كتاب The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------
-Warning-

This website uses cookies
We inform you that this site uses own, technical and third parties cookies to make sure our web page is user-friendly and to guarantee a high functionality of the webpage.
By continuing to browse this website, you declare to accept the use of cookies.
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------
-Warning-

This website uses cookies
We inform you that this site uses own, technical and third parties cookies to make sure our web page is user-friendly and to guarantee a high functionality of the webpage.
By continuing to browse this website, you declare to accept the use of cookies.



 
الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

شاطر
 

 كتاب The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
Admin

عدد المساهمات : 18617
التقييم : 34421
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers    كتاب The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers  Emptyالسبت 29 أبريل 2023, 12:15 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers
Laurence W. McKeen  

كتاب The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers  T_e_o_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Foreword
1. Introduction to the Effect of Heat Aging on Plastics
2. Introduction to the Physical, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Plastics and Elastomers
3. The Effect of Heat Aging on the Properties of Styrenic Plastics
4. The Effect of Heat Aging on the Properties of Polyesters
5. The Effect of Heat Aging on the Properties of Polyimides
6. The Effect of heat aging on the properties of Polyamides (Nylons)
7. The Effect of heat aging on the properties of Polyolefins, Polyvinyls & Acrylics
8. The Effect of heat aging on the properties of Fluoropolymers
9. The Effect of heat aging on the properties of High Temperature/High Performance Polymers
10. The Effect of heat aging on the properties of Elastomers and rubbers
11. The Effect of heat aging on the properties of Sustainable polymers
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures and tables, respectively.
A
Acetal copolymer, 229
chemical structure, 231f
vs. homopolymer, 229230, 232
Acetal homopolymer, 227
chemical structure, 231f
vs. copolymer, 229230, 232
Acid scavengers, 2223
Acrylonitrile-butadiene (NBR)
copolymers, 259270
applications and uses, 266
bound antioxidant NBR, 263
carboxylated nitrile (XNBR), 263
cold NBR, 259
crosslinked hot NBR, 263
HNBR, 263266
hot NBR, 259262
manufacturers and trade names, 266
monomers and polymer structure, 268f
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 73
chemical structures, 74f
elongation energy to break vs. heat
aging, 78f
impact strength, as a function of aging
time at 90°C and 120°C
notched ABS, 76f
unnotched ABS, 77f
penetration energy vs. heat aging time
at 90°C, 75f
stress-strain curve, 78f
TGA, 75f
thermooxidation degradation
polybutadiene, 74f
yellowing, 76f
Young’s modulus, 77f
Acrylonitrile-styrene acrylate (ASA),
8082
penetration energy vs. heat aging time
at 90°C, 82f
yellowing, 82f
Acudel® 22000, TGA in air and nitrogen,
218f
Acudel® 25000, TGA in air and nitrogen,
218f
Addition polymerization, 12, 2f
chain initiation, 1
chain propagation, 1
chain termination, 1
Additives
antiblock, 14, 14f
antistatic, 16
platelet, 12
slip, 1314
Aflas®
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 265f
Aliphatic TPU, 240
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), 47
standards for common polymer
families, 50t
Amodel® A-1000, 163f
Amodel® A-1133, 164f
Amorphous nylon (polyamides), 139141
applications and uses, 141
characteristics, 139
chemical structure, 142f
manufacturers and trade names, 141
Amorphous plastic, crystalline plastic vs.,
10, 10f
Antiblock additives, 14, 14f
Antioxidants
chain breaking, 1718
phenolic. See Phenolic antioxidants
Antistatic additives, 16
Aromatic TPU, 240
ASA. See Acrylonitrile-styrene acrylate
(ASA)
ASTM. See American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM)
Atactic polypropene, 67, 7f
Aurum®, 124f
B
Bayer TPU, effect of 70 h of thermal
aging on the tensile strength of,
241f
Benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymer,
175176
manufacturers and trade names, 175
structure, 176f
thermal stability as measured by time to
1% weight loss vs. temperature,
177f
Biphenol diamine PMDA PEI, 124f
Bis-benzoxazolyl-stilbene, 20
chemical structure, 22f
excitation and emission curves, 21f
4,40-bisphenol A dianhydride (BPADA),
121
monomer, chemical structure, 125f
BPADA-DDS PEI sulfone, 124f
BPADA-MPD PEI, 124f
BPADA-PMDA-MPD copolyetherimide,
125f
BPADA-PPD PEI, 124f
Branched polymers, 3, 3f
Brighteners. See Optical brighteners
Bromobutyl rubber, 244
applications and uses, 244
crosslinking (vulcanization), 258f
elongation at break retained vs. aging
time at various temperature, 259f
isoprene-based structural units, 258f
manufacturers and trade name, 244
C
CalibreTM 300 PC
effect of aging in air on yield stress,
100f
effect of aging time in air at various
temperatures on Izod impact
strength, 99f
Caprolactam, 141
Carbon black, 15
Catalysts, 14
Celanex® PBT, 8890
decrease in tensile stress at break of
flame retardant, heat aging trial at
180°C, 92f
decrease in tensile stress at break of
reinforced and unreinforced, heat
aging trial at 180°C, 91f
273Celanex® PBT (Continued)
dimensional effects on heat aging at
149°C on glass reinforced, 93f
dimensional effects on heat aging of
glass reinforced, 91f
heat aging effects at 170°C on
dielectric strength of reinforced
flame retardant grades, 93f
heat aging effects at 170°C on
dielectric strength of reinforced
grades, 94f
heat aging effects at 170°C on tensile
strength of reinforced grades,
94f
heat aging effects on tensile strength,
reinforced flame retardant grades,
92f
volume resistivity of reinforced grades,
95f
Celcon®
shrinkage due to heat aging at various
temperatures, 233f
Chain breaking antioxidants,
1718
Chain-growth polymerization.
See Addition polymerization
Chevron Phillips Chemical Company. See
Ryton®, thermal aging effects;
Xtel®, thermal aging effects
Chlorobutyl rubber, 244245
Chloroprene, 244245, 259f
Cis-isomers, 6, 6f
Cl2 molecule, 4
Coefficient of friction (COF),
13
COF. See Coefficient of friction (COF)
Color, 4345, 44f, 45t
Combustion modifiers, 12
Composites, 12
Condensation polymerization, 2, 2f
Copolyesters, 102114
manufacturers, 114
monomers used, 113f
Copolymer, acetal, 229
chemical structure, 231f
vs. homopolymer, 229230, 232
Copolymers, 23. See also specific
copolymers
alternating, 2
block, 3
classifications, 2
graft, 3
random, 2
Coupling agents, 15
Covalent bonds, 4
CRASTIN® PBT
impact strength vs. aging time at 135°C
and 100% humidity, 98f
thermal endurance, 95f
of additional, 96f
of flame resistant, 96f
ultimate tensile stress with aging time
at 135°C and 100% humidity, 97f
Creep, 17, 3141
categories, 33
illustration, 32f
measures, 3441
creep strength and rupture strength,
3841
modulus, 3738
stress, strain, and time, 3437
regions, 3334
stages, 33
Creep modulus, 3738
relaxation modulus, 37, 38f
time plot at various temperatures, 39f
Creep rupture curves, 40, 40f, 41f
Creep rupture stress (envelopes), 3839,
40f
Crosslinked polymers, 3, 3f
Crystalline plastic, vs. amorphous plastic,
10, 10f
Cyclotenett 4026, 176f
D
Degree of polymerization, 9
Degree of unsaturation (DoU), 45
Delrin®
isothermal thermogravimetric analysis
(TGA), 232f
time vs. heat aging temperature leading
to a 78% retention of tensile
strength, 232f
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
2730
glass transition process, 30f, 32f
heat flux, 29f
OIT, 31f
polyethylene terephthalate, 30f
power compensated, 29f
Dipole bonding, 7
Dipole moment, 3, 4t
DMTA. See Dynamic mechanical thermal
analysis (DMTA)
Dyes, 15
Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis
(DMTA), 6667, 67f
E
Eastar® Copolyester 6763, 104114
accelerated physical aging data
accelerated aging, in medical
packaging, 114t
yield stress as a function of aging time
at 67°C, 114f
ECTFE. See Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer
Elastollan® TPU, 241f
Elastomers, description, 239. See also
specific elastomers
Elastomer tests, 49t
Electrical tests, 49t
Electronegativity, 3
EMS-Grivory® GV-4H, -5H, and -6H,
166f
EMS-Grivory® HT, 165f
ENR. See Epoxidized natural rubber
(ENR)
EPDM rubber, 242
Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR), 250
EPR. See Ethylene-propylene rubber
(EPR)
Estane® FR TPU, 241t
Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene
copolymer, 200207
applications and uses, 207
chemical structure, 206f
manufacturers and trade names, 205
Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), 242,
245246
applications and uses, 246
manufacturers and trade names, 246
types, 245246
Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE),
198200
applications and uses, 200
chemical structure, 200f
degradation (TGA) rates, 202t
manufacturers and trade names, 200
TGA, 206f
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer,
179182
manufacturers and trade names, 182
properties, 180
structure, 181f
TGA in nitrogen, 182f
Extenders, 15
F
FEP. See Fluorinated ethylene-propylene
(FEP)
Fillers, 1112
Flexural properties, 56
Fluon®, 205f
grades, 202t
Fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP),
185189
ball and stick three-dimensional
representation, 189f
chemical structure, 188f
degradation (TGA) rates, 189t
three-dimensional representation, 188f
Fluoroelastomer (FKM), 246250
“A” types, 246247
“B” types, 247
compression set vs. hours aging, 266f
curing chemistry, 265f
274 INDEXFFKM, 248249
“F” types, 247
FVMQ, 248
monomers used to make, 263f
sealing force retention vs. hours aging
at 204°C, 265f
Viton® GF, 247
Viton® GFLT, 247248
Fluoropolymer
ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene
copolymer, 200207
ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE),
198200
FEP, 185189
melting point ranges, 184t
monomers, 184f
overview, 183
perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 189191
polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE),
193197
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE),
183185
polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 191193
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF),
198
Fortron®
izod impact strength vs. heat aging, at
150°C, 216f
tensile modulus vs. heat aging, 217f
tensile strength vs. heat aging, 216f
at 150°C, 215f
TGA in air and nitrogen, 217f
G
Glass transition temperature, 6671
mechanical methods, 6667
thermal-mechanical analysis, 30f, 68
thermal methods, 6871
Gloss measurement, 4546
Grilamid®, 146f
Grilamid® TR55, 142f
Grilon® A, 150f
Grilon® B, 144f
Grilon® TS, 161f
H
Halar®, 206f
Hardness tests, 49t
Haze measurement, 46
Head-to-tail isomers, 6, 6f
Heat aging testing, 2331
oven aging, 2324
thermal analysis, 2431
DSC. See Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC)
TGA. See Thermogravimetric
analysis (TGA)
Heat deflection temperature, 6365, 65f
Heating, 17
High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 171
see also Polyethylene (PE)
High-impact polystyrene (HIPS), 3
HIPS. See High-impact polystyrene
(HIPS)
Homopolymer, acetal, 227
chemical structure, 231f
vs. copolymer, 229230, 232
Homopolymers, polypropylene (PP),
172
Hostaform®, isothermal TGA at 200°C in
air, 236f
Hostaform® C 9021
elongation at break as a function of
aging time
change in, and temperature (in air)
represented on an Arrhenius
diagram, 235f
relative, in air at elevated
temperature, 234f
tensile strength as a function of aging
time
change in, and temperature
represented on an Arrhenius
diagram, 234f
relative, in air at elevated
temperature, 233f
Hostaform® S 9064, 235f
Hostaform® S 9244, 235f
Hostaphan® PET, 111f
Hydrocarbon molecules, 4
C-C and C-H bonds, 4
Hydrogen bonding, 7, 8f
Hydrolysis, 2
Hyflon®, 194f
Hytrel® 4056, 249t
Hytrel® 5556, 7246, and 8238
heat aging: blends of Hytrel® 52FR
flame retardant concentrate
at 100°C, 251t
at 125°C, 253t
at 135°C, 255t
Hytrel® 51FR, 249t
Hytrel® 52FR, 251t
I
Illuminant, 43
Impact copolymers, polypropylene (PP),
173
Impact modifiers, 14
Impact tests, 49t
Internal lubricants. See Slip additives/
internal lubricants
ISO, standards for common polymer
families, 50t
Isomers, 57
geometric, 6
stereoisomers, 67
structural, 6, 6f
Isophorone bisphenol-based PCs,
100102
applications and uses, 102
change in yellowness index at 1000 h
vs. aging temperature, 113f
chemical structure, 113f
Isotactic polypropene, 7, 7f
Iupilon®/NOVAREX® PC, 99f
IXEF® 1022, 162f
IXEF® 1521, 162t
IXEF® PAA, 162f
K
Kapton® Type HN PI Film
isothermal weight loss in air versus
time, 133f
isothermal weight loss in helium vs.
time, 133f
retained dielectric strength at 325°C,
132f
tensile strength retained vs. aging in air
at 325°C, 131f
tensile strength vs. aging in air at 325°
C, 129f
TGA in air and helium, 134f
time required for reduction in ultimate
elongation from 70% to 1%, 129t
ultimate elongation retained vs. aging in
air at 325°C, 132f
L
LCP. See Liquid crystalline polymers
(LCP)
Lexan® XHT PC, 101f
Light source, 43
Linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 171, 174f
see also Polyethylene (PE)
density vs. aging time in air at various
temperatures, 174f
elongation at break retained vs. aging
time in air at various temperatures,
174f
Linear polymers, 3, 3f
Liquid crystalline polymers (LCP), 8586
applications and uses, 85
chemical structures of monomers, 87f
manufacturers and trade names, 85
M
Mechanical testing, 4763, 48t
Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE),
171
see also Polyethylene (PE)
Melt flow index, 63, 63f
Melting point estimation, 6566, 66f
Metal dactivators, 20, 21f
Mica, 15
Molar mass dispersity index, 9
INDEX 275Molecular unsaturation, 45
Molecular weight, 89, 9f
N
Natural rubber, 250259
applications and uses, 250
epoxidation, 250
heat aging, 267t
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in
air, 268f
NeoflonTM, 192f
elongation after exposure at 200°C,
205f
elongation vs. aging time at 200°C,
190f
tensile strength after exposure at 200°C,
204f
tensile strength vs. aging time at 200°C,
189f
TGA, 190f
Neoprene WRT polychloroprene, 260t
Network polymer. See Crosslinked
polymers
Nitrile rubber, 259
modulus properties vs. heat aging, 270t
tensile strength and elongation at break
vs. heat aging, 269t
Nordel® EPDM
changes in the properties at various
temperatures, 261t
variation of dielectric constant vs. aging
time at 90°C, 262f
variation of resistivity vs. aging time at
90°C, 262f
Nylon 6 (polyamide 6), 141142
characteristics, 141142
chemical structure, 143f
manufacturers and trade names, 142
Nylon 11 (polyamide 11), 142
characteristics, 142
chemical structure, 144f
manufacturers and trade names, 142
TGA, 145f
Nylon 12 (polyamide 12), 142145
characteristics, 142145
chemical structure, 145f
manufacturers and trade names,
145
Nylon 46 (polyamide 12), 145
applications and uses, 145
characteristics, 145
chemical structure, 146f
Izod impact strength vs. heat aging at
150°C, 149f
manufacturers and trade names, 145
ultimate tensile strength versus heat
aging at 150°C, 148f
Nylon 66 (polyamide 66), 145157
applications and uses, 148
characteristics, 145148
chemical structure, 149f
dependence of impact strengths on
aging time, 158f
dependence of ultimate tensile stresses
on aging time, 157f
manufacturers and trade names,
148
TGA, 149f
Nylon 612 (polyamide 612), 158159
applications and uses, 159
characteristics, 158159
chemical structure, 159f
manufacturers and trade names,
159
Nylon 666 (polyamide 666), 159
Nylon (polyamides)
amino acids, 141f
amorphous, 139141
characteristics, 139
chemical structure, 142f
diacids, 140f
diamines, 140f
generalized reaction, 140f
monomers, 140t
overview, 139
properties, 139
stabilization, 139
thermooxidation, 139, 141f
O
OIT. See Oxidative induction time/
oxidation induction time (OIT)
Optical brighteners, 1415, 2021
chemical structure, 22f
reflectance vs. wavelength of polyester
composite with and without, 22f
Oven aging, 2324
heat aging curves, 2324, 24f, 25f
Oxidative induction time/oxidation
induction time (OIT), 3031, 31f
P
Parylene HT
dielectric strength
vs. long-term heat aging under
various conditions, 227f
vs. short-term heat aging under
various conditions, 229f
modulus
vs. long-term heat aging under
various conditions, 228f
vs. short-term heat aging under
various conditions, 230f
tensile strength
vs. long-term heat aging under
various conditions, 228f
vs. short-term heat aging under
various conditions, 230f
TGA, 227f
water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)
vs. long-term heat aging under
various conditions, 229f
vs. short-term heat aging under
various conditions, 231f
Parylene (poly(p-xylylene)), 224226
applications and uses, 226
manufacturers and trade names, 226
structures, 226f
PBT. See Polybutylene terephthalate
(PBT)
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 189191
ball and stick three-dimensional
representation, 191f
break elongation, change in, 193f
chemical structure, 191f
comonomers, 190t
melt flow rate, change in, 193f
tensile strength, change in, 192f
three-dimensional representation, 191f
PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate
(PET)
Petra® 130 PET, 111f
Phenolic antioxidants, 1718
chemical structure, 19f
hydroperoxide radicals and, 18, 19f
Phosphites, 1819, 19f, 20f
Phosphonites, 1819
Pigments, 15
Plasticizers, 15
Platelet additives, 12
Polar bond, 34
Polarity, 34
qualitative ranking, 4f
Polyacetals, 228
Polyacrylics, 177
applications and uses, 177
heat aging, 178t
manufacturers and trade names, 177
Polyamide alloys, 168
Polyamide-imides (PAI), 117
chemical structure, 118f
monomer, 118f
polymer units, 118t, 119t
Polyarylamide, 159161
applications and uses, 161
characteristics, 161
manufacturers and trade names, 161
Polyaryletherketone (PAEK), 209210
PEEK. See Polyether ether ketone
(PEEK)
properties, 209
structure, 209, 209f
Polybutylene naphthalate (PBN), 99100,
112f
heat aging effect on tensile strength at
200°C, 112f
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT),
8693
applications and uses, 87
chemical structure, 90f
276 INDEXheat aging effect on tensile strength at
200°C, 112f
manufacturers and trade names, 87
properties, 8687
Polycarbonate (PC), 9396
applications and uses, 96
chemical structure, 98f
monomers, 98f
effect of aging time at 135°C in air on
the glass transition temperature,
101f
effect of Arkema Durashield Impact
modifier on impact strength and
aging at 120°C, 100f
manufacturers and trade names, 96
properties, 9495
thermal decomposition chemistry, 95
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE),
193197
applications and uses, 196
chemical structure, 196f
degradation rate, 197t
manufacturers and trade names, 195
thermal degradation, 197f
Polydispersity (PDI), 9
Polyesters
copolyesters, 102114
formulation, 85
isophorone bisphenol-based PCs,
100102
LCP. See Liquid crystalline polymers
(LCP)
PBN, 99100, 112f
PBT. See Polybutylene terephthalate
(PBT)
PEN, 99100
PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate
polyester (PET)
polycarbonate (PC), 9396
stabilization, 85
thermal degradation, 85
Polyester TPU, 239
characteristic features, 240
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK), 209, 211f
properties, 209210
structure, 209, 209f
Polyetherimide (PEI), 117125
applications and uses, 125
manufacturers and trade names, 121
monomers, chemical structures, 124f,
125f
performance features, 117
Polyethersulfone (PES), 221224
flexural modulus vs. aging time at 204°
C, 225f
heat deflection temperature vs. aging
time at 204°C, 226f
manufacturers and trade names, 222
properties, 222
structure, 221222, 221f
tensile elongation vs. aging time at 204°
C, 225f
tensile strength, half-life period of,
temperature dependence, 222f
tensile strength vs. aging time at 204°C,
224f
Polyether TPU, 239240
characteristic features, 240
Polyethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene.
See Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer
Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 99100
applications and uses, 100
manufacturers and trade names, 100
structure, 112f
Polyethylene (PE), 171172
applications and uses, 172
classifications, 171
degradation pathways, 173f
graphical depictions, 172f
graphical diagram of crystal structure,
172f
high-density polyethylene (HDPE), 171
linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 171, 174f
low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 171
manufacturers and trade names, 172
medium-density polyethylene (MDPE),
171
monomers, 171f
TGA in air and nitrogen, 173f
thermal decomposition, 27f
thermooxidative degradation, 172
ultra low-density polyethylene
(ULDPE), 171
very low-density polyethylene
(VLDPE), 171
Polyethylene terephthalate, 2
Polyethylene terephthalate polyester, 9799
applications and uses, 98
chemical structure, 101f
heat aging effect
on elongation, 108f
on the impact strength, 109f
on the modulus, 109f
on the tear strength, 110f
on the tensile strength, 110f
impact strengths with aging time, 108f
manufacturers and trade names, 98
ultimate tensile stresses with aging
time, 107f
Polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene.
See Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene
(ETFE)
Polyflon®
elongation vs. aging time at 380°C, 188f
specific gravity vs. aging time at 380°
C, 187f
tensile strength vs. aging time at 380°C,
188f
Polyformaldehyde, 227
and acetic acid, condensation reaction,
228
Polyimides, 125136
applications and uses, 128
chemical structures
monomers, 128f
typical, 128f
manufacturers and trade names, 128
Polyisoprene. See Natural rubber
Polymerization see also Copolymers
addition, 12, 2f
condensation, 2, 2f
description, 12
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 177,
177f
Polyolefins, 171175
monomers, 171f
polyethylene (PE), 171172
applications and uses, 172
classifications, 171
degradation pathways, 173f
graphical depictions, 172f
graphical diagram of crystal
structure, 172f
high-density polyethylene (HDPE),
171
linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 171
low-density polyethylene (LDPE),
171
manufacturers and trade names, 172
medium-density polyethylene
(MDPE), 171
monomers, 171f
TGA in air and nitrogen, 173f
thermooxidative degradation, 172
ultra low-density polyethylene
(ULDPE), 171
very low-density polyethylene
(VLDPE), 171
polypropylene (PP). See Polypropylene
(PP)
Polyolefin thermoplastic elastomer (TPO),
242
applications and uses, 242
manufacturers and trade names, 242
Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-Co),
229
see also Acetal copolymer
Polyoxymethylene (POM), 227
see also Acetal homopolymer
Polyphenylene ether (PPE).
See Polyphenylene oxide (PPO)
Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), 237238
chemical structure, 237f
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 238f
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 210214
applications and uses, 213
manufacturers and trade names, 213
INDEX 277Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) (Continued)
properties, 212213
tensile strength vs. aging time at 150°C,
219f
variants, 212
Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 221
applications and uses, 221
manufacturers and trade names, 221
properties, 221
structure, 221f
TGA in air and nitrogen, 221f
Polyphthalamide (PPA), 161167
applications and uses, 163
change in Izod impact strength (ASTM
D 4812) vs. heat aging at 150°C,
166f
change in tensile strength (ASTM D
638) vs. heat aging at 150°C, 165f
characteristics, 161163
chemical structures, 163f
manufacturers and trade names, 163
Polypropene see also Isomers
atactic, 67, 7f
isotactic, 7, 7f
structure, 6, 6f
syndiotactic, 7, 7f
Polypropylene (PP), 172175
applications and uses, 175
degradation pathways, 175f
homopolymers, 172
impact copolymers, 173
manufacturers and trade names, 175
random copolymers, 173
stabilization, 174175
TGA in air and nitrogen, 176f
thermal stability, 175f
thermooxidative degradation, 174
types, 172174
Polystyrene, 7377
chemical structure, 78f
TGA, 80f
thermooxidation pathways, 79f
Polystyrene (PS), 237238
Polysulfone (PSU), 215220
structure, 219f
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 220f
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 13,
183185
ball and stick three-dimensional
representation, 184f
chemical structure, 184f
degradation (TGA) rates, 185t
electrical properties, 185t
elongation vs. aging time at 250°C,
187f
tensile strength vs. aging time at 250°C,
186f
TGA, 186f
three-dimensional representation, 184f
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 177179
applications and uses, 179
chemical structure, 179
dehydrochlorination, 179f
elongation at break vs. aging time at
several temperatures, 181f
Izod impact strength versus aging time
at several temperatures, 181f
manufacturers and trade names, 179
radical generation, 179f
stabilization, 179
tensile modulus vs. aging time at
several temperatures, 180f
tensile strength vs. aging time at several
temperatures, 180f
thermal degradation, 179
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 191193
applications and uses, 193
description, 193
structure, 195f
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 198
applications and uses, 198
change in tensile strength and break
elongation, 199f
manufacturers and trade names, 198
PPS. See Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
Puncture resistance, 5660
Charpy impact strength, 58, 59f, 60f,
60t
drop dart impact test, 5758, 58f
Gardner impact strength, 5860, 60f
high-speed puncture test, 5657
Izod impact strength, 58, 59f, 60f, 60t
PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
R
Radel®
tensile strength retained vs. thermal
aging, 223f
TGA in air and nitrogen, 222f
Random copolymers, 173
see also Polypropylene (PP)
Release agents, 12
Rigidity, 53
Riteflex®, 248f
RYNITE® 408, 98
heat aging effect on tensile strength,
105f
RYNITE® 530, 98
heat aging effect on impact resistance,
106f
heat aging effect on tensile strength,
102f
RYNITE® 545, 98
heat aging effect on impact resistance,
106f
heat aging effect on tensile strength,
102f
RYNITE® 555, 98
heat aging effect on tensile strength,
103f
RYNITE® 935, 98
heat aging effect on tensile strength,
105f
RYNITE® FR530, 99
heat aging effect on impact resistance,
107f
heat aging effect on tensile strength,
103f
RYNITE® FR543, 99
heat aging effect on tensile strength,
104f
RYNITE® FR943, 99
heat aging effect on tensile strength,
104f
Ryton®, thermal aging effects
at 165°C, 213t
at 200°C, 214t
at 220°C, 214t
at 240°C, 215t
S
Santoprene® 40, 246t
Santoprene® 50, 248t
Santoprene® 55, 242t
Santoprene® 64, 243t
Santoprene® 73, 244t
Santoprene® 80, 245t
Santoprene® 87, 246t
Shear properties, 5356
Slip additives/internal lubricants, 1314
Solef®
mechanical properties, 199f
TGA, 200f
thermal aging tests at 150°C, 199t
thermal aging tests at various
temperatures, 198t
Stanyl®
heat aging resistance, 147t
tensile strength after heat aging at 150°
C, 147f
tensile strength after heat aging at 210°
C, 147f
Step-growth polymerization.
See Condensation polymerization
Stereoisomers, 67
see also Isomers; Polypropene
Steric hindrance, 5, 5f
Stress rupture, 38, 39f
Stress-strain-time plot, 3437, 34f, 36f
Structural isomers, 6, 6f
Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN),
7779
chemical structure, 81f
TGA curve, 81f
Styrenic-butadiene copolymer (SBC),
8283
microscopic structure, 83f
penetration energy vs. heat aging time
at 90°C, 83f
yellowing, 84f
278 INDEXStyron 685D, 80f
Sumikaexcel® 4800G
tensile strength half-life, temperature
dependence, 223f
tensile strength vs. aging time at 150°C
in air, 224f
Sumikasuper® LCP, 86
tensile strength vs. heat aging at 260°C,
90f
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 90f
Syndiotactic polypropene, 7, 7f
T
Tear properties, 6061
Elmendorf tear strength, 6061, 61f
trouser tear measurement, 61, 62f
Tedlar®
elongation vs. hours of aging at 149°C,
195f
flex life vs. hours of aging at 149°C, 196f
impact strength vs. hours of aging at
149°C, 196f
tensile strength vs. hours of aging at
149°C, 195f
Tefzel®
effect of heat aging on the tensile
strength
at 23°C, 203f
at 150°C, 204f
effect of temperature aging on Izod
impact strength, 201t
estimated upper service temperatures,
201t
initial weight loss, 201t
retention at various levels of room
temperature tensile elongation
after heat aging, 202f
retention at various levels of room
temperature tensile strength after
heat aging, 203f
Tensile properties, 4752
Terpolymer, 2
Thermal analysis, 2431, 50t
DSC. See Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC)
TGA. See Thermogravimetric analysis
(TGA)
Thermal degradation, 17, 18f
radicals’ reactions, 18t
Thermal oxidation, 17, 18f
Thermal property tests, 6371
glass transition temperature, 6671
mechanical methods, 6667
thermal-mechanical analysis, 30f, 68
thermal methods, 6871
heat deflection temperature, 6365, 65f
melt flow index, 63, 63f
melting point estimation, 6566, 66f
standard tests, 46t
Vicat softening temperature, 65, 65f
Thermal stabilizers, 15
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),
2526
analyzer, 26f
kinetic analysis, 28f
lifetime prediction, 2627
Thermogravimetry (TG), 25
curve, 25f
Thermoplastic copolyester elastomers
(TPE-E or COPE), 243244
characteristics, 243
manufacturers and trade names,
244
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU),
239241
aliphatic, 240
aromatic, 240
manufacturers and trade names, 240
molecular structure, 240f
polycaprolactone, 240
polyester, 239240
polyether, 239240
properties, 240
Thermoplastics, vs. thermosets, 910
Thermosets, thermoplastics vs., 910
Thioethers. See Thiosynergists
Thiosynergists, 20
chemical structures, 20f, 21f
hydroperoxides, decomposition, 20f
Time-temperature superposition
techniques, 39
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 15
Torlon® 4203L PAI
flexural modulus vs. aging at 260°C,
123f
heat deflection temperature vs. aging at
260°C, 123f
retention of properties after thermal
aging, 120t
tensile elongation vs. aging at 260°C,
122f
tensile strength vs. aging at 260°C, 122f
thermogravimetric analysis in air and
nitrogen, 121f
Torlon® PAI
tensile strength vs. aging at 250°C, 121f
thermal indices, 120t
Tougheners, 14
Toughness, 6163, 62f
TPO. See Polyolefin thermoplastic
elastomer (TPO)
Trans-isomers, 6, 6f
Tristimulus coefficients, 46t
Trogamid® T, 143f
U
Udel® GF-130, tensile strength vs. heat
aging time, 220f
Udel® P-1700, tensile strength vs. heat
aging time, 219f
Ultem® 1000 Series, 124f
flexural modulus vs. aging at 204°C,
127f
heat deflection temperature vs. aging at
204°C, 127f
tensile elongation vs. aging at 204°C,
126f
tensile strength vs. aging at 204°C, 126f
Ultem® 6000 Series, 125f
Ultem® XH6050, 124f
Ultraform®
isothermal TGA at 200°C in air, 236f
tensile strength vs. heat aging period at
100°C, 120°C, 140°C, 237f
yield stress vs. heat aging in air at 100°
C and 120°C, 236f
Ultra low-density polyethylene (ULDPE),
171
see also Polyethylene (PE)
Ultramid® A, 144f, 150f
Ultramid® A3WC4, 158f
Ultramid® T KR 4350, 143f
Unsaturation. See Molecular unsaturation
Upimol SA101 PI
elongation vs. oven aging time, 130f
tensile strength vs. oven aging time,
130f
TGA, 131f
Urethanes, 239
see also Thermoplastic polyurethane
(TPU)
UV/radiation stabilizers, 14
V
Van der Waals forces, 8
Vectra® A950 LCP, 87f
Very low-density polyethylene (VLDPE),
171
see also Polyethylene (PE)
Vespel® SP-21 and ST-2010 PI
elongation vs. heat aging at 260°C, 135f
tensile strength vs. aging at 260°C, 136f
Vespel® SP PI
approximate time to 50% reduction in
tensile strength vs. aging
temperature, 136f
elongation retained vs. aging in air at
200°C, 135f
tensile strength retained vs. aging in air
at 200°C, 134f
Vespel® TP-8000 Series, 129f
Vestamid®, 146f
Vestodur® PBT, 97f
Vicat softening temperature, 65, 65f
Victrex PLC Victrex®
tensile strength and elongation to break
retained vs. aging time,
210t
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)
in air, 211f
INDEX 279Victrex PLC Victrex® (Continued)
in nitrogen, 210f
volume resistivity vs. electrification
time, 212f
Viton® B FKM, 264t
Voltale®, 197f
X
Xtel®, thermal aging effects
at 150oC, 213t
at 165oC, 213t
at 200oC, 214t
at 220oC, 214t
Y
Yellowness index (YI), 4647
Z
ZENITE® LCP 6130
tensile strength retained vs. temperature
and time, 88f
unnotched Izod vs. heat and time, 89f
ZENITE® LCP 7130
tensile strength retained vs. temperature
and time, 88f
unnotched Izod vs. heat and time,
89f
Zytel® 101
effect of air oven aging on tensile
impact strength retained, 151f
effect of air oven aging on tensile
strength, 151f
Zytel® 151, 160f
Zytel® FN, 168t
Zytel® 70G33HS1L, 156f
Zytel® 70G 13L, 155f
Zytel® 70G33L, 155f
Zytel® 71G 13L, 156f
Zytel® 71G33L, 157f
Zytel® 77G33L, 159f
Zytel® 77G43L, 160f
Zytel® 408HS
effect of air oven aging on tensile
impact strength, 153f
effect of air oven aging on tensile
strength, 153f
Zytel® 103HSL
effect of air oven aging on tensile
impact strength retained,
152f
effect of air oven aging on tensile
strength, 152f
Zytel® HTN92 Series
retention of stress at break vs. heat
aging time at 230°C, 168f
tensile strength vs. heat aging time at
180°C, 167f
tensile strength vs. heat aging time at
210°C, 167f
Zytel® PLS95G45DH3 BK261,
148f
Zytel® ST801HS
effect of air oven aging on tensile
impact strength, 154f
effect of air oven aging on tensile
strength, 154


كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net
أتمنى أن تستفيدوا من محتوى الموضوع وأن ينال إعجابكم

رابط من موقع عالم الكتب لتنزيل كتاب The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers
رابط مباشر لتنزيل كتاب The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
كتاب The Effect of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Plastics and Elastomers
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 2 من اصل 1
 مواضيع مماثلة
-
» كتاب The Effect of Sterilization on Plastics and Elastomers
» كتاب The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers
» كتاب The Effect of Temperature and Other Factors on Plastics and Elastomers
» كتاب The Effect of Temperature and Other Factors on Plastics and Elastomers
» كتاب The Effect of Creep and other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى :: المنتديات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية الأجنبية-
انتقل الى: