كتاب Printing on Polymers - Fundamentals and Applications
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Printing on Polymers - Fundamentals and Applications

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كتاب Printing on Polymers - Fundamentals and Applications  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Printing on Polymers - Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Printing on Polymers - Fundamentals and Applications  Emptyالإثنين 22 مايو 2023, 3:04 am

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Printing on Polymers - Fundamentals and Applications
Joanna Izdebska , Sabu Thomas

كتاب Printing on Polymers - Fundamentals and Applications  P_o_p_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface
1. Printing on Polymers: Theory and Practice
1.1. Introduction—The Impact of Printing
1.2. Printing Techniques
1.3. Printing Bases
1.4. Printability
1.5. Surface Wettability
1.6. Print Quality
1.7. Plastic Printing Industry
2. Polymeric Materials—Structure, Properties, and Applications
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Structure of a Polymer
2.3. Properties of Polymers
2.4. Application of Polymers
2.5. Conclusion
3. Printing Ink Formulations
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Individual Ink Components
3.3. Inks Manufacture
3.4. Selected Inks for Individual Printing Processes
3.5. Functional Inks
3.6. Summary
4. Additives for Ink Manufacture
4.1. Definition of an Additive
4.2. Surfactants: Wetting and Dispersing Agents
4.3. Adhesion Promoters
4.4. Waxes
4.5. Driers
4.6. Rheology Modifier
4.7. Other Additives
4.8. Additives for Radiation-Curing Inks
4.9. Performance Additives
5. Advanced Nanoscale Materials for Ink Manufacture
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Nanoscale Materials for Ink Manufacture
5.3. Conclusions and Outlook
6. Rheology of Printing Inks
6.1. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids
7. Low-Pressure Plasma-Assisted Polymer Surface Modifications
7.1. Low-Pressure Oxygen Plasma
7.2. Reactive Plasma Species and their Interaction with Polymers for Printing
7.3. Flowing Afterglow
7.4. Peculiarities of Particular Polymers
7.5. Etching, Nanostructuring, and Wettability
7.6. Concluding Remarks
8. Corona Treatment
8.1. Corona Discharge Treatment: Introduction
8.2. Surface Changes, Film Wettability, and Printability
8.3. Peculiarities of Particular Polymers
8.4. Aging Process of Corona-Treated Films
8.5. Concluding Remarks
9. Polymer Surface Modifications by Coating
9.1. Organic Modifications of Polymer Surface
9.2. Inorganic Coating
9.3. Metallurgical Coating
10. Other Methods of Polymer Surface Modifications
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Laser Beam Processing for Polymer Surface Modifications
10.3. Micromachining
10.4. Other Energy Beam Processing Techniques
11. Flexographic Printing
11.1. Fundamentals of Flexographic Printing
11.2. Production Materials
11.3. Flexographic Printing Benefits
11.4. Flexographic Market and its Future
12. Gravure Printing
12.1. Market of Gravure Printing
12.2. Printing Process
12.3. Gravure Printing Inks
12.4. Gravure Cylinder Manufacturing
12.5. Structure of Gravure Printing Presses
12.6. Applications and Further Developments
13. Offset Printing
13.1. Fundamentals of Offset Printing
13.2. Offset Inks
13.3. Construction of Printing Presses for Offset Printing
13.4. Print Quality Control in Waterless Offset on Polymer Materials
14. Inkjet Printing
14.1. Fundamentals of Inkjet Printing Technology
14.2. Physical and Chemical Properties of Inkjet Printing Inks
14.3. Droplet Ink Behavior on the Substrate
14.4. Polymer in Inkjet Ink Formulation
14.5. Polymers as Inkjet Printing Substrate
14.6. Future in Inkjet Printing
15. Screen Printing
15.1. Fundamentals of Screen Printing
15.2. Stencil/Plate Making
15.3. Imaging, Hand-Cut Stencils, Photostencils, Computer to Screen Systems
15.4. Printing Process
15.5. Screen Printing Industry
16. Pad Printing
16.1. History
16.2. Basics of Pad Printing
16.3. Basic Elements of Pad Printing
16.4. Application of the Pad Printing
17. Embossing Process
17.1. Fundamentals of Embossing
17.2. Hot Embossing Modes
17.3. Influence of Polymer Performance on Embossing Features
17.4. Application Example: R2R Hot Embossing Holographic Images on BOPP Shrink Film
17.5. Outlook
18. 3-D Printing
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Fundamentals of 3-D Printing
18.3. Applications
18.4. 3-D-Printing Process
18.5. 3-D Printable Materials
18.5. Electrically Conductive Polymers
18.6. 3-D Bioprinting
18.7. Conclusions
19. Theory, Modeling, and Simulation of Printing
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Measuring and Modeling Reflection Properties for Color Prediction
19.3. Light Scattering and Absorption
19.4. Spectral Reflectance Prediction Models for Colored Halftones
19.5. Multilayer Constructions
19.6. Surface and Interface Reflections
19.7. Transparent and Translucent Substrates
19.8. Conclusions
20. Characterization of Print Quality in Terms of Colorimetric Aspects
20.1. Colorimetric Aspects
20.2. Characterization of Print Quality
21. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Prints
21.1. Introduction
21.2. Ink Abrasion Resistance of Polymer Substrates
21.3. Scratch Resistance of Polymer Substrates
21.4. Summary
22. Aging and Degradation of Printed Materials
22.1. Aging and Degradation: Definitions
22.2. Models of Artificial Aging
22.3. Degradation of Polymer Materials
22.4. Methods of Testing the Aging Process and Degradation
22.5. Polymeric Substrate Degradation
22.6. Impact of Radiation Artificial Aging on Print
22.7. Summary
23. Applications of Printed Materials
23.1. Introduction
23.2. Packaging
23.3. Labels
23.4. Printed Electronics
23.5. Household Equipment
23.6. Promotional Gifts and Materials
23.7. Others
24. Microcapsules in Printing
24.1. Introduction
24.2. Microcapsules and Microspheres
24.3. Types of Release Mechanism
24.4. Microencapsulation
24.5. Application of Microcapsules in Graphic and Paper Industry
25. Environmental and Safety Issues of Polymers and Polymeric Material in the Printing Industry
25.1. Introduction
25.2. Sustainable Development
25.3. Life-Cycle Assessment
25.4. LCA and Toxic Risk Assessment
25.5. Printing Industry and Sustainability
25.6. Assessment of Polymers and Polymeric Materials
25.7. Summary
Index
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures and tables respectively.
A
Abrasion process, 348, 348f
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
3, 36, 301
Additives, 203
adhesion promoters, 59e60
alkalis, 62
antioxidants and antiskinning agents, 62
biocides and fungicides, 62
chelating agents, 62
definition, 57e58
deodorants, 62
driers, 61
performance, 63e65
hyperbranched polymers, 63e65,
64fe65f
ionic liquids (ILs), 63, 64f
rheology modifier, 61
surfactants
antifoaming agents, 59
wetting and dispersing agents,
57e58, 59f
waxes, 60e61
Aging process
artificial aging, models of
chemical aging, 356
complex aging, 356
radiation, 355e356
thermal aging, 356
defined, 353e354
print, radiation artificial aging on,
366e368, 367f
testing methods, 359e362
polymeric materials tests, 359e361
prints tests, 361e362
Aluminum oxide, 219
Aluminum printing forms, 270
Ammonium ion, 45e46
Antioxidants, 62
Antiskinning agents, 62
Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP),
123e124
Atomic force microscope (AFM),
116e117
B
Ballard copper skin, 201e202
Benzophenone (BP), 144, 144f
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), 144
Binding agents, 203e204
Biodegradation, 358e359
Biomedical applications, 37
Bis (4-hydroxyethoxy) phenyl sulfone
(BHEPS), 148e149
Block copolymers, 27
BOPP shrink film, R2R hot embossing
holographic images on,
284e289, 285f, 287f, 288t
Brookfield viscometers, 92
C
Carbonless copy paper, 393
Cellaxy, 208, 208f
Central impression printing press,
187e188, 187f
Ceramics, 302
printing forms, 269e270
Chemical degradation, 357
Chloromethylated polymer film, 147e148
Chrome plating, 214
Chrome printing forms, 270
CIJ printing systems. See Continuous
inkjet (CIJ) printing systems
Circumferential pad, 277
Coating methods
inorganic coating, 149e153
diamond-like carbon/SiOx and oxide
coatings, 150e151, 150f
industrial applications, wettability and
properties for, 151e153, 151f
magnetron sputtering, 150, 150f
plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition, 149e150, 149fe150f
metallurgical coating
chemical electro-less plating
techniques, 153, 153f
polymers, additional properties on,
153e154, 154f
vapor plating techniques, 153, 153f
polymer surface, organic modifications,
143e149
applications, 148e149
initiated chemical vapor deposition
(iCVD), 146, 146f
photo-iniferters layer, photo-grafting
polymerization from, 147e148,
147fe148f
photo-initiators, photo-grafting
polymerizations by, 144e146,
144f
UV-curable polymer coating,
146e147
Coefficient of viscosity, 87e88
Colored halftones, spectral reflectance
prediction models for,
314e320
cellular implementation, 317e318
dot surface coverage and ink spreading,
319e320, 319f
fluorescence, 318e319
Murray-Davis model, 314
probabilistic models, 316e317, 316f
Spectral Neugebauer model, 315, 315f
Yule-Nielsen model, 315, 315f
Colorimetric aspects
CIE lab data, spectral data to, 335e336,
336f
color deviation formulas,
336e337, 337t
color measurement, 333e335,
333fe335f
color perception, 329e333, 330fe332f
print quality, characterization of,
337e344
continuous quality control, inline
spectral measurements for,
343e344, 344t
different materials, different
perception, 343, 343f
ink transfer, influence of, 338e343,
338fe342f
unprinted substrate, homogeneity of,
338
417Color measurement, 16, 333e335
Commercial antifoaming agents, 59
Commodity polymers
polyethylene, 34
polypropylene, 34e35
polystyrene, 35
polyvinylchloride (PVC), 35
Compatibilization, 32e33
Computer numerical control (CNC),
170e171
Computer to screen systems, 257e258
Condensation reactions, 25
Conductive inks, 50e51
Conductivity sheen, 153e154
Configuration, 25e26, 25fe26f
Conformation, 26
Contact angel, 13e14, 130e132
Continuous inkjet (CIJ) printing systems,
232, 233f
Cylinder cell, 209
Conventional procedure, 266
Conventional wet offset printing, 218,
218f
Copolymers
block, 27
graft, 27
random, 27
Copper-based inks, 51
Copper engraving, 201e202
Copper phthalocyanine, 43
Corona treatment
aging process, 138e139
course and effectiveness, factors
influencing, 126e127
particular polymers, peculiarities of,
133e138
ethylene vinyl acetate, 137
polyethylene (PE), 135e136
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 136
polylactide (PLA), 137e138
polypropylene (PP), 133e135
polystyrene (PS), 137
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 136e137
printability, 132e133, 133f
surface changes and film wettability,
129e133
contact angle, 130e132, 131fe132f
surface chemistry, 130, 130f, 130t
topography and morphology, 129,
129f
treatment, 125e126, 125f
upper layer
changes in, 127e128, 128f
methods controlling correctness of,
128e129
CtP technology, 219e220
Cylindrical steel printing forms, 269
D
Decoration technology, 3
Degradation
defined, 353e354
polymeric substrates, 362e366
biodegradable polymers,
365e366
polyethylene terephthalate, 364
polyvinyl chloride, 365
polyamide, 364
polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate
copolymer, 365
polyethylene, 362e363
polypropylene, 363e364
polystyrene, 364e365
polymer materials, 356e359
biodegradation, 358e359
chemical degradation, 357
mechanical degradation, 358
oxidative degradation, 357e358
radiation degradation, 356e357
thermal degradation, 358
testing methods, 359e362, 361f
polymeric materials tests,
359e361
prints tests, 361e362
Dendritic polymers, 63
Diamond-like carbon (DLC),
150e151
Diamond microchiselling (DMC),
174e175, 174f
Diamond stylus, 206, 207f
Dielectric barrier discharged (DBD),
123e124
DigiLas pico system, 208e209
Dirac points, 52
Direct laser system, 209
DMC. See Diamond microchiselling
(DMC)
Doctor blade, 212
Drop on Demand inkjet printing systems
acoustic inkjet printing, 236, 236f
electrostatic inkjet printing,
234e235, 235f
piezoelectric inkjet printing,
233e234, 235f
thermal inkjet printing, 233, 234f
Drying system, 212
Dyes, 203
Dynamic mechanical properties, 32
Dynamic viscosity. See Coefficient of
viscosity
E
Electron beam (EB), 50
machining, 177
Electron energy, 102
Electronic applications, 37
Electron spectroscopy for chemical
analysis (ESCA), 130
Electrophotography, 6
Electrostatic assist (ESA), 200e201
Embossing process
BOPP shrink film, R2R hot embossing
holographic images on,
284e289, 285f, 287f, 288t
fundamentals, 279e280, 279fe280f
hot embossing modes, 280e282, 281f
P2P mode, 280e281, 281f
R2P mode, 281e282, 281f
R2R mode, 281f, 282
polymer performance, influence of,
282e284
polymer deformation, 283e284
polymeric materials, thermal behavior
of, 282e283, 282f
Emulsion polymers, 45
Energy beam processing techniques, 177
Engineering polymers
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS), 36
polyamides, 35
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 36
polyoxymethylene/polyacetals,
36e37
Epoxy amphiphilic block copolymer
blend systems, 32e33
Epoxy-based azo-polymers, 166f, 167
Epoxy-based precursor polymers, 167
Ethylene molecule, different
confirmations of, 26, 26f
F
Femtosecond laser, 162e166
laser-induced surface hydrophilicity and
hydrophobicity
laser-induced wettability
modification, mechanism of,
163e164, 163f, 163t, 164f
wettability modification, 162,
162f, 163t
laser-induced wettability modification,
fluid flow control microfluidic
channels, 164e166
liquid flow effect, 164fe165f,
165e166
microchannels, fabrication of,
164e165, 164f
418 INDEXFinite difference time domain
(FDTD), 169
Fixed-axle cylinders, 214
Flatbed screen printing, 258e259,
259f
Flat-to-flat method, 247e249, 249f
Flexible packaging, 372e375, 373f
Flexographic inks, 49e50, 50t
Flexographic printing
fundamentals, 179e189
anilox rollers, 183e186,
183fe184f, 185t
principle, 179, 179f
printing machines, 187e189,
187fe189f
printing plates, 179e183,
180fe181f
printing units, 186e187, 186f
production materials, 189e193
inks. See Inks
plastic substrates. See Plastic
substrates
Flexography, 49e50. See also
Flexographic printing
Flexural testing, 32
Foam, 59
Food packaging, 376e377, 376f, 377t
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
(FTIR), 129
Free radicals, 128
Functional ceramic oxides, 73e74
Functional inks, 50e52
G
Gaseous plasma, 105
Glass transition, 28e29, 30t
Glycerol, 46
Graft copolymers, 27
grafting chemical vapor deposition
(gCVD), 146
Graphene, 52
nanosheet inks, 78e80
Gravure printing
applications and developments,
213e215
cylinder costs, 199e200, 200f
cylinder manufacturing, 204e210,
206f
electromechanical engraving,
206e208, 206fe207f
etching and laser-made masks,
210, 210f
pulsed laser, copper with, 208e209,
208f
zinc layer, direct laser system with,
209e210, 209f
innovations, 214
market of, 199e200, 199f
principle of, 200, 200f
printing inks, 202e204, 203t
printing process, 200e202, 200f
structure of, 210e213,
211fe213f
Gypsum, 302
H
Hand-cut stencils, 255, 255f
HDPE. See High-density polyethylene
(HDPE)
Heat-shrinkable wrapping, 374
Heterogeneous surface recombination,
104
Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), 151
High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 34
HLB. See Hydrophile-lipophile balance
(HLB)
Homopolymers, 27
Hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB),
58e59
Hydrophobic coatings, 152
Hyperbranched azo-polymers,
167e168
I
Impression roller, 212
Imprinted solegel surface textures,
168, 170f
Indirect relief printing, 5
Indium tin oxide (ITO), 80e81,
151e152
Industrial packaging, 379
initiated chemical vapor deposition
(iCVD), 146, 146f
Ink abrasion resistance
polymers abrasion resistance testing,
different methods of, 348e349,
348fe349f
printed polymers abrasion resistance,
evaluation methodology of,
349e351, 349f, 350t, 351f
Ink formulation
components, individual ink
additives, 47
pigments, 42e44, 43f
polymers/resins, 44e46, 45f, 45t
solvents, 46e47
functional inks, 50e52
individual printing processes, selected
inks for, 48e50
flexographic inks, 49e50, 50t
inkjet ink, 48e49, 48t
inks manufacture, 47
Inking system, 274e275
closed inkwell system, 274e275,
274fe275f
open inkwell system, 274, 274f
Inking unit, 212, 224e225
Ink-jet ink, 48e49, 48t
Ink-jet printing, 6
fundamentals, 231e236
CIJ printing systems, 232, 233f
Drop on Demand inkjet printing
systems. See Drop on Demand
inkjet printing systems
future aspects, 241
inkjet ink formulation, polymer in,
240
physical and chemical properties,
236e239
particle size, 237e238
solute properties, 238e239
surface tension, 237
viscosity, 236e237
substrates
droplet ink behavior on, 239e240,
239f
polymers as, 240e241
Inks, 189e191, 271e273
manufacture
additives. See Additives
nanoscale materials. See Nanoscale
materials
types of, 189, 202, 272e273
solvent-based ink, 190e191
UV-curable ink, 191
water-based ink, 190
In-line printing press, 188, 189f
In-mold decoration (IMD), 3
In-mold labeling (IML), 3
Inorganic nonmetallic inks, 72e80
carbon family nano-inks, 76e80,
77fe79f
ceramic nano-inks, 73e74, 74f
MOF inks, 76, 76f
semiconductor quantum dot inks,
74e75, 75f
Inorganic thickeners, 61
Instant wetting agents, 60
Internal friction, 32
Intersystem crossing (ISC), 143e149
Isopropylthioxanthone (ITX), 144
L
Labels, 380e382
glue applied, 381
in-mold labels, 381e382
pressure sensitive, 381
sleeve labels, 382
INDEX 419Laminate printing, 10, 10f
Laser beam
polymer surface modifications,
162e169
azo-polymers, Ar+ laser-induced
surface relief gratings on,
166fe168f, 167e168
polymer surface replication, laser
micromachining silicon surface
for, 168e169, 169fe172f
wettability modification, femtosecond
laser textured PMMA surfaces
for, 162e166
Laser engraved cells, 204e206
LCA. See Life cycle assessment (LCA)
LDPE. See Low-density polyethylene
(LDPE)
Life cycle assessment (LCA), 401e403
opportunities and limitations, 403
structure, 401e403, 402f
toxic risk assessment. See Toxic risk
assessment
Light emitting diode (LED), 223
Light scattering/absorption, 308e314
bulk scattering, 310e312
fluorescence, 312e314, 312f
Monte Carlo methods, 314
surface scattering, 309e310,
309f, 311t
Lithography, 4
inks, 41
printing, 217
Living radical-graft polymerizations,
144e145
LMWOM. See Low molecular weight
oxidized materials (LMWOM)
Long-term mechanical properties, 32
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 34
Low molecular weight oxidized materials
(LMWOM), 125, 127,
133e134
Low-pressure oxygen plasma, 101e104
M
Master screen, 209e210
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, 101e102
Mechanical degradation, 358
Mechanical engraving, 266
Metaleorganic frameworks (MOFs),
72e73
Metallic sheen, 153e154
Metallic thin films, 153
Metal nanomaterials, 80e82
metal nanoparticle inks, 80e81,
80fe81f
metal nanowire inks, 81e82, 82f
Metal screen printing frames, 251e252,
252f
Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK),
190e191
MIBK. See Methyl isobutyl ketone
(MIBK)
Microcapsules
graphic and paper industry, application
in, 393e394, 393f
microencapsulation, 392e393
microspheres, 389e391, 390f
release mechanism, types of,
391e392, 392f
singlecore and multicore, 390
thermally expandable microcapsules,
393, 394f
Microgrooving. See Microshaping
Micromachining
conventional CNC, 170e171, 173f
defined, 170e176
ultra-precision machining (UPM),
171e176, 173fe176f
Micromilling, 176
Microshaping, 173e174, 176f
Modern packaging, 2
Monomers, 25, 45e46, 45f
Monte Carlo methods, 314
Multicolor pad printing machines
carousel, 275, 276f
CNC, 275e276, 276f
linear, 275, 275f
Multilayer films, 10, 193
Murray-Davis model, 314
N
Nanoparticles, 44
Nanoscale materials
functional polymer inks, 68e72
monodispersed polymer nanoparticle
latexes, 68e70, 69fe70f
semiconductive and conductive
polymer suspensions, 70e72,
71fe73f
inorganic nonmetallic inks, 72e80
carbon family nano-inks, 76e80,
77fe79f
ceramic nano-inks, 73e74, 74f
MOF inks, 76, 76f
semiconductor quantum dot inks,
74e75, 75f
metal nanomaterials, 80e82
metal nanoparticle inks, 80e81,
80fe81f
metal nanowire inks, 81e82, 82f
Natural polymers, 44e45
Natural waxes, 61
Nitrocellulose, 202
Nonimpact printing (NIP), 48e49
Nonluminous color, 329e330
Normalized absorption curves, 330
O
Offset printing
fundamentals
conventional wet offset printing,
218, 218f
principle, 217e218, 217f
printing plates. See Printing plates
waterless offset printing, 218,
218f
inks, 220e223
oxidation dried inks and drying
method, 221e222
wet offset/waterless offset inks and
drying method, 222e223
printing plates, 219
printing presses, construction of. See
Printing presses, construction of
waterless offset, print quality control in,
226e228
Optimal application, 16
Organic pigments, 43
Organic thickeners, 61
Overlying silicone layer, 219
Oxidative degradation, 357e358
Oxidation dried inks, drying method,
221e222
Oxidation level (O/C), 130
Oxidative dried inks, 221
Oxygen, 225
Ozone, 128
P
Packaging trends, 379e380
Pad printing, 5
application, 277e278
basic elements, 265e277
printing form. See Printing form
printing inks. See Printing inks
printing machines, technology of. See
Printing machines, technology of
printing pad. See Printing pad
basics, 264e265
machines, 265
pad, 264
printing form, 264
printing ink, 264e265
history, 263
Petroleum waxes, 61
Photo-curable resins, 301
Photoelectric effect, 108e109
Photo-iniferter method, 147
420 INDEXPhoto-initiators, photo-grafting
polymerizations by, 144e146,
144f
Photonic crystals, 69
Photopolymer printing forms, 268e269,
268fe269f
Photosensitive layer (polymer), 219
Photostencils, 255e257, 256f
Pigment red (PY 57), 43, 43f
Pigment yellow (PY12), 43, 43f
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (PECVD), 149e150
Plastic substrates, 191e193
benefits, 193e194
films, 9, 192, 192f
laminates, 10, 192e193, 193f
market and future, 194e195
plastic sheets, semirigid and rigid, 10
requirements for, 193
synthetic papers and polymer-coated
boards, 11
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE),
151e152
Polyamides, 35, 301
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 36
Polyethylene, 34
waxes, 61
Polyisoprene, cis and trans forms of,
26, 26f
Polylactic acid bioplastic, 301
Polymer blends, 32e33
Polymer composites, 33
Polymeric materials, 356e359
application, 33e37
commodity polymers. See
Commodity polymers
engineering polymers. See
Engineering polymers
specialty applications. See Specialty
applications
biodegradation, 358e359
chemical degradation, 357
classification of, 26e27
crystalline and amorphous
polymers, 26
homopolymers and copolymers, 27
thermoplastics and thermosetting
plastics, 26e27, 27f
mechanical degradation, 358
oxidative degradation, 357e358
properties
electrical properties, 32, 32t
mechanical properties, 31e32,
31f
polymer blends, 32e33
polymer composites, 33
polymer nanocomposites, 33
thermal properties. See Thermal
properties
radiation degradation, 356e357
structure of, 25e28
configuration, 25e26, 25fe26f
conformation, 26
designing, 27e28
thermal degradation, 358
Polymerization reactions, 22, 25
Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED),
70e71
Polymer nanocomposites, 33
Polymer substrates. See also Plastic
substrates
biodegradable polymers, 365e366
ink abrasion resistance, 347e351
polymers abrasion resistance testing,
different methods of, 348e349,
348fe349f
printed polymers abrasion resistance,
evaluation methodology of,
349e351, 349f, 350t, 351f
polyethylene terephthalate, 364
polyvinyl chloride, 365
polyamide, 364
polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate
copolymer, 365
polyethylene, 362e363
polypropylene, 363e364
polystyrene, 364e365
scratch resistance, 351e352,
351fe352f
Polymer surface
etching/nanostructuring and wettability,
116e118, 117fe118f
flowing afterglow, 107e108, 107f
organic modifications, 143e149
peculiarities, 108e116, 109f
polyamide, 115e116, 115f,
115t, 116f
polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
109e110, 109fe110f, 110t,
111f
polypropylene and polyethylene,
113, 114f
polystyrene, 112e113, 112f
polyvinyl chloride, 114e115, 114f,
114t
Polyoxymethylene/polyacetals, 36e37
Polypropylene, 34e35
Polystyrene, 35
Polystyrene (PS), 68
microspheres, 68
Polyurethane (PUR) thickeners, 61
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 35, 222
Porosity, 12
P2P mode, 280e281, 281f
Printed materials
household equipment, 384
labels, 380e382
glue applied, 381
in-mold labels, 381e382
pressure sensitive, 381
sleeve labels, 382
packaging, 372e380, 373t
flexible packaging, 372e375, 373f
food packaging, 376e377, 376f, 377t
industrial packaging, 379
packaging trends, 379e380
pharmacy and personal care
packaging, 377e379, 378f
rigid packaging, 375e376
printed electronics, 382e384
promotional gifts and materials, 384
Printability, 11e12, 129e133
Printing
bases, 7e11, 191
films, 9e10
injection moldings, 11
multilayer films, 10
semirigid and rigid plastic
sheets, 10
synthetic papers and polymer-coated
boards, 11
colored halftones, spectral reflectance
prediction models for, 314e320
cellular implementation, 317e318
dot surface coverage and ink
spreading, 319e320, 319f
fluorescence, 318e319
Murray-Davis model, 314
probabilistic models, 316e317, 316f
Spectral Neugebauer model, 315,
315f
Yule-Nielsen model, 315, 315f
color prediction, measuring and
modeling reflection properties
for, 308, 308f
cylinders, 5
impact, 1e2, 2f
light scattering and absorption, 308e314
bulk scattering, 310e312
fluorescence, 312e314, 312f
Monte Carlo methods, 314
surface scattering, 309e310,
309f, 311t
multilayer constructions, 320e321, 320f
plastic printing industry, 17e18, 18f
plates
CtP technology, 219e220
structure, 219
INDEX 421Printing (Continued)
printability, 11e12
process, 2e7, 4f, 258e260
3-D printing (three-dimensional
printing), 7, 307e308
digital printing, 2e7
electrophotography, 6
ink-jet, 231e236
termal-transfer, 6
flat printing, 3e4
litography, 4
offset printing, 217e220
gravure (intaglio), 5
rotogravure, 200e202
pad printing, 264e265
hybrid printing, 7
relief printing, 4e5
flexography, 179
typography, 5
typoofset, 5
stencil printing, 247
flatbed screen printing, 258e259, 259f
rotary screen printing, 259e260, 259f
quality, 15e17
factors, 15
impact, 15
parameters used, 16e17
substrates, surface free energy of, 13e15
contact angle, devices for
measurement of, 13e14, 14f
measurement liquid/pens, 14e15
surface and interface reflections,
321e322
surface wettability, 12e15, 12f
inks, surface tension of, 12e13, 13f
printing substrates, surface free
energy of. See Printing
substrates, surface free energy of
techniques, 2e7, 3f
digital printing, 4f, 6
division of, 3, 4f
flat printing, 3e4, 3f
gravure printing, 3f, 5
hybrid printing, 7
polymer decoration, various printing
techniques for, 7, 8t
relief printing, 3f, 4e5
stencil printing, 3f, 5e6
three-dimensional printing, 7
transparent and translucent substrates,
322e323, 323fe324f
Printing form
engraving, 265e266, 266f
screen ruling, use of, 266e267, 267f
types, 267e270
aluminum printing forms, 219, 270
ceramics printing forms, 269e270
chrome printing forms, 270
cylindrical steel printing forms, 269
photopolymer printing forms, 180,
268e269, 268fe269f
thick steel printing form, 267e268,
267fe268f
thin steel printing forms, 268, 268f
Printing industry
life cycle assessment (LCA),
401e403
opportunities and limitations, 403
structure, 401e403, 402f
toxic risk assessment. See Toxic risk
assessment
polymers and polymeric materials,
assessment of, 408e411
polymeric films, LCA of, 408e410
UV printing varnishes, risk
assessment, 410e411, 411f
sustainable development, 398e401,
406e408, 406f
complex/simple information, 401
ecological/economic methods,
399e401, 400f
energy, 406e407
hazardous waste, 408
materials, 407e408
model, 398e399, 399f
Printing machines, technology of,
273e277
accessories, 277
drive type, 274
inking system, 274e275
closed inkwell system, 274e275,
274fe275f
open inkwell system, 274, 274f
multicolor pad printing machines. See
Multicolor pad printing
machines
special machine designs. See Special
machine designs
Printing pad, characteristics of, 270e271
hardness, 271
shape, 270
size, 270e271
surface finish, 271
Printing presses, construction of,
187e189, 210e213, 223e226,
224f
sheet-fed offset printing presses,
224e226
feeding unit/transport of substrate and
delivery unit, 224
inking unit, 224e225
UV-curing systems, 225
waterless offset presses, 225e226
sheet-fed gravure printing presses,
5, 211
sheet-fed flexographic printing presses,
189
web-fed offset printing presses, 226
web-fed gravure printing presses, 212
web-fed flexographic printing presses,
187e189
with central impression cylinder (IC),
187e188
stack printing presses, 188
inline printing presses, 188
Propagation process, 22
Publication gravure presses, 211e212
PVC. See Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
R
Radiation degradation, 356e357
RAFT. See Reversible addition
fragmentation transfer (RAFT)
Random copolymers, 27
Reactive plasma species
free electrons and negatively charged
ions, 105
metastables and ozone, 105e106
neutral oxygen atoms, 105
polymer surface, fluxes/reactive
particles onto, 106, 106f, 107t
positively charged molecular and atomic
ions, 105
UV radiation, 104
Reversible addition fragmentation
transfer (RAFT), 27e28
Rheology
defined, 87
flow behavior and printability, 98
flow behavior, measurements of,
90e93
concentric cylinder geometry, rational
rheometers with, 92
cone to plate geometry, rational
rheometers with, 92e93
flow curve, 91e92, 92f
flow time, 91, 91t
low-viscosity printing inks, 93e97, 94t
flexographic printing inks, 93e96, 96f
gravure printing inks, 96
inkjet printing inks, 97
Newtonian fluids, 87e88, 88f, 88t
non-Newtonian fluids, 88e90, 89f
power-law model, 89
shear-thickening flow behavior, 89, 89f
shear-thinning flow behavior, 88, 89f
shear viscosity, 89, 90f
thixotropy, 89e90, 90f
viscoelasticity, 90, 91f
422 INDEXpaste inks
offset printing inks, 97
pad printing inks, 98
screen printing inks, 97e98
paste inks, tack of, 93
Rheology modifier, 61
Rigid packaging, 375e376
Roll-to-roll printing techniques, 67
Rotary gravure pad, 277, 277f
Rotary printing. See Round-to-round
method
Rotary screen printing, 259e260, 259f
drying equipment, 259e260
Rotogravure printing process, 41, 201
Round-to-round method, 249, 249f
R2P mode, 281e282, 281f
R2R mode, 281f, 282
S
Scanning electron microscope (SEM),
116e117
Scratch resistance, 351e352,
351fe352f
Screen printing
computer to screen systems, 257e258
on a curved surface, 249, 249f
emulsion, 254
frame, 251e252
metal screen printing frames,
251e252, 252f
wooden screen printing frames, 251,
251f
fundamentals, 247e249
hand-cut stencils, 255, 255f
imaging, 254e258, 254fe255f
industry, 260e261
mesh, 249e250
photostencils, 255e257, 256f
printing inks, 260
printing process, 258e260
flatbed screen printing, 258e259,
259f
polymer substrates and inks, 260
rotary screen printing, 259e260, 259f
screen printing industry, 260e261
squeegee, 252e254
types, 253e254, 253f
stencil/plate making, 248f, 249e254
screen printing emulsion, 254
screen printing frame. See Screen
printing frame
screen printing mesh, 249e250
screen printing squeegee. See Screen
printing squeegee
Secondary ion mass spectrometry
(SIMS), 130
Segmented polyurethane (SPU) film,
147e148
Semicrystalline polymers, 26
Sensor applications, 37
Shear forces, 97
Sheppers DigiLas laser engraving
system, 208
Silver-based inks, 51
Sleeve labels, 382
Small molecule surface modification
(SMSM), 47
SMSM. See Small molecule surface
modification (SMSM)
Solvents, 203e204
Special pad printing machine designs
circumferential pad, 277
rotary gravure pad, 277, 277f
total color pad, 276e277, 276f
Specialty applications, 37
biomedical applications, 37
electronic applications, 37
sensor applications, 37
Spectral Neugebauer model, 315, 315f
Spectrophotometricmeasurements,16,333
Specular gloss, 17
Squeegee, 247
SRGs. See Surface relief-gratings (SRGs)
Stable inkjet inks, 236
Stack printing presses, 188, 188f
Stainless steel, 302
Steel engraving printing, 5
Stencil/plate making, 248f, 249e254
screen printing emulsion, 254
screen printing frame. See Screen
printing frame
screen printing mesh, 249e250
screen printing squeegee. See Screen
printing squeegee
Super-half-autotypical cell, 209
Superwide-format printers, 49
Surface free energy, 13e15
Surface oxidation, 43e44
Surface relief-gratings (SRGs), 166f, 167
Surface tension, 12e13, 218
Surfactant molecules, 58
Synthetic waxes, 61
T
Taber device, 348, 348f
Tacticity, 25e26
Technical Association of the Pulp and
Paper Industry (TAPPI), 393
Temperature-sensitive substrates, 225
Tetrahydronaphthalene (THN), 238
Thermal degradation, 358
Thermally expandable microcapsules, 393
Thermal properties, 28e31
thermal expansion and thermal
conductivity, coefficient of,
29e31, 31t
thermal stability, 29
thermal transitions of, 28e29, 30t
Thermal transfer printing, 6
Thermoshrink films, 9
Thickeners, 61
Thick steel printing form, 267e268,
267fe268f
Thin steel printing forms, 268, 268f
3-D-bioprinting
basis of, 302e303
concepts, 302e303
Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) proteins,
305
importance, 302
step-by-step process, 303e304
3-D printing
applications, 299e300, 299f
bioprinting, 302e305, 303fe304f
components, 293, 294f
defined, 293e295
electrically conductive polymers,
302, 302f
fundamentals, 295e298
fused deposition manufacturing
(FDM), 295e296, 295fe296f
selective laser sintering (SLS),
298, 298f
stereo lithography (SLA), 296e298,
296fe297f
materials, 301e302
micro-channels, 293e294, 294f
process, 300e301, 300fe301f
Titanium, 302
Titanium indium zinc oxide (TIZO),
154
Toluene/tetrahydrofuran (THF), 238
Total color pad, 276e277, 276f
Toxic risk assessment
methods, 404e405
opportunities and limitations, 405
Traditional inks, 41e42
Typography, 5
U
Ultra-precision machining (UPM),
171e176
Unsaturated monomers, 22
UV-curable inkjet inks, 49
UV-curable flexographic inks, 191
UV-curable offset inks, 222e223
UV-curable pad printing inks, 273
UV-curable screen printing inks, 260
INDEX 423UV-curable polymer coating, 146e147
UV-curing systems, 225
V
Vinyl ether-oxirane, 49
Viscosity, 237
Visual assessment, 16
Volatile solvents, 96
W
Water-based flexography inks
technology, 50, 190
Water-based inks, 45, 65
Waterless offset presses, 225e226
Waterless offset printing, 218,
218f
Web-fed gravure printing, 212
Web-fed flexographic printing,
187e188
Web-fed offset printing, 226
Weissenberg effect, 90, 91f, 92
Wettability, 12e15, 129e133
WolfeWilburn pencil hardness tester,
351, 351f
Wooden screen printing frames, 251,
251f
X
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),
108e109
Xtreme engraving method, 207e208
p-xylene bis(N,N-diethyl
dithiocarbamate) (XDT), 148
Y
Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), 209
Yule-Nielsen model, 315, 315f
Z
Zinc oxide (ZnO), 152e153


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