كتاب Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems    كتاب Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems  Emptyالجمعة 19 مايو 2023, 2:22 am

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Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems
Chellappa Chandsekaran  

كتاب Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems  R_s_f_10
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Rubber Properties for seal functional requirements
3. Seals for Radioactive media – Nuclear plants
4. Airborne Rubber seals
5. Rubber seals for oil field service
6. Rubbers chemical and compounding for ‘O’ rings & seals
7. Rubber expansion Joints
8. Swelling Aspects of Rubber related to seal performance
9. Rubber to Metal bonding
10. Manufacture of seals & ‘O’ rings
11. Storage and service life of rubber seals
x
2,2-dichloro-l,l,l-trifluoroethane
(HCFC-123), 65
A
Abrasion, 133–4
Acrylate elastomers
advantages and limitations, 87
Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber
(NBR), 60–1
Adhesive-metal failure, 100
Adhesive-primer coat failure, 101
Airborne rubber seals, 37
design of, 43–4
hydraulic systems, in aircraft, 40
molds and parting lines,
design of, 41–3
sealing materials, 40–1
Aircraft fluid seal, 37, 40
Angular deflection, 76
Angular rotation, 76
Antidegradants, 59, 69
Anti-extrusion rings, 14, 15
Antioxidants, 69
Atomic electrical stations
(AES), 34
Autotransmission cable
seals, 66–7
Axial compression/extension, 76
B
Becquerel equals, 25
Blends of rubber, 58
masterbatches, 58
rubber, choice of, 58
acrylonitrile butadiene
rubber, 60–1
bromobutyl rubbers, 62
butyl rubbers, 61–2
chlorobutyl rubbers, 62
chloroprene rubber, 69–70
EPDM rubbers, 63–4
ethylene acrylic rubber, 67–8
fluorocarbon rubbers, 64–7
halobutyl rubbers, 62
isobutylene–isoprene
rubbers, 61–2
natural rubber, 58–9
polybutadiene rubber, 60
pre-cross-linked butyl
rubber, 63
reclaimed rubber, 70
silicone rubber, 68–9
styrene butadiene rubber, 59
Blistering, 2, 48
British Nuclear Group Sellafield
Limited (BNGSL), 71
Brittle point, 131–2
Brominated butyl compound, 117
‘O’ ring compound, 117–18
rotary seal compound, 117–18
Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), 62
Butadiene acrylonitrile
compounds, 112
‘O’ ring compound, 112–14
rotary seal compound, 112–14
Butadiene acrylonitrile/polyvinyl
chloride blend, 123
‘O’ ring compound, 123–4
rotary seal compound, 123–4
Butadiene rubber, 57
Butyl rubber, 57, 61–2
advantages and limitations, 89
C
Calcium stearate, 62
Carcass/body, 77
Chemical compatibility, 2, 9
Chemical properties, 135
Chlorinated polyethylene
advantages and limitations, 88
Chlorinated rubber, 96
Chlorobutyl rubbers (CIIR), 62
Chloroprene compounds, 114
‘O’ ring compound, 116–17
rotary seal compound, 114–16
Chloroprene rubber (CR), 57,
69–70
Chlorosulfonated polyethylene
compounds, 121–2
‘O’ ring compound, 122
rotary seal compound, 121–2
Completion fluid, 45
Compression set, 7, 41, 136
Creep, 132–3
Creep behavior of metal, 8
Cross-link density, 48, 50
versus vulcanizate
properties, 49
Cross-linking of rubbers,
27–9, 48
Crystallization, 131–2
Curie, 25
D
‘Diesel effect’, 99
Double arch expansion joint, 73
E
Elasticity of rubber, 7, 11–12,
129–30
Elastomer, 4
bondability index of, 96
Ethylene acrylate elastomers
advantages and limitations, 87
Ethylene acrylic rubber, 67–8
Ethylene–propylene copolymer
(EPM), 64
145Ethylene–propylene terpolymer
(EPDM), 63–4
advantages and limitations, 89
Explosive decompression,
48, 49
F
Fabric reinforced inflatable seals,
29–33
Failure mode and effects analysis
(FMEA), 137–8
Feed clarification cell, 71
Fillers, 47, 48, 49, 128
Fluid leaks, 1
and seal failures, 2–5
Fluid resistance, of rubber sealing,
11–12, 51
Fluid sealing technology, 5
Fluid types, in oil field service,
51–3
Fluids effects, on rubber, 132
Fluorocarbon elastomers
advantages and limitations, 89
Fluorocarbon rubber compounds,
41, 64–7, 125
‘O’ ring compound, 126
rotary seal compound, 126–7
Fluororubbers, see Fluorocarbon
rubber compounds
Friction of rubber, 133–4
G
Garter springs, 18, 19
Gaskets, 37, 38
Glass transition temperature, of
various rubbers, 10–11, 90
Gray, 23, 24
H
Halobutyl rubbers, 62
HCFC-123, 65
High temperature behavior, of
rubber seals, 11
Hildebrand solubility
parameter, 12
Hydraulic systems, in aircraft,
37, 40
Hypalon rubbers
advantages and limitations, 87
Hysteresis, 8, 133, 134
I
Incompressibility of rubbers, 12
Inflatable seals
fabric reinforced inflatable seals,
29–33
non-reinforced inflatable seals,
33
operation and capabilities, 34
Irradiation vulcanization, 29
Isobutylene–isoprene (butyl
rubber) compounds, 117
‘O’ ring compound, 117
rotary seal compound, 117
Isobutylene–Isoprene Rubbers
(IIR), 61–2
J
Japan, nuclear power generation
in, 29
Japan Atomic Energy Agency
(JAEA), 27
Joule’s effect, 16
L
Labyrinth seal, 75
Light aging, 136
Low temperature behavior, of
rubber seals, 10–11
M
Magnesium oxide, 62
Masterbatches, 58
Mechanical engineers, 3–4
Mechanical seals, 21–2
Metal bonding, rubber to, 95
bonding agents, 96
compounding of rubber, 99–100
factors, 97
process, 97
bonding agents, application
of, 98
mold design, 99
rubber molding, 98–9
substrate cleaning, 97–8
rejections, 100–1
Metal bonded oil seals,
manufacture of, 104–5
Mold design, 99
Molds and parting lines, design of,
41–3
M/s Dupont USA, 67
M/s Hayakawa Rubber Co Ltd,
26–7
N
Natural rubber (NR), 10, 57, 58–9
advantages and limitations, 89
Natural rubber compounds, 109
‘O’ ring compound, 110
rotary seal compound, 109–10
Neoprene-based adhesive
solution, 77
Neoprene rubbers
advantages and limitations, 86
Neoprenes, see Chloroprene
rubber
The New York Times, 25
Nitrile rubber, 57
advantages and limitations, 86
Nitrite rubber, 60
Non-oil-resistant elastomers, 81
Non-reinforced inflatable seals, 33
Nuclear plants, 23
cross-linking by radiation,
chemical mechanism
of, 27–9
fabric reinforced inflatable seals,
29–33
inflatable seal operation and
capabilities, 34
non-reinforcedinflatableseals, 33
pump assemblies, seals in, 34–5
radiation units, 23
gama irradiation dosage units,
24–5
radioactive source, activity of,
25
radiation-resistant rubber seals,
26–7
rubber seal failures in, 25–6
O
Oil field service, rubber seals
for, 45
completion fluid, 45
explosive decompression, 48, 49
fluid types in, 51–3
increased molecular weight,
effect of, 48, 50
physical property trends, 53–4
Index
146stimulation fluid, 46–7
stretching crystallization, 50–1
well fluid, 45
Oil-resistant elastomers, 81
Oil-resistant synthetic rubbers
and polymerization type, 92
Oxygen, 11, 85
attack, 135
Oil seals, 18–20
Ozone attack, 136
‘O’rings, 7, 12–13, 37–8
compounds design for, 57
cross-section, 14–15
for rotary sealing application,
16–18
precautions, handling, 138–9
reciprocating applications, 13–14
static application, 13
‘O’ rings, manufacture of, 103
blank preparation, 107–8
filler effects, on permeability of
rubbers, 128
fluid seal rubber formulations,
109
brominated butyl compound,
117–18
butadiene acrylonitrile
compounds, 112–14
butadiene acrylonitrile/
polyvinyl chloride blend,
123–4
chloroprene compounds,
114–17
chlorosulfonated polyethylene
compounds, 121–2
fluorocarbon rubber
compounds, 125–7
isobutylene–isoprene (butyl
rubber) compounds, 117
natural rubber compounds,
109–10
poly-acrylic ester compounds,
119
polysulfide rubber compounds,
120–1
polyurethane compounds,
124–5
silicone rubber compounds,
118–19
styrene butadiene compounds,
110–11
seal molding shop productivity,
106–7
static seals against gases, 127–8
trimming/deflashing, 108–9
P
Packings, 37
Permanent set, 8
Peroxide vulcanization, 62
Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins,
60, 96
Phenolic resins, 60
Poly-acrylic ester compounds, 119
Polybutadiene rubber (BR), 60
advantages and limitations, 90
Polyisocyanates, 96
Polyisoprene rubber
advantages and limitations, 90
Polysulfide rubber compounds,
41, 120
‘O’ ring compound, 120–1
rotary seal compound, 120–1
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 97
Polyurethane compounds,
124–5
advantages and limitations, 88
‘O’ ring compound, 125
rotary seal compound, 124–5
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 60–1
PPA (polypropylene adipate), 112
Pre-cross-linked butyl rubber, 63
Properties of rubber, for seal
functional requirements,
7–10
fluid resistance, 11–12
high temperature behavior, 11
incompressibility, 12
low temperature behavior, 10–11
mechanical seals, 21–2
oil seals, 18–20
‘O’rings, 12–18
sealing lip design, 20
stretching, 11
Pump assemblies in nuclear
plants, seals in, 34–5
R
Rad, 24
Radiation, cross-linking by
chemical mechanism of, 27–9
Radiation units, 23–5
Radiation-resistant rubber seals,
26–7
Rated movements, 78
Reclaimed rubber, 70
Reinforcing fillers, 59, 60
Rem (radiation equivalent man), 24
Roentgen, 23
Rotary seal compound
brominated butyl compound,
117–18
butadiene acrylonitrile
compounds 112–14
butadiene acrylonitrile/polyvinyl
chloride blend, 123–4
chloroprene compounds,
114–16
chlorosulfonated polyethylene
compounds, 121–2
fluorocarbon rubber compounds,
125–7
isobutylene–isoprene (butyl
rubber) compounds, 117
natural rubber compounds,
109–10
poly-acrylic ester compounds,
119
polysulfide rubber compounds,
120–1
polyurethane compounds, 124–5
silicone rubber compounds,
118–19
styrene butadiene compounds,
110–11
Rotary shaft seals, 29
Rubber expansion joints, 71, 74
advantages, 75–6
in chemical process industry, 73
constructional features, 76–8
expansion and compression
strains, 76
in food and beverages
industry, 73
in heating and air conditioning
systems, 74
in hydrocarbon process
industry, 74
manufacture of, 78–9
multiple bellows in industrial
plants, 74
Rubber failure, 101
Index
147Rubber molding, 98–9
Rubber-/top coat failure, 101
S
Sealing lip design, 20
Sealing materials, 40–1
Seals of rubber, storage and
service life, 129
abrasion, 133–4
brittle point, 131–2
chemical properties, 135
compression set, 136
creep, 132–3
crystallization, 131–2
failure mode and effects analysis,
137–8
fluids effects, 132
friction, 133–4
hysteresis, 133
light aging, 136
‘O’ rings, handling precautions,
138–9
oxygen attack, 135
ozone attack, 136
rubber elasticity, 129–30
second order transition, 131–2
storage specification, 137
stress relaxation, 132–3
tearing, 133–4
thermal effects, 134–5
vulcanization, 130
water resistance, 136
Second order transition, 131–2
Shape factor effects, 12
Side-chain group versus oil
resistance, 91–2
Sievert, 24, 25
Silicone rubber compounds, 68–9,
118–19
advantages and limitations, 88
‘O’ ring compound, 118–19
rotary seal compound, 118–19
Silicones, 41
Single arch expansion joint, 72
Society of Automotive Engineers’
(SAE) straight thread, 2–3
Solubility parameters, 12
for common rubbers, 91
for some common solvents, 91
Squeeze type seals, 7
Stimulation fluid, 46–7
Storage specification, 137
Strain, under swelling, 83–4
Strain crystallization, see
Stretching crystallization
Stress decay, 8
Stress relaxation, 8, 132–3
Stretching, 11
Stretching crystallization
of elastomers, 51
of rubbers, 50–1
Styrene butadiene compounds,
110
‘O’ ring compound, 111
rotary seal compound, 110–11
Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR),
57, 59
advantages and limitations, 90
Substrate cleaning, 97–8
Swelling aspects of rubber, to seal
performance, 81
side-chain group versus oil
resistance, 91–2
under strain, 83–4
structures versus oil, 92
temperature effects, 85–6
tests, 84–5
by various solvents, 92
volume change, 82–3
Synthetic elastomers, 81–2
Synthetic rubbers, 57, 58
T
Tearing of rubber, 133–4
Temperature effects, on rubber
seal, 85–6
Thermal effects, on rubber seal,
134–5
Thermal Oxide Reprocessing
Plant (THORP), 71
Transverse deflection, 76
Trichloroethylene, 104
V
Vamac, 67
Van der Waals’ forces, 129
Vibration fatigue, 1
Viton, 41, 126
Volume change, in rubber
swelling, 82–3
Vulcanization, 27–9, 130
W
Water, resistance to, 136
Well fluid, 45
Z
Zinc diethyl dithiocarbomate
(ZDC) accelerator, 62
Zinc oxide, 62


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» كتاب Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology
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» كتاب Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
» كتاب Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines
» كتاب A TextBook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines

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