كتاب The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers    كتاب The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers  Emptyالسبت 22 أبريل 2023, 10:24 pm

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The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers
Third edition
Laurence W. McKeen  

كتاب The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers  T_e_o_13
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction to Plastics and Polymers Compositions
2. Introduction to the Weathering of Plastics
3. Introduction to Plastic Properties
4. Styrenic Plastics
5. Polyesters
6. Polyimides
7. Polyamides Nylons
8. Polyolefins
9. Polyvinyls and Acrylics
10. Fluoropolymers
11. High-Temperature/High-Performance Polymers
12. Elastomers and Rubbers
13. Sustainable Polymers
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” denote figures; “t” tables.
A
ABS. See Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)
Accelerated indoor fluorescent light exposure, 73t
Accelerated outdoor tests, 31e32
EMMA, 31e32, 32f
EMMAqua, 32
ultra-accelerated exposure testing, 32, 32f
Acetal copolymer, chemical structure of, 282f
Acetal homopolymer, chemical structure of, 282f
Acetal polymers, 291
Acid scavenger, 26
Acrylic resins, 231
Acrylics, 217. See also Polyvinyls
Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers (NBR), 346e352, 351f
applications and uses, 352
manufacturers and trade names, 352
types of, 346e352
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 71f, 72f
manufacturers and trade names, 72
physical properties of, 73t, 74f, 74t
property changes in, 73t
stabilization, 71
weathering properties, 71
Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA), 105
Alternating copolymer, 2
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 45
Amide-imide polymers, 148t
Amino acids, chemical structures of, 164f
Amorphous, 10
Amorphous nylon, 165, 166f
Amorphous polyamide, 165e166, 165f
applications and uses, 166
manufacturers and trade names, 166
Artificial accelerated tests, 32e40
carbon arc fade-meter, 39
fluorescent/QUV, 33e38
light sources, 32, 34t
SEPAP, 39e40
xenon arc, 33, 35f
ASA. See Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA)
Atmospheric pollutants, chemical effects of
nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 19
ozone, 18
photodegradation and photo oxidation, 19
sulfur dioxide (SO2), 18
B
BASF Ultrason, 279
4,4’-Bisphenol A Dianhydride (BPADA)
monomer, 146, 152f
photodegradation reactions of, 153f
Block copolymer, 2e3
Butyl rubber, 314e318, 318f, 319f, 320f
applications and uses, 318
manufacturers and trade names, 315e316
C
Carbon arc, 33, 36f
Carbon black, 15
Cellophane, 372e375, 377f
applications and uses, 375
manufacturers and trademarks, 375
weathering, 372
Cellulose acetate, 376e377, 377f, 378f
applications and uses, 377
manufacturers and trade names, 377
Cellulose acetate butyrate, 377e378, 378f
applications and uses, 378
manufacturers and trade names, 378
Chlorobutyl rubber, 320e322, 320f, 322f, 323f
applications and uses, 322
manufacturers and trade names, 321
Coefficient of friction (COF), 13
Conventional aging, 29e31
Copolymerization, 292
Copolymers, 2e3. See also Polyoxymethylene (POM)
Crystalline, 10
Crystallinity, 49
D
Daylight filters, 33
Degree of polymerization, 9
Degree of unsaturation (DoU), 4e5
Diacids, chemical structures of, 164f
Diamines, chemical structures of, 164f
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 65
Dipole moment, 3
DMTA. See Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA)
Drop dart impact test, 57e58
DuPont elastomer neoprene, 321
DuPont Kapton, elongation of, 156f
DuPont Minlon, 178t, 179t
exposure of, 178t
DuPont Tedlar, 252
Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), 67, 67f
E
ECTFE. See Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE)
Elastomers, 299
fluoroelastomers, 337e346, 345f, 345t
olefinic thermoplastic elastomers, 301e304
thermoplastic copolyester elastomers, 313e314, 313f
TPU, 299e301, 300f, 301t
Elmendorf tear strength, 61, 61f
383EMMA. See Equatorial mount with mirrors for acceleration (EMMA)
EMMAqua. See Equatorial mount with mirrors for acceleration plus
water (EMMAqua)
Epichlorohydrin rubber, 325e337, 342f, 343f
applications and uses, 337
manufacturers and trade names, 337
EPS. See Expanded polystyrene (EPS)
Equatorial mount with mirrors for acceleration (EMMA),
31e32, 32f
Equatorial mount with mirrors for acceleration plus water
(EMMAqua), 32
ETFE. See Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE)
Ethyl cellulose, 378, 380f
applications and uses, 378
manufacturers and trade names, 378
Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE), 262e266, 266f
applications and uses, 263e266
manufacturers and trade names, 263
Ethylene-propylene rubbers, 324e325, 324t, 325t,
340f, 341f, 342f
applications and uses, 325
basic kinds of, 324
manufacturers and trade names, 325
Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE), 258e262. See also
Polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene
manufacturers and trade names, 262
mechanical properties of, 259e262, 263f
Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, 357e361, 360f
applications and uses, 361
manufacturers and trade names, 361
stabilization, 361
weathering, 361
Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), 217e218, 217f, 218t
defined, 217
desirable properties, 217e218
manufacturers and trade names, 218
EVAL, 218
EVOH. See Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 72e74
F
Falling dart impact strength, 60, 60f
Fade-meter, 39
FEP. See Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)
Ferro Corporation LPP30, 211f
Fiber-reinforced grades, 11e12
Flexural properties, 54
Fluorescent/QUV, 33e38
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 246, 246f
applications and uses, 246
manufacturers and trade names, 246
Fluoroelastomers, 337e346, 345f, 345t
applications, 346
manufacturers and trade names, 346
types of, 337e345
Fluoropolymers
ECTFE, 262e266, 266f
ETFE, 258e262
FEP, 246, 246f
PCTFE, 252e256, 257f, 258f
PFA, 247e250, 250f, 250t
PTFE, 243e245, 244f, 246f
PVDF, 256e258, 258f
PVF, 250e252, 252f
Free-Falling Dart Method, 57e58, 58f
G
Gardner impact strength, 60, 60f
General purpose polystyrene (GPPS), 87t, 88f, 93
Generalized polyamide reaction, 163, 164f
Glass transition temperature
estimating, mechanical methods of, 66e67
estimating, thermal methods of, 67e69
thermal mechanical analysis, 67
Gloss measurement, 45
Graft copolymer, 2e3
Grilamid TR55, 165, 165f, 177f, 178f
Weather-Ometer exposure of, 166, 166f
H
HALS. See Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS)
Haze measurement, 45e46
Heat distortion temperature (HDT), 63
High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 193, 195
High-gloss Tedlar, 252
High-impact polystyrene (HIPS), 3, 74, 93e95
High molecular weight (HMW), 272
High-performance polyamide. See polyphthalamide
High-speed puncture test, 54e57, 58f
High-temperature/high-performance polymers
PAEK, 271e272, 271f
parylene, 279e283
PES, 276e279, 280t, 281f, 282f
polyoxymethylene copolymer, 282f, 284e295
POM, 282f, 283e285
PPO, 291f, 292f, 293t, 295e296
PPS, 272e274, 273f, 275t
PPSU, 275e276, 279f
PSU, 274e275, 276f
Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS), 22e23, 163
Hiosynergist inorganic screener, 24
Homopolymer, 245. See also Polyoxymethylene (POM)
I
Indoor and interior exposures, 28e29
Ionomers, 233e238, 237f
defined, 233
ethylene acrylic acid copolymer, 237f
manufacturers and trade names, 238
UV protection in, 236e238
weathering properties, 234
Isomers, 5e7
geometric isomers, 6, 6f
stereoisomers, 6e7
structural isomers, 5e6, 6f
L
LCPs. See Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs)
Light sources, artificial accelerated tests, 32, 34t
Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), 193, 195
Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs), 107e108
applications and uses, 108
manufacturers and trade names, 108
weathering properties, 108
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 193, 195
M
Mechanical testing, 47e62
flexural properties, 54
gardner and falling dart impact strength, 60
izod impact strength and charpy impact strength, 58e59
384 INDEXplastics materials, rigidity of, 48e49
puncture and impact, 54e58
shear properties, 49e51
tear properties, 60e62
tensile properties, 47e48
Medium-density polyethylene, 193
Melt flow index, 63
Mercury vapor, 32e33
Metal halide lamps, 33, 35f
Molecule affects, polarity of, 4
Monomers, chemical structures of, 121f, 155, 155f
Multiphase polymer blends, 11
N
Natural rubber, 346, 348f
applications and uses, 346
NBR. See Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers (NBR)
Nitrocellulose, 375e376, 377f
applications and uses, 376
manufacturers and trade names, 376
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 19
Nylon 6. See Polyamide 6
Nylon 11. See Polyamide 11
Nylon 12. See Polyamide 12
Nylon 66. See Polyamide 66
O
Olefinic thermoplastic elastomers, 301e304
applications and uses, 304
manufacturers and trade names, 304
Optical brighteners, 163
Outdoor testing, 29
Outdoor weathering
antioxidants effects on, 209t
glass-reinforced polypropylene, 209t
in Puerto Rico of Polypropylene, 210t
time vs. yellowness index, 75f
Ozone testing, 40
P
PAEK. See Polyaryletherketone (PAEK)
Parylene, 279e283
Parylene polymers, 279e283, 282f
manufacturers and trade names, 283
results, 283
weathering resistance, 282e283
PBT. See Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)
PCTFE. See Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
PES. See Polyethersulfone (PES)
PEN. See Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN)
Perfluoro alkoxy (PFA), 247e250, 250f, 250t
applications and uses, 250
manufacturers and trade names, 250
PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
PFA. See Perfluoro alkoxy (PFA)
Phase-separated mixtures, 11
Phenolic antioxidants, 23, 163
Phosphites, 24
Phosphonites, 24
Photodegradation, radicals, reactions of, 19, 20t
PLA. See Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)
Plastics
compositions
antiblock additives, 14
antistatic additives, 16
catalysts, 14
combustion modifiers, 12
coupling agents, 15
dyes and mica, 15
fillers/reinforcement and composites, 11e12
fire/flame retardants and smoke suppressants, 12
impact modifiers and tougheners, 14
optical brighteners, 15
pigments and extenders, 15
plasticizers, 15
release agents, 13
slip additives/internal lubricants, 13e14
thermal stabilizers, 15e16
UV/radiation stabilizers, 14
defined, 1
Plastics materials, weathering on, 17
atmospheric pollutants, chemical effects of, 18e19
physical processes of, 17
testing, 28e40
UV stabilization, mechanisms of, 19e21
Plastic properties
appearance of
color, 43e45
gloss measurement, 45
haze measurement, 45e46
yellowness index, 46e47
mechanical testing, 47e62
flexural properties, 54
gardner and falling dart impact strength, 60, 60f
izod impact strength and charpy impact strength,
58e59, 59f, 60f
plastics materials, rigidity of, 48e49
puncture and impact, 54e58
shear properties, 49e51
tear properties, 60e62
tensile properties, 47e48
thermal property testing of, 62e69
glass transition temperature, 65e69
heat deflection temperature, 63
melt flow index, 63
melting point, 65
vicat softening temperature, 63
Plastics Web, 1
PMMA. See Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)
Polar bond, 3
Polyacrylics, 220e233, 231f
applications and uses, 231
manufacturers and trade names, 233
PMMA, 220e231
stabilization, 233
weathering, 232
Polyamide 6, 169e170, 169f
manufacturers and trade names, 170
weathering properties, 170
Polyamide 11, 170e176, 176f
manufacturers and trade names, 176
weathering resistance, 176
Polyamide 12, 167f, 176e177, 177f, 178f
manufacturers and trade names, 177
weathering resistance, 177
Polyamide 66, 177e178, 178f
characteristics of, 177e178
manufacturers and trade names, 178
weathering properties, 178
Polyamide copolymers. See Amorphous polyamide
Polyamide-imide, 145e146, 145f, 146f
INDEX 385applications and uses, 146
manufacturers and trade names, 146
weathering properties, 145
Polyamides nylons
amorphous polyamide, 165e166, 165f
polyamide 6, 169e170, 169f
polyamide 11, 170e176, 176f
polyamide 12, 167f, 176e177, 177f, 178f
polyamide 66, 177e178, 178f
polyarylamide, 178e181, 184f
polyphthalamide/high-performance polyamide, 188f, 190
stabilization, 163
weathering properties, 163
Polyarylamide, 178e181, 184f
applications and uses, 181
manufacturers and trade names, 181
Polyaryletherketone (PAEK), 271e272, 271f
commercial plastics, 271
manufacturers and trade names, 272
weathering properties, 272
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 108e112, 110f
applications and uses, 110
manufacturers and trade names, 110
stabilization, 110
weathering properties, 108
Polycaprolactone, 378e380, 380f
applications and uses, 380
manufacturers and trade names, 380
Polycarbonate, 112e134, 121f
manufacturers and trade names, 131
optical brightener, 131
phenolic antioxidant, 131
phosphite, 131
photo-Fries rearrangement in, 121f
polycarbonate blends, 131e134
stabilization, 131
weathering properties, 121
Polycarbonate blends
stabilization, 134
weathering properties, 131
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 252e256, 257f, 258f
manufacturers and trade names, 256
Polydispersity (PDI), 8e9
Polyesters
chemical structure of, 107f
crystalline polymer, 109f
LCPs, 107e108, 109f
PBT, 108e112, 110f
PEN, 141f, 142
PET, 131f, 134e142
photolysis of, 108f
polycarbonate, 112e134, 121f
Polyetherimide, 146, 150f, 151f, 152f
applications and uses, 146
manufacturers and trade names, 146
stabilization, 146
weathering properties, 146
Polyethersulfone (PES), 276e279, 280t, 281f, 282f
manufacturers and trade names, 279
weathering properties, 277
Polyethylene, 193e207, 194f
Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 141f, 142
applications and uses, 142
manufacturers and trade names, 142
weathering, 142
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 131f, 134e142
applications and uses, 141
chemical structure of, 131f
stabilization, 141
weathering properties, 134e141
Polyethylene tetrafluoroethylene, 258
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), 372, 372f
Polyimides, 155e156, 155f
applications and uses, 156
chemical structure of, 155f
manufacturers and trade names, 156
photochemical oxidation of, 155f
polyamide-imide, 145e146
polyetherimide, 146, 150f, 151f, 152f
weathering properties, 156
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), 380, 380f
applications and uses, 380
manufacturers and trade names, 380
Polymer
classifications
crystalline vs amorphous, 10
molecular weight, 8e9
thermosets vs thermoplastics, 9e10
inter- and intramolecular attractions in, 7e8
chain entanglement, 8
hydrogen bonding, 7
van der waals forces, 8
polarities, qualitative ranking of, 4f
Polymer degradation cycle, 19e20, 20f
Polymerization
addition, 1e2, 2f
condensation, 2, 2f
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 220e231
Poly-4-methyl-1-pentene
manufacturers and trade names, 214
weathering properties, 214
Polyolefins
HDPE, 195
LDPE, 195
LLDPE, 195
monomers, chemical structures of, 193f
poly-4-methyl-1-pentene, 208e214
polyethylene, 193e207, 194f
polypropylene, 207e208
stabilization, 194
UHMWPE, 195e207
weathering, 194
Polyoxymethylene (POM), 282f, 283e285
Polyoxymethylene copolymer, 282f, 284e295
applications and uses, 295
manufacturers and trade names, 295
properties of, 292
stabilization, 293
weathering, 292
Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), 67, 291f, 292f, 293t, 295e296
Noryl resins, 296
stabilization, 296
weathering, 295
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 272e274, 273f, 275t
manufacturers and trade names, 274
stabilization, 273
weathering, 273
Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 275e276, 279f
applications and uses, 276
manufacturers and trade names, 276
properties of, 275e276
Polyphthalamide (PPA), 188f, 190
386 INDEXapplications and uses, 190
characteristics of, 190
manufacturers and trade names, 190
Polypropylene, 207e208
homopolymers, 207
impact copolymers, 208
random copolymers, 207
stabilization, 208
weathering, 208
Polystyrene
manufacturers and trade names, 86
stabilization, 86
structure of, 86f
weathering properties, 86
Polysulfide rubber, 361e364, 363f
Polysulfone (PSU), 276f
manufacturers and trade names, 274
weathering, 274
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 13, 243e245, 244f, 246f
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 217e220, 219f, 220f
applications and uses, 219e220
dehydrochlorination of, 219f
manufacturing and trade names, 219
radical generation in, 220f
stabilization, 219e220
weathering, 219
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 250e252, 252f
general description, 250
weathering properties, 250
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 256e258, 258f
key attributes of, 258
manufacturers and trade names, 258
weathering properties, 258
Polyvinyls
EVOH, 217e218, 217f, 218t
ionomers, 233e238, 237f
polyacrylics, 220e233, 231f
polyvinyl chloride, 218e220, 219f, 220f
POM. See Polyoxymethylene (POM)
PPO. See Polyphenylene oxide (PPO)
PPS. See Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
PPSU. See Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU)
PSU. See Polysulfone (PSU)
PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Punch-type shear tool, 51
Puncture properties, 54e58
drop dart impact test, 57e58
high-speed puncture test, 54e57, 58f
PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
PVDF. See Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
PVF. See Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF)
R
Random copolymer, 2e3
Rubbers, 299
butyl rubber, 314e318, 318f, 319f, 320f
chlorobutyl rubber, 320e322, 320f, 322f, 323f
epichlorohydrin rubber, 325e337, 342f, 343f
ethylene-propylene rubbers, 324e325, 324t, 325t,
340f, 341f, 342f
ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, 357e361, 360f
natural rubber, 346, 348f
NBR, 346e352, 351f
polysulfide rubber, 361e364, 363f
SBR, 352e357, 357f
S
Sabic Innovative Polymers Ultem, 154f, 155, 155f
Salt solution, 31, 31f
Semicrystalline polyamides, properties of, 176e177
SEPAP, 39e40
Shear modulus, 49
Shear properties, 49e51
Solar, and artificial light exposure, 33, 35t
Spray, conventional aging with, 31
Standard elastomer tests, 47, 50t
Standard electrical tests, 47, 51t
Standard hardness tests, 47, 50t
Standard impact tests, 47, 50t
Standard mechanical tests, 47, 49t
Standard thermal tests, 47, 51t
Statistical copolymer. See Random copolymer
Stress, vs. strain behaviors, 54f
Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymer, 93f, 103e105
applications and uses, 104
manufacturers and trade names, 104
stabilization, 105
weathering properties, 104e105
Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), 352e357, 357f
applications and uses, 352
manufacturers and trade names, 352
Styrenic plastics
ABS copolymer, 71e72
acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate, 105
polystyrene, 72e103
SAN copolymer, 103e105
Styrosun, 93e94
Sustainable polymers
cellulose-based materials, 372e378, 375f, 376f
Cellophane, 372e375, 377f
cellulose acetate, 376e377, 377f, 378f
cellulose acetate butyrate, 377e378, 378f
ethyl cellulose, 378, 380f
nitrocellulose, 375e376, 377f
PLA, 380, 380f
polycaprolactone, 378e380, 380f
Syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), 95e103
T
Tear properties
Elmendorf tear strength, 61, 61f
toughness, 62
trouser tear resistance, 61
Tedlar, 252
Teflon, 245
Tensile properties, 47e48
Testing
accelerated outdoor tests, 31e32
artificial accelerated tests, 32e40
conventional aging, 29e31
indoor and interior exposures, 28e29
outdoor testing, 29
ozone testing, 40
spray, conventional aging with, 31
Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA), 67, 68f
Thermal property testing
heat deflection temperature, 63
melt flow index, 63
vicat softening temperature, 63
Thermoplastic copolyester elastomers, 313e314, 313f
manufacturers and trade names, 314
INDEX 387weathering properties, 314
Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU), 299e301, 300f, 301t
aliphatic, 300
aromatics, 300
characteristic features, 300
polycaprolactone, 300
polyester, 299
polyether, 300
UV radiation resistance, 301
Thermoplastics, 9e10
Thermosets, 9e10
Ticona Celanex, 111t
Ticona Vectra
artificial weathering for, 110t
chemical structure of, 109f
xenon arc accelerated weathering for, 110t
TIPU. See Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU)
Titanium dioxide, 15, 219
Tortuous path effect, 12
Tristimulus coefficients, 46, 46t
U
Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), 193
Ultra low-density polyethylene, 193
Ultraviolet (UV)
light, 1
absorber, 22, 163
Ultraviolet (UV) stabilization
acid scavenger, 26
hindered amine stabilizers, 22e23
inorganic screeners, 24
mechanisms of, 19e21
absorption/reflection and refraction, 20e21
phenolic antioxidants, 23
phosphites and phosphonites, 24
quencher, 28
synergistic mixtures of, 28
thiosynergists, 26
UV absorbers, 22
Ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers, 21e28. See also Ultraviolet (UV)
stabilization
Unsaturation, 4e5
V
Very low-density polyethylene, 193
Vicat softening temperature, 63
W
Weather-Ometer, 146, 149f
X
Xenon arc, 33, 35f, 146, 153f
Y
Yellowness index, 46e47, 89f, 146, 154f


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