كتاب Reverse Engineering - An Industrial Perspective
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Reverse Engineering - An Industrial Perspective

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عدد المساهمات : 18606
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Reverse Engineering - An Industrial Perspective    كتاب Reverse Engineering - An Industrial Perspective  Emptyالثلاثاء 04 أبريل 2023, 5:37 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Reverse Engineering - An Industrial Perspective
Vinesh Raja and Kiran J. Fernandes (Eds.)

كتاب Reverse Engineering - An Industrial Perspective  R_e_a_10
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Contents
List of Contributors xvii
1 Introduction to Reverse Engineering 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 What Is Reverse Engineering? . 2
1.3 Why Use Reverse Engineering? . 3
1.4 Reverse Engineering–The Generic Process 4
1.5 Phase 1–Scanning . 5
1.5.1 Contact Scanners 5
1.5.2 Noncontact Scanners . 6
1.6 Phase 2–Point Processing 7
1.7 Phase 3–Application Geometric Model Development 8
2 Methodologies and Techniques for Reverse Engineering–
The Potential for Automation with 3-D Laser Scanners 11
2.1 Computer-aided Reverse Engineering . 11
2.1.1 What Is Not Reverse Engineering? . 12
2.1.2 What is Computer-aided (Forward) Engineering? . 12
2.1.3 What Is Computer-aided Reverse Engineering? . 13
2.2 Computer Vision and Reverse Engineering . 15
2.2.1 Coordinate Measuring Machines 15
2.2.2 Active Illumination 3-D Stereo . 17
2.2.3 Benefits and Drawbacks 20
2.3 Structured-light Range Imaging . 21
2.3.1 Source Illumination Categories 22
2.3.2 Sheet-of-light Range Imaging . 25
2.4 Scanner Pipeline . 27
2.4.1 Data Collection . 27
2.4.2 Mesh Reconstruction . 29
2.4.3 Surface Fitting . 31xii Contents
2.5 Conclusions 32
Acknowledgments . 32
3 Reverse Engineering–Hardware and Software . 33
3.1 Introduction . 33
3.2 Reverse Engineering Hardware 34
3.2.1 Contact Methods 34
3.2.2 Noncontact Methods . 37
3.2.3 Destructive Method . 46
3.3 Reverse Engineering Software 53
3.3.1 Reverse Engineering Software Classification 53
3.3.2 Reverse Engineering Phases 54
3.3.3 Fundamental Reverse Engineering Operations 60
3.4 Conclusion 69
4 Selecting a Reverse Engineering System . 71
4.1 Introduction . 72
4.2 The Selection Process 75
4.2.1 Team Formation 75
4.2.2 Identify the Business Opportunity
and Technical Requirements 75
4.2.3 Vendor and System Information Gathering . 76
4.2.4 Vendor Short-listing 76
4.2.5 Visit the Short-listed Vendors 77
4.2.6 Detailed Vendor Assessment 78
4.2.7 Benchmarking 79
4.2.8 Perform a Commercial Evaluation
of the Vendor Chosen 79
4.3 Some Additional Complexities . 79
4.4 Point Capture Devices . 80
4.4.1 Contact Devices–Hard or Manual Probe . 80
4.4.2 Touch-trigger Probe 81
4.4.3 Continuous Analogue Scanning Probe 82
4.4.4 Other Facets of Probe Selection 82
4.4.5 Noncontact Devices . 83
4.5 Triangulation Approaches 83
4.6 “Time-of-flight” or Ranging Systems . 84
4.7 Structured-light and Stereoscopic Imaging Systems 84
4.8 Issues with Light-based Approaches 85
4.9 Tracking Systems . 86
4.10 Internal Measurement Systems 86
4.10.1 X-ray Tomography 86
4.11 Destructive Systems . 87Contents xiii
4.12 Some Comments on Accuracy 87
4.13 Positioning the Probe . 89
4.14 Postprocessing the Captured Data 90
4.15 Handling Data Points . 91
4.16 Curve and Surface Creation . 93
4.17 Inspection Applications . 95
4.18 Manufacturing Approaches . 96
4.19 Conclusion 96
4.20 Appendix . 97
4.20.1 Data Capture Vendors . 97
4.20.2 Postprocessing Vendors 98
5 Introduction to Rapid Prototyping 99
5.1 The Basic Process . 100
5.2 Current Techniques and Materials . 102
5.2.1 Stereolithography . 102
5.2.2 Selective Laser Sintering 104
5.2.3 Fused Deposition Modeling 105
5.2.4 Three-dimensional Printing 106
5.2.5 Laminated Object Manufacturing 108
5.2.6 Multijet Modeling . 109
5.2.7 Laser-engineered Net Shaping 110
5.3 Applications 110
5.3.1 Rapid Prototyping 111
5.3.2 Rapid Tooling . 112
5.3.3 Rapid Manufacturing . 113
5.4 Future 114
6 Relationship Between Reverse Engineering
and Rapid Prototyping 119
6.1 Introduction 120
6.1.1 Modeling Cloud Data in Reverse Engineering 120
6.1.2 Data Processing for Rapid Prototyping . 122
6.1.3 Integration of RE and RP for Layer-based
Model Generation . 122
6.2 The Adaptive Slicing Approach for Cloud Data Modeling . 124
6.3 Planar Polygon Curve Construction for a Layer . 125
6.3.1 Correlation Coefficient 126
6.3.2 Initial Point Determination . 127
6.3.3 Constructing the First Line Segment (S1) . 128
6.3.4 Constructing the Remaining Line Segments (Si) . 130
6.4 Determination of Adaptive Layer Thickness . 132
6.5 Some Application Examples 134xiv Contents
6.6 Conclusions 139
Acknowledgments . 139
7 Reverse Engineering in the Automotive Industry . 141
7.1 Introduction . 141
7.2 Reverse Engineering–
Workflow for Automotive Body Design 142
7.3 Inside GM’s Virtual NASCAR Engine Block . 143
7.4 Ferrari Speed Not Confined to Race Track 146
7.5 Reverse Engineering for Better Quality . 149
7.6 A Look Ahead–Convergence of Digital and Physical Worlds . 152
Acknowledgments . 154
8 Reverse Engineering in the Aerospace Industry 157
8.1 Introduction . 157
8.2 RE in Aerospace–A Work in Progress . 159
8.3 Reducing Costs of Hard Tooling 162
8.4 Digitizing a NASA Space Vehicle 164
8.5 Inspection in Half the Time 169
8.6 Making the Next Great Leap . 173
Acknowledgments . 174
9 Reverse Engineering in the Medical Device Industry 177
9.1 Introduction . 177
9.2 Orthodontics Without Wires and Brackets . 178
9.3 Improving the Scanning Process 180
9.4 The Six-stage Process . 181
9.5 Achievement . 182
9.6 Digital Dentistry Becomes Reality 182
9.7 Hearing Instruments Meet the Digital Age 185
9.8 Reverse Engineering–A Better Knee Replacement . 188
9.9 The Quest for a Total Artificial Heart 190
9.10 Moving Toward Mass Customization 192
Acknowledgments . 194
10 Legal Aspects of Reverse Engineering . 195
10.1 Introduction . 195
10.2 Copyright Law 196
10.3 Reverse Engineering 198
10.4 Recent Case Law . 199
10.4.1 Sega Enterprises Ltd. v. Accolade, Inc. 199
10.4.2 Atari Games Corp. v. Nintendo of America, Inc . 201Contents xv
10.5 The Fair Use Statutory Defense . 203
10.5.1 History and Changing the Law 203
10.5.2 What Do We Know About Proper
Reverse Engineering 203
10.6 Conclusion 206
11 Barriers to Adopting Reverse Engineering . 207
11.1 Background . 207
11.2 The Research Model . 208
11.3 Research Methodology . 213
11.4 Factor Analysis Approach . 214
11.4.1 Factor Determination Phase . 214
11.4.2 Data Collection . 214
11.5 Findings . 216
11.6 Conclusions and Recommendations for Further Research 218
Color Section . 219
References . 231
Index . 239
Index
2
2-D cross-sectional (slice) images
46
2-D cross-sectional images 33
3
3-D geometric models 33
3-D graphics 33
3-D models 33
3-D point cloud data 30
3-D points 2
3-D polygon models 55
3-D reconstruction 43
3-D scanners 177
A
abnormal faces 63
accuracy 87
active illumination 17
active stereo 17
aerospace industry 157
analogue sensing 34
application-specific geometric
model 4
automatic alignment 61
automotive industry 141
B
basic CAD entities 59
basic operations 64
benchmarking 79
boundary control 64, 65
business opportunity 75
C
C/C++ 134
CAD model 2
CAD-CAM-CAE 33
capturing 72
case law 199
changing the law 203
charge-coupled devices (CCD) 83
classification of noncontact RE 37
clay mock-up 3
coded and noncoded markers 165
coded-light range scanner 24
coherent laser radar 44
commercial evaluation 79
computational fluid dynamics
(CFD) 143
computer numerical control (CNC)
34
computer vision 15
computer-aided design (CAD) 12,
13, 33, 72240 Index
computer-aided engineering (CAE)
12, 58
computer-aided inspection (CAI)
149
computer-aided reverse
engineering (CARE) 11
computerized tomography (CT)
44, 55, 177
contact methods 34
contact scanners 5
continuous wave modulation
18
control point editing 68
convergence of digital and physical
worlds 152
coordinate measurement machines
(CMM) 34
coordinate measuring machines
(CMM) 15, 80
copyright law 196
correlation coefficient 126
critical factors 207, 213
crossing faces 63
curve degree conversion 67
curve phase 57, 66
curve redirection, transition, and
extension 68
curve reparameterization 67
curve smoothing and cleaning
67
D
data acquisition 46, 61
data collection 27
data optimization 61
data registration 60
decimation 63
defeaturing 64
Delaunay triangulation 120
destructive method 46
detailed vendor assessment 78
digital dentistry 182
digital form 3
digital imaging and
communications in medicine
(DICOM) 55
direct manufacturing 110
drawing exchange format (DXF) 8
E
edge detection 65
edge detection and control 64
editing 65
error map 60
F
factor analysis approach 214
factor analysis approach (FAA) 207
filling holes 64
finite element analysis (FEA) 143
fused deposition modeling (FDM)
105
G
generic process 4
geometric dimensioning and
tolerance (GD&T) 150
H
hearing instruments 185
I
identifying primitives 62
initial graphics exchange
specification (IGES) 8
inspection 72
interferometry (moiré effects) 41
ISO G Code 8
K
knee replacement 188Index 241
L
laminated object manufacturing
(LOM) 108
large point clouds 91
laser triangulation 55
laser-based illumination 17
laser-based range scanner 13
laser-engineered net shaping
(LENS) 110
layer-by-layer 99
layered manufacturing 100
legal aspects 195
M
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
55, 86
manual creation 59
mass customization 192
medical device industry 177
mesh reconstruction 29
modeling 33
modeling cloud data 120
multijet modeling (MJM) 109
multiple scans 60
N
noise 61
noncontact methods 37
noncontact scanners 6
nonmanifold faces 63
nonoptical techniques 44
nonuniform rational B-splines
(NURBS) 31, 33, 58
manual creation from basic CAD
entities 59
manual creation from patches 59
numerically controlled (NC) 72
NURBS surface phase 58, 68
O
OBJ 8
OpenGL 134
optical techniques 38
optimizing polygon models 62
orthodontics 178
P
passive methods 43
passive stereo 17
patches 59
photogrammetry 166
point clouds 33
point generation 68
point processing 4
point-to-point sensing 34
polygon editing 64, 65
polygon mesh refinement 63
polygon model 60
polygon phase 57
polygons 33
position-sensing devices (PSD) 83
postprocessing 90
potential suppliers 76
primitives fitting 64, 65
product development cycle 2
product development cycle times 2
project champion 75
R
rank weighting grid 78
rapid manufacturing 113
rapid product development 2
rapid prototyping (RP) 99
rapid prototyping/tooling 3
rapid tooling 112
redundancy reduction 62
redundant faces 63
registration 11, 29
remeshing 64, 65
reverse engineering hardware 34
reverse engineering software
classification 53
reverse engineering workflow for
automotive body design 142242 Index
role activity diagram (RAD) 73
role activity diagramming 74
S
sampling function 62
scanner pipeline 27
scanners 60
scanning 1, 4, 5, 60
scanning probes 34
scanning/digitizing 2
selection process 74
selective laser sintering (SLS) 104
shapes from shading (SFS) 43
sharpening 65
sheet-of-light range scanner 24
sheet-of-light scanners 25
solid free-form fabrication 100
source illumination categories 22
standard triangulation language
(STL) 8, 100
statutory defense 203
stereolithography 93, 102
stereovision 43
structured light 39
structured-light range imaging 21
structured-light triangulation 18
surface fitting 31
system selection 75
T
taxonomy of measuring systems 81
taxonomy of positioning devices
89
technical requirements 75
three-dimensional printing (3-DP)
106
time-of-flight estimation 18
topology 92
total artificial heart 190
touch-trigger probes 34
transformation 29
transitive techniques 44
triangular mesh 119
triangulation 38, 83
V
VDA 8
virtual reality modeling language
(VRML) 8
X
X-ray tomography 86


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