كتاب The Effect of Creep and Other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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 كتاب The Effect of Creep and Other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب The Effect of Creep and Other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers    كتاب The Effect of Creep and Other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers  Emptyالأحد 23 أبريل 2023, 12:36 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
The Effect of Creep and Other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers
Third Edition
Laurence W. McKeen

كتاب The Effect of Creep and Other Time Related Factors on Plastics and Elastomers  T_e_o_15
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Foreword
Acknowledgments
1. Introduction to Creep, Polymers, Plastics and Elastomers
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Types of Stress
1.3 Basic Concepts of Creep
1.4 Plastics and Polymers
1.5 Plastic Compositions
1.6 Mechanisms of Creep of Plastics
1.7 Poisson’s Ratio
1.8 Using Creep Data in Plastic Product Design
1.9 Summary
References
2. Styrenic Plastics
2.1 Polystyrene
2.2 Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate
2.3 Styrene Acrylonitrile
2.4 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
2.5 Methyl methacrylate acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
2.6 Styrene Maleic Anhydride
2.7 Styrenic Block Copolymers
2.8 Styrenic Blends and Alloys
References
3. Polyether Plastics
3.1 Polyoxymethylene (POM or Acetal Homopolymer)
3.2 Polyoxymethylene Copolymer (POM-Co or Acetal Copolymer)
3.3 Modified Polyphenylene Ether/Polyphenylene Oxides
References
4. Polyesters
4.1 Polycarbonate
4.2 Polybutylene Terephthalate
4.3 Polyethylene Terephthalate
4.4 Liquid Crystalline Polymers
4.5 Polycyclohexylene-Dimethylene Terephthalate
4.6 Polyphthalate Carbonate
4.7 Polyester Blends and Alloys
References
5. Polyimides
5.1 Polyetherimide
5.2 Polyamide-Imide
5.3 Polyimide
5.4 Imide Polymer Blends
References
6. Polyamides (Nylons)
6.1 Nylon 6 (PA 6)
6.2 Nylon 11 (PA 11)
6.3 Nylon 12 (PA 12)
6.4 Nylon 46 (PA 46)
6.5 Nylon 66 (PA 66)
6.6 Nylon 610 (PA 610)
6.7 Nylon 612 (PA 612)
6.8 Nylon 6/66
6.9 Nylon Amorphous
6.10 Polyarylamide
6.11 Polyphthalamide
References
7. Polyolefins and Acrylics
7.1 Polyethylene
7.2 Polypropylene
7.3 Polymethylpentene
7.4 Cyclic Olefin Copolymer
7.5 Rigid PVC
7.6 Polyacrylics
References
8. Thermoplastic Elastomers
8.1 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers
8.2 Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomers
8.3 Thermoplastic Polyether Olefin Elastomers
8.4 Thermoplastic Polyether Block Amide Elastomers
References
9. Fluoropolymers
9.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene
9.2 Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene
9.3 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene
9.4 Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
9.5 Perfluoro Alkylvinylether (PFA/MFA)
9.6 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
9.7 Polyvinylidene Fluoride
References
10. High-Temperature Polymers
10.1 Polyketones
10.2 Polyethersulfone
10.3 Polyphenylene Sulfide
10.4 Polysulfone
10.5 Polyphenylsulfone
References
Appendix 1. Abbreviations
Appendix 2. Unit Conversion Tables
Pressure, Stress, Modulus
Strain
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f ”, and “t ” refers to figures and tables respectively.
A
Acetal homopolymer.
See Polyoxymethylene (POM)
Acrylite® H15
stress vs. time at 23°C and different
strain levels, 352f
time to fracture and crazing stress vs.
time at 23°C, 352f
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
6473
advantage, 65
applications and uses, 65
grades available, 65
manufacturers and trade names, 65
polymerization, 65f
Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA),
4345
applications and uses, 45
manufacturers and trade names, 45
Addition polymerization, 21, 21f
chain initiation, 21
chain propagation, 21
chain termination, 21
Additives, 31
antiblock, 33, 33f
antistats, 3536
catalysts, 33
combustion modifiers, 32
composites, 31, 32f
creep mechanism, 37
dyes, 35
fillers, 31
coupling agents, 35
nonfibrous, 31
reinforcing, 31
impact modifiers, 3334
mica, 35
optical brighteners, 34
pigments, 35
carbon black, 35
titanium dioxide (TiO2), 35
plasticizers, 3435
platelet, 31, 32f
release agents, 32
resin, 31
slip, 3233
migrating, 32, 33f
nonmigrating, 33
thermal stabilizers, 35
toughener, 34, 34f
UV/radiation stabilizers, 34
Alternating copolymers, 22
Amilant CM1011G-30, 253f
Amilant CM1011G-45, 253f
Amodel® A-1133 HS
compressive modulus vs. time at
various temperatures and stress,
303f
flexural modulus vs. time at 23°C and
stress of 69 MPa, 304f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 302f
at 125°C, 302f
at 175°C, 303f
tensile creep rupture vs. time at various
temperatures, 305f
tensile modulus vs. time at various
temperatures and stress, 304f
Amodel® A-1145 HS
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 305f
at 125°C, 305f
at 175°C, 306f
Amodel® A-1160 HS
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 306f
at 75°C, 306f
at 125°C, 306f
Amodel® ET-1000, 302f
Amodel® PPA resins
apparent tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C and a stress of 13.8 MPa,
307f
at 23°C and a stress of 34.5 MPa, 307f
at 125°C and a stress of 13.8 MPa,
308f
at 125°C and a stress of 34.5 MPa,
308f
at 175°C and a stress of 13.8 MPa,
309f
at 175°C and a stress of 34.5 MPa,
309f
Amorphous plastics, 2930, 30f. See also
Crystalline plastics
Antiblock additives, 33, 33f
Antistats, 3536. See also Additives
Atactic polypropenes, 26, 26f
Aurum®, 214f
AvaSpiret AV-621 GF30
apparent creep modulus
at 23°C and various levels of stress,
428f
at 120°C and various levels of stress,
429f
at 160°C and various levels of stress,
429f
isochronous creep curves for 1000 h at
various temperatures, 428f
AvaSpiret AV-621 NT
apparent creep modulus
at 23°C and various levels of stress,
425f
at 120°C and various levels of stress,
425f
at 160°C and various levels of stress,
426f
isochronous creep curves for
1000 h at various temperatures,
424f
AvaSpiret AV-722 BG20
apparent creep modulus
at 23°C and various levels of stress,
427f
at 120°C and various levels of stress,
427f
isochronous creep curves for
1000 h at various temperatures,
426f
AvaSpiret AV-722 CF30
apparent creep modulus
at 23°C and various levels of stress,
430f
479AvaSpiret AV-722 CF30 (Continued)
at 120°C and various levels of stress,
431f
at 200°C and various levels of stress,
431f
isochronous creep curves for
1000 h at various temperatures,
430f
AvaSpiret AV-848 CF30
apparent creep modulus
at 120°C and various levels of stress,
432f
at 160°C and various levels of stress,
433f
at 200°C and various levels of stress,
433f
isochronous creep curves for 1000 h at
various temperatures, 432f
AV-600 series, 423424
AV-700 series, 424434
B
BASF, 121130
Bayblend® T85
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 81f
at 40°C, 81f
at 60°C, 81f
at 80°C, 82f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 82f
at 40°C, 83f
at 60°C, 83f
at 80°C, 84f
Bayblend® T88-2N
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 84f
at 40°C, 84f
at 60°C, 85f
at 90°C, 85f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 85f
at 40°C, 86f
at 60°C, 86f
at 90°C, 87f
Bayblend® T88-4N
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 87f
at 40°C, 87f
at 60°C, 88f
at 90°C, 88f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 88f
at 40°C, 89f
at 60°C, 89f
at 90°C, 90f
Blend/blending, of polymers, 3031, 31f
Blends and alloys
polyesters, 201210
applications and end uses, 169f
description, 201
manufacturers and trade names, 169f
polyimides, 230245
styrenic plastics, 7994
applications and uses, 81
manufacturers and trade names, 81
Block copolymers, 22
Branched polymers
creep mechanism, 37
description, 2223, 23f
C
Carbon black, 35
Catalysts, plastics, 33
Celanese, 108120
Celanex® 2500
isochronous stress vs. strain at 23°C, 152f
Celanex® 3210
flexural creep vs. time curves at
3.4 MPa maximum stress, 153f
flexural creep vs. time curves at
13.8 MPa maximum stress, 153f
Celanex® 3300
creep strain vs. time comparison at a
stress of 13.8 MPa, 156f
flexural creep at 100°C, 155f
flexural creep vs. time curves at
3.4 MPa maximum stress, 154f
flexural creep vs. time curves at 14 MPa
maximum stress, 155f
Celanex® 3310
creep strain vs. time comparison at a
stress of 13.8 MPa, 156f
Celanex® grades
tensile creep curves, 158f
tensile creep modulus, 157f
Celanex® 2300 GV/30
isochronous stress-strain curves at 23°C,
154f
Celanex® PBT resin
flexural creep modulus vs. time
comparison
at 23°C and stress of 10 MPa, 156f
at 80°C and stress of 5 MPa, 157f
Celcon®
creep modulus vs. time curves, 120f
hoop stress vs. time curve, 120f
Celcon® GB25
flexural creep modulus
vs. shifted time at 23°C, 119f
vs. time curves at various
temperatures, 118f
temperature shift factor of, 119f
Celcon® GC25A
creep modulus vs. time at 40°C, 117f
isochronous stress-strain at 40°C, 116f
Celcon® M90
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 111f
at 40°C, 111f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 112f
at 40°C, 112f
Celcon® M270t
flexural creep modulus
vs. shifted time, 110f
at various temperatures, 109f
temperature shift factor, 110f
Celcon® TX90PLUS
creep modulus vs. time strain at 23°C,
114f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 113f
at 40°C, 113f
Chain entanglement, 28
Chain initiation, 21. See also Addition
polymerization
Chain propagation, 21. See also Addition
polymerization
Chain termination, 21. See also Addition
polymerization
COC. See Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)
Combustion modifiers, 32
Composites, 31, 32f
Condensation polymerization, 2122, 21f
Copolymers, 22
alternating, 22
block, 22
classifications, 22
graft, 22
random, 22
Coupling agents, 35
Covalent bonds, 24
Crastin® LW9020
isochronous stress vs. strain at 23°C,
210f
Crastin® LW9030
isochronous stress vs. strain at 23°C,
210f
Crastin® S600F10 NC010
isochronous stress vs. strain curves
at 23°C, 158f
at 60°C, 158f
Crastin® SK601
isochronous stress vs. strain curves
at 23°C, 159f
at 60°C, 159f
Crastin® SK603
isochronous stress vs. strain curves
at 23°C, 159f
Crastin® SK605
isochronous stress vs. strain curves
at 23°C, 160f
Crastin® SK609
isochronous stress vs. strain curves
at 23°C, 160f
at 60°C, 161f
Crastin® ST820 NC010
isochronous stress vs. strain
at 23°C, 159f
480 INDEXCrastin® T805
isochronous stress vs. strain
at 23°C, 160f
at 80°C, 160f
Crastin® T841FR
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 161f
at 60°C, 161f
Crastin® T843FR
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 161f
at 60°C, 162f
Crastin® T845FR
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 162f
at 60°C, 162f
Creep
concepts, 420
flexural, 4f
tensile, 4f
Creep mechanism
additives, 37
branched polymers, 37
linear polymers, 3637
reinforced plastics, 37
Cross-linked polymers
creep mechanism, 37
description, 2223, 23f
Crystalline plastics, 2930, 30f. See also
Amorphous plastics
Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), 346
applications and end uses, 346
chemical structure, 346f
description, 346
manufacturers and trade names, 346
performance benefits, 346
Cycolact ABS resin, 71f
Cycolact G360, 70f
Cycolact X37, 70f
Cycoloyt C1000
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 94f
at 60°C, 94f
at 90°C, 95f
D
Degree of unsaturation (DoU), 24
Delrin® 100, 500, 900
isochronous flexural stress-strain
at 23°C, 100f
at 45°C, 100f
at 85°C, 101f
at 100°C, 101f
tensile stress relaxation under constant
strain at 23°C, 101f
Delrin® acetal resins, 97
general purpose, composition, 98t
higher stiffness, composition, 99t
low friction and wear, composition,
99t
toughened, composition, 98t
UV stabilized and specialty,
composition, 100t
Delrin® 100ST NC010
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 102f
at 40°C, 102f
at 60°C, 102f
at 80°C, 102f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 103f
at 5 MPa stress, 103f
Delrin® 510GR NC000
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 104f
at 40°C, 104f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 104f
at 60°C, 105f
at 90°C, 105f
Delrin® 520MP NC010
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 106f
at 60°C, 106f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 106f
at 60°C, 107f
Diakont acrylic resins, 351f
Diakont LG156, 350f
Diakont MG102, 350f
Dipole moments, of polymer molecules,
23, 23t
DoU. See Degree of unsaturation (DoU)
Dyes, 35
Dylark® 480P16
tensile creep strain vs. stress
at 23°, 77f
and various stress levels, 77f
Dylark® SMA resins, 78f
E
Elastollan® 1164 D, 357f
Elastollan® 1185 A, 357f
Elastollan® C 64D, 357f
Elastollan® C 85 A, 358f
Elastollan® R 3000, 358f
Elastomers, 355. See also Thermoplastic
elastomer (TPE)
Electronegativity, in polymers, 23
Equivalent stress, 4
Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE),
385387
applications and uses, 385
chemical structure, 385f
manufacturers and trade names, 385
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE),
388391
applications and uses, 388
chemical structure, 388f
description, 388
manufacturers and trade names, 388
properties, 388
Evonik Industries, 138
Excel® 4101GL30
flexural creep strain vs. time at 150°C
and various stress levels, 443f
tensile creep strain vs. time at various
temperatures and stress levels,
442f
Extender, 31
F
FEA. See Finite element analysis (FEA)
Fillers, additives, 31
coupling agents, 35
nonfibrous, 31
reinforcing, 31
Finite element analysis (FEA), 3940, 40f
Finite elements, 40
Fluon® ETFE
compression stress relaxation, 392f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 100°C, 390f
at 150°C loaded at one half the yield
strength, 391f
Fluon® ETFE C-55AX, 391f
Fluon® FC100-25 1000
creep in compression at 20°C at various
stress levels, 383f
isometric stress-time curves in
compression at 20°C at various
strain levels, 384f
recovery from creep in compression
loaded at various stress levels,
384f
Fluon® filled PTFE, 385f
Fluon® G163
compressive creep strain vs. time at 25°
C, 381f
isochronous stress-strain at 25°C, 381f
isochronous stress-strain curves in
compression at 25°C, 382f
recovery from creep in compression at
25°C and at various stress
levels, 382f
Fluon® PA1025Z, 383f
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP),
392397
applications and uses, 393
ball and stick three-dimensional
representation, 392f
manufacturers and trade names, 393
three-dimensional representation, 392f
Fluoroguard®, 32
Fluoropolymer/fluoroplastic
ECTFE, 385387
applications and uses, 385
chemical structure, 385f
manufacturers and trade names, 385
ETFE, 388391
INDEX 481Fluoropolymer/fluoroplastic (Continued)
applications and uses, 388
chemical structure, 388f
description, 388
manufacturers and trade names, 388
properties, 388
FEP, 392397
applications and uses, 393
ball and stick three-dimensional
representation, 392f
manufacturers and trade names, 393
three-dimensional representation,
392f
melting points, 373, 374t
overview, 373
PFA/MFA, 398404
applications and uses, 398
ball and stick three-dimensional
representation, 398f
chemical structure, 398f
comonomers, 398t
data, 398402
description, 398
manufacturers and trade names, 398
three-dimensional representation,
398f
polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE),
405
applications and uses, 405
description, 405
manufacturers and trade names, 405
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE),
373384
applications and uses, 376
ball and stick three-dimensional
representation, 375f
chemical structure, 375f
description, 373
formation, 373
homopolymer, 373376
manufacturers and trade names, 376
molecules, 373
three-dimensional representation,
375f
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF),
405411
applications and uses, 407
attributes, 407
chemical structure, 407f
description, 405
manufacturers and trade names, 407
structures of monomers, 374f
tensile creep strain at 100°C and
3.4 MPa stress, 375f
Fortron® 1140L4
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 448f
at 120°C, 448f
at 150°C, 449f
at 200°C, 449f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 451f
at 120°C, 452f
at 150°C, 452f
at 200°C, 453f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 449f
at 120°C, 450f
at 150°C, 450f
at 200°C, 451f
Fortron® 6165A4
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 453f
at 120°C, 453f
at 150°C, 454f
at 200°C, 454f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 456f
at 120°C, 457f
at 150°C, 457f
at 200°C, 458f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 454f
at 120°C, 455f
at 150°C, 455f
at 200°C, 456f
Fortron® resins
flexural creep modulus vs. time
at 200°C, 459f
at various temperatures, 458f
G
Geometric isomers, 2526
cis-, 2526, 26f
trans-, 2526, 26f
Geont Fiberloct 87241, 348f
Geont Fiberloct PVC resins
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 349f
creep rupture strength vs. time, 348f
flexural creep modulus vs. time at 23°
C, 349f
GHR®
compressive creep strain vs. time at 23°
C and various stress levels, 337f
compressive creep strain vs. time at 50°
C and various stress levels, 337f
compressive creep strain vs. time at 80°
C and various stress levels, 338f
GHR® 8110
creep strain vs. time at 23°C and 1 MPa
stress, 336f
tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C
and 1 MPa stress, 336f
Graft copolymers, 22
Graphite, 33
Grilamid® LV-3H, 268f
Grilamid® TR55
chemical structure, 294f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
297f
Grilamid® TR90
tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 298f
Grilon® BG-30 S, 255f
Grilon® BG-50 H
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 255f
at 120°C, 256f
Grilon® BGM-65 X V0, 256f
Grilon® BS/2, 254f
Grilon® BZ 1/2, 254f
Grilon® TSG-30/4, 293f
Grilon® TSG-50/4, 294f
Grilon® TSS, 293f
Grivory® GC-4H
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 313f
Grivory® GM-4H
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 313f
Grivory® GV-5H
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 314f
at 60°C, 314f
at 80°C, 315f
at 120°C, 315f
Grivory® GV-6H
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 319f
at 80°C, 319f
Grivory® HT2V-3H
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 311f
Grivory® HT2V-3X V0
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 312f
at 80°C, 312f
Grivory® HT2V-5H
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 316f
at 80°C, 316f
Grivory® HTV-3H1, 310f
Grivory® HTV-5H1
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 317f
at 80°C, 317f
at 120°C, 318f
at 150°C, 318f
Grivory® XE3876
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 310f
at 80°C, 311f
GUR®
compressive creep strain vs. time at 23°
C and various stress levels, 337f
compressive creep strain vs. time at 50°
C and various stress levels, 337f
compressive creep strain vs. time at 80°
C and various stress levels, 338f
GUR® 4120
creep strain vs. time at 23°C and 1 MPa
stress, 334f
tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C
and 1 MPa stress, 334f
482 INDEXGUR® 4152
creep strain vs. time at 23°C and 1 MPa
stress, 335f
tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C
and 1 MPa stress, 335f
H
Halar® ECTFE
stress relaxation vs. temperature at
1000 h and 2% total strain, 388f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 386f
at 75°C, 386f
at 125°C, 387f
at 150°C, 387f
High density polyethylene (HDPE), 321
flexural creep modulus vs. time, 329f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 323f, 327f, 331f
at 40°C, 324f, 327f, 331f
at 80°C, 324f, 328f, 331f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 324f
at 40°C, 325f
High impact polystyrene (HIPS), 43, 44f
High-temperature polymers
overview, 413
polyaryl ether ketones, 423433
polyether ether ketones, 413421
polyether ketone ether ether ketones,
423
polyether ketones, 422
polyethersulfone (PES), 434442
manufacturers and trade names, 434
properties, 434
structure, 434f
polyketones, 413433
applications and uses, 413
characteristics, 413
description, 413
manufacturers and trade names, 413
structure, 414t
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 443458
applications and uses, 444
manufacturers and trade names, 444
properties, 444
structure, 443f
variants, 443444
polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 468472
applications and uses, 468
manufacturers and trade names, 468
properties, 468
structure, 468f
polysulfone (PSU), 459467
applications and end uses, 459
description, 459
manufacturers and trade names, 459
properties, 459
Hostaform® C 2521, 113f
Hostaform® C 9021
flexural creep modulus at various
temperatures, 109f
tensile creep curves at 23°C, 108f
time compression stress curves at 20°C,
108f
Hostaform® C 9021 GV1/30
flexural creep modulus vs. time curves
at 20° and 80°, 117f
relaxation modulus vs. time curves at
23°, 118f
Hostaform® C 13031 and 13021, 111f
Hostaform® S 9063
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 114f
Hostaform® S 9064
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 115f
Hostaform® S 9243
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 115f
Hostaform® S 9244
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 116f
Hostalen® CRP 100
hoop stress vs. time at various
temperatures, 330f
tensile creep modulus vs. time at 40°C,
330f
Hostalen® GM 5010 T3
hoop stress vs. time at various
temperatures, 326f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 325f
at 40°C, 326f
Hostalen® H1022
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 341f
at 40°C, 341f
at 60°C, 342f
at 80°C, 342f
Hostalen® H2150
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 339f
at 40°C, 339f
at 60°C, 339f
at 80°C, 339f
Hostalen® H2222, 340f
Hostalen® H2250, 340f
Hostalen® H5216, 341f
Hostalen® HDPE, 333f
Hydrogen bonding, 27, 28f
Hyflon® MFA
creep to failure vs. stress level at 200°
C, 404f
isochronous stress-strain curves for a
1000 h creep time at 120°C and
200°C, 405f
Hyflon® MFA F1520
tensile creep curves at 23°C at various
stress levels, 403f
tensile creep curves at 120°C at various
stress levels, 403f
tensile creep curves at 200°C at various
stress levels, 404f
Hyflon® PFA 220, 400f
Hyflon® PFA M620, 402f
Hyflon® PFA M720, 401f
Hyflon® PFA P420, 401f
Hyflon® PFA resin series, 402f
Hytrel® 4056
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 359f
at 40°C, 359f
at 80°C, 360f
tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
360f
Hytrel® 5526
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 361f
at 40°C, 361f
at 80°C, 361f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
isochronous stress-strain at 23°
C, 362f
Hytrel® 6356
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 362f
at 40°C, 362f
at 80°C, 363f
tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
363f
Hytrel® 7246
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 364f
at 40°C, 364f
at 80°C, 364f
tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
365f
Hytrel® TPE-E or COPE resins, 365f
compression set resistance at various
temperatures, 359t
I
Imide polymer blends, 230245
Impact modifiers, 3334
Impet® 330R, 180f
Impet® 610R, 180f
Isomers, 2527
geometric, 2526
cis-, 2526, 26f
trans-, 2526, 26f
head to tail, 25, 25f
stereoisomers, 2627. See also
Polypropenes; Polypropylenes
structural, 25, 25f
Isophorone bisphenol, 142, 142f
Isotactic polypropenes, 2627, 26f
Iupilon®
deformation under compressive load at
various temperatures, 142t
flexural and compressive creep vs. time
at various stress levels, 150f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 22°C, 149f
INDEX 483Iupilon® (Continued)
tensile creep stress vs. time at 22°C,
149f
tensile creep vs. time
at 25°C, 147f
at 75°C, 147f
at 100°C, 148f
at 125°C, 148f
tensile deformation and recovery, 142t,
150f
tensile stress relaxation, 151f
Iupital®
flexural stress relaxation vs. time
at 23°C, 132f
at 50°C, 132f
at 75°C, 133f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 131f
at 50°C, 131f
IXEF® 1022
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 50°C, 299f
at 120°C, 299f
IXEF® 1032
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 50°C, 300f
K
Kapton® Type HN PI film, 237f
KetaSpire® KT-820 CF30
apparent modulus vs. time
at 23°C and various stress, 420f
at 200°C and various stress,
422f
at 120°C and various stress levels,
421f
at 160°C and various stress levels,
421f
isochronous creep curves at various
temperatures, 420f
KetaSpire® KT-820 NT
apparent modulus vs. time
at 23°C and various stress, 418f
at 120°C and various stress levels,
419f
at 160°C and various stress levels,
419f
isochronous creep curves at various
temperatures, 418f
Kynar® PVDF, 411f
L
Lexan® 101
creep strain vs. time
at 45°C, 143f
Lexan® 4501
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 203f
at 90°C, 204f
at 120°C, 204f
Lexan® 4704
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 205f
at 90°C, 205f
at 140°C, 206f
Lexan® PCC4701R, 203f
Lexan® 141R
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 143f
at various temperatures and a stress
of 15 MPa, 144f
Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE),
321
Linear polymers
creep mechanism, 3637
description, 2223, 23f
Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs),
196200
applications and uses, 196
chemical structures of monomers, 197f
description, 196
manufacturers and trade names, 196
Longitudinal stress, 3
Low density polyethylene (LDPE), 321
Lubricompt DFL36
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 145f
at 70°C, 146f
at 120°C, 146f
Lupolen® 5031L
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 327f
at 40°C, 327f
Lupolen® 5261Z
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 328f
at 40°C, 328f
Lupolen® 6031M
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 331f
at 40°C, 332f
Luran® 378P
creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 57f
at 40°C, 57f
at 60°C, 58f
at 80°C, 58f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 55f
at 40°C, 56f
at 60°C, 56f
at 80°C, 56f
Luran® 378P G7
creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 60f
at 40°C, 60f
at 60°C, 61f
at 80°C, 61f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 59f
at 40°C, 59f
at 60°C, 59f
at 80°C, 59f
Luran® 388S, 62f
Luran® S 757R
creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 51f
at 40°C, 52f
at 60°C, 52f
at 80°C, 53f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 50f
at 40°C, 50f
at 60°C, 51f
at 80°C, 51f
Luran® S 778T
creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 54f
at 60°C, 54f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 53f, 55f
at 60°C, 53f
at 70°C, 55f
Luran® S KR 2861-1
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 93f
at 80°C, 93f
Luran® SAN, 62f, 63f
Lustran® ABS 446
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 66f
at 40°C, 66f
at 60°C, 67f
at 80°C, 67f
M
Medium density polyethylene (MDPE),
321
Mesh, 40. See also Finite element
analysis (FEA)
Methacrylate acrylonitrile butadiene
styrene (MABS), 74
applications and uses, 74
manufacturers and trade names, 74
Mica, 35. See also Additives
Minlon® 10B140 NC010
creep strain in flexure vs. time at a
stress of 6.9 MPa and 23°C,
280f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 279f
at 60°C, 279f
at 90°C, 279f
at 100°C, 279f
Minlon® 11B140
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 283f
at 60°C, 283f
at 80°C, 283f
at 100°C, 283f
484 INDEXMinlon® 11C40 NC010, 280f
Minlon® 12T, 278f
Minlon® 20B
creep strain in flexure vs. time
at a stress level of 6.9 MPa and at
23°C, 281f
at a stress level of 6.9 MPa and at
124°C, 281f
Minlon® 73M30 NC010
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 252f
at 60°C, 252f
at 90°C, 252f
Mitsubishi Engineering-Plastics Corp.,
131132
Molecular attractions, in polymers, 2728
chain entanglement, 28
hydrogen bonding, 27, 28f
Van der Waals forces, 2728
Molecular polarity, 2324
dipole moments, 23, 23t
polar bond, 23
qualitative ranking, 24f
Molecular unsaturation, 24. See also
Polymer(s)
covalent bonds, 24
degree of unsaturation (DoU), 24
Molybdenum disulfide, 33
N
Neoflont M-300H, 406f
Neoflont M-400H, 406f
Node, 40. See also Finite element
analysis (FEA)
Nonfibrous fillers, 31
Norylt 731
creep performance, 136f
creep strain vs. time
at 60°C, 135f
at 80°C, 135f
at stress of 10 MPa, 136f
Norylt GFN1
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 137f
Norylt GFN2
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 137f
Norylt GTX964W
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 134f
at various temperatures and stress, 134f
Novaduran® 5010G30
flexural creep fracture stress vs. time at
various temperatures, 178f
flexural creep modulus vs. time at
various temperatures, 177f
flexural creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 175f
at 80°C, 176f
at 120°C, 176f
at 150°C, 177f
stress relaxation vs. time at 23°C, 178f
Novaduran® 5010R5
flexural creep fracture stress vs. time at
various temperatures, 174f
flexural creep modulus vs. time at
various temperatures, 174f
flexural creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 173f
at high temperatures, 173f
at various levels of stress, 173f
stress relaxation vs. time at 23°C, 175f
Novaduran® PBT resins, 179f
Novarex®
deformation under compressive load at
various temperatures, 142t
flexural and compressive creep vs. time
at various stress levels, 150f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 22°C, 149f
tensile creep stress vs. time at 22°C,
149f
tensile creep vs. time
at 25°C, 147f
at 75°C, 147f
at 100°C, 148f
at 125°C, 148f
tensile deformation and recovery, 142t,
150f
tensile stress relaxation, 151f
Nylon (polyamides)
amino acids, 249f
amorphous, 292297
applications and uses, 295
characteristics, 292295
chemical structure, 294f
manufacturers and trade names, 295
description, 247
diacids, 248f
diamines, 248f
generalized reaction, 248f
monomers, 248t
properties, 247
types, 247
Nylon 6 (polyamide 6), 247256
applications and uses, 247
characteristics, 247
chemical structure, 249f
manufacturers and trade names, 247
Nylon 6/66 (polyamide 666 or 66/6), 292
applications and uses, 292
manufacturers and trade names, 292
Nylon 11 (polyamide 11), 257258
applications and end uses, 257
characteristics, 257
chemical structure, 257f
manufacturers and trade names, 257
Nylon 12 (polyamide 12), 259268
applications and end uses, 259
characteristics, 259
chemical structure, 259f
manufacturers and trade names, 259
Nylon 46 (polyamide 46), 269270
applications and uses, 269
characteristics, 269
chemical structure, 269f
manufacturers and trade names, 269
Nylon 66 (polyamide 66), 271284
applications and uses, 271
characteristics, 271
chemical structure, 271f
manufacturers and trade names, 271
Nylon 610 (polyamide 610), 285
applications and uses, 285
characteristics, 285
chemical structure, 285f
manufacturers and trade names, 285
Nylon 612 (polyamide 612), 285291
applications and uses, 287
characteristics, 285287
chemical structure, 287f
manufacturers and trade names, 287
O
Optical brighteners, 34
P
PACM 12, 292, 295f
PAMXD6, 298f
Perfluoro alkylvinylether (PFA/MFA),
398404
applications and uses, 398
ball and stick three-dimensional
representation, 398f
chemical structure, 398f
comonomers, 398t
data, 398402
description, 398
manufacturers and trade names, 398
three-dimensional representation, 398f
Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) synthetic oil,
32
Pigments, 35
carbon black, 35
titanium dioxide (TiO2), 35
Plastic(s). See also Polymer(s); Specific
products, and types
amorphous, 2930, 30f
composition. See Additives
creep mechanism
additives, 37
branched polymers, 37
linear polymers, 3637
reinforced plastics, 37
crystalline, 2930, 30f
Poisson’s ratio, 3738, 38f
product design, 3840
FEA, 3940, 40f
pseudo elastic design method,
3840, 39f
thermoplastics, 29
thermosets, 29
INDEX 485Plasticizers, 3435
Platelet additives, 31, 32f
PMP. See Polymethylpentene (PMP)
Poisson, Simeon, 3738
Poisson’s ratio, 3738, 38f
Polar bond, 23
Polarity. See Molecular polarity
Polyacrylics, 347352
applications and uses, 347
description, 347
manufacturers and trade names, 347
Polyamide-imides (PAI)
applications and uses, 228
chemical structure, 228f
monomers, 228f
description, 213
manufacturers and trade names, 228
Polyamides. See Nylon (polyamides)
Polyarylamide (PAA), 298299
applications and uses, 298
characteristics, 298
manufacturers and trade names, 298
Polyaryl ether ketones (PAEK), 423433
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT),
151178
applications and uses, 151
chemical structure, 151f
description, 151
manufacturers and trade names, 151
performance properties, 151
Polycarbonate, 141150
applications and end uses, 142
chemical structures, 141f
monomers, 141f
description, 141
manufacturers and trade names, 142
performance properties, 141
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 405
applications and uses, 405
description, 405
manufacturers and trade names, 405
Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene
terephthalate (PCT), 201
applications and uses, 201
chemical structure, 202f
description, 201
manufacturers and trade names, 201
Polyesters. See also Specific products, and
types
blends and alloys, 201210
applications and end uses, 169f
description, 201
manufacturers and trade names, 169f
commercial formation, 141
condensation polymerization reaction,
141f
description, 141
liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs),
196200
applications and uses, 196
chemical structures of monomers, 197f
description, 196
manufacturers and trade names, 196
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT),
151178
applications and uses, 151
chemical structure, 151f
description, 151
manufacturers and trade names, 151
performance properties, 151
polycarbonate, 141150
applications and end uses, 142
chemical structures, 141f
description, 141
manufacturers and trade names, 142
performance properties, 141
polycyclohexylene-dimethylene
terephthalate (PCT), 201
applications and uses, 201
chemical structure, 202f
description, 201
manufacturers and trade names, 201
polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
179195
applications and uses, 179
chemical structure, 179f
description, 179
manufacturers and trade names, 179
polyphthalate carbonate (PPC), 201
applications and uses, 201
chemical structure, 202f
description, 201
manufacturers and trade names, 201
Polyether block amides (PEBAs), 366371
applications and end uses, 368
description, 366368
manufacturers and trade names, 368
Polyether ether ketones, 413421
Polyetherimide (PEI)
applications and uses, 213
chemical structure, 214f, 216f
biphenol diamine PMDA, 214f
BPADA-DDS PEI sulfone, 215f
BPADA monomer, 215f
BPADA-MPD, 215f
BPADA-PMDA-MPD
copolyetherimide, 215f
BPADA-PPD, 214f
monomers, 216f
description, 213
manufacturers and trade names, 213
performance features, 213
Polyether ketones, 422
Polyether plastics
polyoxymethylene copolymer (POMCo), 97132
applications and uses, 108
chemical structure, 107f
manufacturers and trade names, 107
properties, 107
polyoxymethylene (POM), 97
applications and uses, 97
chemical structure, 97f
manufacturers and trade names, 97
polyphenylene ether (PPE), 133138
applications and end uses, 133
chemical structure, 133f
manufacturers and trade names, 133
modified, 133
Polyethersulfone (PES), 434442
manufacturers and trade names, 434
properties, 434
structure, 434f
Polyethylene (PE), 321337
applications and use, 322
branching, 321
crystal structure, 323f
flexural creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 332f
at 40°C, 333f
manufacturers and trade names, 322
types/classifications, 321, 323f
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
179195
applications and uses, 179
chemical structure, 179f
description, 179
hydrolysis, 22
manufacturers and trade names, 179
Polyimides
applications and uses, 229
chemical structures, 236f
monomers, 236f
description, 228
manufacturers and trade names, 229
overview, 213
polymer blends, 230245
standard, 229, 237f, 240f
thermoplastic, 230, 240f, 244f
Polyketones, 413433
applications and uses, 413
characteristics, 413
description, 413
manufacturers and trade names,
413
structure, 414t
Polymer(s). See also Specific products,
and types
blend/blending, 3031, 31f
concept, 21
copolymers, 22
alternating, 22
block, 22
classifications, 22
graft, 22
random, 22
molecular attractions, 2728
chain entanglement, 28
hydrogen bonding, 27, 28f
Van der Waals forces, 2728
486 INDEXmolecular polarity, 2324
dipole moments, 23, 23t
polar bond, 23
qualitative ranking, 24f
molecular unsaturation, 24
covalent bonds, 24
degree of unsaturation (DoU), 24
molecular weight, 2829, 29f
steric hindrance, 25, 25f
Polymerization
addition, 21, 21f
condensation, 2122, 21f
description, 21
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 347,
350f
Polymethylpentene (PMP), 345
applications and end uses, 345
characteristics, 345
manufacturers and trade names,
345
Polyolefins, 322f
Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-Co),
97132
applications and uses, 108
chemical structure
monomers, 107f
polymer, 107f
manufacturers and trade names, 107
properties, 107
Polyoxymethylene (POM), 97. See also
Delrin® acetal resins
applications and uses, 97
chemical structure, 97f
manufacturers and trade names, 97
Polyphenylene ether (PPE), 133138
applications and end uses, 133
chemical structure, 133f
manufacturers and trade names, 133
modified, 133
Polyphenylene oxide (PPO).
See Polyphenylene ether (PPE)
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 443458
applications and uses, 444
manufacturers and trade names, 444
properties, 444
structure, 443f
variants, 443444
Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 468472
applications and uses, 468
manufacturers and trade names, 468
properties, 468
structure, 468f
Polyphthalamide (PPA)
applications and uses, 300
characteristics, 300
chemical structures, 301f
description, 300
flexural creep strain vs. time at 150°C
and a stress of 28 MPa, 301f
manufacturers and trade names, 300
Polyphthalate carbonate (PPC), 201
applications and uses, 201
chemical structure, 202f
description, 201
manufacturers and trade names, 201
Polypropenes. See also Polypropylene
atactic, 26, 26f
isotactic, 2627, 26f
structure, 26, 26f
syndiotactic, 27, 27f
Polypropylene, 338344
applications and uses, 338
homopolymers, 338
impact copolymers, 338
manufacturers and trade names, 338
random copolymers, 338
Polystyrene, 43
applications and uses, 43
general, 43
high impact, 43
chemical structure, 44f
expanded, 43
forms, 43
manufacturers and trade names, 43
Polysulfone (PSU), 459467
applications and end uses, 459
description, 459
manufacturers and trade names, 459
properties, 459
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 33, 373384
applications and uses, 376
ball and stick three-dimensional
representation, 375f
chemical structure, 375f
description, 373
formation, 373
homopolymer, 373376
manufacturers and trade names, 376
molecules, 373
three-dimensional representation, 375f
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 405411
applications and uses, 407
attributes, 407
chemical structure, 407f
description, 405
manufacturers and trade names, 407
PPE. See Polyphenylene ether (PPE)
PS 143 E
creep modulus vs. time at 23°C, 44f
isochronous stress-strain at 23°C, 44f
PS 168N, 47f
PS 454C
creep modulus
at 23°C, 46f
at 40°C, 46f
at 60°C, 47f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 45f
at 40°C, 45f
at 60°C, 45f
PS 456F, 48f
Pseudo elastic design method, 39
R
Radel® R-5000
apparent creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 20.7 MPa at various
temperatures, 471f
isochronous stress-strain curves
at 23°C, 468f
at 95°C, 468f
at 160°C, 469f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 469f
at 95°C, 470f
at 160°C, 470f
Radial stress, 3
Random copolymers, 22
Reinforced plastics
creep mechanism, 37
Reinforcing fillers, 31
Release agents, 32
Resin, 31. See also Additives
Rigid PVC, 346347
applications and uses, 347
classifications, 346347
description, 346
manufacturing and trade names, 347
Rilsan® BESNO TL, 257f
Rilsan® PA 11 resins
isochronous stress-strain at 20°C, 258f
long-term hydrostatic strength at
various temperatures, 258f
Riteflex® TPE-E or COPEs, 359f
Rynite® 415HP
flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 27.6 MPa, 181f
flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
27.6 MPa, 181f
Rynite® 530
flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 27.6 MPa, 184f
flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
27.6 MPa, 183f
isochronous stress-strain at 23°C,
183f
Rynite® 545
flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 27.6 MPa, 193f
flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
27.6 MPa, 192f
Rynite® 555
flexural creep modulus vs. time
at a stress of 6.9 MPa, 195f
at a stress of 13.8 MPa, 195f
at a stress of 27.6 MPa, 196f
flexural creep strain vs. time
at a stress of 6.9 MPa, 193f
at a stress of 13.8 MPa, 194f
at a stress of 27.6 MPa, 194f
INDEX 487Rynite® 935
flexural creep modulus vs. time
at a stress of 6.9 MPa, 186f
at a stress of 13.8 MPa, 187f
at a stress of 27.6 MPa, 188f
flexural creep strain vs. time
at a stress of 6.9 MPa, 185f
at a stress of 13.8 MPa, 186f
at a stress of 27.6 MPa, 187f
Rynite® 940
flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 27.6 MPa, 189f
flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
27.6 MPa, 188f
Rynite® FR515
flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 27.6 MPa, 182f
flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
27.6 MPa, 182f
Rynite® FR530
flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 27.6 MPa, 185f
flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
27.6 MPa, 184f
Rynite® FR943
flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 27.6 MPa, 190f
flexural creep strain vs. time at a stress
of 27.6 MPa, 189f
Rynite® FR946
flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 27.6 MPa, 191f
flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
27.6 MPa, 190f
Rynite® SST35
flexural creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 27.6 MPa, 192f
flexural creep vs. time at a stress of
27.6 MPa, 191f
Ryton® A-200 PPS, 444f
Ryton® R-4 PPS, 445f, 446f
Ryton® R-4 02XT, 445f
Ryton® R-7 PPS, 446f
Ryton® R-10 PPS, 447f
S
SABIC Innovative Plastics, 134137
Santoprene®
compression set as a function of time at
23°C, 366f
compression set as a function of time at
70°C, 367f
compression set as a function of time at
100°C, 367f
compression set as a function of time at
125°C, 368f
Silicone fluids, 32
Slip additives, 3233
migrating, 32, 33f
nonmigrating, 33
Solef® 1010
hoop stress extrapolated to 50 years vs.
temperature in presence of
water, 410f
hoop stress vs. time at various
temperatures, 409f
isochronous stress-strain vs. time at 23°
C, 407f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 408f
at 120°C, 408f
at 140°C, 409f
Solef® 8088/0902, 411f
Stanyl® PA 46 resins, 270f
Stanyl® TW300, 269f
Stanyl® TW200F8, 270f
Stat-Kon® PC-1006, 251f
Stereoisomers, 2627. See also
Polypropenes; Polypropylenes
Steric hindrance, 25, 25f
Stress
types, 14
compressive, 1, 2f
flexural/bending, 23, 3f
hoop, 34, 3f
shear, 1, 2f
tensile, 1, 2f
torsional, 12, 2f
Styrene, 43, 44f. See also Specific
products, and types
Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN), 4563
applications and uses, 55
manufacturers and trade names, 55
Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA)
applications and uses, 7576
description, 75
manufacturers and trade names, 75
production, 76f
properties, 75
Styrenic butadiene block copolymer
(SBC), 7678
applications and end uses, 78
manufacturers and trade names, 78
“microscopic” structure, 78f
Styrenic plastics
ABS, 6473
advantage, 65
applications and uses, 65
grades available, 65
manufacturers and trade names, 65
polymerization, 65f
ASA, 4345
applications and uses, 45
manufacturers and trade names, 45
blends and alloys, 7994
applications and uses, 81
manufacturers and trade names, 81
MABS, 74
applications and uses, 74
manufacturers and trade names, 74
overview, 43
polystyrene, 43
applications and uses, 43
chemical structure, 44f
expanded, 43
forms, 43
manufacturers and trade names, 43
SAN, 4563
applications and uses, 55
manufacturers and trade names, 55
SBC, 7678
applications and end uses, 78
manufacturers and trade names, 78
“microscopic” structure, 78f
SMA
applications and uses, 7576
description, 75
manufacturers and trade names, 75
production, 76f
properties, 75
Styrolution® PS HIPS
creep rupture curves in olive oil/oleic
acid, 49f
creep rupture curves in stress cracking
testing, 50f
Styrolution® PS polystyrene resins
creep rupture curves
of high-impact, at 20°C, 48f
of several general purpose, 49f
Styrolux® 656C
creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 79f
at 40°C, 80f
at 60°C, 80f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 78f
at 40°C, 79f
at 60°C, 79f
Syndiotactic polypropenes/polypropylenes,
27, 27f
T
Tangent modulus, 39
Teflon® FEP
creep strain in compression vs. time
at 23°C and various stress levels,
395f
at 100°C and various stress levels,
395f
Teflon® FEP 100
stress relaxation vs. time
at 23°C and various strain rates,
397f
at 100°C and various strain rates,
397f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C and various stress levels,
393f
at 254°C and various stress levels,
393f
488 INDEXat 100°C and various stress levels,
394f
at 175°C and various stress levels,
394f
torsional creep strain vs. time
at 23°C and various stress levels,
396f
at 100°C and various stress levels,
396f
Teflon® PFA, 400f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
399f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 100°C,
399f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 200°C,
400f
Teflon® PTFE
compressive creep strain vs. time
at 23°C and various stress levels, 378f
at 100°C and various stress levels,
378f
shear creep strain vs. time
at 23°C and various stress levels,
379f
at 100°C and various stress levels,
379f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C and various stress levels,
376f
at 254°C and various stress levels,
376f
at 100°C and various stress levels,
377f
at 200°C and various stress levels,
377f
tensile strength relaxation
at 23°C and various strain levels,
380f
at 100°C and various strain levels,
380f
Tefzel® ETFE, 389f
Tefzel® ETFE HT-2004
apparent flexural modulus vs. time at
various temperatures, 390f
flexural creep strain vs. time at various
temperatures and stress levels,
389f
Terblend® N NG-02
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 92f
at 60°C, 92f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 92f
at 60°C, 93f
Terblend® N NM-19
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 90f
at 40°C, 90f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 91f
at 60°C, 91f
Terlux® 2802 TR
creep modulus vs. time
at 60°C, 75f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 74f
at 40°C, 74f
at 60°C, 74f
Thermal stabilizers, 35
Thermocomp® BF-1004, 64f
Thermocompt DF006
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 144f
at 70°C, 145f
Thermocomp® PF004, 250f
Thermocomp® PF-1006FR, 250f
Thermocomp® QF006, 285f
Thermocomp® QF008, 286f
Thermocomp® QF012, 286f
Thermocomp® SAN grades, 63f
Thermoplastic copolyester elastomers
(TPE-E or COPE), 358365
applications and end uses, 358
manufacturers and trade names, 358
Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE)
advantages, 355
description, 355
polyether block amides (PEBAs),
366371
applications and end uses, 368
description, 366368
manufacturers and trade names, 368
properties, 355
hard phase, 355
soft phase, 355
thermoplastic copolyester elastomers
(TPE-E or COPE), 358365
applications and end uses, 358
manufacturers and trade names, 358
thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO), 366
applications and uses, 366
description, 366
manufacturers and trade names,
366
thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU),
355357
aliphatic, 356
applications and end uses, 357
aromatic, 356
description, 355
manufacturers and trade names, 357
molecular structure, 356f
polycaprolactone, 356
polyester, 355356
polyether, 356
Thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO), 366
applications and uses, 366
description, 366
manufacturers and trade names, 366
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU),
355357
aliphatic, 356
applications and end uses, 357
aromatic, 356
description, 355
manufacturers and trade names,
357
molecular structure, 356f
polycaprolactone, 356
polyester, 355
characteristic features, 356
polyether, 356
characteristic features, 356
Thermoplastics, 29
Thermosets, 29. See also Thermoplastics
Thermx® CG993
flexural creep at 80°C and various
stress levels, 202f
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 35
Topas® COC products, 347
Torlon® 4203L
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 231f
at 204°C, 231f
Torlon® 4275
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 233f
at 204°C, 234f
Torlon® 4301
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 232f
at 204°C, 232f
Torlon® 4375
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 233f
Torlon® 5030
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 234f
at 204°C, 235f
Torlon® 7130
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 235f
at 204°C, 236f
Torsional constant (K),, 2, 2f
Tortuous path effect, 31, 32f
Toughener, 34, 34f
Toyolac® 100 ABS resin
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 68f
and 15 MPa tensile stress,
69f
and various stress, 68f
Toyolac® 500 ABS resin, 69f
Toyolac® antistatic ABS resin,
69f
TPXt PMP resin, 346f
Trogamid® CX7323
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 296f
at 40°C, 296f
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 297f
at 40°C, 297f
INDEX 489Trogamid® T5000
internal pressure creep of filter cups,
296f
isochronous stress-strain
at 20°C, 295f
at 80°C, 295f
U
Udel® P-1700
apparent creep modulus vs. time
at various temperatures,
467f
tensile creep strain vs. time in air
at 99°C, 465f
at 149°C, 466f
tensile creep strain vs. time in water
at 23°C, 466f
at 60°C, 467f
Ultem® 1000
chemical structure, 215f
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 216f
at 60°C, 217f
at 100°C, 217f
at 150°C, 218f
Ultem® 2200
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 218f
at 60°C, 219f
at 100°C, 219f
at 150°C, 220f
Ultem® 2400
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 220f
at 60°C, 221f
at 100°C, 221f
at 150°C, 222f
Ultem® 5000 series, chemical structure,
214f
Ultem® 6000 series, chemical structure,
215f
Ultem® CRS5001
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 224f
at 60°C, 225f
at 100°C, 225f
at 150°C, 226f
Ultem® PEI resins
creep modulus vs. time at 23°C and
34.5 MPa stress, 223f
creep modulus vs. time at 23°C and
48.3 MPa stress, 222f
creep modulus vs. time at 82°C and
23.6 MPa stress, 224f
creep modulus vs. time at 82°C and
34.5 MPa stress, 223f
Ultem® XH6050
chemical structure, 215f
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 226f
at 127°C, 227f
at 150°C, 227f
Ultradur® B4300 G6
isochronous stress at 140°C, 172f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 171f
at 60°C, 172f
at 100°C, 172f
Ultradur® B4520
isochronous stress 0 at 60°C, 171f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 171f
at 100°C, 171f
Ultraform® H4320, 122f
Ultraform® N2200 G43
creep modulus vs. time curves
at 23°C, 124f
isochronous stress-strain curves
at 23°C, 123f
at 40°C, 123f
at 80°C, 123f
at 100°C, 123f
at 120°C, 124f
Ultraform® N2200 G53
creep modulus vs. time curves
at 23°C, 126f
at 40°C, 127f
isochronous stress-strain curves
at 23°C, 125f
at 40°C, 125f
at 60°C, 125f
at 80°C, 125f
at 100°C, 126f
at 120°C, 126f
Ultraform® N2320 003
isochronous stress-strain at 23°C, 121f
tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
122f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
121f
Ultraform® N2720 and M210
creep modulus vs. time curves
at 23°C, 128f
isochronous stress-strain curves
at 23°C, 127f
at 60°C, 127f
at 120°C, 128f
Ultraform® N2720 M63
creep modulus vs. time curves
at 23°C, 130f
at 40°C, 130f
isochronous stress-strain curves
at 23°C, 129f
at 40°C, 129f
at 60°C, 129f
at 100°C, 129f
Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE), 321
Ultra low density polyethylene (ULDPE),
321
Ultramid® A 3K
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 284f
at 120°C, 284f
Ultramid® A 3WG10
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 284f
at 120°C, 284f
Ultramid® B5, 249f
Ultrason® E 2010
1000-h isochronous stress-strain at
various temperatures, 434f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C and at various stress levels,
435f
at 140°C and at various stress levels,
435f
Ultrason® E 2010 C6, 438f
Ultrason® E 2010 G4, 436f
Ultrason® E 2010 G6
creep strain vs. time curves
at 23°C, 436f
at 180°C, 437f
tensile creep strength in water vs. time
at various temperatures, 437f
Ultrason® E-3010
tensile creep strength in water vs. time
at 23°C and various stress levels,
438f
at 140°C and various stress levels,
439f
at 180°C and various stress levels,
439f
Ultrason® P 3010
elongation-time curves at 23°C, 471f
elongation-time curves at 180°C,
472f
long-term hydrostatic strength at
various temperatures, 472f
Ultrason® S 2010
1000-h isochronous stress-strain at
various temperatures, 460f
hoop stress vs. time, 461f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 460f
at 140°C, 461f
Ultrason® S 2010 G4, 463f
Ultrason® S 2010 G6
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 463f
at 140°C, 464f
tensile creep strength vs. time,
464f
Ultrason® S 2010 G8, 465f
Ultrason® S 3010
creep strength vs. time, 462f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
462f
Unsaturation. See Molecular unsaturation
UV/radiation stabilizers, 34
490 INDEXV
Valox® 508
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 206f
at 60°C, 207f
at 82°C, 207f
at 121°C, 208f
Van der Waals forces, 2728
Vectra® A130, 198f
Vectra® A950, 197f
Vectra® B130, 199f
Vectra® C130, 200f
Vectra® E130i, 200f
Vectra® H140, 201f
Veradel® A-200A
apparent creep modulus vs. time at a
stress of 20.7 MPa, 440f
1000-h isochronous stress-strain at
various temperatures, 440f
Veradel® A-201, 441f
Veradel® AG-230, 441f, 442f
Vertron® MV00AS, 345f
Vertron® MV006S, 343f
Vertron® MV008S
creep strain vs. time
23°C, 343f
50°C, 344f
70°C, 344f
Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE),
321
Vespel® SP21-15% graphite filled PI resin
creep modulus vs. time at various
temperatures and stress, 239f
creep strain vs. time at various
temperatures, 238f
Vespel® SP21-unfilled PI resin
creep modulus vs. time at various
temperatures and stress,
238f
creep strain vs. time at various
temperatures, 237f
Vespel® SP22
creep modulus vs. time at various
temperatures and stress, 240f
creep strain vs. time at various
temperatures, 239f
Vespel® thermoplastic PI
resins, 244f
Vespel® TP-8000 series, chemical
structure, 236f
Vespel® TP-8054, 240f
Vespel® TP-8130, 241f
Vespel® TP-8212, 241f
Vespel® TP-8311, 242f
Vespel® TP-8395, 242f
Vespel® TP-8549, 243f
Vespel® TP-8792, 243f
Vestamid® D16
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 289f
at 60°C, 289f
at 100°C, 290f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 287f
at 60°C, 288f
at 100°C, 288f
VESTAMID® E40-S3 PEBA resin
tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
369f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 60°C, 369f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 80°C, 370f
VESTAMID® E47-S3 PEBA resin
tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C,
370f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 60°C,
371f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 80°C,
371f
Vestamid® L2124
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 264f
at 60°C, 264f
at 100°C, 265f
tensile creep vs. time
at 23°C, 262f
at 60°C, 263f
at 100°C, 263f
Vestamid® L2140
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 261f
at 60°C, 261f
at 100°C, 262f
tensile creep vs. time
at 23°C, 259f
at 60°C, 260f
at 100°C, 260f
Vestamid® L-GF30
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 267f
at 60°C, 267f
at 100°C, 268f
tensile creep vs. time
at 23°C, 265f
at 60°C, 266f
at 100°C, 266f
Vestamid® VX7099
tensile creep modulus vs. time at 23°C,
291f
tensile creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 290f
Vestodur® 2000
tensile creep modulus curves
at 23°C, 164f
at 100°C, 164f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 163f
at 100°C, 163f
Vestodur® GF30
tensile creep modulus
at 23°C, 168f
at 100°C, 168f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 167f
at 100°C, 167f
Vestodur® HI19
tensile creep modulus
at 23°C, 166f
at 100°C, 166f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 165f
at 100°C, 165f
Vestodur® HI19-GF30
tensile creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 170f
at 100°C, 170f
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 169f
at 100°C, 169f
Vestoran®
creep modulus vs. time at 23°C, 138f
creep strain vs. time at 23°C, 138f
Victrex® 450CA30
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C and various stress levels, 415f
at 150°C and various stress levels, 416f
Victrex® 450G
tensile creep strain vs. time
at 23°C and various stress levels, 414f
at 150°C and various stress levels, 415f
Victrex® HT, 422f
Victrex® PEEK resins
hoop stress vs. time at 23°C, 417f
hoop stress vs. time at 150°C, 417f
tensile creep modulus vs. time at
various temperatures and various
strain, 416f
Victrex® ST G45, 423f
Von Mises equivalent stress formula, 4
X
Xenoy®, 208f
Xenoy® 6370
creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 209f
at 60°C, 209f
at 90°C, 210f
Y
Young’s modulus, 39
Z
Zenite® 6130 BK010
isochronous stress-strain at 100°C
after annealing at 250°C, 198f
as molded, 199f
Zytel® 101
flexural creep modulus vs. time
at 23°C, 273f
at 60°C, 273f
flexural creep strain vs. time
at 23°C, 272f
INDEX 491Zytel® 101 (Continued)
flexural isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 272f
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 271f
at 60°C, 271f
at 100°C, 272f
Zytel® 101F
creep in flexure vs. time
at 60°C, 274f
at 125°C, 274f
Zytel® 70G13
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 276f
at 60°C, 276f
Zytel® 70G30HSLR
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 276f
at 80°C, 277f
at 100°C, 277f
Zytel® 70G33HS1L, 278f
Zytel® 70G33L
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 277f
at 125°C, 277f
Zytel® 70G43L
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 282f
at 60°C, 282f
at 100°C, 282f
at 125°C, 282f
Zytel® 73G30L NC010
isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 251f
at 60°C, 251f
at 90°C, 252f
Zytel® 77G43L
isochronous stress-strain in flexure
at 23°C, 292f
at 125°C, 292f
Zytel® 158L NC010
isochronous stress-strain in
flexure
at 23°C, 291f
at 60°C, 291f
Zytel® 408HS, 275f
Zytel® 408HSL
flexural isochronous stress-strain
at 23°C, 275f
at 125°C, 275f
Zytel® 408L, 275f


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