كتاب Learn to Weld - Beginning MIG Welding and Metal Fabrication Basics
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Learn to Weld - Beginning MIG Welding and Metal Fabrication Basics

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كتاب Learn to Weld - Beginning MIG Welding and Metal Fabrication Basics  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Learn to Weld - Beginning MIG Welding and Metal Fabrication Basics    كتاب Learn to Weld - Beginning MIG Welding and Metal Fabrication Basics  Emptyالثلاثاء 09 مايو 2023, 12:33 am

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Learn to Weld - Beginning MIG Welding and Metal Fabrication Basics
Stephen Blake Christena

كتاب Learn to Weld - Beginning MIG Welding and Metal Fabrication Basics  L_t_w_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Introduction
Part I: Welding 101
Chapter 1 Welding: Start Here
How Welding Works
The Arc
The Filler Metal
Flux and Shielding Gas
The Ground
Spatter
Why Learn MIG Welding?
Buying Tools and Equipment
Chapter 2 Getting Started
Your Studio
Electrical
Ventilation and Lighting
Studio Layout
Safety and Protective Gear
First Aid
Sparks Are Flying
Protective Gear
Equipment and Tools
The Chop Saw
The Angle Grinder
The Welder
Other Cutting ToolsChapter 3 Selecting, Buying, and Prepping Your Metals
Hot Roll vs. Cold Roll
Filler Material
Decorative Options
Buying Metal
How to Order
Preparing Your Metal
Let’s Prep
Chapter 4 How It Works
Technique
The Puddle
Stance and Comfort
Vision
Hand Position
Angle of the Gun
Heat vs. Thickness
Clamps and Tacking
Exercise 1: The Draw
Part II: Using Your MIG
Chapter 5 The Basics
Basic Joints
Technique
Exercise 1: Butt Joints
Exercise 2: Corner (or Fillet) Welds
The Rest of the Joints
Corner Joints
Lap Joints
The Edge JointExercise 3: Jigs
Other Welding Situations and Positions
Vertical Welding
Cross Body Welding
Chapter 6 Projects
Project 1: The Cube
Project 2: The Welding Table
Project 3: The Runner
Gallery
Glossary
Resources
About the Author
Acknowledgments
Index
x
acetylene gas, 58, 59, 60, 61
alloys, 70
aluminum, 16, 21, 73
American Welding Society, 37
angle grinders. See also equipment.
anti-vibration gloves, 44
blade guards, 44
blocks, 45
chamfer preparation with, 81–82, 83
cut-off wheels, 46
disk replacement, 83
disk types, 42, 45, 46, 79
flap disks, 46
grinding disks, 46, 81
grit scale, 46
metal preparation with, 46, 79, 81
name origin, 42
pressure, 46, 82
purchasing, 24
safety, 42, 44, 45, 46
setting up, 46
sparks, 42
angle welds, 125
anti-vibration gloves, 44
aprons, 35
arc time, 24
arc welding
double arcing, 17, 57, 68
duty cycles, 24
electricity and, 12, 16
electrodes, 12, 14
filler metal, 12, 14, 15flux, 12, 15
ground clamps, 16
plasma, 12
shield gas, 15, 16
temperature, 14
argon, 16
autodarkening helmets, 34
autofeed machines, 15, 24
beads
definition of, 12
filler metal and, 15
metal thickness and, 56, 83, 94
puddle and, 86
TIG welding patterns, 22
bench grinders, 80
burns, 30
butt joints
base metal elevation, 112
carbon burn, 112
chamfer for, 81
cleaning, 112
introduction to, 108
“pull” method and, 86
puddle control, 113–114, 115
“shark tooth” technique, 114
tacking, 111
weld zone, 111, 112
cap rails, 74
carbon burn, 83, 112
carbon dioxide, 12, 15, 16
carbon steel. See mild steel.
chamfers, 81–82, 83
chop saws. See also equipment.
blade replacements, 40–41consumable blades, 40, 142
cutting angles, 39
pressure, 40, 142
setting up, 40
clamps. See also equipment.
grinder cutting and, 46
single corner clamp, 145
storage, 29
three-axis corner clamps, 144, 145, 157
variety of, 95
clothing, 35, 63
CnC (Computer Controlled) cutting machines, 58
cold roll steel, 72, 79, 138
comfort, 88
consumable blade chop saws, 40
corner jigs, 124–125, 146
corner joints, 106, 120
cross body welding, 127
Cube project
cutting, 130–131
grinding, 131
heat management, 135, 136
introduction to, 130
“key holing,” 136
marking, 135
measuring, 130
preparation, 132
stress test, 136
tacking, 132–134
warp prevention, 135
welding, 134–136
cut-off wheels, 46
cutting
chop saws, 39–40
(Computer Controlled) machines, 58
Cube project, 130–131oxy-acetylene torches, 58–61
plasma cutters, 62–69
Runner Table project, 153–155
temperatures and, 40
Welding Table project, 140–142
decorations. See ornamental metals.
diamond plate sheet metal, 74
DIN ratings, 34
double arcing, 17, 57, 68
downhill welding, 126
drag angle. See travel angle.
drag shields, 64, 68
dross. See slag.
duty cycles, 24
duty hours, 25
edge joints, 106, 122
electricity
access to, 24, 28
arc welding and, 12, 18
duty cycle and, 24
ground, 16
MIG welding, 22, 32
outlets, 28
shocks, 32
studio and, 28
TIG welding, 21
wiring, 28, 32
electrodes
definition of, 12
filler metal as, 14
MIG welding, 14, 22
stick welding, 14, 19
TIG welding, 14
equipment. See also angle grinders; chop saws; clamps; oxy-acetylene torches;plasma cutters.
autofeed machines, 15, 24
bench grinders, 80
Computer Controlled (CnC) cutting machines, 58
duty cycles, 24
duty hours, 25
electrical wiring and, 28, 32
exhaust systems, 28
filing cabinets, 29
gas cylinders, 36–37, 54, 59
gloves, 32, 44
helmets, 32, 34, 89
magnetic squares, 145
media blasters, 80
MIG snips, 57
necessity considerations, 23
organization, 29
purchasing considerations, 23, 24
researching, 25
respirator masks, 28, 144
safety symbols, 30
soapstone, 57, 100, 135
space requirements, 29
stools, 88
storage, 29
tip dip, 57, 115
trusted brands, 25
usage considerations, 24
used machines, 25
welding carts, 37
welding supply stores, 25
wire brushes, 57, 79, 83, 100, 112, 118
exhaust systems, 28
expanded sheet metal, 74
eye protection, 34fatigue, 88
ferrous metals, 70
filing cabinets, 29
filler metal
arc and, 14
bead and, 15
definition of, 15
electrode as, 14
feeding, 15, 48
ground clamps and, 51, 52
melting point, 73
metal types and, 73
MIG welding, 14, 15, 22
stick welding, 14, 15
TIG welding, 20
fillet joints
cleaning, 118
definition of, 106
gravity and, 116, 118
introduction to, 106
pattern, 119
puddle control, 118
tacking, 118
uses of, 106
finger safety, 45
fire extinguishers, 31
fires, 31
first aid kits, 30
flap disks, 46
flux
autofeed machines, 15, 24
definition of, 15, 22
impurities and, 15
outdoor welding and, 16
shield gas and, 15–16, 18
MIG welding and, 22polarity and, 49
slag and, 18
spatter and, 17–18
stick welding and, 15
ventilation and, 22
fumes, 22, 28, 35, 144
gases. See also shield gases.
acetylene, 58, 59, 60, 61
carbon dioxide, 16
cylinders, 36–37, 54, 59
ionization, 12, 16, 62
mixture ratios, 16
oxy-acetylene torches, 58–61
plasma, 62
regulators, 56
respirator masks for, 28
gauges, 76, 77
gloves, 32, 44
GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding).
See MIG welding.
grinders. See angle grinders.
ground clamps
arc welding and, 12, 16, 21
connecting to welder, 49
filler wire and, 51, 52
plasma cutters, 64
safety, 32, 53
used machines, 25
Welding Table project and, 138, 139
GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)
See TIG welding.
guns
angle of, 91–92, 98, 118
assembly of, 48
description of, 47holding, 90, 98, 100, 101, 126
setting up, 48
trigger, 48
HAZ (heat-affected zone), 93, 94
helmets, 32, 34, 89
hot roll steel, 72
inclusions. See also slag.
chamfer and, 110
chemical removal of, 80
flux and, 15
gun angle and, 91
soapstone and, 57
shield gas flow and, 113
stick length and, 101
weld quality and, 78, 79
weld zone cleaning and, 112
jigs, 124–125, 146
joints
butt joints, 108, 110–115
edge joints, 106, 122
fillet joints, 106, 116–119
lap joints, 106, 122
corner joints, 106, 120
kerf, 62–63
“key holing,” 136
lap joints, 106, 122
lighting, 28
magnetic squares, 145
measurements
Cube project, 130metal thickness, 76, 77
Runner Table project, 152, 153, 157–158, 159
tacking and, 96
Welding Table project, 137, 138, 140, 141, 149, 151
media blasting, 80
metals. See also mild steel.
alloys, 70
aluminum, 16, 21, 73, 138
distributors, 75, 77
ferrous, 70
gauges, 76, 77
iron, 70, 73
mill scale, 46, 72, 80, 100
oil coatings, 78
ordering, 77
ornamental, 74
pricing, 75
purchasing, 75, 77
titanium, 16, 153
zinc, 16, 35, 144, 150
Midwest Metalworks, 9
MIG gloves, 32
MIG snips, 57
MIG welding
autofeed machines compared to, 15
carbon byproducts, 83
components of, 47
ease of use, 23
electricity and, 22, 32
electrode, 14, 22
filler metal and, 14, 15
flux and, 22
gas cylinder connection to, 54
ground connection to, 49
gun, 47–48
hose connection to, 49metal thickness settings, 55, 56
nozzle, 22, 48
polarity, 15, 49
safety, 32
setting up, 48
shield gas, 15, 22, 56, 101
spatter, 17–18
ventilation and, 22
voltage settings, 55, 99, 113
wire brushes for, 83
wire feed, 15, 22, 50–53, 55, 77, 99, 113
wire length, 101
wire tension, 52
mild steel. See also metals.
angle grinder disks for, 46
carbon content, 70
cold roll, 72, 79, 138
Cube project, 130
distributors, 77
filler metal, 22, 50, 73
hot roll, 72
melting temperature, 14
uses of, 70
versatility of, 12
Welding Table project, 138
mill scale, 46, 72, 80, 100
“moon craters,” 78
muriatic acid, 80
nozzles
accidental arcing with, 25
angle of, 91, 98, 126, 127, 134
connecting, 48
line of sight and, 89
MIG welding, 22, 48
shield gas and, 22, 48spatter protection, 17, 57
TIG welding, 19
tip dip, 57, 115
ornamental metals, 74
outdoor welding
flux core and, 16
shield gas and, 16
stick welding and, 16, 19
overhead welding, 34
overheating. See temperatures.
oxy-acetylene torches. See also equipment.
acetone, 59, 60
hoses, 60
igniting, 61
pressure settings, 60
regulators, 59
safety, 59–60
slag, 61
valve, 60, 61
patterns
bead patterns, 22
fillet joints, 119
“nickels on the side,” 22, 109
“shark tooth,” 114, 120
“stack of dimes,” 22, 109
TIG welding, 22, 109
pedal controllers, 19
perforated sheet metal, 74
plasma, 12
plasma cutters. See also equipment.
cutting with, 64, 65–69
DIN shades and, 34
drag shields, 64, 68
kerf, 62–63precision with, 23, 62
prices of, 63
slag, 64, 69
porosity
chamfers and 110
“moon craters,” 78
preventing, 78, 79
preparation
acetone cleaning, 78–79
alcohol cleaning, 78–79
angle grinders and, 79, 81
bench grinders, 80
benefits of, 78
chamfers and, 81–82, 83
chemical cleaning, 80
Cube project, 132
media blasting, 80
muriatic acid, 80
Runner Table project, 156
small pieces, 80
Welding Table project, 143
wire brushes and, 79
projects
Cube, 130–136
Runner Table, 152–161
Welding Table, 137–151
puddle
butt joints, 113–114, 115
controlling, 86, 109, 113–114, 115
fillet joints, 118
gravity and, 126
heat management and, 93
machine adjustments and, 113
nozzle angle and, 98
pulling, 86
pushing, 86shield gases and, 91
thin materials and, 89
“toeing,” 116, 117
uphill welding, 126
weld speed and, 117
recrystallization temperatures, 72
respirator masks, 28, 144
rhythm, 86
Runner Table project
cutting, 153–155
introduction, 152–153
marking, 153, 154
materials, 153
measurements, 152, 153, 157–158, 159
miter cuts, 153, 154
painting, 161
preparation, 156
surface, 161
tacking, 156–158
welding, 159–161
wood mounting, 161
safety
angle grinders, 42, 44, 45, 46
burns, 30
chop saw blade replacement, 40
clothing, 35, 63
electric shocks, 32
eye protection, 34
fingers, 45
fire extinguishers, 31
first aid kits, 30
flame-retardant materials, 26
fumes, 35
gas cylinders, 36–37ground clamps, 32, 53
helmets, 32, 34, 89
metal temperatures, 30
MIG gloves, 32
MIG welding, 32
muriatic acid, 80
overhead welding, 34
oxy-acetylene torch, 59–60
plasma cutters, 63
respirator masks, 28, 144
scalp protection, 34–35
shield gases, 28
shoes, 35
spark fires, 31
spatter prevention, 57
spatter protection, 18
studio considerations, 26
symbols, 30
tip dip, 57, 115
trusted brands and, 25
UV burns, 32, 35
ventilation, 22, 26, 28, 35
water buckets, 31
welding blankets, 26
saws. See chop saws.
scalp protection, 34–35
“shark tooth” technique, 114, 120
shield gases. See also gases.
advantages of, 16
argon, 16
carbon burn and, 112
conductivity and, 12
chart for, 55
connecting, 54
flux and, 15–16
flux-core and, 22gun angle and, 91–92, 98
ionization and, 12
line of sight and, 16
MIG welding and, 15, 22, 101
mixtures, 16, 55
nozzle and, 22, 48
outdoor usage, 16
pressure settings, 22, 56, 93, 111, 112, 113
puddle and, 91
regulators, 56
safety, 28
slag prevention with, 16
spatter and, 57
stick length and, 101
TIG welding and, 19
tip dip and, 57, 115
vertical welding and, 126
shocks, 32
shoes, 35
sight. See vision.
single corner clamps, 145
slag. See also inclusions.
removing, 15, 69
shield gas and, 16
stick welding and, 15, 18
SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding). See stick welding.
soapstone, 57, 100, 135
spatter
definition of, 17
prevention of, 17–18, 57, 115
safety, 32, 34–35
stick welding and, 17–18
table surface and, 139
TIG welding and, 20
tip dip and, 57, 115
stainless steelalloys, 70
argon and, 16
brushes, 57, 79, 83, 100, 112, 118
table and, 138
TIG welding and, 19, 20
stance, 88
stick welding
electricity, 18
electrodes, 14, 19
filler metal, 14, 15
flux, 15
outdoor welding and, 16, 19
slag and, 15, 18
spatter and, 17–18
studio
basement as, 28
electricity, 28
equipment storage, 29
exhaust systems, 28, 35
first aid kits, 30
flame-retardant materials in, 26
garage as, 26
layout, 29
lighting, 28
organization, 29
safety considerations, 26
shed as, 26
space requirements, 26, 29
spark fires, 31
ventilation, 22, 26, 28, 35
tacking
butt joints, 111
Cube project, 132–134
definition of, 96
fillet joints, 118heat control and, 98
measurements and, 96
mistake correction and, 96
Runner Table project, 156–158
warp prevention and, 96
Welding Table project, 147–148
techniques
butt joint weld, 110–115
comfort, 88
corner joints, 120–121
cross body welding, 127
draw, 99–103
edge joints, 122
fillet weld, 116–119
gun angle, 91–92, 98
hand position, 90
heat control, 93–94, 98
jigs, 124–125
lap joints, 122
pattern techniques, 109
puddle control, 86
rhythm, 86
“shark tooth” technique, 114, 120
sound cues, 101, 103
stance, 88
tacking, 96–97, 98
temperature control, 93, 98
temperatures. See also warping.
arc welding, 14
burns and, 30
cutting and, 40
duty cycle and, 24
heat control, 93–94, 98, 135, 136
“key holing,” 136
melting temperatures, 14, 73
metal rolling, 72oxy-acetylene torches, 58, 59
plasma cutters, 62
recrystallization, 72
safety and, 30
warping and, 94, 95, 96, 97, 135
textures, 79
three-axis corner clamps, 144, 145, 157
TIG welding
bead patterns, 22
costs of, 21
electricity, 21
electrode, 14
filler metal, 20
joint welding with, 109
nozzle, 19
pedal controller, 19
shield gases, 19
spatter, 20
weld patterns, 109
tip dip, 57, 115
titanium, 16, 153
travel angle, 91, 126, 134
uphill welding, 126
UV burns, 32, 35
ventilation, 22, 26, 28, 35
vertical welding, 126
vision, 16, 89
warping. See also temperatures.
causes of, 93, 94, 136
clamps and, 95
plasma cutters and, 62
prevention of, 95, 96, 97, 135, 139, 160
tacking and, 56, 96, 97thin metals and, 83, 94, 135
websites
American Welding Society, 37
metal distributors, 75
welding blankets, 26
welding carts, 37
Welding Table project
casters, 138, 140, 143–144, 149–150, 151
conductivity, 138, 139
considerations, 138–139
corners, 144–146
cutting, 140–142
frame welding, 149–151
ground clamping to, 138, 139
height considerations, 138
introduction to, 137
legs, 140
marking, 142
materials, 138, 139
measurements, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 149, 151
miter cuts, 140, 141
mobility, 138, 143–144
painting, 151
preparation, 143
size considerations, 138
surface area, 138–139
surface welding, 151
tacking, 147–148
wire brushes, 57, 79, 83, 100, 112, 118
wire feed, 50–53, 55
wire tension, 52
zinc, 16, 35


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