كتاب Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates

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كتاب Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates    كتاب Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates  Emptyالإثنين 10 أبريل 2023 - 21:16

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates
Plastic Films Technologies, Testing, and Applications
Syed Ali Ashter
EMD Millipore Corporation

كتاب Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates  T_f_o_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Dedication
Preface
Acknowledgments
1. Introduction to Thermoforming
1.1 History
1.2 Market and Applications
References
2. The Thermoforming Process
2.1 Background
2.2 Basic Principles of Thermoforming
2.3 Difference between Plastic Sheets and Laminates
2.4 Theory of Forming Process
2.5 Forming Characteristics
2.6 Machinery
References
3. Review of Characteristics of Common Plastics for Thermoforming
3.1 Impact of Main Variables
References
4. Lamination
4.1 Why Laminates?
4.2 Elements of Laminates
4.3 Typical Commercial Laminates
4.4 Hot-Roll Lamination
4.5 Extrusion Lamination
4.6 Flame Lamination
4.7 Adhesive Lamination
References
5. New Developments
5.1 Heating Technology
5.2 Trimming Technology
5.3 Thickness Reduction
5.4 Pressure Forming
5.5 Vacuum Forming
5.6 Twin-Sheet Forming
5.7 Reinforced-Sheet Forming
5.8 Multilayer Sheet Forming
5.9 Biaxial Bulge
5.10 Biaxial Strain
5.11 Bulge Test Models
References
6. Mechanics of Materials
6.1 Stress
6.2 Strain
6.3 Stress Relaxation and Creep
6.4 Creep and Stress Relaxation Models
6.5 Peeling
6.6 Delamination
References
7. Characterization
7.1 Mechanical Testing
7.2 Impact Testing
7.3 Biaxial Bulge Testing
7.4 Rheological Testing
7.5 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
7.6 Color Test
7.7 Specular Gloss Test
References
8. Matching Material Characteristics to Commercial Thermoforming
8.1 Packaging
8.2 Appliances
8.3 Bathroom
8.4 Transportation
8.5 Sports
References
9. Safety, Recycling and Environmental Issues of Thermoforming and its Products
9.1 Safety
9.2 Safety Guards
9.3 Recycling
9.4 The Economics of Recycling
9.5 Handling of Scrap
9.6 Contamination
9.7 Environmental Impact
References
10. Other Processing Approaches
10.1 Melt Extrusion
10.2 Coextrusion
10.3 Calendering
10.4 Casting
10.5 Coating
References
11. Modeling of Thermoforming: A Literature Review
11.1 Models
References
12. Troubleshooting
12.1 Thermoforming
12.2 Hot-Roll Lamination
References
Index
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refers to figures and tables
respectively.
A
Accidents, causes of
clamp, 213
drape mold/plug, 212
feeding mechanism, 213
heater unit, 213
stacker mechanism, 213
trimming knife, 213
Acrylics, 5456, 207208
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
(ABS)
in household products,
198
screw designs for, 239
Adhesive-coating methods,
80t
Adhesive lamination, 7680
dry bonding, 77, 79f
solventless, 77, 79f
UV/EB curing, 77
wet bonding, 77, 79f
Advance composite process,
17
Amorphous polymers, 19
ARAMIS optical testing system,
174175, 174f
Areal draw ratio (ADR), 99,
100t
ARGUS optical testing system,
172173, 173f, 174f
Arrhenius equation, 130
B
Bathroom enclosures, 203, 204f
Biaxial bulge testing, 113115,
114f, 169f, 170175,
171f
Biaxial strain, 115116
Bioplastics, 226227
Blister packs, 196
Boltzmann superposition
principle, 133134, 134f
Buckling induced delamination,
141142
Bulge test models, 116120
boundary value problem,
solution to, 118119
energy minimization method,
119120
spherical membrane equations,
116118, 116f
C
Cabinet press, 2526
Calendering, 248251, 249f
basic arrangements, 248249,
249f
components, 249250
Calrod. See Tubular heaters
Canoes, 207208
Capillary breakup extensional
rheometer (CaBER), 181,
182f
315Carbon footprint, 225
defined, 226227
measuring, 225226
Casting, 251253
advantages, 251252
film, 252, 252f
hot-melt, 252, 253f
materials, 251t
pressure, 252253
Cellulose nitrate, 4
Ceramic heaters,
9192
Charpy impact test, 165168,
166f, 167f
Clamping mechanism, 3638,
36f, 37f
Clamshell packaging, 197,
197f
Climbing drum peel test, 135,
136f
Coating, 253259
methods, 253254
roll. See roll coating
stages of, 254255, 254f
Coextrusion, 244248, 244f
components of coextruded
films, 246248
techniques, 245246
feed-block dies, 245, 245f
multi-manifold external
combining dies,
246
multi-manifold internal
combining dies,
245246, 246f
Color test, 187
Colorimeter, 187f
Composite and composite
laminates, 3536
Compression ratio, 235
Compressive stress, 124f, 125
Conduction, 8587
Constant-rate-of-extension (CER)
tension tester, 163164,
163f
Constitutive equations, 265
Contact heaters, 3334, 33f
Contact heating, 85
advantages of, 8687
Contamination, 224225
Contrast gloss, 188189
Convection, 8788
Convection heat transfer
coefficient, 87t
Copper-clad laminates, 69
Creep, 128130
models, 130135
stress-strain response, 129f
Creep curve, 154155, 155f
Crystallized polyethylene
terephthalate (CPET),
200201
D
Decorative laminates, 1516,
6971
production of, 16
Deep drawing, 111, 111f
Delamination, 140143, 142f
buckling induced, 141142
free-edge, 141142
impact-induced, 141142
modes of laminate failure,
162, 163f
test, 162163
Diaphragm forming, 111112,
112f
Differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC), 183186
cell, 185f
316 INDEXcurve, 185f
setup, 184f
T
g, determination of,
185186, 186f
Dip coating, 258, 259f
Direct-roll coating, 255, 256f
Displacement, 126127
Drape vacuum forming, 104108
female mold
billow plug assist, 108
billow snap back, 107, 107f
plug assist, 106107, 107f
male mold
billow plug, 106, 106f
snap back, 105106, 105f
Drum heaters, 86
Dry bond lamination, 66
Dual station machine, 23
Dynamic mechanical rheological
testing (DMRT), 177180
loading modes, 178f
response curve, 179f
sinusoidal response, 178f
E
Elastic limit, 148149
Electrical power tools, 98
Electronic packaging, 196198
Elongation, 149150
Environmental impact of scrap,
225227
Extensional rheometry, 180183
Extruders
single-screw, 230238, 233f
twin-screw, 240242
types of, 232t
Extrusion-forming lines, 34, 35f
Extrusion lamination, 6566,
7375, 74f
Extrusion plastometer, 175177,
176f
F
Feed-block dies, 245, 245f
Filament stretching extensional
rheometer (FiSER), 182
Film casting, 252, 252f
Flame lamination, 7576, 76f
Flat-plate heaters, 86
Flat-strip heaters, 9091, 91f
Flexographic coating, 258259
Fluoropolymers, 5862
Foam polymer machines, 35
Free-draw vacuum forming, 108,
108f
Free-edge delamination, 141142
G
Gloss, 188
contrast, 188189
specular, 188
Glossmeter, 189190, 189f
Gravure coating, 256257, 257f
H
Hand-held knives, 9798, 97f
Heat-emitting panel heaters,
9394
Heat lamps, 94
Heating technology, 8494
Heavy-gauge machinery,
elements of, 2731
forming press, 29
load/unload elements, 30
loading and unloading sheet,
30
ovens for, 2829
plug-assist prestretching, 30
pneumatic prestretching, 29
sheet clamping, 28
sheet handling, 2728
vacuum box and vacuum
systems, 3031, 31f
INDEX 317Height to dimension ratio
(HDR), 100
Helix angle, 234235
High-density polyethylene
(HDPE), 2
High-impact polystyrene (HIPS),
2
Hooke’s law, 148
Hot creep test, 154156
Hot-melt casting, 252, 253f
Hot-roll lamination, 7173, 72f
double, 7273, 72t, 73f
troubleshooting, 310314
Hot tensile test, 150154
specimens used, types of,
151152, 152f
speed of testing, 153154,
154t
Hot tubs, 204205, 205f
Household packaging, 198201
cups and bowls, 198199,
199f, 204f
trays and containers,
199201
Hydroforming, 110111, 111f
Hyperelastic model, 265
I
Impact-induced delamination,
141142
Impact tests, 164170
In-mold lamination, 1617
Infrared flat quartz heaters, 94
Izod test, 168170, 169f
K
Kelvin-Voigt model, 130133,
131f
Keratin, 34
Kiss coating, 256, 256f
Knife-like dies, 9596
L
Laminates, 1516, 6667, 67f
commercial, 6871
elements of, 6768
high-pressure, 16
orientation of, 68f
types of, 1516
vs. plastic sheets, 1517
Lamination, 65
adhesive, 7680
extrusion, 6566, 7375,
74f
flame, 7576, 76f
hot-roll, 7173, 72f
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA),
225, 226f
Light-gauge forming process,
3132
Linear draw ratio (LDR), 100
Luster, 188189
Luster gloss, 188189
M
Major strain, 115
Matched-die molding, 109, 110f
Matched mold-forming
machines, 3436
Maxwell unit model, 130133,
131f
Mayer rod coating, 255, 255f
Mechanical testing, 148164
Medical packaging, 195196
Meissner extensional rheometer,
182183, 183f
Melt extrusion, 230244, 231f
Melt flow index, 175
Melt flow rate (MFR), 175177
Minor strain, 115
Modeling
draped-formed composite
laminates, 266267
318 INDEXinfrared heating system,
267268
plug-assisted thermoforming,
268269
Modulus, 148149
Multi-manifold external
combining dies, 246
Multi-manifold internal
combining dies,
245246, 246f
Multilayer extrusion, 74f
Multilayer sheet forming,
112113, 113f
Multiple-station machine, 23
Munstedt extensional rheometer,
182183, 184f
N
NEMA industrial laminates, 69
Normal strain, 127, 127f
Normal stress, 125
Nylon 6, 47
Nylon 6, 6
screw designs for, 239240
structure of, 47
Nylon 6, 10, 47
Nylon 11, 47
O
One-step forming, 2
Open-resistor heaters, 89
P
Packaging, 194201
electronic, 196198
household, 198201
cups and bowls, 198199
trays and containers,
199201
medical, 195196
Peel energy, 137138
Peel force, 137138
Peel strength, 136138
Peel test, 136137, 137f,
157161
45-degree, 158, 158f
90-degree, 159160, 159f
180-degree, 160161, 160f,
162f
advantages of, 137
Peel theory, 138f
Peeling, 135140, 136f,
157158
adhesive layer thickness, 139,
139f
elastic-plastic peeling layer
thickness, 139140, 140f
rate and temperature, 140,
141f
Plastic pallets, 206207
Plastic recycling. See recycling
Plastic scrap, 218
Plastic sheets
heavy gauge, 5, 22
thin-gauge, 22
vs. laminates, 1517
Plug-assist prestretching, 30
Plug-assist vacuum forming, 199,
199f, 200f
Plugs, 30
Poly methyl methacrylate
(PMMA), 5456
glass transition temperature,
55
in hot tubs, 205
in refrigerator enclosures, 202
Polyamides, 4650
addition, 57
condensation, 57
mechanical properties of, 50,
51t
INDEX 319Polyamides (Continued)
properties of, 49t
structures of, 4647
Polycarbonates, 5053, 70
chemical resistance, 5253
chemical structure, 50
decorative laminates, 70
in household products, 198
in refrigerator enclosures, 202
screw designs for, 239
Polyesters, 4546
decorative laminates, 6970
glass transition temperature,
46
structure of, 45
Polyethylene, 4043, 207
glass transition temperature,
41
in packaging, 194
screw designs for, 239
structure, 40
viscosity, 41
Polyethylene terephthalate
(PET), 45, 6970
decorative laminates, 6970
glass transition temperature,
46
in household products, 198
Polyimides, 5658
Polymer of
cyclohexanedimethanol
and terephthalic acid
(PCTA), 201
Polymers, forming characteristics
of, 1921, 20t
Polyolefins, 4045
Polypropylene, 4345, 70
chemical resistance of, 7071
decorative laminates, 70
in household products, 198
structure, 40
Polystyrene
decorative laminates, 71
in household products, 198
in refrigerator enclosures, 202
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE),
5860
chemical resistance, 59
mechanical properties, 60t
structure, 58
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC),
7071
decorative laminates, 7071
in hot tubs, 205
in household products, 198
Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
(PVDF), 6062
electrical properties of, 62t
forms, 6061
mechanical properties of,
6162, 62t
structure, 60
Pressure casting, 252253
Pressure forming, 100103
free, 101102, 101f, 102f
pressure box forming, 103
pressure plate or box forming,
102103, 103f
Pressure gelation process.
See Pressure casting
Product life cycle, 226f
Proportional limit, 148149
PSA films, 68
Punch and die, 9597, 96f, 97f
Pyrex glass heaters, 92
Q
Quartz heaters, 9293
R
Radiation, 8894
Recycling, 218220
320 INDEXeconomics of, 220223
primary, 219
secondary, 219
tertiary, 219220
Refrigerator enclosures, 202
Reinforced-sheet forming,
109112
Reverse-roll coating, 257258,
258f
Rheological testing, 175183
Rheotens, 180181, 181f
Rigid-form-fill seal operation, 34
Rod heaters, 8990
Roll coating, 255259
dip coating, 258, 259f
direct-roll coating, 255, 256f
flexographic coating, 258259
gravure coating, 256257,
257f
kiss coating, 256, 256f
Mayer rod coating, 255, 255f
reverse-roll coating, 257258,
258f
Roll-fed thermoforming, 22
Roll forming, 112, 112f
Rotary thermoforming press,
2627, 26f
Rubber-die molding, 110, 110f
S
Safety, 212213
Safety checks, 216218
maintenance checks, 217218
operational checks, 217
Safety guards, 213218
cutting/trimming unit, 216
discharge, 216
drape plug/clamp, 216
drape table movement, 215
heater bank, 215
hot surfaces, 216
manually loaded and/or
unloaded machines,
214215
material fee, 215
stacking unit, 216
Scrap handling, 223224
Screw designs, 238240
acetal copolymer, 238239
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
(ABS), 239
Nylon 6/6, 239240
polycarbonate, 239
polyethylene, 239
Screw elements, 242244, 243f
Semi-crystalline polymers, 19
Shear strain, 127f, 128
Shear stress, 125, 126f
Sheen, 188
Shift factor, 128129
Shuttle press, 2325, 24f
double oven, 2425, 25f
Single-flight, two-stage extrusion
screw, 236, 237f
Single-screw extruder, 230238,
233f
extruder screw, 234238, 234f
mixing section designs,
236238, 238f
single-flight, two-stage
extrusion screw, 236,
237f
vented extruder, 236, 236f
Single-station machine, 23
Specular gloss test, 188190
measuring principle of contrast
gloss, 189f
sheen measurement system,
188, 188f
SPI Designation Code for
Plastics, 220, 221t,
222223
INDEX 321Standard roll-fed machines, 33,
33f
Steel-rule die, 95, 96f
Strain, 126128
defined, 117, 148
normal, 127, 127f
shear, 127f, 128
Stress, 124126, 124f
compressive, 124f, 125
defined, 124125, 148
normal, 125
shear, 125, 126f
Stress relaxation, 128130,
156157
models, 130135
stress-strain response, 129f
Stress-strain curve, 148149,
149f
Stress-time curve, 156, 157f
Strip heaters, 86
Styrofoams, 198
T
T-peel test, 135, 136f
Tensile stress, 124f, 125
Thermal conductivity, 85
Thermal diffusivity, 85
Thermal lamination, 6566
Thermoforming
advantages of, 1
events, timeline of, 6t
history of, 35
market and applications, 511
stages, 261
Thermoforming process
analysis of, 18f
background, 1415
basic principles of, 15
characteristics, 1921, 20t
equipment, 2223
machinery, 2138
choice of equipment, 2122
heavy-gauge, 2327
light-gauge, 3132
plastic sheets vs. laminates,
1517
theory of, 1719
Thermoforming products
in appliances, 7, 9f, 201202
in funerals, 8, 10f
in horticulture, 811, 11f
in packaging, 7, 8f, 194201
in recreation, 7, 10f, 207208
in transportation, 7, 9f,
205207
Thermomechanical model, 263
Thickness reduction, 98100,
99f
Timetemperature superposition,
134135
Transition element, 243f, 244
Treloar’s equation, 265
Trimming technology, 9598
Troubleshooting
adhesive deposited on heat
rollers, 311
laminate improperly loaded,
311
top and bottom film webs
not aligned, 311
blistering, 313314
excessive heat, 313
high moisture content, 313
not enough tension, 313
uneven pressure, 314
blisters, 281282
excessive moisture, 281
heat-sensitive material, 282
heating sheet too fast,
281282
heating sheet too hot, 281
uneven heating of sheet, 282
322 INDEXblotchy look on textured side
(amorphous materials),
289
excessive heat, 289
high oven shrinkage, 289
blotchy look on textured side
(polyolefins), 289
poor mold contact, 289
uneven cooling on mold,
289
brittle parts, 308
improper cooling
temperature on mold, 308
mold lubricant incompatible
with plastic, 308
part cleaned with harmful
chemical, 308
plastic gets heated too
quickly, 308
bubbling, 312
feeding sheet too quickly,
312
insufficient tension, 312
trapped air bubbles, 312
uneven heating, 312
bumps, 286
bump on sheet, 286
contamination in sheet, 286
incompatible plastic mixed
within sheet, 286
loose debris on mold, 286
water droplets on hot sheet,
286
chill marks, 296297
dirt or debris on mold
surface, 297
insufficient draft angle on
part, 296
mold temperature too low,
296
part radius too small, 296
plug temperature too low,
296
sheet too hot, 296
sheets too hot, 297
vacuum holes too large, 297
vacuum rate too high, 297
wrong forming approach,
296
clamp frame too small, 288
sheet not flat, 288
curling, 310311
bottom film roll improperly
loaded, 311
speed setting too slow, 310
tension between top and
bottom film roll is
unequal, 310
tension on top and bottom
film roll is too loose, 310
difficulty in part removal from
mold, 301302
air ejection pressure too
low, 302
insufficient draft on male
mold, 301
male mold temperature too
cold, 301
mold surface too rough for
draft angle, 301
undercuts on mold too
severe, 302
wrong mold material used
for required draft angle,
302
discoloration, 283
forming temperature too
hot, 283
hot spots in forming oven,
283
pigment loading too low,
283
INDEX 323Troubleshooting (Continued)
excessive sheet sag, 304305
poor hot strength, 305
sheet area too large, 305
sheet too hot, 304
flow lines on part, 288
changing melt index within
resin, 288
chattering noise, 288
die lines on back of sheet,
288
lines on plastic sheet, 288
furrows or lines in part, 309
die lines in plastic, 309
hot-roll lamination, 310314
loss of vacuum seal, 302303
clamp frames not adjusted
properly, 303
clamp frames too cold, 303
material not holding in
clamp frames, 303
seal edge on mold is bad, 302
orange peel, 313
excessive heat, 313
part-to-part inconsistency,
289290
bad regrind material in
sheet, 290
difficulty in forming using
specific forming
approach, 290
uneven heating, 289
part warpage, 290292
clamp frames too cold, 290
de-molding temperature too
high, 291
gauge variation in finished
part, 291
mold too cold, 290
part sagging due to part
overheating, 291
poor mold design, 291
poor part design, 292
uneven part cooling, 290
parts cracks during service
life, 307
part too thin in specific
areas, 307
parts formed too cold and
not stress relieved, 307
parts not assembled
properly, 307
poor part design, 307
poor selection of materials,
307
plastic sheet sticks to plug,
304
plug temperature too high,
304
wrong material for plug, 304
poor material distribution or/
and excessive thinning,
298299
excessive gauge variation,
299
excessive sagging, 299
mold too cold, 299
uneven heating, 298
poor part details, 292293
clamping frame too cold,
292
hot strength of material too
high, 293
incorrect forming technique,
293
insufficient vacuum, 292
part thick in area, 293
sheet too cold, 292
poor part surface finish,
293295
air trapped between mold
and formed part, 294
324 INDEXchill marks, 293
contaminated sheet, 295
dirt and debris in
atmosphere, 294
dirty mold, 294
dirty sheet, 294
draft angles too severe, 294
dust and dirt in atmosphere,
295
mold surface creates too
much drag, 294
mold surface too rough, 293
scratched surface on sheet,
295
streaks, 295
voids, 295
post-molding shrinkage too
high, 300
inadequate cooling, 300
sheet pulls out of clamp frame,
285
clamp frames warped, 285
clamp pressure too low, 285
high shrinkage, 285
sheet tearing during forming,
303304
plastic sheet too hot before
forming, 303
poor material distribution,
304
poor mold design, 303
thin-gauge sheet too cold,
304
sheet whitening, 306
sheet stretched beyond
material yield point, 306
sheet too cold, 306
shiny streaks on part, 300
hot spots on sheet, 300
sink marks on formed part,
300301
inadequate vacuum, 301
mold surface too smooth,
301
poor seal edge on mold, 300
stress whitening or blushing,
297298
mold too cold, 298
part too thin, 298
poor mold design, 298
sheet too cold, 297
sheet too hot, 297298
surface of part is not flat, 308
flat surface of mold not
reinforced, 308
tearing during heating and/or
forming, 309310
grain texture too deep, 310
high orientation in sheet,
309
mixed regrind in sheet, 309
partially burnt during
extrusion, 309
poor hot strength, 309
texture separation, 287
deep furrow lines in pattern,
287
draw ratio greater than 3:1,
287
texture too deep for initial
part thickness, 287
texture washout, 287
high draw ratio, 287
sheet heated too hot, 287
thin corners on formed part,
299300
poor material distribution,
299
sheet is too thin
sheet temperature too high,
300
thinning, 282283
INDEX 325Troubleshooting (Continued)
excessive moisture, 282
forming technique, 283
sheet properties, 283
sheet too thin, 282
uneven sheet temperature,
282
unsatisfactory adhesion of
laminate, 311312
heat rollers require cleaning,
312
insufficient heat, 311
laminate improperly loaded,
311
laminated items
unsuitable for adhesion,
312
speed setting too fast, 311
variation in sag levels from
sheet to sheet, 305
improper use of regrind,
305
varying sheet temperature,
305
varying billow height or depth,
305306
air pressure or vacuum
volume too great, 306
uneven sheet temperature,
305306
vacuum or air leaks, 306
webbing or bridging,
283285
high sheet sag, 284
incorrect sheet temperatures,
284
insufficient vacuum, 285
poor mold design or layout,
283284
timing billow in snapback
box, 285
vacuum rate too fast, 284
wrong forming technique or
poor design, 284
wrinkling, 313
damp material, 313
not enough roll tension, 313
Tubular heaters, 8990, 90f
Twin-screw extruder, 240242,
240f
co-rotating system, 240, 241f
counter-rotating system,
241242, 241f
degree of intermeshing, 241f,
242
extruder screws, 242, 242f
Twin-sheet forming, 108109,
109f
Two-step forming, 23
U
Unclad laminates, 69
Universal testing machine
(UTM), 150151, 151f
V
Vacuum forming, 103108, 104f
advantages of, 2
drape, 104108
free-draw, 108
Vented extruder, 236, 236f
Visual gloss, 188189
W
Wet bond lamination, 66
Wheel machines, 36
William-Landel-Ferry (WLF)
equation, 128129
Y
Yield point, 148149
Yield strength, 148149
Young’s modulus, 148


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