect of nucleation on characteristics of polypropylene. .141
Table 12.32 Comparison of conventional and metallocene polypropylenes. 143
Table 13.1 Process shear rate ranges .145
Table 13.2 Approximate relationship between MFR and polypropylene injection molding
conditions. 146
Table 13.3 Approximate flow range of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. 146
Table 13.4 Principal characteristics of controlled rheology polypropylenes .148
Table 13.5 Process heat requirements of polypropylene compared with other thermoplastics. .149
Table 13.6 Approximate thermal melt properties of polypropylene compared with other
thermoplastics 150
Table 13.7 Approximate shrinkage range of polypropylene compared with other
thermoplastics 152
Table 14.1 Clamp force conversion table .161
Table 14.2 Injection pressure conversion table 163
Table 14.3 Shot volume conversion table 164
Table 14.4 Shot weight conversion factors .165
Table 14.5 Some injection molding process control factors .167
Table 14.6 Typical barrel zone temperature settings for polypropylene. 169
Table 14.7 Melt and mold temperature ranges for polypropylene compared with other
thermoplastics 168
Table 14.8 Material factors for clamp force determination. 171
Table 14.9 Some factors influencing polypropylene shrinkage. 172
Table 14.10 Injection molding trouble shooting chart. 173
Table 14.11 Comparison of properties of some mold construction materials. .184
Table 14.12 Applications of principal mold steels. .185
Table 14.13 Recommended cooling channel dimensions for polypropylene 187
Table 16.1 Chill roll film trouble shooting chart. 209
Table 16.2 Influence of die and roll stack variables on sheet characteristics. 214
Table 16.3 Suggested safe working stresses for polypropylene pipes .221
Table 17.1 Principal options available in the thermoforming process 223
Table 17.2 Principal thermoforming processes 224xx
Table of Contents Plastics Design Library
Table 17.3 Comparison of pressure scales for thermoforming 225
Table 17.4 Comparison of product characteristics between solid phase and melt phase
forming . 228
Table 17.5 Typical solid phase forming conditions for selected types of polypropylene . 234
Table 18.1 Welding details and tensile results for hot plate welded isotactic pipes made from
polypropylene copolymerized with ethylene 239
Table 18.2 Summary of laser weld conditions and tensile properties for polypropylene joints 256
Table 18.3 Adhesive systems for bonding parts made from Hostacom polypropylene . 258
Table 18.4 Shear strengths of PP to PP adhesive bonds made using adhesives available from
Loctite Corporation. . 261
Table 19.1 Film Properties of Coated and Uncoated Oriented Polypropylene Film 274
Table 19.2 Gas Permeability of Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen and Helium Through
Oriented Polypropylene Film 318
Table 19.3 Oxygen Permeability at Different Temperatures and Water Vapor Transmission
Through Oriented and Non-Oriented Polypropylene. 318
Table 19.4 Oxygen Permeability vs. Relative Humidity Through Biaxially Oriented
Polypropylene Film. . 319
Table 19.5 Water Vapor Transmission and Oxygen Permeability Through Polypropylene . 319
Table 19.6 Xylene and Oxygen Permeability Through Polypropylene . 320
Table 19.7 Water Vapor Transmission and Oxygen Permeability Through Coated and Uncoated
Oriented Polypropylene Film 321
Table 19.8 Organic Solvents Permeability Through Oriented Polypropylene Film. . 322
Table 19.9 d-Limonene (flavor component) Permeability Through Polypropylene . 322
Table 19.10 Effect of Antioxidants on Outdoor Weathering in Florida and Puerto Rico of
Polypropylene. . 325
Table 19.11 Outdoor Weathering in California and Pennsylvania of Glass Reinforced
Polypropylene. . 326
Table 19.12 Effect of Stabilizers and Antioxidants on Outdoor Weathering in Puerto Rico of
Polypropylene. . 327
Table 19.13 Effect of ECC International Microcal Calcium Carbonate on Accelerated
Weathering in QUV of Polypropylene. . 328
Table 19.14 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 335
Table 19.15 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 336
Table 19.16 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 337
Table 19.17 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 338
Table 19.18 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 338
Table 19.19 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 339
Table 19.20 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 339
Table 19.21 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 340
Table 19.22 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 340
Table 19.23 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 341
Table 19.24 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 341
Table 19.25 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 342
Table 19.26 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 342
Table 19.27 Effect of Gamma Radiation Sterilization on Polypropylene . 343
Table 19.28 Effect of Ethylene Oxide Sterilization on Polypropylene 344
Table 19.29 Effect of Ethylene Oxide Sterilization on Polypropylene 345
Plastics Design Library Index
Index
A
acid scavengers 29
additives
acid scavengers 29
antiblocking agents 45, 143
antistatic agents see antistatic agents
antioxidants see antioxidants
clarifying agents 34, 141
colorants see colorants
fillers and reinforcements see fillers and reinf.
flame retardants see flame retardants
influence on design 137
light stabilizers see light stabilizers
lubricants see lubricants
metal deactivators 30, 76
nucleating agents 12, 34, 40, 46, 110, 123, 141
slip agents 27, 45, 143
toxicity 79
UV stabilizers 30, 133
adhesive and solvent bonding 255
cure 256
joint design 260
mechanism of bonding 256
polypropylene adhesive bond strength 260
surface preparation methods 258
types of adhesives 256
adhesives
acrylic 257
elastomers 258
epoxies 258
hot melt 257
air attenuated fiber processes 217, 375
melt blown 218, 389
spun bonded 218, 400
air slip thermoforming 224, 232
amorphous polypropylene 13
antioxidants 27, 137, 376
primary antioxidants 27, 28
secondary antioxidants 28, 29, 32
selection of 29
antistatic agents 27, 44, 125,142
and electrostatic charges 44
electrically conductive materials 7, 45, 55
applications 87, 110
apparel 64, 97
appliances, large 94
appliances, small 92
automotive see automotive applications
building and construction 107
consumer products 106
fibers 63, 97
films 57, 102
floor coverings 64, 97
foams 71
geotextiles 97
home furnishings 97
medical 92, 130
non-woven 97
of block copolymers 87, 90, 106, 107
of filled resins 55
of homopolymers 19, 87, 90, 92, 100
of impact copolymers 23
of random copolymers 21
of recycled resins 76
of thermoplastic olefins 24
packaging see packaging applications
pipes 107, 218
textiles see textile applications
appliqués 265
decals 265
hot stamping 265
hot transfer 266
in-mold decorating 266
water transfer 266
atactic polypropylene 4, 8, 13, 14, 82, 377
automotive applications 23, 33, 41, 71, 87, 97, 139
exterior 87
interior 89
textiles and nonwovens 97
under-the-hood 28, 90
B
barite 51, 377
barrier materials 103, 127, 316
bearing properties 134
benzophenones 31, 33
biaxial orientation in thermoforming 227
biaxially oriented film 16, 57, 102, 128, 211, 274
blown process 57, 212
effects of biaxial orientation 17
properties 58, 274
tentered process 57, 212
billow forming 224, 231
billow plug assist thermoforming process 224, 232
biocompatibility 84
block copolymer 23, 136, 377
applications 87, 90, 106, 107
film properties 59
properties 115, 116, 269
blocking 143
see also slip agents
blowing agents 45, 142, 377
available forms 47
chemical blowing agents 46
physical blowing agents 46, 142
blow molding 189
3D blow molding 200
applications 101
blow molds 200
blow/fill/seal 199
coextrusion 198
dip blow molding 197
extrusion blow molding 192
extruder 190
injection blow molding 194408
Index Plastics Design Library
multibloc blow molding 197
parison head 190
stretch blow molding 195
blown film processes 57, 210
air cooled 57, 211
water quenched 57, 210
C
calcium carbonate 50, 139, 378
Campus 146
carbon fibers 55, 251, 378
cast film extrusion 57, 207, 378
chill roll 208, 212, 217, 379
catalyst 3, 7, 378
catalyst deactivators 29, 30
metallocene 8, 100, 143, 173, 389
Ziegler-Natta 3, 7, 407
chemical resistance 7, 52, 123
chemical resistance tables 125, 346
environmental stress cracking 99, 126
of mineral fillers 52
solubility parameters 124
coefficient of linear expansion 120, 285
colorants 39, 153, 266
color concentrates 39, 43, 153
color-compounded material 154
dry 42, 153
dyes 39, 42, 64, 142, 153
inorganic pigments 40
liquid color 42, 153
masterbatch 42, 154
optical effects of 39, 42
organic pigments 40
pigment characteristics 40
safety and health 81
special effect pigments 42
commercial forms
block copolymers see block copolymer
impact copolymers see impact copolymer
homopolymers see homopolymer
random copolymers see random copolymer
thermoplastic olefins 23
consumption 109, 136
controlled rheology 8, 148
cost 109
coupling agents 49, 53, 76, 139, 385
creep 116, 286
creep curves 286
creep rupture curves 299
stress relaxation curves 299
crystal structure 11
cytotoxicity assays 83
D
decorating 237, 265
appliqués 265
coloring 43, 153, 266
metallization 266
painting 266
printing 267
design
and causes of failure 111
design for joining 243, 244, 261, 267
design for recycling 77
factors influencing design 135
overview 109
properties influencing design 112
safety factors 120
drape thermoforming 224, 230
drying, pre-processing 153
dynamic fatigue see fatigue
E
electrical conductivity 7, 45
see also antistatic agents
electrical properties 124, 268, 274
effect of fillers on 127
electrofusion welding 381
elongation 113, 275
EMI/ RFI shielding 55, 125
enthalpy 150, 305
environmental stress cracking 99, 126, 382
causes of failure 111
EPDM 23, 143, 382
ethylene propylene diene monomer 23, 143, 382
ethylene-propylene rubber 21, 23, 383
extruder
performance of 206
single-screw 190, 205, 206, 220
twin-screw 77, 205
extrusion
coextrusion 221
coextrusion, blow molding 198
fiber 215
film see film extrusion
pipe and tube 218
processes 205
sheet 213
extrusion coating 213
extrusion welding 252, 383
F
fatigue
causes of failure 111
cyclic behavior 117
effect of glass reinforcement 307
effect of molecular weight 308
effect of morphology 15
factors affecting fatigue 306
living hinge 18
S-N (Woehler) curves 308
fiber extrusion 215
air attenuated 217
monofilament 217
multifilament 215
slit film 217
fibers 63, 215
air attenuated 217
applications 97, 205
continuous filaments 55, 66, 384
extrusion of 215
melt-blown 66, 218409
Plastics Design Library Index
monofilaments 63, 217
multifilaments 63, 215
slit tape 66, 211, 217
spun bonded 218
staple 65, 215, 384
fillers and reinforcements 49, 114, 138
applications of filled PP 55
barite 51, 377
calcium carbonate 50, 139, 378
carbon fibers 55, 251, 378
characteristics 49
coupling agents 49, 53, 76, 139, 385
effect on electrical prroperties 127
effect on thermal conductivity 52, 55, 124
effect on shrinkage and warping 53, 55, 151
flax 54
glass fibers 53, 139, 172, 307, 378, 385
glass spheres 49, 140
mica 52, 138, 389
organic fillers 53
talc 51, 139, 402
toxicity 81
wollastonite 53, 141
film
biaxially oriented see biaxially oriented film
cast see cast film extrusion
heat shrinkable 17
packaging applications of 102
permeability 127, 316
properties 58, 274
unoriented 57
film extrusion 207
biaxially oriented film 16, 57, 211
blown film 57, 210, 377
cast film 57, 208, 378
chill roll 208, 379
tentered film 212
fire behavior 35, 79, 131
flame retardants 35, 81, 142, 384
aluminum hydroxide 38
and fire 35, 79, 131
free radical scavengers 36, 37
magnesium hydroxide 38
phosphorus 28, 81
test methods 38
toxicity 38, 81
flax 54
flexural modulus 22, 113, 116, 137, 279, 384
flow properties 4, 135, 145, 268, 300
foaming agents see blowing agents
foams
applications 71
comparison with other foams 69
processing 69
properties 70
structure 69
fogging 45
food packaging regulations 82, 129
Canadian food packaging regulations 82
European food packaging regulations 83
US food packaging regulations 82
fracture toughness 15, 111
see also fatigue, impact strength
G
glass fibers 53, 139, 172, 307, 378, 385
glass spheres 49, 140
glass transition temperature
comparison with other plastics 122
effect of morphology 14
use in design 122
of foams 69
of random copolymers 20
H
HALS 29, 32
hardness 61, 134, 268
hazardous substances 79
additives 80
polypropylene 79
propylene 79
VOC emmissions 79
haze 4, 20, 131, 144, 208, 385
and metallocene technology 144
and nucleating agents 15, 34, 141
effect of form 20
effect of morphology 11, 15
effect of orientation 16, 17
film extrusion 208
heat distortion temperature 21, 120, 386
and metallocene technology 9
effect of fillers 49, 139
values 268
heat shrinkable films 17
heated tool welding
polypropylene applications 240
process of 237
processing parameters 237
hindered amine light stabilizers see HALS
hindered phenolics 27
homopolymer 19, 136, 386
applications 87, 90, 92, 100
film 63
properties 59, 115, 116, 269
sheet properties 61
hot gas welding
equipment 241
process 240
processing parameters 241
use with polypropylene 241
I
impact copolymer 21
applications 106
properties 115, 116, 269
impact strength
and commercial forms 19
effect of fillers
and additives 50-56, 113, 137, 139, 141, 144
effect of morphology 15
of foams 69
values 268410
Index Plastics Design Library
vs. temperature 283
induction welding
polypropylene applications 249
process of 248
infrared welding
applications 254
equipment 254
polypropylene weld microstructure 254
process of 253
processing parameters 253
injection molding
feed system 179
filling 168
machinery 159
mold components 177
mold types 177
molds 176, 185
process conditions for polypropylene 168
process of 159
injection molding feed system
cold runner 179
gates 181
hot runner 183, 184
sprue 73, 167, 180
injection molding machinery
clamp unit 159, 160, 161
control systems 167
injection screw 159, 160, 161
injection unit 161, 163
power systems 166
injection molding process conditions for polypropylene 168
clamp 159, 160, 161, 167, 170
filling 168
long-fiber reinforced grades 173
metallocene grades 173
shrinkage and warping 151, 171
trouble shooting 173
injection molds
2-plate 177
3-plate 178, 182
cooling channels 186
materials 185
stack 178
venting 187, 202, 224
in-line thermoforming 227
ISO 10993,
Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices 84
isotactic polypropylene 387
alpha form 12
beta form 12
characteristics of 14
gamma form 12
J
joining methods
adhesive and solvent bonding 255
extrusion welding 252, 253
heated tool welding 240
hot gas welding 240, 241, 386
induction welding 248, 249, 250
infrared welding 253, 254
laser welding 254
mechanical fastening 261
microwave welding 250, 251
resistance welding 251
spin welding 243
ultrasonic welding 244, 245, 246
vibration welding 241, 243
L
laser welding 255
light stability 40, 41, 132
see also weathering
light stabilizers 28, 31, 132, 386
free radical scavengers 32, 36
quenchers 30, 32
screeners 34
UV absorbers 30, 38
lubricants 45, 83, 263, 332
and surface properties 134
M
matched mold thermoforming 232
Material Safety Data Sheets 81, 155
mechanical fastening 261
inserts 263
machine screws, nuts, bolts, and washers 262
press or interference fits 263
self-tapping screws 262
snap-fits 261, 264
staking 265
mechanical properties
creep see creep
data sheet properties 268
effect of fillers on 49, 114, 123
effect of morphology on 15
elongation at break 113, 275, 382
fatigue see fatigue
flexural modulus 113, 116, 137, 279, 384
impact strength see impact strength
influence on design 112
long-term behavior 116
short-term behavior 113
stress vs. strain 113
medical devices
applications 92
cytotoxicity assays 83
migration of toxic substances 83
regulatory guidelines 84
see also sterilization
melt flow index
flow properties 145
relation to molecular weight 4
short-term behavior 116
values 268
melt flow rate test 146
melting point 20, 123
and metallocene technology 9, 143
effect of morphology on 14
influence on processing 116
values 268
mesomorphic form of polypropylene 13411
Plastics Design Library Index
metal deactivators 30, 76
metallization 266
metallocene catalyzed PP
catalysts 8
characteristics of 9
influence on design 143
injection molding of 173
packaging applications of 100
property values 268
mica 52, 138, 389
microstructure
lamellae 11, 16, 239
of foams 6939
of welds 237, 242, 243, 253, 254, 255
spherulites 11, 15, 34, 40, 122, 131
tie points 11, 14
microwave welding 250
applications 251
processing paramaters 251
susceptor material 250
modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) 103, 105
mold filling analysis 166
molds
construction materials 184
for blow molding 200
for injection molding 176
for thermoforming 233
molecular weight 4, 147, 390
and melt flow rate 4, 145
and processing 4, 147
effect of catalyst 8, 143
effect on shear rate 169
effect on shrinkage 151, 172
in thermoforming 228
molecular weight distribution 5, 147, 390
monofilament 63, 135, 217
morphology 13, 17, 21
effect on mechanical properties 15, 113, 114
glass transition 14
haze 5, 15, 17, 58, 131, 274
melting point 14, 20, 143
of foams 69
multifilament 63, 66, 215, 325, 327
bulked continuous filament 64, 216, 377
continuous filament 55, 64, 215, 377, 384
staple fiber 65, 216, 384
N
notch fracture
cause of failure 111
nucleating agents 12, 34, 40, 46, 110, 123, 141
O
odor 82
optical properties 49, 100, 131, 208, 209, 331
see also haze
organic fillers 53
organometallic compounds 8
orientation 3, 16, 22, 377
biaxial 16, 135, 195, 207, 227, 377
blow molding 195
cold flow 45, 116, 135
fatigue 307
fibers 16, 63, 216
films


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