كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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مدير المنتدى
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عدد المساهمات : 18864
التقييم : 35108
تاريخ التسجيل : 30/06/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook    كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook  Emptyالجمعة 19 مايو 2023, 11:59 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Adhesives Technology Handbook
Second Edition
Edited by
Sina Ebnesajjad

كتاب Adhesives Technology Handbook  A_t_h_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface and Acknowledgments ix
1 Introduction and Adhesion Theories 1
1.1 Definition of Adhesives and Adhesive Bonding 1
1.2 Functions of Adhesives 2
1.3 Classification of Adhesives 3
1.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Joining Using 3
Adhesives
1.4.1 Advantages 3
1.4.2 Disadvantages 4
1.5 Requirements of a Good Bond 4
1.5.1 Proper Choice of Adhesive 5
1.5.2 Good Joint Design 5
1.5.3 Cleanliness 5
1.5.4 Wetting 5
1.5.5 Adhesive Bonding Process 5
1.6 Introduction to Theories of Adhesion 6
1.6.1 Mechanical Theory 7
1.6.2 Electrostatic (Electronic) Theory 8
1.6.3 Diffusion Theory 8
1.6.4 Wetting Theory 9
1.6.5 Chemical Bonding 11
1.6.5.1 Acid–Base Theory 13
1.6.6 Weak Boundary Layer Theory 13
1.7 Definition of Failure Modes 14
1.8 Mechanisms of Bond Failure 17
2 Surface Tension and Its Measurement 21
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 What is an Interface? 21
2.3 Surface Tension 21
2.4 Surface Free Energy 23
2.4.1 Surface Energy of Solids 23
2.4.2 Work of Adhesion 24
2.5 Contact Angle (Young’s Equation) 25
vvi
2.6 Surface Tension Measurement 25
2.6.1 Measurement for Liquids: du Nouy Ring and
Wilhelmy Plate Methods 26
2.6.2 Measurement for Solids: Liquid Homolog
Series 29
2.7 Fractional Polarity 33
2.8 Critical Surface Tension 33
3 Material Surface Preparation Techniques 37
3.1 General Considerations 37
3.2 Surface Treatment of Metals 38
3.3 Cleaning (Degreasing) Metals 38
3.3.1 General Sequence of Cleaning 38
3.3.1.1 Solvent Cleaning 39
3.3.1.2 Chemical Treatment 40
3.3.1.3 Priming 40
3.4 Surface Treatment of Plastics 40
3.4.1 Effect of Treatment on Plastic Surfaces 40
3.4.2 Surface Cleaning 41
3.4.3 Mechanical Treatment (Surface Roughening) 41
3.4.4 Corona Treatment 41
3.4.5 Flame Treatment 42
3.4.6 Plasma Treatment 42
3.4.7 Chemical Etching 43
3.5 Methods for Evaluating the Effectiveness of
Surface Preparation 45
3.5.1 Dyne Liquids 45
3.5.2 Water-Break Test 45
3.5.3 Contact-Angle Test 46
4 Classifi cation of Adhesives and Compounds 47
4.1 Introduction 47
4.2 Adhesive Composition Formulation 47
4.2.1 Adhesive Base or Binder 47
4.2.2 Hardener (for Thermosetting Adhesives) 47
4.2.3 Solvents 48
4.2.4 Diluents 48
4.2.5 Fillers 48
4.2.6 Carriers or Reinforcements 48
4.2.7 Other Additives 48
ContentsContents
4.3 Classification of Adhesives 49
4.3.1 Source: Natural vs. Synthetic Adhesives 49
4.3.1.1 Natural Adhesives 49
4.3.1.2 Synthetic Adhesives 50
4.3.2 Classification by Chemical Composition 50
4.3.2.1 Thermosetting Adhesives 50
4.3.2.2 Thermoplastic Adhesives 51
4.3.2.3 Elastomeric Adhesives 51
4.3.2.4 Adhesive Alloys 52
4.3.3 Classification by Function 53
4.3.3.1 Structural Adhesives 53
4.3.3.2 Non-structural Adhesives 53
4.3.4 Classification by Physical Form 54
4.3.4.1 Liquid Adhesives 54
4.3.4.2 Paste Adhesives 54
4.3.4.3 Tape and Film Adhesives 55
4.3.4.4 Powder or Granule Adhesives 55
4.3.5 Classification by Mode of Application and Setting 55
4.3.6 Classification by Specific Adherends or
Applications 55
4.3.7 Society of Manufacturing Engineering
Classification 57
4.3.7.1 Chemically Reactive Types 57
4.3.7.2 Evaporative or Diffusion Adhesives 58
4.3.7.3 Hot-Melt Adhesives 58
4.3.7.4 Delayed-Tack Adhesives 59
4.3.7.5 Tape and Film Adhesives 59
4.3.7.6 Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives 59
4.3.8 Classification by Rayner 59
4.3.8.1 Thermosetting Resin Adhesives 59
4.3.8.2 Thermoplastic Resin Adhesives 60
4.3.8.3 Two-Polymer Adhesives (Alloys) 60
4.3.9 Additional Classification 61
5 Characteristics of Adhesive Materials 63
5.1 Acrylics 64
5.2 Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (CR-39) 65
5.3 Alloyed or Modified (Two-Polymer) Adhesives 65
5.4 Anaerobic Adhesives/Sealants 67
5.5 Aromatic Polymer Adhesives (Polyaromatics) 68
viiContents
5.6 Asphalt 69
5.7 Butyl Rubber Adhesives 69
5.8 Cellulose Ester Adhesives 73
5.9 Cellulose Ether Adhesives 73
5.10 Conductive Adhesives 73
5.10.1 Electrically Conductive Adhesives
(Chip-bonding Adhesives) 73
5.10.2 Thermally Conductive Adhesives 75
5.11 Cyanoacrylate Adhesives 75
5.12 Delayed-Tack Adhesives 77
5.13 Elastomeric Adhesives 79
5.14 Epoxy Adhesives 80
5.14.1 Hardening Agents for Epoxy Adhesives 82
5.15 Epoxy-Phenolic Adhesives 82
5.16 Epoxy-Polysulfide Adhesives 83
5.17 Film and Tape Adhesives (see also Section 5.3) 84
5.18 Furane Adhesives 87
5.19 Hot-Melt Adhesives 88
5.19.1 Foamable Hot-Melt Adhesives 89
5.19.2 Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA) and Polyolefin
Resins 90
5.19.3 Polyamide (Nylon) and Polyester Resins 90
5.19.4 Other Hot-Melt Adhesives 90
5.20 Inorganic Adhesives (Cements) 92
5.20.1 Soluble Silicates (Potassium and Sodium
Silicate) 92
5.20.2 Phosphate Cements 92
5.20.3 Basic Salts (Sorel Cements) 93
5.20.4 Litharge Cements 93
5.20.5 Sulfur Cements 93
5.20.6 Sauereisen’s Adhesives 94
5.21 Melamine-Formaldehyde Adhesives (Melamines) 94
5.22 Microencapsulated Adhesives 94
5.23 Natural Glues 95
5.23.1 Vegetable Glues 95
5.23.2 Glues of Animal Origin 97
5.24 Neoprene (Polychloroprene) Adhesives 100
5.25 Neoprene-Phenolic Adhesives 100
5.26 Nitrile-Epoxy (Elastomer-Epoxy) Adhesives 101
5.27 Nitrile-Phenolic Adhesives 101
5.28 Nitrile Rubber Adhesive 102
5.29 Nylon Adhesives 102
viiiContents
5.30 Nylon-Epoxy Adhesives 103
5.31 Phenolic Adhesives 103
5.31.1 Acid-Catalyzed Phenolics 104
5.31.2 Hot-Setting Phenolics 105
5.32 Phenoxy Adhesives 105
5.33 Polybenzimidazole Adhesives 106
5.34 Polyester Adhesives 108
5.35 Polyimide Adhesives 108
5.36 Polyisobutylene Adhesives 109
5.37 Polystyrene Adhesives 110
5.38 Polysulfides (Thiokols) 110
5.39 Polysulfone Adhesives 111
5.40 Polyurethane Adhesives 112
5.41 Polyvinyl Acetal Adhesives 113
5.42 Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesives 114
5.43 Polyvinyl Alcohol Adhesives 115
5.44 Polyvinyl Butyral Adhesives 115
5.45 Premixed Frozen Adhesives 115
5.46 Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives 115
5.47 Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Adhesives 117
5.48 Rubber-Based Adhesives 117
5.48.1 Silicone Adhesives 118
5.49 Solvent-Based Systems 121
5.50 Thermoplastic Resin Adhesives 122
5.51 Thermoplastic Rubber (for Use in Adhesives) 123
5.52 Thermosetting Resin Adhesives 123
5.53 UV-Curing Adhesives 124
5.54 Urea-Formaldehyde Adhesives (Ureas) 124
5.55 Vinyl-Epoxy Adhesives 125
5.56 Vinyl-Phenolic Adhesives 125
5.57 Polyvinyl Formal-Phenolics 126
5.58 Polyvinyl Butyral-Phenolics 126
5.59 Vinyl-Resin Adhesives 126
5.60 Water-Based Adhesives 127
5.61 UV-Curing Adhesives 129
6 Adhesives for Special Adherends 137
6.1 Introduction 137
6.2 Metals 137
6.2.1 Aluminum and Alloys 137
6.2.2 Beryllium 138
6.2.3 Brass and Bronze 138
ixx Contents
6.2.4 Cadmium (Plated on Steel) 138
6.2.5 Copper and Copper Alloys 138
6.2.6 Gold 139
6.2.7 Lead 139
6.2.8 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 139
6.2.9 Nickel and Nickel Alloys 139
6.2.10 Plated Metals 140
6.2.11 Silver 140
6.2.12 Steel, Mild, Carbon (Iron) 140
6.2.13 Stainless Steel 140
6.2.14 Tin 140
6.2.15 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 141
6.2.16 Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys 141
6.2.17 Uranium 141
6.2.18 Zinc and Zinc Alloys 142
6.3 Thermoplastics 142
6.3.1 Acetal Copolymer (Celcon®) 142
6.3.2 Acetal Homopolymer (Delrin®) 142
6.3.3 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) 143
6.3.4 Cellulosics 143
6.3.5 Ethylene-Chlorotrifluoroethylene (E-CTFE) 143
6.3.6 Fluorinated-Ethylene Propylene (FEP; Teflon®) 144
6.3.7 Fluoroplastics 144
6.3.8 Ionomer (Surlyn®) 144
6.3.9 Nylons (Polyamides) 144
6.3.10 Perfluoroalkoxy Resins (PFA) 144
6.3.11 Phenylene-Oxide-Based Resins (Noryl®) 144
6.3.12 Polyaryl Ether (Arylon T) 145
6.3.13 Polyaryl Sulfone (Astrel 360; 3M Co.) 145
6.3.14 Polycarbonate 145
6.3.15 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE; Aclar) 145
6.3.16 Polyester (Thermoplastic Polyester) 146
6.3.17 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) 146
6.3.18 Polyetherimide (Ultem®) 146
6.3.19 Polyethersulfone 146
6.3.20 Polyethylene 147
6.3.21 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) 147
6.3.22 Polymethylpentene (TPX) 147
6.3.23 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS; Ryton®) 147
6.3.24 Polypropylene 147
6.3.25 Polystyrene 148Contents xi
6.3.26 Polysulfone 148
6.3.27 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; Teflon®) 148
6.3.28 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 149
6.3.29 Polyvinyl Fluoride (PVF; Tedlar®) 149
6.3.30 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF; Kynar®) 149
6.3.31 Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN; Lustran®) 149
6.4 Thermosetting Plastics (Thermosets) 150
6.4.1 Diallyl Phthalate (DAP) 150
6.4.2 Epoxies 150
6.4.3 Melamine-Formaldehyde (Melamines) 150
6.4.4 Phenol-Formaldehyde (Phenolics) 150
6.4.5 Polyester (Thermosetting Polyester) 151
6.4.6 Polyimide 151
6.4.7 Polyurethane 151
6.4.8 Silicone Resins 151
6.4.9 Urea-Formaldehyde 151
6.5 Reinforced Plastics/Composites 151
6.6 Plastic Foams 152
6.7 Rubbers (Elastomers) 154
6.8 Ceramics and Glass 154
7 Joint Design 159
7.1 Basic Principles 159
7.2 Types of Stress 159
7.2.1 Compression 160
7.2.2 Shear 160
7.2.3 Tension 160
7.2.4 Peel 161
7.2.5 Cleavage 161
7.3 Methods of Improving Joint Efficiency 161
7.4 Joint Design Criteria 163
7.5 Typical Joint Designs 166
7.6 Peeling of Adhesive Joints 168
7.7 Stiffening Joints 168
7.8 Cylindrical Joints 169
7.9 Angle and Corner Joints 169
7.10 Joints for Plastics and Elastomers 171
7.10.1 Flexible Materials 171
7.10.2 Rigid Plastics 173
7.11 Stress Analysis of Adhesive Joints 173
7.11.1 Theoretical Analysis of Stresses and Strains 173
7.11.2 Experimental Analyses 174xii Contents
7.11.3 Failure Analyses 179
7.11.4 Methods of Stress Analysis 180
8 Adhesive Applications and Bonding Processes 183
8.1 Introduction 183
8.2 Adhesive Storage 183
8.3 Adhesive Preparation 183
8.3.1 Small-Portion Mixer Dispensers 185
8.4 Methods of Adhesive Application 185
8.4.1 Liquid Adhesives 185
8.4.1.1 Brushing 185
8.4.1.2 Flowing 186
8.4.1.3 Spraying 186
8.4.1.4 Roll Coating 186
8.4.1.5 Knife Coating 187
8.4.1.6 Silk Screening 187
8.4.1.7 Oil Can and Squeeze Bottle 187
8.4.1.8 Hand Dipping 187
8.4.2 Pastes 188
8.4.2.1 Spatulas, Knives, Trowels 188
8.4.3 Powders 188
8.4.4 Films 189
8.4.5 Hot Melts 189
8.4.5.1 Melt-Reservoir Systems (Tank-Type
Applications) 190
8.4.5.2 Progressive-Feed Systems 190
8.5 Joint-Assembly Methods 191
8.5.1 Wet Assembly 192
8.5.2 Pressure-Sensitive and Contact Bonding 192
8.5.3 Solvent Activation 192
8.5.4 Heat Activation 193
8.6 Curing 193
8.7 Bonding Equipment 194
8.7.1 Pressure Equipment 194
8.7.2 Heating Equipment 196
8.7.2.1 Direct Heating Curing 196
8.7.2.2 Radiation Curing 197
8.7.2.3 Electric Resistance Heaters 198
8.7.2.4 High-Frequency Dielectric
(Radio Frequency) Heating 199Contents xiii
8.7.2.5 Induction Heating 199
8.7.2.6 Low-Voltage Heating 200
8.7.3 Ultrasonic Activation 200
8.7.4 Adhesive Thickness 201
8.8 Weldbonding 201
8.8.1 Weldbond Configuration 202
8.8.1.1 Advantages and Limitations 204
8.8.2 Surface Preparation 204
8.8.3 Adhesive Choice 205
8.8.4 Tooling for Weldbonding 206
8.8.5 Weldbonding Techniques 206
9 Solvent Cementing of Plastics 209
9.1 Introduction 209
9.2 Background 209
9.2.1 Solubility Parameter 210
9.2.2 Factors Affecting Adhesive and Solvent Bonding 212
9.2.2.1 Solubility 212
9.2.2.2 Stress Cracking 213
9.3 Solvents for Specific Polymers 215
9.3.1 Acetal Copolymer 215
9.3.2 Acetal Homopolymer 215
9.3.3 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene 216
9.3.4 Cellulosics 216
9.3.4.1 Cellulose acetate 216
9.3.4.2 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate 216
9.3.4.3 Cellulose Nitrate 218
9.3.4.4 Cellulose propionate 218
9.3.4.5 Ethyl Cellulose 218
9.3.5 Nylons (Polyamides) 219
9.3.6 Polycarbonate 220
9.3.7 Polystyrene 220
9.3.8 Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN) 222
9.3.9 Polysulfone 222
9.3.10 Polybutylene Terephthalate (Valox®) 222
9.3.11 Polymethylmethacrylate 223
9.3.12 Phenylene-Oxide Based Resins (Noryl®) 223
9.3.13 Polyvinyl Chloride 225
9.3.14 Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) 227
9.3.15 Polyetherimide (Ultem®) 227xiv
10 1 Durability of Adhesive Bonds 23
10.1 Introduction 231
10.2 High Temperature 233
10.2.1 Epoxies 234
10.2.2 Modified Phenolics 235
10.2.2.1 Nitrile-Phenolic 235
10.2.2.2 Epoxy-Phenolic 235
10.2.3 Polysulfone 235
10.2.4 Silicones 236
10.2.5 Polyaromatics 236
10.2.5.1 Polyimides 237
10.2.5.2 Polybenzimidazoles (PBIs) 237
10.3 Low and Cryogenic Temperatures 237
10.4 Humidity and Water Immersion 240
10.4.1 Effects of Surface Preparation on Moisture
Exposure 241
10.4.2 Stressed Temperature/Humidity Test 242
10.4.3 Hot-Water-Soak Test 246
10.4.4 Fatigue-Life Data 248
10.5 Salt Water and Salt Spray 249
10.5.1 Seacoast Weathering Environment 249
10.5.2 Salt Water Immersion 251
10.5.2.1 Nitrile-Phenolic Adhesives 252
10.5.3 Boeing/Air Force Studies on Salt-Spray
Effects 252
10.6 Weathering 253
10.6.1 Simulated Weathering/Accelerated
Testing 253
10.6.2 Outdoor Weathering (Picatinny
Arsenal Studies) 254
10.7 Chemicals and Solvents 260
10.8 Vacuum 262
10.9 Radiation 264
10.10 Biological 269
10.11 Test Methods 270
11 3 Testing of Adhesive Bonds 27
11.1 Introduction 273
11.2 Tensile 273
11.3 Shear 274
11.4 Peel 275Contents xv
11.5 Cleavage 276
11.6 Creep 276
11.7 Fatigue 277
11.8 Impact 277
11.9 Durability 278
11.10 Compilation of Test Methods and Practices 278
11.10.1 Aging (Permanency) 278
11.10.2 Amylaceous Matter 278
11.10.3 Ash Content 279
11.10.4 Biodeterioration 279
11.10.5 Blocking Point 279
11.10.6 Characterization 279
11.10.7 Cleavage 279
11.10.8 Chemical Reagents 279
11.10.9 Cleavage/Peel Strength 279
11.10.10 Corrosivity 280
11.10.11 Creep 280
11.10.12 Cryogenic Temperatures 280
11.10.13 Density 280
11.10.14 Durability (Including Weathering) 280
11.10.15 Electrical Properties 280
11.10.16 Electrolytic Corrosion 281
11.10.17 Fatigue 281
11.10.18 Filler Content 281
11.10.19 Flexural Strength 281
11.10.20 Flow Properties 281
11.10.21 Fracture Strength in Cleavage 281
11.10.22 Gap-filling Adhesive Bonds 281
11.10.23 Grit Content 281
11.10.24 High-Temperature Effects 282
11.10.25 Hydrogen-Ion Concentration 282
11.10.26 Impact Strength 282
11.10.27 Low and Cryogenic Temperature 282
11.10.28 Non-volatile Content 282
11.10.29 Odor 282
11.10.30 Peel Strength (Stripping Strength) 282
11.10.31 Penetration 283
11.10.32 pH 283
11.10.33 Radiation Exposure (Including Light) 283
11.10.34 Rubber Cement Tests 283
11.10.35 Salt Spray (Fog) Testing 283xvi Contents
11.10.36 Shear Strength (Tensile-Shear Strength) 283
11.10.37 Specimen Preparation 284
11.10.38 Spot-Adhesion Test 285
11.10.39 Spread 285
11.10.40 Storage Life 285
11.10.41 Strength Development 285
11.10.42 Stress-Cracking Resistance 285
11.10.43 Stripping Strength 285
11.10.44 Surface Preparation 285
11.10.45 Tack 286
11.10.46 Tensile Strength 286
11.10.47 Torque Strength 286
11.10.48 Viscosity 286
11.10.49 Volume Resistivity 286
11.10.50 Water Absorptiveness (of Paper Labels) 287
11.10.51 Weathering 287
11.10.52 Wedge Test 287
11.10.53 Working Life 287
12 9 Quality Control 28
12.1 Introduction 289
12.2 Incoming Material Control 292
12.2.1 Adhesives 292
12.2.1.1 Adhesives: Mechanical Properties 293
12.2.1.2 Adhesives: Miscellaneous Properties
(Including Creep) 293
12.2.2 Surface Preparation Control 294
12.2.3 Process Control of Bonding 295
12.2.3.1 Prefit 295
12.2.3.2 Adhesive Application 295
12.2.3.3 Assembly 296
12.2.3.4 Curing 296
12.2.3.5 Standard Test Specimen 297
12.3 Final Inspection 297
12.4 Non-destructive Tests 297
12.4.1 Sonic Methods 297
12.4.1.1 Sonic Resonator 300
12.4.1.2 Eddy-Sonic Test Method 300
12.4.1.3 Pulsed Eddy-Sonic Test Method
(Shurtronic Harmonic Bond Tester) 300
12.4.1.4 Arvin Acoustic Analysis System 301Contents xvii
12.4.2 Ultrasonic Methods 301
12.4.2.1 Ultrasonic Pulse Echo Contact
Impedance Testing 302
12.4.2.2 Ultrasonic Pulse Echo Immersion 303
12.4.2.3 Ultrasonic Multiple Transducer 304
12.4.3 Sweep-Frequency Resonance Method 305
12.4.4 Liquid Crystals 306
12.4.5 Holography 306
12.4.6 Thermal Image Inspection 307
12.4.7 Thermal Infrared Inspection (TIRI) 308
12.4.8 Radiography 308
12.4.9 X-ray Techniques 308
12.4.10 Radioisotope Methods 308
12.4.11 Neutron Radiography 309
12.4.12 Penetrant Inspection 309
12.4.13 Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) 309
12.5 Weldbonding 310
13 Safety, Environmental, and Economic Aspects,
and Future Trends 313
13.1 Safety 313
13.2 Environmental Considerations 317
13.2.1 Environmental Trends 318
13.3 Economics 319
13.4 Future Trends 321
Glossary 323
Index 34
349
A
Abhesive, 323
ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene),
143
solvent cementing for, 216
Accuthane, 113
Acetal copolymer (Celcon®), 142
solvent cementing for, 215
Acetal homopolymer (Delrin®), 142–143
solvent cementing for, 215
Acid base theory, 11, 13
lewis definitions, 13
Acid-catalyzed phenolics, 104–105
Acrylics, 64–65, 124
components, 64
first-generation, 64
Adherence, 323
Adherend, 323
Adhesion, 323
mechanical, 323
specific, 323
Adhesive, 323–324
adhesive bonding. See Bonding,
adhesive
adhesive spread, 326
anaerobic, 324
assembly, 324
bonded, 324
cold-setting, 324
contact, 324
dispersion (or emulsion), 324
encapsulated, 324
film, 324fi
lm-supported, 325
film-unsupported, 325
foamed, 325
gap-filling, 325
heat-activated, 325
heat-sealing, 325
hot setting, 325
hot-melt, 325
intermediate-temperature setting, 325
latex, 325
multiple-layer, 325–326
one-component, 326
pressure-sensitive, 326
room-temperature setting, 326
separate-application, 326
solvent, 326
solvent-activated, 326
structural, 326–327
two-component, 327
warm-setting, 327
Aging (permanency) tests, 278
Aliphatic polyamine hardeners, 82
Alloyed/modified (two-polymer)
adhesives, 65–67
Alloys, adhesive, 52–53
Allyl diglycol carbonate, 65
Aluminum, 74
and alloys, adhesives for, 137
Amylaceous matter, 278, 327
Anaerobic adhesives/sealants, 67–68
application, 67
Angle and corner joints, 169–171
Anhydride hardeners, 82
Animal glues, 97–100
bone glues, 98
fi sh glues, 99
hide glues, 98
processing conditions for, 98
shellacs, 99–100
Anodize, 327
Application of adhesives, 183–207.
See also Methods of adhesive
application
Aromatic polyamine hardeners, 82
Aromatic polymer adhesives
(polyaromatics), 68–69
Artifi cial latex, 129
Arvin acoustic analysis system, 301
Ash content tests, 279
Asphalt, 69
Assembly (for adhesive), 327
A-stage, 323
ASTM C813–90 (1994)e 1 technique, 28
Index350 INDEX
ASTM D5725–99 technique, 28
ASTM D5946–96 technique, 28
ASTM D724–99 technique, 28
Autoclave bonding, 195, 327
B
Backing, 327
Bag molding (blanket molding), 327
Bag, vacuum, 327
Bell peel tests, 276
Beryllium, adhesives for, 138
Beveled lap joints, 167
Binders, 47, 328
Biodeterioration tests, 279
Biological organisms, 269–270
Bite, 328
Blister, 328
Blocking, 328
blocked-curing agent, 328
blocking point tests, 279
Blood albumen (blood glues), 98
Blushing, 328
Body, 328
Bond, 328
strength, 328
structural, 328
Bonding, adhesive, 183–207
bonding equipment, 194–201
heating equipment, 196–200.
See also individual entry
pressure equipment, 194–196
ultrasonic activation, 200–201
defi nition of, 1–2
good bond, basic requirements, 4–6
choice of adhesive, 5
cleanliness, 5
joint design, 5
wetting, 5
process of, 5–6
types of, 1. See also Non-structural
adhesives; Structural adhesives
weldbonding, 201–207. See also
individual entry
Bondline, 328
Bone glues, 98
Boron trifl uoride hardeners, 82
Brass, adhesives for, 138
Bronze, adhesives for, 138
Brushing, 185
B-stage, 327
Bubble pressure method, 26
Bulk methods, 40
Butt joints, 166
Butyl rubber adhesives, 69–72
C
CAB (Cellulose Acetate Butyrate)
solvent cementing for, 216–217
CAB (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate
butyrate), 143
Cadmium (Plated on Steel), adhesives
for, 138
Carriers/reinforcements, 48
Casein glue, 97
Catalyst, 329
Cellulose acetate, solvent cementing
for, 216
Cellulose ester adhesives, 73
Cellulose ether adhesives, 73
Cellulose nitrate, 143
solvent cementing for, 218
Cellulose propionate, 143
solvent cementing for, 218
Cellulosics, 143
solvent cementing for, 216–219
Cement, 329
Ceramics, 154–156
adhesive bonding for, 155–156
Characteristics of adhesives, 63–130
characterization tests, 279
Chemical bonding, adhesion, 11–13.
See also Interactions
acid base theory, 13
weak boundary layer theory, 13–14
Chemical etching, 43–45
Chemical modifi cation techniques, 40
Chemical reagents tests, 279
Chemical treatment, 38, 40
Chemicals and solvents, 260–262
Chip-bonding adhesives, 73–75
Classifi cation of adhesives, 3, 47–61
by activation and cure requirements,
56–57
catalyst, 56
heat, 56
pressure, 56INDEX 351
radiation, 57
reactivation, 57
time, 56
vulcanizing, 56
adhesives/sealants, 61
anaerobic adhesives, 61
by chemical composition, 50–53
adhesive alloys, 52–53
elastomeric adhesives, 51–52
one-part systems, 50
thermoplastic adhesives, 51
thermosetting adhesives, 50–51
two-part systems, 50
conductive adhesives, 61
elastomeric adhesives, 61
by end use, 55
fast-setting adhesives, 61
by function, 53–54
non-structural adhesives, 53–54
structural adhesives, 53
microencapsulated adhesives, 61
by mode of application and
setting, 55
by physical form, 54–55
liquid adhesives, 54
paste adhesives, 54
powder or granule adhesives, 55
tape and fi lm adhesives, 55
pre-mixed frozen adhesives, 61
by Rayner, 59–60
Society of Manufacturing Engineering
classification, 57–59
by specifi c adherends or applications,
55–57
by source, 49–50
natural adhesives, 49–50
synthetic adhesives, 50
Cleaning (degreasing) metals for
adhesion, 38–40
general sequence, 38–40
chemical treatment, 38, 40
priming, 39–40
solvent cleaning, 38
Cleavage, 161
cleavage/peel strength tests, 279
tests, 276
Cohesion, 329
Cohesive energy density CED, 8
Cohesive failure, 14
in the adherend, 15
in the adhesive layer, 15
ESCA in, 15–16
Cold pressing, 329
Collagen, 329
Colophony, 329
Composition formulation, adhesive,
47–49
base/binder, 47
carriers/reinforcements, 48
diluents, 48
fillers, 48
hardener, 47
solvents, 48
Compression, 160
compression shear tests, 274
Condensation, 329
Conductive adhesives, 73–75
Consistency, 330
Contact angle (Young’s equation), 25, 330
Contact bonding technique, 129, 330
Contact-angle test, 46
Copolymer, 330
Copper and copper alloys, 74
adhesives for, 138
Core, 330
Corona Treatment, 41–42
Corrosion, 330
corrosivity tests, 280
Cottoning, 330
Covalent bonds, 11
Coverage, 330
CPVC, solvent cementing for, 227
Crazing, 330
Creep tests, 276–277, 280, 330
Critical surface tension, 30, 33–35
Cross-linking, 330
Cryogenic adhesives, 237–240
Cryogenic temperatures tests, 280
C-stage, 328–329
Cure, 193–194, 330
cure (curing) temperature, 331
cure (curing) time, 331
cured loctite, 380
curing agent (hardener), 331
cyanoacrylate adhesive, 78
radiation curing, 197–198352 INDEX
Cyanoacrylate adhesives, 75–77
advantages, 76–77
polymerization of, 76
Cylindrical joints, 169
D
DAP (Diallyl Phthalate), 150
Degrease, 331
Delamination, 331
Delayed-tack adhesives, 59, 77–79
Density tests, 280
Development, adhesives, 130–131
Dextrins, 96, 331
DfE (Design for Environment), 317
Dicyandiamide (DICY), 138
Dicyclohexyl phosphate (DCHP), 106
Dielectric curing, 331
Diffusion theory of adhesion, 8–9
Diluents, 48, 331
reactive, 331
Dipole interactions, 11
dipole–dipole forces, 12
Dipping process, 187–188
Direct heating curing, 196–197
Dispersion component of surface
tension, 33
Doctor bar or blade, 332
Doctor roll, 332
Double lap joints, 167
Double spread, 332
Drop volume method, 26
Du Nouy ring method, 26–29
Dual element transducer, 305
Durability of adhesive bonds, 231–270
biological organisms, 269–270
chemicals and solvents, 260–262
fatigue-life data, 248–249
high temperature tolerance, 233–237.
See also individual entry
hot-water-soak test, 246–247
humidity and water immersion, 240–249
low and cryogenic temperatures,
237–240
nitrile-phenolic adhesives, 252
radiation, 264–269
salt spray, 249–253
salt water immersion, 251–252
salt water, 249–253
seacoast weathering environment,
249–251
test methods, 270, 278
vacuum, 262–264
weathering, 253–260. See also
individual entry
Dynamic surface tension measurement
methods, 25–26
Dynamic Wilhelmy method, 27
Dyne liquids, 45
E
Economic aspects, 319–320
E-CTFE (EthyleneChlorotrifluoroethylene), 143
Eddy-sonic test method, 300
Elasticity, modulus of, 332
Elastomer, 332
elastomer-epoxies, 66
Elastomeric adhesives, 51–52, 79–80
joints for, 171–173
properties, 70–72
Electric resistance heaters, 198–199
Electrical properties tests, 280
Electrically conductive adhesives
(chip-bonding adhesives), 73–75
Electrolytic corrosion tests, 281
Electrostatic (electronic) theory of
adhesion, 8
Emulsion, 332
Environmental considerations, 317–321
environmental trends, 318
EPA (Environmental Protection
Agency), 317
Epoxies, 66, 150, 153, 266
high temperature tolerance, 234–235
Epoxy adhesives, 80–82, 124–125
epoxy-phenolic adhesives, 82–83
epoxy-polysulfi de adhesives, 83–84
fi lm adhesives, 84–87
hardeners for, 82
aliphatic polyamine hardeners, 82
anhydride hardeners, 82
aromatic polyamine hardeners, 82
boron trifl uoride hardeners, 82
fatty polyamides, 82
one-part epoxy adhesives, 81
tape adhesives, 84–87INDEX 353
Epoxy polysulfides, 66
Epoxy-nylon adhesives, 240
Epoxy-phenolics, 66
high temperature tolerance, 235
ESCA (electron spectroscopy for
chemical analysis), 15–16
Ethyl cellulose, 143
solvent cementing for, 218–219
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), 90
Evaporative or diffusion adhesives, 58
Extender, 332
F
Failure modes, adhesion. See also
Mechanisms of bond failure
adhesive failure, 14
cohesive failure, 14
in the adhesive layer, 15
in the adherend, 15
defi nition of, 14–16
locus of failure, 14
Failure, adherend, 332
Failure, adhesive, 332
Failure, cohesive, 332
Failure, contact, 333
Failure, wood, 333
Fatigue, 333
fatigue-life data, 248–249
tests, 277, 281
Fatty polyamides, 82
Faying surface, 333
Feathering, 333
FEP (Fluorinated-Ethylene Propylene)
(Teflon®), 144
Fillers, 48, 333
fi ller content tests, 281
fi ller sheet, 333
Fillet, 333
Film adhesives, 55, 84–87
application, 189
handling and reliability advantages
of, 85
supported, 84
unsupported, 84
Fish glues, 99
Flame treatment, 42
Flexible materials
joints for, 171–173
Flexural strength tests, 281
Flow/Flowing, 186, 333
fl ow properties tests, 281
Fluoroplastics, 144
Foamable hot-melt adhesives, 89
Fokker bond tester, 306
Fractional polarity, 33
Fracture strength in cleavage tests, 281
Functions of adhesives, 2–3
primary function, 2
Furane adhesives, 87–88
Future trends, 321
globalization, 321
government regulations, 321
technological maturity, 321
G
Gap-fi lling adhesive bonds tests, 281
Gel/Gelation, 333
Glass, 154–156
Glues, 95–100, 333–334. See also
Natural glues
glue line (bond line), 334
Gold, 74
adhesives for, 139
Graphite-fabric technique, 199
Green strength (grab), 334
Grit content tests, 281
Gum, 334
H
Hand dipping, 187–188
Hardeners, 47, 334
for epoxy adhesives, 82
HCS (Hazard Communication Standard),
313–314
Heat activation, 193
Heat reactivation technique, 130, 334
Heat seal, 334
Heating equipment, 196–200
direct heating curing, 196–197
hot presses or platens, 197
liquid baths, 196
oven heating, 196
electric resistance heaters, 198–199
high-frequency dielectric (radio
frequency) heating, 199
induction heating, 199–200354 INDEX
low-voltage heating, 200
radiation curing, 197–198
Heteropolymerization, 334
Hide glues, 98–99
High-frequency dielectric (radio
frequency) heating, 199
High temperature tolerance, 233–237
epoxies, 234–235
epoxy-phenolics, 235
modifi ed phenolics, 235
nitrile-phenolics, 235
polyaromatics, 236–237
polybenzimidazoles (PBIs), 237
polyimides, 237
polysulfones, 235–236
silicones, 236
tests, 282
HMIS (Hazardous Material Identification
System), 314–315
Holography, 306–307
Honeycomb core, 334
Hot presses, 197
Hot melt adhesives, 58, 88–92
application, 189–191
melt-reservoir system, 189–190
pressure feed systems, 189
progressive-feed systems, 190–191
EVA, 90
foamable hot-melt adhesives, 89
polyamide (nylon) and polyester
resins, 90
polyolefi n resins, 90
Hot setting phenolics, 105
Hot-water-soak test, 246–247
Humidity, adhesive strength and, 240–249
Hydrogen bonds, 11–12
Hydrogen-ion concentration tests, 282
I
Impact
shock, 334
strength tests, 282
tests, 277–278
Incoming material control, 292–297
adhesives, 292–293
process control of bonding, 295–297
adhesive application, 295
assembly, 295–296
cure, 295–296
prefit, 295
standard test specimen, 297
surface preparation control, 294–295
Induction heating, 199–200
Inhibitor, 334
Inorganic adhesives (cements), 92–94
basic salts (sorel cements), 93
litharge cements, 93
Sauereisen’s adhesives, 94
soluble silicates (potassium and sodium
silicate), 92
sulfur cements, 93–94
Interactions during chemical bonding, 11
acid base interactions, 11
covalent bonds, 11
dipole (polar molecule), 11
dipole dipole forces, 12
hydrogen bonds, 11–12
intermolecular, 11
Lifshitz van der Waals forces, 11
London dispersion forces, 12
polarizability, 12
types of, 11
Interface, 21, 334
Intermolecular interactions, 11
Ionomer (Surlyn®), 144
J
Jig. A, 334
Joints/Joint design, 159–181, 335. See
also Stress analysis of adhesive joints
in adhesive bonding fl at adherends, 162
angle and corner joints, 169–171
beveled lap joints, 167
butt joints, 166, 335
cylindrical joints, 169
design criteria, 163–166
double lap joints, 167
for elastomers, 171–173
joint-assembly methods, 191–193
heat activation, 193
pressure-sensitive and contact
bonding, 192
solvent activation, 192–193
wet assembly, 192
joint effi ciency, improving methods,
161–163INDEX 355
lap joints, 166, 335
peeling of, 168
for plastics, 171–173
principles, 159
for rigid plastics, 173
for rubber under stress, 172
scarf, 335
single lap joint, 163
starved, 335
stiffening joints, 168–169
straight joints for solid bars, 170
straight joints for tubular forms, 170
strap joints, 167
stresses in, 159–161
using adhesives, 3–4
advantages, 3–4
disadvantages, 4
K
Knife coating, 187
L
L/t curve, 164–165
Laminate, 335
cross, 335
parallel, 335
Lap joints, 166
Latexes, water-based adhesive, 128, 335
artificial, 129
bonding techniques for, 129
contact bonding, 129
heat reactivation, 130
open-time bonding, 129
solvent reactivation, 129
wet bonding, 129
natural, 129
synthetic, 129
Lead, adhesives for, 139
Legging, 335
Lifshitz van der Waals forces, 11
Liquid adhesives, 54, 185–188.
See also under Methods of adhesive
application
Liquid baths, 196
Liquid homolog method (Zisman)
method, 27
Liquid homolog series, 29–33
Litharge cements, 93
Locus of failure, 14
London dispersion forces, 12
Low and cryogenic temperature tests, 282
Low-voltage heating, 200
M
Magnesium and magnesium alloys,
adhesives for, 139
Mastic, 335–336
Material surface preparation techniques,
37–46
cleaning (degreasing) metals, 38–40
evaluating methods, 45–46
contact-angle test, 46
dyne liquids, 45
water-break test, 45
surface treatment, 37
of metals, 38–40
of plastics, 40–45. See also Plastics
priming, 38
Matrix, 336
Measurement techniques of surface
tension, 25–33
bubble pressure, 26
drop volume, 26
du Nouy ring, 26–29
dynamic Wilhelmy, 27
dynamic, 25–26
liquid homolog method (Zisman), 27
for liquids, 26
pendent drop, 26
powder contact angle, 27
sessile drop, 27
single fiber Wilhelmy, 27
for solids, 27
spinning drop, 26
standard contact angle measurement
methods, 28
static, 25–26
Wilhelmy plate, 26–29
Mechanical theory of adhesion, 7–8
Mechanical treatment, 41
Mechanisms of bond failure, 17–18
fracture, 17
internal stresses, 17
joint failure, 17
Melamine-formaldehyde adhesives
(Melamines), 94, 138, 150356 INDEX
Melt-reservoir systems (tank-type
applications), 189–190
Metals, adhesives for, 137–142
Methods of adhesive application, 185–191
liquid adhesives, 185–188
brushing, 185
films, 189fl
owing, 186
hand dipping, 187–188
hot melts, 189–191
knife coating, 187
knives, 188
oil can and squeeze bottle, 187
pastes, 188
powders, 188–189
roll coating, 186–187
silk screening, 187
spatulas, 188
spraying, 186–187
trowels, 188
Microencapsulated adhesives, 94–95
Modifi ed adhesives, 65–67
Modifi ed nylons, 102
Modifier, 336
Modulus, 336
Moisture, adhesive strength and, 240
surface preparation effects on, 241–242
Monomer, 336
MSDS (material safety data sheet),
313, 316
Mucilage, 336
Multiple-part adhesives, 184
N
Natural adhesives, 49–50
Natural glues, 95–100
blood albumen (blood glues), 98
casein glue, 97
dextrins, 96
glues of animal origin, 97–100
soybean glue (nitrogenous protein
soybean), 96
starch adhesives, 95
vegetable glues, 95–97
Natural latex, 129
Natural rubber (polyisoprene), 70
Neoprene (polychloroprene) adhesives,
72, 79, 100, 154
Neoprene-phenolics, 66, 100–101
Neutron radiography, 309
Newtonian fluid, 336
NFPA (National Fire Protection
Association), 314
Nickel and nickel alloys, 74
adhesives for, 139–140
Nitrile rubber adhesives, 71, 102, 154
Nitrile-epoxy (elastomer-epoxy)
adhesives, 101
Nitrile-phenolic adhesives, 66–67,
101–102, 240, 252
high temperature tolerance, 235
Non-destructive tests, 297–310
physical visual tests, 298
sonic methods, 297–301
tap test, 297
ultrasonic methods, 301–310. See also
individual entry
visual inspection, 297
Non-structural adhesives, 1, 53–54
Non-volatile content tests, 282
Novalak, 336
Nylon adhesives, 102–103
Nylon-epoxies, 66–67, 103
Nylons (Polyamides), 144
solvent cementing for, 219
O
Odor tests, 282
One-part adhesives, 184
Open-time bonding technique, 129, 336
Organosilanes, 12
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
Administration), 313
Oven heating, 196
P
Paste adhesives, 54
Paste, n, 336
PBIs (Polybenzimidazoles),
high temperature tolerance, 237
PCTFE (Polychlorotrifluoroethylene)
(Aclar), 145–146
PEEK (Polyetheretherketone), 146
Peel test, 161, 275–276
strength tests, 282–283
Peeling of Adhesive Joints, 168INDEX 357
designs to minimize, 168
bead end, 168
increase stiffness, 168
increase width, 168
peel, 168
rivet, 168
Pendent drop method, 26
Penetrant Inspection, 309
Penetration, 336
tests, 283
Permanence, 336
PFA (Perfl uoroalkoxy) resins, 144
Phased array transducer, 305
Phenol etch, 44
Phenol-formaldehyde (Phenolics), 103,
150, 266
Phenolic adhesives, 103–105, 153
acid-catalyzed phenolics, 104–105
hot-setting phenolics, 105
phenoxy adhesives, 105–106
Phenolic resins, 66
Phenoxy adhesives, 105–106
Phenylene oxide-based resins (Noryl®),
144–145, 152
solvent cementing for, 223–225
Phosphate cements, 92–93
Photographing, 336
Physical surface treatment methods, 40
Physical visual tests, 298
Picatinny arsenal studies, 254–260
Pick-up roll, 336
Plasma treatment, 42–43
Plastic foams, 152–153
contact-bond, 152
phenylene oxide-based resins
(Noryl®), 152
polycarbonate, 153
polyethylene-nitrile rubber, 152
polystyrene, 152
pressure-sensitive adhesives, 152
PVC, 153
solvent cements, 152
water-based adhesives, 152
Plasticity, 337
Plasticizer, 337
Plastics. See also Solvent cementing of
plastics
joints for, 171–173
surface treatment of, 40–45
bulk methods, 40
chemical etching, 43–45
chemical modifi cation techniques, 40
corona treatment, 41–42
effect of, 40–41
fl ame treatment, 42
mechanical treatment, 41
phenol, 44
physical surface treatment
methods, 40
plasma treatment, 42–43
sanitizing, 44
sodium etch, 44
sodium hydroxide, 44
sodium hypochlorite, 44
sulfuric acid dichromate etch, 44
surface cleaning, 41
Plated metals, adhesives for, 140
PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylate), 147
Polar component of surface tension, 33
Polarizability, 12
Polyamide (nylon) and polyester
resins, 90
Polyaromatics, 68–69
high temperature tolerance, 236–237
Polyaryl ether (Arylon T), 145
Polyaryl sulfone (Astrel 360; 3M Co.), 145
Polybenzimidazole (PBIs) adhesives, 68,
106–107
Polybutylene terephthalate (Valox®),
solvent cementing for, 222
Polycarbonate, 145, 153
solvent cementing for, 220
Polycondensation, 337
Polyester (Thermoplastic Polyester)
adhesives, 108, 146, 151
Polyetherimide (Ultem®), 146
solvent cementing for, 227
Polyethersulfone, 146–147
Polyethylene, 14, 147
Polyethylene-nitrile rubber, 152
Polyimide (PI) adhesives, 68, 108–109,
151, 267
high temperature tolerance, 237
Polyisobutylene adhesives, 70, 109
Polymer, 337
Polymerization, 337358 INDEX
Polymethylmethacrylate, solvent
cementing for, 223
Polymethylpentene (TPX), 147
Polyolefi n resins, 90
Polypropylene, 147
Polystyrene adhesives, 110, 148, 152
solvent cementing for, 220–222
Polysulfi de (Thiokols), 72, 110–111
Polysulfone adhesives, 111–112, 148, 266
high temperature tolerance, 235–236
solvent cementing for, 222
Polyurethane adhesives, 71, 112–113,
151, 153, 267
Polyvinyl acetal adhesives, 113–114
Polyvinyl alcohol adhesives, 115
Polyvinyl butyral adhesives, 115, 127
Polyvinyl formal-phenolics, 127
Porosity, 337
Postcure, 337
Post-vulcanization bonding, 337
Pot life (working life), 337
Potassium silicate, 92
Powder adhesives, application, 188–189
Powder contact angle method, 27
Powder/granule adhesives, 55
PPE (Personal Protective Equipment),
314–315
PPS (PolyPhenylene Sulfide) (Ryton®), 147
Prebond treatment, 337
Premixed frozen adhesives, 115
Preparation, adhesives, 183–185
small-portion mixer dispensers, 185
Pressure equipment, 194–196
autoclave bonding, 195
pneumatic and hydraulic presses, 195
screw-activated devices, 194
Pressurefeed systems, 189
Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs),
59–60, 79, 115–117, 152, 338
and contact bonding, 192
Primer/Priming, 38–40, 338
Progressive-feed systems, 190–191
PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene)
(Teflon®), 148
Pulse echo immersion, 303–304
Pulsed eddy-sonic test method, 300
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), 149, 153
cementing, 225–227
PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride)
(Kynar®), 149
PVF (Polyvinyl Fluoride) (Tedlar®), 149
Q
QPL, 338
Qualifi cation test, 338
Quality control, 289–311. See also
Non-destructive tests
fi nal inspection, 297
fl ow chart of, 289
incoming material control, 292–297.
See also individual entry
weldbonding, 310–311
R
Radiation
affecting adhesive joints, 264–269
epoxies, 266
phenol-formaldehyde, 266
PIs, 267
polysulfones, 266
polyurethanes, 267
unsaturated polyesters, 267
exposure tests, 283
radiation curing, 197–198
UV-acrylics cure, 197
Radiographic inspection techniques, 308
Radioisotope methods, 308–309
Rayner classifi cation of adhesives, 59–60
thermoplastic resin adhesives, 60
thermosetting resin adhesives, 59
two-polymer adhesives, 60
Reclaimed rubber, 70
Reinforced plastics/composites,
151–152
Release agent, 338
Release paper, 338
Resin, 338
Resinoid, 338
Resite, 338
Resitol, 338
Resol, 338
Resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives, 117
Retrogradation, 338
Rigid plastics, joints for, 173
Roll coating, 186–187
Rosin, 339INDEX 359
RTV (Room-temperature-vulcanizing)
silicones, 237–238
Rubber cement tests, 283
Rubber phenolics (elastomer-phenolics),
240
Rubbers (Elastomers), 154
rubber-based adhesives, 117–120
silicone adhesives, 118–120
rubber under stress
joints for, 172
S
Safety aspects, 313–317
Sagging, 339
Salt spray (fog) testing, 249–253, 283
Boeing/air force studies on, 252–253
Salt water immersion, 249–253
SAM (Scanning Acoustic Microscopy),
309–310
SAN (Styrene-Acrylonitrile)
(Lustran®), 149
solvent cementing for, 222
Sandwich panel, 339
Sanitizing, 44
Sauereisen’s adhesives, 94
Seacoast weathering environment,
249–251
Sealant, 339
Self-vulcanizing, adj, 339
Service conditions, 339
Sessile drop method, 27
Set, 339
Shear, 160
strength tests, 283–284
tensile, 339
tests, 274–275
Shelf life, 339
Shellacs, 99–100
Shortness, 339
Shrinkage, 339
Shurtronic harmonic bond tester, 300
Silicones/Silicone adhesives, 72,
118–120, 151, 153
acid-curing type, 120
applications, 118
high temperature tolerance, 236
non-acid-curing type, 120
one-part silicone systems, 120
peel and lap-shear strength of, 119
two-part silicone adhesive/sealants, 120
Silk screening, 187
Silver, 74
adhesives for, 140
Single fi ber Wilhelmy method, 27
Single lap joint, 163
Single-spread, 339
Sizing, 339–340
Skinning, 340
Slip, 340
slip sheet interliner, 340
slippage, 340
Society of Manufacturing Engineering
classification, 57–59
chemically reactive types, 57–58
delayed-tack adhesives, 59
evaporative or diffusion adhesives, 58
hot-melt adhesives, 58
pressure-sensitive adhesives, 59–60
tape and fi lm adhesives, 59
Sodium etch, 44
Sodium hydroxide etch, 44
Sodium hypochlorite etch, 44
Sodium silicate, 92
Softener, 340
Solid bars, straight joints for, 170
Solids content, 340
Soluble silicates (potassium and sodium
silicate), 92
Solutions, water-based adhesive, 128
Solvent activation, 192–193
Solvent bonding, 340
Solvent cementing of plastics,
209–228, 340
ABS, 216
acetal copolymer, 215
acetal homopolymer, 215
cellulose acetate butyrate, 216–217
cellulose acetate, 216
cellulose nitrate, 218
cellulose propionate, 218
cellulosics, 216–219
CPVC, 227
ethyl cellulose, 218–219
factors affecting, 212–215
solubility, 212–213
stress cracking, 213–215360 INDEX
Solvent cementing of plastics (contd.)
Hildebrand solubility parameters for
solvents, 211
nylons (polyamides), 219
phenylene-oxide based resins (Noryl®),
223–225
polybutylene terephthalate
(Valox®), 222
polycarbonate, 220
polyetherimide (Ultem®), 227
polymethylmethacrylate, 223
polystyrene, 220–222
polysulfone, 222
PVC, 225–227
solubility parameter, 210–212
Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN), 222
Solvent cleaning, 38–39
solvent wipe, immersion or spray, 39
ultrasonic cleaning with liquid rinse, 39
ultrasonic vapor degreasing, 39
vapor degreasing, 39
Solvent joint, 340
Solvent reactivation technique, 129, 340
Solvent welding (solvent bonding or
solvent cementing), 341
Solvent wipe, immersion or spray, 39
Solvent-based adhesives, 58, 121–122
Solvents, 48
Sonic methods, 297–301
arvin acoustic analysis system, 301
eddy-sonic test method, 300
pulsed eddy-sonic test method
(shurtronic harmonic bond
tester), 300
sonic resonator, 300
Soybean glue (nitrogenous protein
soybean), 96
Special adherends, adhesives for, 137–156
Spinning drop method, 26
Spot-adhesion test, 285
Spot-weld adhesive bonding. See Weldbonding
Spraying, 186–187
Spread (adhesive spread), 341
Spread tests, 285
Squeeze-out, 341
Stabilizer, 341
Stainless steel, adhesives for, 140
Standard contact angle measurement
methods, 28
ASTM C813–90 (1994)e 1, 28
ASTM D5725–99, 28
ASTM D5946–96, 28
ASTM D724–99, 28
TAPPI T458, 28
Starch adhesives, 95
Static surface tension measurement
methods, 25–26
Steel, adhesives for, 140
Stiffening joints, 168–169
Storage life, 341
tests, 285
Storage, adhesives, 183
Strap joints, 167
Strength development tests, 285
Strength, cleavage, 341
Strength, dry, 341
Strength, fatigue, 341
Strength, impact, 342
Strength, longitudinal shear (lap-joint
strength), 342
Strength, peel, 342
Strength, shear, 342
Strength, tensile, 342
Strength, wet, 342
Stress analysis of adhesive joints, 173–181
experimental analyses, 174–179
failure analyses, 179–180
shear stress distribution, 176–178
theoretical analysis, 173–174
theory of Goland and Reissner, 180
theory of volkersen, 180
Stress cracking
solvent cementing of plastics, 213–215
stress-cracking resistance tests, 285
Stresses in adhesive joints
types of, 159–161
cleavage, 161
compression, 160
peel, 161
shear, 160
tension, 160
Stringiness, 342
Stripping strength tests, 285
Structural adhesives, 1, 53, 342
Structural bond, 342INDEX 361
Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), 71
Substrate, 343
Sulfur cements, 93–94
Sulfuric acid dichromate etch, 44
Surface energy, 21, 23–24
of solids, 23–24
work of adhesion, 24
Surface preparation for adhesion, 37–46,
343. See also Material surface
preparation techniques
Surface tension
critical surface tension, 30
critical surface tension, 33–35
definition, 22
dispersion component, 33
fractional polarity, 33
measurement, 25–33. See also
Measurement techniques of
surface tension
of polymers, components, 22
dispersion, 22
polar, 22
polar component, 33
surface free energy, 23–24
Surface treatment
of metals, 38–40
priming, 38
of plastics, 40–45
Sweep-frequency resonance method,
305–306
Syneresis, 343
Synthetic adhesives, 50
Synthetic latex, 129
T
Tack, 343
aggressive, 343
dry, 343
tackifier, 343
tack range (tack stage), 343
tests, 286
Tap test, 297
Tape adhesives, 55, 59, 84–87
handling and reliability advantages
of, 85
TAPPI T458 technique, 28
Teeth, 343
Telegraphing, 344
Temperature
curing, 344
drying, 344
maturing, 344
setting, 344
Tensile
strength tests, 286
tests, 273–274
Tension, 160
Testing of adhesive bonds, 273–287
aging (permanency), 278
amylaceous matter, 278
ash content, 279
bell peel test, 276
biodeterioration, 279
blocking point, 279
characterization, 279
chemical reagents, 279
cleavage test, 276
cleavage/peel strength, 279
corrosivity, 280
creep, 276–277, 280
cryogenic temperatures, 280
density, 280
destructive tests, 344
durability, 278
electrical properties, 280
electrolytic corrosion, 281
fatigue, 277, 281
fi ller content, 281
fl exural strength, 281
fl ow properties, 281
fracture strength in cleavage, 281
gap-filling adhesive bonds, 281
grit content, 281
high-temperature effects, 282
hydrogen-ion concentration, 282
impact strength, 282
impact, 277–278
low and cryogenic temperature, 282
non-destructive tests, 344
non-volatile content, 282
odor, 282
peel strength, 282–283
peel test, 275–276
penetration, 283
radiation exposure, 283
rubber cement tests, 283362 INDEX
Testing of adhesive bonds (contd.)
salt spray (fog) testing, 283
shear strength, 283–284
shear tests, 274–275
specimen preparation, 284
spot-adhesion test, 285
spread, 285
storage life, 285
strength development, 285
stress-cracking resistance, 285
stripping strength, 285
surface preparation, 285–286
tack, 286
tensile strength, 286
tensile tests, 273–274
test methods and practices,
compilation, 278–287
torque strength, 286
T-peel test, 275
viscosity, 286
volume resistivity, 286
water absorptiveness, 286–287
wedge test, 287
working life, 287
Theories of adhesion, 6–14
chemical bonding, 11–13. See also
Interactions
diffusion theory, 8–9
electrostatic (electronic) theory, 8
mechanical theory, 7–8
recent, 7
traditional, 7
wetting theory, 9–11
Thermal image inspection, 307
Thermally conductive adhesives, 75
Thermoplastic adhesives, 51
Thermoplastic polyester, 153
Thermoplastic resin adhesives, 60,
122–123
Thermoplastics, 344
adhesives for, 142
thermoplastic rubber, 123
Thermosetting adhesives, 50–51, 345
Thermosetting foams, 153
Thermosetting Plastics (Thermosets),
150–151
Thermosetting resin adhesives, 59,
123–124
Thickness, adhesive controlling, 201
Thinner, 345
Thixotropy, 345
Through-transmission techniques, 304
Time
assembly, 345
curing, 345
drying, 345
of fl ight diffraction technique, 305
joint conditioning, 346
setting, 346
Tin, adhesives for, 140
TIRI examination, 308
Titanium and titanium alloys, adhesives
for, 141
Torque strength tests, 286
T-peel tests, 275
Tubular forms, straight joints for, 170
Tungsten and tungsten alloys, adhesives
for, 141
Two-component adhesives, 184
Two-polymer adhesives, 60, 65–67
U
Ultrasonic activation, 200–201
Ultrasonic cleaning with liquid rinse, 39
Ultrasonic methods, 301–310
holography, 306–307
liquid crystals, 306
neutron radiography, 309
penetrant inspection, 309
radiography, 308
radioisotope methods, 308–309
Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM),
309–310
sweep-frequency resonance method,
305–306
thermal image inspection, 307
thermal Infrared Inspection (TIRI), 308
ultrasonic multiple transducer,
304–305
ultrasonic pulse echo contact
impedance testing, 302–303
ultrasonic pulse echo immersion,
303–304
ultrasonic vapor degreasing, 39
x-ray techniques, 308
Unsaturated polyesters, 267INDEX 363
Uranium, adhesives for, 141
Urea-formaldehyde adhesives (Ureas),
125–126, 151, 153
Urethane-modified acrylic
technology, 68
UV-curing adhesives, 124–125
V
Vacuum, 262–264
Vapor degreasing, 39
Vegetable glues, 95–97
Vehicle, 346
Vinyl acetal-phenolic adhesives, 240
Vinyl-epoxy adhesives, 126
Vinyl-phenolics, 66, 126–127
Vinyl-resin adhesives, 127–128
Viscosity, 346
tests, 286
viscosity coefficient (coeffi cient of
viscosity), 346
Volkersen’s theory, 180
Volume resistivity tests, 286
Vulcanization, 346
W
Warp, 346
Water absorptiveness tests, 286–287
Water immersion, adhesive strength and,
240–249
Water-based adhesives, 58,
128–130, 152
latexes, 128
principal polymers used for, 128
solutions, 128
Water-break test, 45
Weak boundary layer theory, 13–14
Weathering affecting adhesive joints,
253–260
outdoor weathering (Picatinny Arsenal
studies), 254–260
simulated weathering/accelerated
testing, 253–254
Webbing, 347
Wedge test, 287
Weldbonding, 201–207, 347
adhesive choice, 205
advantages, 204
configuration, 202–204
limitations, 204
quality control, 310–311
single-lap weldbond joint, 202
surface preparation, 204–205
techniques, 206–207
tooling for, 206
Wetting, 5, 347
wet assembly, 192
wet bonding technique, 129
wetting theory of adhesion, 9–11
Wilhelmy plate method, 26–29
Wood veneer, 347
Working life, 287, 347
X
X-ray Techniques, 308
Y
Yield value, 347
Young’s equation, 25
Z
Zinc and zinc alloys, adhesives for, 142
Zisman plot, 27, 30–34


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