كتاب Polyvinyl Fluoride - Technology and Applications of PVF
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Polyvinyl Fluoride - Technology and Applications of PVF

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كتاب Polyvinyl Fluoride - Technology and Applications of PVF  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Polyvinyl Fluoride - Technology and Applications of PVF    كتاب Polyvinyl Fluoride - Technology and Applications of PVF  Emptyالسبت 20 مايو 2023, 2:17 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Polyvinyl Fluoride - Technology and Applications of PVF
Sina Ebnesajjad, PhD
President Fluoro Consultants Group, LLC

كتاب Polyvinyl Fluoride - Technology and Applications of PVF  P_f_t_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface
1. Introduction and History
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Fluorine: A Unique Element
1.3 Polyvinyl Fluoride
References
2. Production and Market Statistics
2.1 Applications of PVF
2.2 Capacity Expansion
2.3 Film Types
References
3. Preparation and Properties of Vinyl Fluoride
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Synthesis of Vinyl Fluoride
3.3 Commercial Manufacturing of Vinyl Fluoride
3.4 Properties of Vinyl Fluoride
3.5 Applications of Vinyl Fluoride
References
4. Polymerization and Finishing Polyvinyl Fluoride
4.1 Background
4.2 Suspension Polymerization
4.3 Bulk Polymerization
4.4 Emulsion Polymerization
4.5 Radiation-Induced Polymerization
4.6 Graft Polymerization
4.7 Vinyl Fluoride Polymerization Development
4.8 Continuous Polymerization
4.9 Effect of Polymerization Variables
References
Further Reading
5. Manufacturing of Oriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Film
5.1 Introduction
5.2 PVF Dispersion in Latent Solvent
5.3 Film Extrusion
5.4 Extrusion and Orientation of Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
5.5 Commercial Processes
References
6. Manufacturing of Unoriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Films and Coatings
6.1 Cast Film Technology
6.2 Unoriented PVF Films
6.3 Preparation of Unoriented PVF Films
6.4 Manufacturing Process
References
7. Properties of Commercial Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Polymer Properties
7.3 Characteristics of Commercial PVF Films
7.4 Chemical Properties
7.5 Optical Properties
7.6 Thermal Properties
7.7 Electrical Properties
7.8 Weathering Performance
7.9 Description of Available Product and Properties of Unoriented PVF Films
7.10 Effect of Radiation
7.11 NMR Spectrum of Polyvinyl Fluoride
References
8. Surface Treatment of Polyvinyl Fluoride Films and Coatings
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Chemical Treatment Method
8.3 Corona Treatment
8.4 Plasma Treatment
8.5 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment
8.6 Flame Treatment
References
9. Adhesive Coating and Lamination of Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Priming the PVF Film Surface
9.3 Polyvinyl Fluoride Adhesives
9.4 Liquid Adhesive Characteristics
9.5 Commercial Liquid Adhesives
9.6 Lamination of PVF Films
9.7 Film and Shrinkage
9.8 Continuous Lamination of Fiberglass Panels
9.9 Painting and Repair of PVF Film Surfaced FRP
9.10 Lamination of Tedlar® SP Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
References
10. Thermoforming of Polyvinyl Fluoride Films and Laminates
10.1 Description of Thermoforming Process
10.2 Formability of Oriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
10.3 Thermoforming Unoriented (SP) Polyvinyl Fluoride Films
References
11. Release Film Applications
11.1 Release Film Types and Applications
11.2 Manufacturing Printed Circuit Boards
References
12. Aerospace Applications
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Insulation Bags
12.3 Interior Panels
12.4 Improvements of the Flammability Resistance of Aircraft Interiors
12.5 Ohio State University Heat Release Test
References
13. Construction Applications
13.1 Comparative Architectural Study
13.2 Vinyl Wall Covering Clad with Tedlar® SP PVF Film
13.3 Flexible Signs and Awning
13.4 PVF Clad Plastic Films and Sheets
References
14. Polyvinyl Fluoride Films for Photovoltaic Modules
14.1 History of Tedlar® PVF before Photovoltaic Modules
14.2 Conversion of Solar Energy into Electricity
14.3 Introduction to Solar Cells
14.4 Tedlar® Usage in PV Modules in the 1980s
14.5 Three Most Common PV Backsheets Made with Tedlar® Film
14.6 Allocation of Tedlar® Film and the Development of Alternate Backsheets
14.7 Status of Tedlar® PVF Film
References
15. Other Applications
15.1 Transit Vehicle Interiors
15.2 Passenger Train Interiors
15.3 Gas Sampling Bags
15.4 Transfer Print
References
16. Safety, Disposal, and Recycling of Vinyl Fluoride and Polyvinyl Fluoride
16.1 Vinyl Fluoride Health and Exposure
16.2 Flammability of Vinyl Fluoride
16.3 Environmental Fate of Vinyl Fluoride
16.4 Polyvinyl Fluoride Products
References
Appendix I
Appendix II
Index
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
A
Abrasion resistance, of PVF films, 189
Accelerated weathering, 180
test methodology, 298
test results, 299300
color change, 300
gloss change, 300
thickness change, 299300
Acetylene, 37
Acrylic topcoat, 296297
Acrylics, 216217, 216t, 235
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 254
Adhesion bond strength
oxygen plasmajet on, 200t
and surface composition of PVF, 196t, 205t
Adhesive coating, of PVF films
adhesives, for bonding surface-treated PVF
films, 215, 216t
commercial liquid adhesives, 218220
storage and handling, 220
liquid adhesive characteristics, 216217
priming, PVF film surface, 214215
Adhesive types, 306
Aerospace applications, of PVF
aircraft interiors flammability resistance,
284292
aircraft cabin materials, 285288
materials fire safety needs for future aircraft,
289292
insulation bags, 277279
interior panels, 280283
decorative laminates, 282283
Ohio State University heat release
test, 292
Agricola, Georgius, 7
Aircraft interiors
cabin fires, 285
inflight fires, 285
post-crash fire accidents, 285
ramp fires, 285
cabin materials, 285288, 286t
fire hazards of, 288289
flammability resistance, improvements of,
284292
laminate, 254f
materials fire safety needs for future aircraft,
289292
schematic diagram of, 277f
wall construction of, 280f, 281f
Airplane passenger cabin interior materials, smoke
test for, 362f
Aldines, 204206
Alodines, 204206
Aluminum, 254
lamination of PVF films to, 226227
adhesive mixing and application, 226
lamination, 226
quality control procedure, 227
Aluminum-alloy epoxy joints performance, on
surface pretreatment effect, 223f
Aluminum fluoride nona-hydrate, 34
Aluminum honeycomb, 280281
American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH), 341
Applications, of PVF, 2021
in construction, 21
for outdoor vinyl fabrics, 21
in photovoltaics, 20
release film, 21
in transportation, 2021
Aprotic reaction medium, 35
Aramid honeycombs, 280281
A-Si (amorphous silicon), 102
Atmospheric plasma treatment (APT), 199202
Azo initiators, 5455
2,2’-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN),
decomposition of, 5556, 56f
B
Backsheet construction, of PVF
TPE, 325
TP with primer, 325
Basic attributes of PVF, 9t
Beilstein Registry Number, 25
Belt film casting process, 142f
Benzoyl peroxide, 238
decomposition of, 5556, 55f
Biaxial laboratory stretcher, 66f
Biaxial orientation, of PVF films,
124125, 131f
commercial processes, 138139
drying of, 134t
properties of, 135t
Boeing 727, with PVF interiors, 275
Boiling test, for PVF film
to aluminum, 227
379Boiling test, for PVF film (Continued)
to galvanized steel, 231
Bulk laminate manufacturing, 267
Bulk polymerization, 50
C
Cabin escape time, 275276
Cabin fires, in aircraft, 285
inflight fires, 285
post-crash fire accidents, 285
ramp fires, 285
Capacity expansion, of PVF, 22
Cast film technology, 141144
Casting die, of PVF film, 122
Cellulosic substrates, lamination of PVF films to,
227229
adhesive mixing and application, 227228
approximate adhesive requirements, 229
board preparation, 227
heating adhesive, 228
lamination, 228229
quality control procedure, 229
Centaris, 241245
Chamber cleaning, for airplane cabin material
smoke test, 373f
chamber walls, 373f
optical system windows, 373f
specimen holders, 373f
viewing window, 373f
Char, 278279
Characteristics, of commercial PVF films,
157160
Chemical properties, of commercial PVF films,
160
Chemical resistance, of PVF, 167t
Chemical treatment method, 195197
Chlorinated polyvinyl fluoride (cPVF), 215
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 56
Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), 91, 99102
Christoph, F. J., 38
CIGS (copper-indium-gallium-selenide), 102
Cleanability, of vinyl-based wall covering
material, 302
Clear release film, 318
Coater, 149
Coefficients of friction, of commercial olefinic
fluoropolymers, 12t
Color matches, for PVF films, 245t
Commercial oriented PVF films, 138139
Commercial PVF films
characteristics of, 157160
chemical properties of, 153t, 160
chemical resistance of, 167t
electrical properties of, 153t, 173179
piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties,
173179
formulations of, 343
general properties of, 153t
hydrolytic stability of, 170f
microstructure in, 48f
NMR spectrum of, 191
optical properties of, 160171
physical properties of, 153t
polymer properties of, 152157
conformations and transitions, 152157
spectral transmission of, 171f
stain resistance of, 170t
thermal properties of, 153t, 171172
unoriented PVF films, properties of, 185189
abrasion resistance, 189
adhesion, 189
chemical properties, 185
cleaning, ease of
electrical properties, 186
formability, 188
optical and spectral properties, 186187
physical/thermal properties, 185
radiation, effect of, 189190
surface aesthetics, 188189
weather resistance, 188
weathering performance, 180185
Commercial Tedlars film, electrical properties of,
178t
Comparative architectural study, of PVF,
296302
accelerated weathering test results, 299300
color change, 300
gloss change, 300
thickness change, 299300
natural weathering test results, 300
test methodologies, 298299
accelerated weathering, 298
materials tested and measurements recorded,
298299
natural weathering, 298
top finishes, for vinyl-coated fabric, 296297
Construction applications, 21
comparative architectural study, 296302
accelerated weathering test results, 299300
natural weathering test results, 300
test methodologies, 298299
top finishes, for vinylcoated fabric, 296297
flexible signs and awning, 307315
application of, 309311
cleaning laminates surfaced with PVF film,
314315
construction of vinyl fabrics, 307315
design criteria, 311314
PVF clad plastic films and sheets, 315316
vinyl wall covering clad with Tedlars SP PVF
film, 302307
adhesive types, 306
cleanability, 302
compliance, 304305
380 INDEXflammability, 304
laminating, 306
laminating Tedlars SP PVF film to, 305
mold, mildew, and bacteria, 305
quality control, 306307
specification guidelines for, 305
stain removal, 302303
vinyl wall covering, 306
Consumption, of HFC-152a, 20t
Continuous lamination, of fiberglass panels,
236241
evaluation, 240241
materials, 238240
Conversion efficiency, 320321
Core, 272, 280281, 281f
Corlars, 241245
Corona treatment, 197199
configurations of, 198f
schematic diagram of, 197f
“Critical solvent content” 132133
Cross, 120
Cross-linking, of polymer chains, 199
Cryolith, 35
CTS (cadmium-tellurium-sulfide), 102
Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), 238
Current, in solar cell, 321
Curtain coating, for PVF film lamination, 225,
225f
Cymels, 99
D
Decorative PVF laminates
in air planes, 282283
Development, of PVF, 1015
Dielectric constant versus frequency at various
temperatures, 176f, 177f
Diethylaminosulphur trifluoride (DAST), 5
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 84
Diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate, 4950
2,2’-diguanyl-2,2’-azopropane (DGA), 5658
Dimethyl acetamide, 342343
N,N-Dimethylacetamide, 336337
N,N-Dimethyl formamide, 74
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 6466, 106108
Direct reaction, of acetylene and hydrofluoric
acid, 32t
Dispersion viscosities, 84
Disposal and recycling
of PVF, 344345
of vinyl fluoride, 344345
Doctor blade (knife on) roller coating process,
144f
Downstack lamination, 248f
Drilling, 270
Dry coating, in unoriented PVF films, 145
DuPont, 810, 19, 22, 39, 149, 226, 318,
321322, 325327, 337
liquid acrylic adhesives, characteristics
of, 218t
unoriented PVF films, 144145
DuPont Prep-Sols, 241
DuPont Tedlars PVF film,
E
EconoGrabt, 335f, 336f
Einstein, Albert, 318
Electrical applications, PVF films for, 268
Electrical properties, of PVF, 173179
Electrolytic fluorine-generating cell, 8f
Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
(ESCA), 85, 8788, 194195
Emulsion polymerization, 5051
Epons, 136, 227
Epoxy, 216t, 235
Etching, 195
Extrudate, 121
Extruded PVF films, 330
Extruder, 121122
Extrusion, 121
of continuous PVF film, 127f
of PVF films, 126138, 129t
F
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), 334
Fiberglass panels, continuous lamination of,
236241
evaluation, 240241
materials, 238240
Fiber glass reinforced polyester (FRP), 2021,
254
continuous lamination of PVF film to, 242t
panel evaluation, 240241
panel temperature profile, 237f
process, 237f
PVF film surfaced
painting and repair of, 241245
Fibrillation, 131132
Film and shrinkage, 236
Film extrusion, 120125
biaxial orientation, 124125, 131f
casting die, 122
commercial processes, 138139
extruder, 121122
quench, 122124
Film integrity test
for PVF film to vinyl wall
covering, 234
of vinyl-based wall covering, 307
Film surface tension, 84
Film types, of PVF, 2223
Final Kleant, 241
Fineness of grind, 119
Flame treatment, 202210
INDEX 381Flame treatment (Continued)
and adhesion testing, of PVF films, 208t, 209t,
210t
Flashover time, 275276
Flat die see Casting die, of PVF film
Flexible signs and awning, 307315
application of, 309311
cleaning laminates surfaced with PVF film,
314315
construction of vinyl fabrics, 307315
design criteria, 311314
PVF clad plastic films and sheets, 315316
Flexible web, 142143
Fluoride, 35
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 171,
335336
Fluorine, 5
basic facts of, 6t
characteristics of, 35
content, of polymers, 3t
fluorination, 56
preparation of, 7
reactivity, 67
unique element, 17
Fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C),
of PVF, 204
Fluoroethene, 25
Fluoropolymer-coated films, 102
Fluoropolymers, 339
Fluorspar, 35
Fremy, Edmond, 7
Freons12, 26
Fuel equivalence ratio, 204
G
Galvanized steel, lamination of PVF films to,
229231
adhesive mixing and application, 230
lamination, 230231
materials, 230
quality control procedure, 231
slitting of laminate, 231
Gas-phase polymerization, 51
Gas sampling bags, 335337
heat-sealing PVF film, 337
Glossy pigmented film, 318
Glow discharge see Atmospheric plasma treatment
(APT)
Glycidyl acrylate, 218f
Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), 7478, 218f
Graft polymerization, 5152
Gravure coating, 225226, 225f
H
Half-life, definition of, 5455, 55t
Halogen, 12
Halons, 291
Hastaloys, 8891
Haze measurements, 84
Heat flux, 289, 348f
Heat of fusion, of polymer, 84
Heat release, 348f
Heat release rate test, for cabin materials, 292,
348f
air distribution system, 351f
calibration, 356f
burner, 356f
gas, 356f
gas manifold, 356f
procedure, 356f
wet test meter, 356f
conditioning, 355f
exhaust stack, 351f
heat flux sensor, 352f
pilot burners, 354f
lower pilot burner, 354f
upper pilot burner, 354f
radiant heat source, 348f
release rate apparatus, 348f, 349f, 350f
report, 358f
requirements, 358f
specimen holders, 352f
drip pan, 352f
specimen mounting, 355f
specimen number, 355f
specimen orientation, 355f
specimen size, 355f
test procedure, 357f
thermopile, 348f, 351f
Heat-sealing PVF film, 337
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 7478, 81, 91
High dielectric strength, of PVF films, 173
History, of PVF, 10
“Hopper” 127128
Hydrofluoric acid, 27, 32t
Hydrogen chloride, 37
Hydrolytic stability, of PVF, 170f
I
Imrons, 241245
Inflight fires, 285
Inherent viscosity, 74, 127
Initial peel test, for PVF film
to cellulosic substrates, 229
Insulation bags
in air planes, 277279
Interior panels
in air planes, 280283
decorative laminates, 282283
International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC), 340341
Invention, of PVF, 10
382 INDEXK
Kaptons, 11, 143
Kraft paper, 271
Kydexs, 334335
L
Lamination of PVF films, 220235, 270
to aluminum, 226227
adhesive mixing and application, 226
lamination, 226
quality control procedure, 227
to cellulosic substrates, 227229
adhesive mixing and application, 227228
approximate adhesive requirements, 229
board preparation, 227
heating adhesive, 228
lamination, 228229
quality control procedure, 229
coating techniques, 222226
curtain coating, 225
gravure coating, 225226
reverse roll coating, 223
wire-wound rod, 223224
to galvanized steel, 229231
adhesive mixing and application, 230
lamination, 230231
materials, 230
quality control procedure, 231
slitting of laminate, 231
to PVC for outdoor applications, 231232
adhesive application, 232
lamination, 232
materials, 231232
solar collector assembly with PVF film, 235
adhesives and mounting, 235
surface preparation of metals, 221222
to thermoplastic sheet, 232233
adhesive application, 232233
lamination, 233
materials, 232
quality control procedure, 233
to vinyl wall covering, 233234
film types, 234
laminating, 234
quality control procedure, 234
vinyl wall covering, 234
Lamination of Tedlars SP PVF films, 246248
in-process shrinkage of Tedlars SP PVF film,
247248
web tears and web condition, 247
web tension settings, 246247
Latent solvents, of PVF, 119120
drying of, 133f
Lexans, 315, 315t
Limiting oxygen index, of PVF film, 278
d-Limonene, chemical structure of, 40f
Low-gloss pigmented film, 318
M
Machine direction, 120
Manufacturing, of oriented PVF film
commercial processes, 138139
extrusion and orientation of PVF films,
126138, 129t
film extrusion, 120125
biaxial orientation, 124125, 131f
casting die, 122
extruder, 121122
quench, 122124
latent solvents, of PVF, 119120
Matched die thermoforming, 252f
Material safety data sheet (MSDS), 339
Melting points, measurement of, 84
Melt viscosity, 84
Metal substrate surface preparation effect, in
adhesive bonded joints, 221t
Methacrylate copolymer, 217f
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 219220
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) peroxide, 238
Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) peroxide, 238
Meyer rod coating process, 145f
Modified acrylic, 216t
Moissan, Henri, 7
reactions, for fluorine synthesis, 8f
Molded parts, PVF films for, 268
Monocrystalline silicon solar panel, 320, 321f
Monomer characteristics of commercial olefinic
fluoropolymers, 4t
Multilayer unoriented PVF film
structure of, 146f
Mylars, 11
N
National Bureau of Standards (NBS), 282283
Natural weathering, 298
materials tested and measurements recorded,
298299
test results, 300
Neoprene (chloroprene) foam, 288
N-methyl pyrrolidone, 99, 147
NMR spectrum, of PVF, 191
Nomexs, 188, 218219, 281f, 282f
Nucleation
and polymerization time, 64t
and vinyl fluoride polymerization trials, 65t
Nylon, 279
O
Ohio State University heat release test, 292
Olefinic fluoropolymers, 3
On line formability test, for PVF film to
aluminum, 227
Optical and electrical characteristics, of solar
cells, 320321
INDEX 383Optical properties, of commercial PVF films,
160171
Opulents, 265267
Oriented PVF films, 142t
Outdoor vinyl fabrics, of PVF, 21
Outdoor weathering effect, on PVF film, 190t
Overlaminating film, properties of PVF films,
330t
Oxygen ratio, 204
P
Pacothanes, 265267
Passenger train interior, 334
Patterning/etching, 269270
Peel test, for PVF Film to Thermoplastic Sheet,
233
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 335336
Perfluorobutyl ethylene (PFBE), 81
Perfluoroethyl vinyl ether (PEVE), 81
Perfluoroplastic gas sampling bags, 335336
Periodic calibration procedure, for airplane cabin
material smoke test, 372f
chamber leak test, 372f
furnace, 372f
photometric system, 372f
total system, 372f
Phenolic, 216t
Photoengraving, 270
Photometric system, for airplane cabin material
smoke test, 368f
alignment fixture, 370f
light source, 368f
microphotometer, 370f
optical filters, 370f
photomultiplier tube, 370f
recorder, 371f
Photovoltaic modules, PVF films for
history of Tedlars PVF before photovoltaic
modules, 317318
PVF backsheet construction
TPE, 325
TP with primer, 325
solar cells, 319321
material, 320321
solar panels, construction of, 321
solar energy into electricity, conversion of,
318319
Tedlars
backsheet construction, TPTTM, 324325
film and development of alternate
backsheets, 325327
PVF film, status of, 327328
usage in PV modules in 1980s, 321323
Photovoltaics, of PVF, 20
Piezoelectric materials
applications of, 177178
Piezoelectric properties, of PVF films, 173179
Pinholing, 307
Plasma treatment, 199
Plas-Stickt, 241
Plastisol, 117118
Plate scumming, 268
Plunkett, Roy, 10
Polar solvent see Latent solvents, of PVF
Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), 290291
Polycarbonate, 254
Polycrystalline silicon solar cells, 320
Polyester, 279
Polyester aluminum (PAE), 336
Polyester film, 324
Polyester/isocyanate, 216t
Polyetherether ketone (PEKK), 257
Polyethylene (PE), chemical structure
of, 1, 2f
Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol
(PETG), 257
Polymer
composition of, 98t
properties of, 98t
Polymer blends, surface analysis of, 89t
Polymer characteristics of commercial olefinic
fluoropolymers, 4t
Polymer composition, 84
Polymerization and finishing PVF
bulk polymerization, 50
continuous polymerization, 102104
emulsion polymerization, 5051
graft polymerization, 5152
polymerization variables, effect of, 104109
reactivity ratio, 108109
ZieglerNatta and other catalysts, 106108
radiation-induced polymerization, 51
suspension polymerization, 4950
vinyl fluoride polymerization development,
52102
Polymerization variables
catalysts and initiators, 105
impurities, 105
medium, 104
pressure, 104
telogen, 105
temperature, 104
Polymethylacrylate (PMA), chemical structures
of, 217f
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), 216217
chemical structures of, 217f
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 143, 175,
335336
discovery of, 10
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 11, 175, 257
for outdoor applications, lamination of PVF
films to, 231232
adhesive application, 232
lamination, 232
384 INDEXmaterials, 231232
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 176
Post-crash fire accidents, 285
Prep-Sols, 241
Pressure sensitive, 216t
Pressure thermoforming, 252f
Prime-N-Sealt, 245
Priming, of PVF film surface, 214215
Printed circuit board (PCB), 14
manufacturing, 269273
drilling, 270
lamination, 270
mass lamination/rigid multilayers, 273
multilayer, fabrication of, 271273
patterning/etching, 269270
photoengraving, 270
silk screening, 270
solder plating/solder resist, 270
testing, 270271
PVF films for, 265268
Process flow diagram, of PVF, 103f
Production and market statistics, of PVF, 19
Products, of PVF, 342345
Propylene, 6162
and vinyl fluoride, 62t
Pure vinyl fluoride, chemical and physical
properties of, 340t
PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), 297
Pyroelectric materials, applications of, 178180
Pyroelectric properties, of PVF films, 173179
Q
Quality control, 306307
of vinyl-based wall covering, 306
Quench cast film process, 122124
QUVs Weathering Tester, 180181
R
Radiant heat furnace, for airplane cabin material
smoke test, 363f
furnace construction, 363f
furnace control system, 363f
heat flux density gauge, 364f
heating element, 363f
Radiation-induced polymerization, 51
Ramp fires, 285
Rayons, 11
Reactivity ratio, 108109
Recycling and disposal, 344345
of PVF, 344345
of vinyl fluoride, 344345
Region-irregularity, 4748
Regiosequence, 4748
Regnault, Henri Victor, 26
Regulation
of PVF, 344
of vinyl fluoride, 344
Relative viscosity, 127
Release film, of PVF, 21, 272
physical properties of, 266t
printed circuit board, manufacturing, 269273
mass lamination/rigid multilayers, 273
multilayer, fabrication of, 271273
types and applications, 265269
for electrical applications, 268
molded parts, 268
precautions, 269
printed circuit boards, 265268
in rubber industry, 268
Replacements, for PVF film, 326t
Reverse gravure roll coating, 142143
Reverse roll coating, 144f, 223, 224f
Roll coating technique, for unoriented PVF films,
144145
Rubber industry, PVF films uses in, 268
S
Safety
of PVF, 342345
of vinyl fluoride, 340341
Selectfluor, 5
Separator plate, 271
Shrinkage test
for PVF film to vinyl wall covering, 234
of vinyl-based wall covering, 307
Silica, 136
Silicone
adhesives, 235
pressure sensitive, 216t
RTV, 216t
Silk screening, 270
Single-screw extruder, 121f
Smoke and flame
characteristics of PVF film, 333t
Smoke test, for airplane passenger cabin interior
materials
definitions, 362f
report, 374f
requirements, 374f
scope, 362f
specimen conditioning, 372f
supplement, 375f
test apparatus, 362f
conditioning chamber, 371f
electric power, 365f
exhaust hood, 371f
manometer, 363f
photometric system, 368f
pilot burner, 365f
pilot burner fuel, 365f
pressure regulator, 363f
radiant heat furnace, 363f
INDEX 385Smoke test, for airplane passenger cabin interior
materials (Continued)
radiant heat furnace and specimen holder,
support for, 367f
recommended equipment, 375f
specimen holder, 366f
test chamber, 362f
test chamber wall thermocouple, 363f
test chamber calibration, 372f
chamber cleaning, 373f
furnace protection, 372f
periodic calibration procedure, 372f
test procedure, 373f
test specimen selection and preparation, 371f
specimen number, 371f
specimen orientation, 371f
specimen preparation, 371f
specimen selection, 371f
specimen size, 371f
Solar cells, 319321
material, 320321
monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon
solar cells, 320
optical and electrical characteristics,
320321
solar panels, construction of, 321
Solar collector assembly with PVF film, 235
adhesives and mounting, 235
Solar energy into electricity, conversion of,
318319
Solder plating/solder resist, 270
Solution film casting, 141
Specific optical density, 362f, 374f
Specimen holder, for airplane cabin material
smoke test, 366f
aluminum foil, 367f
retaining spring, 367f
specimen backing, 367f
specimen holder frame, 366f
Spectral transmission, of PVF, 171f
Stain removal, 302303
easy procedures (cloth only,
wet or dry), 302
mild procedures (soaps, household detergents),
302
moderate procedures (solvents), 303
for unoriented PVF-coated vinyl wall covering,
303t
Stain resistance, of PVF films, 170t
Stoichiometric combustion reaction, 204
Surface aesthetics, 188189
unoriented PVF films for, 185189
Surface composition, 85
Surface energy of PVF films, 1112
Surface treatment of PVF films and coatings
atmospheric plasma treatment, 199202
chemical treatment method, 195197
corona treatment, 197199
flame treatment, 202210
plasma treatment, 199
Surlyns, 218219
Suspension polymerization, 4950
Swarts, Fre´de´ric, 26
Swissair MD-11 jumbo jet, 279280
Syloids, 87
T
Tedlars, 89, 14, 19, 22, 103, 144145, 149,
157159, 185, 234, 267
backsheet construction, TPTTM, 324325
ceiling and stow bins, in air planes, 284f
film and development of alternate backsheets,
325327
formulations of, 343
history, of PVF before photovoltaic modules,
317318
laminating Tedlars SP PVF film to vinyl wall
covering, 305
mold, mildew, and bacteria, 305
oriented grades of, 161t
PVF film
films with FDA compliance film, 344t
formable films, properties of, 256t
release films, 273t
status of, 327328
SP, 330
SP film, ABS sheet clad with, 261t
SP formable PVF films film, properties of, 257t
SP PVF films, lamination of, 246248
in-process shrinkage of, 247248
web tears and web condition, 247
web tension settings, 246247
transparent grades of, 183
unoriented grades of, 164t
usage in PV modules in 1980s, 321323
Teflons, 297
Temperature effect
on mechanical properties of PVF films, 175f
Tensile properties, of PVF film, 67t
Tenter frame, 124
clips, 126f
process for biaxially oriented film, 125f
Tenterhooks, 124
Tentering, 124
Terpolymer Blends, composition of, 87t
Teslars, 11, 317318
Testing, of printed circuit board, 270271
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 7881, 91, 99102
Thermal aging effect, on mechanical properties of
PVF films, 174f
Thermal degradation, of PVF film, 269
Thermal stability of PVF, 343344
Thermoforming, of PVF films and laminates
ABS sheet clad with Tedlars SP film, 261t
386 INDEXdescription of, 251253
formability of oriented, PVF films
unoriented (SP) PVF films, 257263
processing thermoformed parts, 259263
troubleshooting, 263
Thermoforming ABS sheet clad with Tedlars SP
film, 263
Thermoplastic sheet, lamination of PVF films to,
232233
adhesive application, 232233
lamination, 233
materials, 232
quality control procedure, 233
Titanium acetylacetonate, 99
Titanium halides, 106108
Toluene, 219220
Tooling plate, 271
Top finishes, for vinylcoated fabric, 296297
thickness of, 297
Tourmaline, 173175
TPE (Tedlars/Polyester/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate)
PVF backsheet construction, 325
TPTTM (Tedlars/Polyester/Tedlars)
manufacturers, 324325
Tedlars backsheet construction, 324325
TP with primer
PVF backsheet construction, 325
Transfer print, PVF films in, 337
Transit vehicle interior, 329334
cleanability, 331
fire and smoke, 331334
Transportation, PVF in, 2021
Transverse, 120
Trialkylaluminum (triethylaluminum), 106108
Trichloroethane, 222
Trifluoroethylene (TrFE), 72, 91, 99102
Trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane (CF3SiMe3), 5
Type 5 PVF films, 254
Typical properties, of PVF film(s), 9t
Tyzors, 99
U
United States
post-crash accidents, 285
PVF consumption in, 19
weatherability of PVF films, 181
University of Manchester Institute of Science and
Technology (Umist), 5
Unoriented (SP) PVF films, thermoforming of,
257263
processing thermoformed parts, 259263
troubleshooting, 263
Unoriented PVF-coated vinyl wall covering
stain removal for, 303t
Unoriented PVF films, 144146, 185189, 330
abrasion resistance, 189
for adhesion, 189
break elongation of clear, 186f
break elongation of pigmented, 186f
chemical properties, 185
cleaning, ease of, 189
electrical properties, 186
formability, 188
manufacturing process for, 148149
optical and spectral properties, 186187
physical/thermal properties, 185
preparation of, 146148
radiation, effect of, 189190
shrinkage of, 186f
stain removal test on thermoplastic
sheet, 332t
surface aesthetics, 188189
tensile strength of clear, 187f
ultraviolet light absorbance of
clear, 188f
weather resistance, 188
Upstack lamination, 248f
Urethane, 216t
U.S. Food and Drug Administration compliance,
344
U.S. Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), 342343
V
Vacuum thermoforming, 252f
for automobile armrests, 253f
continuous, 253f
Vinyl chloride (VC), 3537
Vinyl fluoride (VF), 1011, 25
applications of, 4243
commercial manufacturing of, 39
continuous emulsion polymerization of, 70t,
71t
continuous polymerization of
process conditions and results, 59t, 60t
copolymers of, 102
to aluminum, 100t, 101t
copolymerization, vinyl fluoride, 72, 108109
reactivity ratios in, 107t, 108t
decomposition temperature of, 72
degradation temperatures, 73f
environmental fate of, 342
flammability of, 342
flammability properties of, 42t
health and exposure, 340341
interpolymers of, 90t
properties of, 92t
levels in workplace, guidance
of, 341t
melting point, 73f
physical properties of, 40t
polymerization development, 52102
preparation of, 32t, 34t, 36t
properties of, 3941
INDEX 387Vinyl fluoride (VF) (Continued)
and propylene, 62t
pure substance, chemical and physical
properties of, 340t
safety of, 340341
solubility
in organic solvents, 41t
in water, 41t
synthesis of, 2639
terpolymers
composition of, 85t
properties of, 86t
and tetrafluoroethylene, 94t
thermal conductivity and viscosity
of, 42t
thermodynamic properties of, 41t
toxic effects of, 339, 341
using benzoyl peroxide initiator
free radical reaction scheme
for, 48f
volatilization of, 342
yield using aluminum sulfate
catalyst, 33t
Vinylidene copolymers
degradation temperatures, 73f
melting point, 73f
Vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 72, 91
Vinyl wall covering, 306
lamination of PVF films to, 233234
film types, 234
laminating, 234
quality control procedure, 234
vinyl wall covering, 234
with Tedlars SP PVF film, 302307
adhesive types, 306
cleanability, 302
compliance, 304305
easy procedures (cloth only, wet or dry), 302
flammability, 304
laminating, 306
laminating Tedlars SP PVF film
to, 305
mild procedures (soaps, household
detergents), 302
moderate procedures (solvents), 303
mold, mildew, and bacteria, 305
quality control, 306307
specification guidelines for, 305
stain removal, 302303
for unoriented PVF-coated vinyl wall
covering, 303t
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 145
emissions, 251
Voltage, 321
Von Liebig, Justus, 26
W
Water soak test
for PVF film
to cellulosic substrates, 229
to vinyl wall covering, 234
of vinyl-based wall covering, 306
Weathering performance, of PVF films, 180185
Weather-O-Meters, 180181
Web coating, 142143
Wilson II, J.D.C., 321322
Wire-wound metering rod, 224
Wire-wound rod, 223224, 224f
X
X-Actos, 245
Xenotests, 180181
Z
ZieglerNatta-type catalysts, 106108, 107


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