كتاب Thermosets and Composites - Material Selection, Applications, Manufacturing, and Cost Analysis
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Thermosets and Composites - Material Selection, Applications, Manufacturing, and Cost Analysis

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Thermosets and Composites - Material Selection, Applications, Manufacturing, and Cost Analysis
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Michel Biron

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Acronyms and Abbreviations
5V UL fire rating
AAGR Average annual growth rate
ABS Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
ACM-V Vulcanized acrylate rubber
ACS Acrylonitrile chlorinated
polyethylene styrene
AES or AEPDS Acrylonitrile EPDM styrene
AMC Alkyd molding compound
ArF or AF Aramid fiber
ASA Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate
ASTM American Society for Testing
and Materials
ATBC Acetyltributyl citrate
ATH Aluminum trihydrate
BF Boron fiber
BMC Bulk molding compound
BMI Bismaleimide
BOPLA Bi-axially oriented polylactic
acid
BOPP Bi-axially oriented
Polypropylene
BRIC Brazil-Russia-India-China
CA Cellulose acetate
CAB Cellulose acetobutyrate
CAD Computer Aided Design
CAGR Compound annual growth
rate
CBT Cyclic polybutadiene
Terephthalate
CE Cyanate ester
CF Carbon fiber
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
CIC Continuous impregnated
compound
CM or CPE Chlorinated polyethylene
CNT Carbon nanotube
COC or COP Cyclic olefin copolymers or
cyclic olefin polymers
CONC Concentrated solution
COP or COC Cyclic olefin polymers or cyclic
olefin copolymers
COPE or TPEE COPolyester TPE
CP Cellulose propionate
CPE or CM Chlorinated polyethylene
CPVC or PVC-C Chlorinated PVC
CS Compression set
CTLE Coefficient of thermal linear
expansion
CUT Continuous use temperature
under unstressed state
Cy Polycyanate
DAP Diallyl phthalate
DCPD Poly(dicyclopentadiene)
DMC Dough molding compound
DMTA Dynamic mechanical thermal
analysis
DRIV Direct resin injection and
venting
DSC Differential scanning
calorimeter
DTA Differential thermal analysis
EB Elongation at break
EBA, EGMA,
EMAH, EEA, EAA Ethylene-acid and ethyleneester copolymers, e.g.,
ethylene-butylacrylate
ECTFE Ethylene
monochlorotrifluoroethylene
EE, E&E Electricity & electronics
EMA Ethylene-methacrylate
ionomers
EMI Electromagnetic interference
EP Epoxy
EPA Environmental Protection
Agency
EPDM rubber Terpolymer ethylene, propylene,
diene
EPS Expandable (or expanded)
polystyrene
ESBO Epoxidized soybean oil
ESC Environmental stress cracking
ESD Electrostatic discharge
ETFE Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene
EVA, E/VAC,
EVAC, VAE, EVM Ethylene-vinylacetate
copolymersxviii Acronyms and abbreviations
EVOH Ethylene-vinyl alcohol
copolymers
F-PVC Flexible PVC
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FEP Fluorinated ethylene propylene
FIM Film insert molding
FR Fire retardant
GF Glass fiber
GFRP Glass fiber reinforced plastic
GMT Glass mat thermoplastic
HB UL fire rating
HDPE or
PE HD High density polyethylene
HDT Heat deflection temperature
HFFR Halogen free fire retardant
HIPS High impact PS
HPGF High-performance short glass
fiber reinforced polypropylene
HSCT High speed civil transport
(aircraft)
HTPC Hybrid thermoplastic
composite
HTV High temperature vulcanization
ICP Inherently conductive polymer
IDP Inherently dissipative polymer
ILSS Interlaminar shear strength
IMC In-mold coating
IMD In-mold decoration
IML In-mold labeling
IPN Interpenetrating polymer
network
IRHD International rubber hardness
IRM International referee material
ISO International Standardization
Organization
LCA Life cycle assessment
LCP Liquid crystal polymer
LCTC Low cost tooling for
composites
LDPE or
PE LD Low density polyethylene
LED Light emitting diode
LEFM Linear elastic fracture
mechanics
LFRT Long fiber reinforced
thermoplastic
LFT Long fiber reinforced
thermoplastic
LGF Long glass fiber
LIM Liquid injection molding
LLDPE Linear low density
polyethylene
LOI Limiting oxygen index
LRI Liquid resin infusion
LRTM Light RTM
LSR Liquid silicone rubber
LWRT Lightweight reinforced
thermoplastic
MABS Methylmethacrylateacrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
MAH Maleic anhydride
MBS Methylmethacrylate butadiene
styrene
MDPE Medium density polyethylene
MF Melamine
MPR Melt processable rubber (TPE)
MVTR Moisture vapor transmission
rate
MWNT Multiwalled carbon nanotubes
NB No break
NVH Noise vibration harshness
O&M Organization & methods
department
OIT Oxygen induction time
OPET Oriented PET
OPP Oriented PP
OPS Oriented PS
OTR Oxygen transmission rate
PA Polyamide
PA-T Transparent amorphous
polyamide
PAA Polyarylamide
PAI Polyamideimide
PAEK Polyaryletherketone
PAN Polyacrylonitrile
PAS Polyarylsulfone
PB Polybutene-1 or polybutylene-1
PBB Polybrominated biphenyls
PBDE Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
PBI Polybenzimidazole
PBO Polyphenylenebenzooxazole
PBT or PBTP Polybutyleneterephthalate
PC Polycarbonate
PCB Printed circuit board
PC-HT Polycarbonate – high
temperature
PCL Polycaprolactone
PCT Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene
terephthalate
PCTA Terephthalate/isophthalateAcronyms and abbreviations xix
PCTFE Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PCTG Polycyclohexylenedimethylenediol/ethyleneglycol
terephthalate
PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane
PE Polyethylene
PEAA Polyethylene acrylic acid
PEAR Polyetheramide resin
PEBA Polyether block amide
PEEK Polyetherether ketone
PEG Polyethylene glycol
PEI Polyetherimide
PEK Polyetherketone
PEKK Poly ether ketone ketone
PEN Polyethylene
naphthalenedicarboxylate
PES or PESU Polyethersulfone
PET or PETP Polyethylene terephthalate
PETG Polyethyleneglycol/
cyclohexylene-dimethylenediol
terephthalate
PETI Phenylethynyl with imide
terminations
PEX Crosslinked polyethylene
PF Phenolic resin
PF1Ax PF general purpose, ammonia
free
PF2Cx PF heat resistant, glass fiber
reinforced
PF2Dx PF impact resistant, cotton filled
PF2E1 PF mica filled
PFA Perfluoroalkoxy
PGA Polyglycolic acid
PHA Polyhydroxyalkanoate
PHB Polyhydroxybutyrate
PHBH Polyhydroxybutyratehexanoate
PHBV Polyhydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate
PI Polyimide
PIR Polyisocyanurate
PK Polyketone
PLA Polylactic acid
PMI Polymethacrylimide
PMMA Poly methylmethacrylate
PMP Polymethylpentene
PO Polyolefin
POE Polyolefin elastomer
POM Polyoxymethylene or
polyacetal
POP Polyolefin plastomer
POSS Polyhedral oligomeric
silsesquioxane
PP Polypropylene
PPA Polyphthalamide
PPE Polyphenylene ether
PP/EPDM Unvulcanized EPDM blended
with polypropylene or block
copolymerized PP-EPDM
(reactor TPO) – (TPE) (TPO)
PP/EPDM-V Vulcanized EPDM dispersed in
polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
PP/IIR-V Vulcanized butyl rubber
dispersed in polypropylene
(TPE) (TPV)
PP/NBR-V Vulcanized nitrile rubber
dispersed in polypropylene
(TPE) (TPV)
PPO Polyphenylene oxide
PPS Polyphenylene sulfide
PPSU Polyphenylenesulfone
Prepreg Preimpregnated
PS Polystyrene
PSU Polysulfone
PS-X or XPS Crosslinked polystyrene
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
PTMT or PBT Polytetramethylene
terephthalate or
polybutyleneterephthalate
PTT Polytrimethylene terephthalate
PUR Polyurethane
PV Pressure*velocity
PVA or PVAL
or PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol
PVAC Polyvinyl acetate
PVAL or PVA
or PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol
PVB Polyvinyl butyrate
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
PVDC Polyvinylidene chloride
PVC-C or
CPVC Chlorinated PVC
PVC-U Unplasticized PVC
PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
PVF Polyvinyl fluoride
PVOH or PVAL
or PVA Polyvinyl a
REACH Registration Evaluation
Authorization and Restriction of
Chemicalsxx Acronyms and abbreviations
RF Radio frequency
RFI Resin film impregnation
RH Relative humidity or
hygrometry
RIM Reaction injection molding
RIRM Resin injection recirculation
molding
RoHS Restriction of Hazardous
Substances
RP Reinforced plastic
RRIM Reinforced reaction injection
molding
RT Room temperature
RTM Resin transfer molding
RTP Reinforced thermoplastic
RTV Room temperature
vulcanization
SAN Styrene acrylonitrile
SAP Super absorbent polymer
SATUR Saturated solution
SB Styrene butadiene
SBC Styrenic block copolymer
SBS Styrene-butadiene-styrene
(TPE)
SCRIMP Seemann Composites resin
infusion molding process
SEBS Styrene ethylene/butylene
styrene (TPE)
SEPS Styrene ethylene/propylene
styrene (TPE)
SFRT Short fiber reinforced
thermoplastic
SGF Short glass fiber
Si Silicone
SIS Styrene isoprene styrene (TPE)
SMA Styrene maleic anhydride
SMC Sheet molding compound
SMMA Styrene-methyl methacrylate
SN curve Plot of stress or strain (S)
leading to failure after N cycles
of repeated loading
SOL Solution
SP-polyimides Condensation polyimides
SPC Statistical process control
SPDF Super plastic diaphragm
forming
SR Self-reinforced
SRRIM Structural (reinforced) resin
injection molding
SWNT Single-walled carbon
nanotubes
TAC Triallyl cyanurate
TDI Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate
TFE Tetrafluoroethylene
Tg Glass transition temperature
TGA Thermogravimetric analysis
TGV High-speed train
TMC Thick molding compound
TP Thermoplastic
TPE Thermoplastic elastomer
TPE/PVC PVC-based TPE, alloys of PVC
and rubber (TPE) (TPO or TPV)
TPEE or COPE Thermoplastic elastomer
ester
TPI Thermoplastic imide
TPO Thermoplastic olefin
TPR Thermoplastic rubber
TPS Thermoplastic styrenic
TP/Si-V TPV of a vulcanized silicone
rubber dispersed in a
thermoplastic phase
TPU Thermoplastic polyurethane
TPV Thermoplastic vulcanizate
TR Temperature-retraction
procedure
TS Tensile strength
UD Unidirectional composite
UF Urea-formaldehyde
UHMWPE or
PE-UHMW Ultrahigh molecular weight PE
UL Underwriters Laboratories
Unkn. Unknown
UP Unsaturated polyester
USB United Soybean Board
UV Ultraviolet
V0 to V2 UL fire rating
VAE Ethylene-vinylacetate
copolymers
VARI Vacuum-assisted resin injection
VARTM Vacuum Assisted RTM
VE Vinylester
VGCNF Vapor grown carbon
nanofibers
VIP Vacuum infusion process
VOC Volatile organic compounds
VST Vicat softening temperature
WPC Wood plastic composite
XLPE Crosslinked LDPE
XPE or PEX Crosslinked polyethylene
XPS or PS-X Crosslinked polystyrene
ZMC A highly automated process
using molding compounds
1 Outline of the Actual Situation of Plastics Compared to Conventional Materials
2 The Plastics Industry: Economic Overview
3 Basic Criteria for the Selection of Thermosets
4 Detailed Accounts of Thermoset Resins for Molding and Composite Matrices
5 Thermoset Processing
6 Composites
7 Future Prospects for Thermosets and Composites
A
ABS. See Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
ABS/PC alloys, 28t
Accelerated aging, 107
Acetal, 446
Acrylate rubber-modified styrene acrylonitrile (ASA), 115, 309
Acrylics, 342, 389
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 309, 428
Additive costs, 39
Additive manufacturing (AM), 286
e-manufacturing, 286
prototyping, 286, 288
techniques, 286
Additives
antistatic, 427
conventional conductive, 426
halogen-free fire retardant, 420
tribological, 445
Adhesive(s)
bonding, 368
hot-melt, 368
non-reactive solution, 368
reactive, 368
Advanced molding compounds (AMC), 472
Aeronautics, 137, 479
Aerotech® system, 493
AES. See Acrylonitrile-EPDM-styrene
AF. See Aramid fibers
AFM. See Atomic force microscopy
Alkyd Molding Compound (AMC), 346
All-polymeric wear Additive (APWA), 446
Aluminum trihydrate (ATH), 265
AM. See Additive manufacturing
AMC. See Advanced molding compounds; Alkyd Molding Compound
Amino resins, 187. See also Epoxide resins
aging, 194–195
applications, 76–77
chemical behavior, 195t
consumption, 76
electrical properties, 195
filled unsaturated polyester modified melamines, 200t
foams, 196, 196t
glass fiber reinforced melamine, 194f
ISO and ASTM standards, 196–197
joining, 195–196
mechanical properties, 194
optical properties, 194
phenolic modified melamines, 199t
properties, 191–193
thermal behavior, 193–194
trade name and producer, 197–199
urea-formaldehyde molding powder, 200t
Analysis and diagnostic equipment, 141–142
1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP), 155
Antistatic additives, 427
Antistatic specialities, 427
APWA. See All-polymeric wear Additive
Aquacore, 482
Aquapoured. See Aquacore
Aramid fibers (AF), 326
applications, 90–91
consumption, 90
Arc resistance, 110
ASA. See Acrylate rubber-modified styrene acrylonitrile
Assemblage, 20
Assembly cost savings, 44–47
ASTM standards
biobased products, 122–123
durability, 121–122
environmentally degradable plastics, 122–123
mechanical properties, 119–120
optical properties, 121
recycled plastics, 122
test specimens preparation, 119
thermal properties and fire behavior, 120–121
ATH. See Aluminum trihydrate
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 141
Aurum property, 455t
Automated tape placement machine, 360f
Automotive, 48
B
Basalt fibers, 330
Bedding, 56–57
Bio-composites, 387–388, 387f
cores from renewable sources, 390
fibers and fillers, 389–390
polymer matrices, 388–389
Bio-plastics modeling, 480
Bio-polyurethanes, 264–265
Bio-sourced materials, 476
Bio-sourced plastics, 101–102
Biobased products, 122–123
Biodegradability, 495
Biodegradable materials, 495
BioSteel high-performance fibers, 500
BMC. See Bulk molding compounds
Body elements, 75
Boilermaking, 18
Boron fibers, 57, 330
Brazil Market, 37
Brazilian plastic industry association, 37
Brittle point, 107
Building and civil engineering, 53–56
Bulk molding compounds (BMC), 96–97, 345
Note: Page numbers with “f ” denote figures; “t” tables.516 Index
C
CAD. See Computer-aided design
Calorific properties, 58–60
Carbon fiber composites, 103–104
Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP), 60, 486
Carbon fibers (CF), 323, 488
applications, 91–92
consumption, 91
Carbon nanotubes (CNT), 342, 482
Casting, 277
Cellulose nanofibers, 485
Cellulose propionate (CP), 388
Cellulosics, 308, 388
Centrifugal molding, 100, 361
Ceramic injection molding (CIM), 387
Ceramic nanofibers, 484
Ceramics, as thermal conductivity enhancers, 432
CF. See Carbon fibers
CFRP. See Carbon fiber reinforced plastics
Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF), 35
Chemical resistance, 110
Chemolysis, 496
China Market, 35
China Plastics Processing Industry Association (CPPIA), 35
Chinese market, 34–35
CIC. See Continuous Impregnated Compound
CIM. See Ceramic injection molding
CIPP. See Cured-in-place pipe
Clink, 283
CNT. See Carbon nanotubes
Co-processing, 288
Coercive force, 449
Cold compression molding, 357
Composite insert molding, 365, 365f
Composite matrices
thermoplastics, 308–312
thermosets, 304–307
Composite processing, 282, 348
economic characteristics, 20t
finishing operations, 367–368
primary processes, 18–19
process choice vs. part characteristics, 19t
repairing composites, 369
sandwich composites, 365–367
secondary processing, 19–21
thermoplastic composites, 363–365
thermoset composites, 349–363
Composite(s), 266–267, 300
bio-composites, 387–390
characteristics, 369–387
intermediate semi-manufactured materials, 343–348
matrices, 304–312
mechanical performances
continuous fibers, 302
distributed short fibers, 302
strength estimation, 302–304
processing, 348–369
reinforcements, 312–343
rules, 300–301
solutions for practical problems, 390–473
antifriction, 444
APWA, 446
carbon fiber reinforced polyimide, 454t
magnetic composites, 448
magnetic thermoplastic compounds, 451t
material evolution in sporting goods, 471f
neat plastics, 445t
PBI compression strength retention, 452f
PEEK, 456, 456t
PFPE, 446
PTFE, 446
sports and leisure, 471
thermoplastic polyimides, 453
turbine diameter increase, 469f
ultra-high heat LCP property, 459t
UV curing materials, 469t
wind energy, 464–471
Compression molding, 270–271
Compression properties, 113
Compression set, 149
Compression transfer molding, 271–272, 358, 358f
Computer-aided design (CAD), 286
Conductive carbon blacks, 426
Conductive composites, 382–385, 386t
Conductive plastics, consumption and applications, 425
Conductive polymers, 424f, 426f
Consumption, 1
Consumption growth trends
composite application sectors in USA, 38t
composites, 37
thermosets, 37, 38t
Consumption trends, 28–32
Contact, chemical resistance by, 110
Continuous fiber composites, 374–378
Continuous Impregnated Compound (CIC), 346
Continuous sheet molding, 99–100
Continuous sheeting, 363, 363f
Continuous use temperature (CUT), 6, 106, 130, 240
Converter, 289, 387
Copolymerization, 439
Cost savings
hybrids, 480–481
integrating finishing, 481–482
material costs, 480–482
processing costs, 480–481
Coulomb’s modulus. See Shear modulus
CP. See Cellulose propionate
CPCIF. See Chemical Industry Federation
CPPIA. See China Plastics Processing Industry Association
Creep, 109, 116, 149, 169, 183, 204, 222, 241, 251
Crosslinked Polyethylene PE-X, 259–262
Crosslinking, 277, 285
compression strength examples, 131f
flexural modulus examples, 130f
heat modulus retention examples, 133f
Crystallization test, 107
Cure, 284
Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP), 164
Curing, 129–133, 284–285, 287
Custom satisfaction, 289
CUT. See Continuous use temperature
Cyanates esters (Cy esters), 247, 306
aging, 251–252
applications, 85–86
consumption, 85–86
electrical properties, 252
mechanical properties, 250–251
neat polycyanates, 256t
polycyanate composites, 255t
polycyanate syntactic foams, 254t
properties, 247–249Index 517
syntactic foams, 252–254
thermal behavior, 249–250
trade name and producer examples, 254
Cycle time reduction, 288
D
DCPD. See Dicyclopentadiene
Decoration, 66
Degradable materials, 495
Density, 126f
Design freedom, 13
Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), 254–255, 258t
applications, 86
consumption, 86
electrical properties, 257
joining, 257
mechanical properties, 257
properties, 255–257
thermal behavior and aging, 257
trade name and producer examples, 257
Dielectric strength, 110
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 116, 118
Dimensional stability, 194, 205, 222, 242, 251, 257, 105, 139–140,
170, 183
Direct resin injection and venting (DRIV), 481
DMC. See Dough Molding Compound
DMTA. See Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis
Double-wall Nanotubes (DWNT), 342
Dough Molding Compound (DMC), 346
DRIV. See Direct resin injection and venting
DSC. See Differential scanning calorimetry
Durability, 5–7, 121–122
DWNT. See Double-wall Nanotubes
Dynamic fatigue, 225f
Dynamic mechanical properties, 116
Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), 141
E
e-Manufacturing, 286, 288
EB. See Electron beam
Eco-design strategy, 288–289
Ecobesta, 484
Ecology, 499
Economic growth, 16
Economic requirements, of plastic designing, 13–14
Elastic modulus, 108
Elastomer application, 69
Electrical properties, 110, 142
Electrically conductive composites, 423
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), 65
Electron beam (EB), 285
Electronics market, 417–435
EMI. See Electromagnetic interference
Energy consumption, 286–287
Engine covers, 71
Environmental concerns, 494–500
Environmental constraints, 21–22
Environmental requirements, 16
Environmental stress crack resistance (ESCR), 120
Environmental stress cracking (ESC), 110, 117
Environmentally degradable plastics, 122–123
EP. See Epoxy; Epoxides
EP resins. See Epoxy resins
EP-PMCs. See Epoxy powder molding compounds
EPDM, 37
Epoxide resins. See also Phenolic resins
applications, 78–80
consumption, 77–78
Epoxides. See Epoxy Resins
Epoxy (EP), 10, 305
Epoxy powder molding compounds (EP-PMCs), 211
Epoxy resins
aging, 205–206
chemical behavior, 207t–210t
electrical properties, 206
epoxide
composites, 218t
dynamic fatigue, 205f
filled and reinforced molding, 216t–217t
foamed, 219t
matrices, 215t
molding and cast, 214t
foamed epoxies and syntactic foams, 210–211
glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite, 206f
heat resistant epoxide, 203f
ISO and ASTM standards, 211–212
joining, 206–210
mechanical properties, 204–205
optical properties, 204
properties, 201–213
syntactic foams, 219t–220t
thermal behavior, 203–204
trade name and producer examples, 212–213
unidirectional epoxide composites, 217t–218t
Epoxy resins (EP resins), 199–200, 266
Epoxydes (EP), 130
Equipment maker, 289, 291t–296t
ESC. See Environmental stress cracking
ESCR. See Environmental stress crack resistance
ETFE, 311
European Market, 33–34
Extruded wood, 499
Extrusion, 274
application, 274
characteristics, 275t–276t
extruders, 274
Extrusion-compression process, 365, 365f
F
Fatigue, 109
dynamic. See Dynamic fatigue
failure, 128f
mechanical properties, ISO Standards, 116
FDM. See Fused deposition modeling
Fenders, 405–406
Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), 255
Fibers, 313
AF, 326
CF, 323
comparison of, 326–327, 328t
glass, 318–323
industrial, 331
mineral, 330
sustainable natural vegetal, 327–330
textile, 330
Filament winding, 99, 360, 361f
Fillers
hygroscopic, 195
nanofillers, 340–342518 Index
Films
polyimide, 237t
property examples, 420t
Finishing operations, 367–368
FIPG. See Formed-in-Place Gaskets
Fire resistance, 150, 172, 184, 195, 206, 226, 242, 252, 257
Flammability, 111, 117–118, 418
Flexible polyurethane foams, 163t
Flexural properties, 113
Flow improvers, 140
Fluid contact behavior, ISO Standards, 117
Fluoroplastics, 311
Fluorosilicones. See Silicones
FNCT. See Full-notch creep test
Foam(s), 137, 152–154, 185, 196
application, 67–68, 147
epoxide syntactic, 219t–220t
melamine, 196t
phenolic, 192t
polycyanate syntactic, 254t
polyetherimide, 337t
polyethersulfone, 338t
polymethacrylimide, 337t
polyurethane, 155t
PVC, 334t
rigid polyurethane, 162t
for sandwich technology, 332–338
semi-rigid polyurethane, 162t
silicone, 246t, 252t
structural, 154t
syntactic, 210–211, 245–246, 252–254
Foamed composites
aramid reinforced acrylate urethane, 381t
matrix composites, 378
RRIM and SRRIM composites, 378, 383t–384t
syntactic foams, 378
thermoplastic prepregs, 381t
Formed-in-Place Gaskets (FIPG), 247
Formulation, 133–141
Fossil plastics costs, 480
FRP. See Fiber reinforced plastics
Fuel tanks, 73, 440
Full-notch creep test (FNCT), 117
Furan resins, 266
applications, 86–87
consumption, 86
Furans, 257, 259t
ISO and ASTM standards, 259
properties, 257–259
properties and aging, 259
trade name and producer examples, 259
Furniture, 56–57
interior and communal, 56–57
outdoor and street, 57
Fused deposition modeling (FDM), 286
G
Gas permeability, 111
Gas transmission, 117
Gehman test, 107
General Motors (GM), 103
GFRP. See Glass fiber reinforced composite
GHG. See Greenhouse gas
Glass fiber reinforced composite (GFRP), 324
Glass fiber(s)
applications, 87–90
consumption, 87
flexural modulus, level on, 345f
flexural strength, level on, 345f
impact strength, level on, 345f
reinforced phenolic molding powders, 188t–189t
Glass mat thermoplastics (GMT), 346, 378, 379t–380t
Glass reinforced plastics (GRP), 28, 172
Global plastics industry, 26–27
Glycolysis, 497
GM. See General Motors
GMT. See Glass mat thermoplastics
Grade, influence of, 106
Graphene, 482–483
Graphite, 446
Greenhouse gas (GHG), 101
GRP. See Glass reinforced plastics
H
Halogen-free fire retardant thermoplastics (HFFR
thermoplastics), 141
additives, 420
based on phosphorous derivatives, 420
proprietary, 421
Hand lay-up
molding, 351f
technique, 98–99
Hardening. See Curing
Hardness, 4f, 4t, 8
HDT. See Heat deflection temperature
Heat deflection temperature (HDT), 6, 106–107, 315
Heat dissipaters, 446
Heat measurements, 106
HFFR thermoplastics. See Halogen-free fire retardant
thermoplastics
High heat thermoplastics, 453f
High Modulus Compound (HMC), 344
High speed civil aircraft (HSCT), 490
High temperature vulcanization (HTV), 233
High viscosity rubber (HVR), 233
High-energy radiation, 81, 206, 224, 251
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), 259
High-pressure injection molding, 359, 359f
HMC. See High Modulus Compound
Homopolymers, 437
Honeycombs, 338–339
Hot compression molding, 357
Hot-melt adhesives, 283
Household appliances, 65
HPLC. See High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
HSCT. See High speed civil aircraft
HTPC. See Hybrid thermoplastic composite
HTV. See High temperature vulcanization
HVR. See High viscosity rubber
Hybrid thermoplastic composite (HTPC), 494
Hybrid(s), 480–481
composites, 381–382
materials, 12–13
processing, 21
technique, 95–96
Hydrolysis, 496
Hydrolysis stabilized or resistant grades, 170
Hytrel, 388Index 519
I
ICPs. See Inherently conductive polymers
IDPs. See Inherently dissipative polymers
ILSS. See Interlaminar shear strength
IMC. See In mold coating
Immersion, chemical resistance by, 110
Impact test, 109
In mold coating (IMC), 367
In-line techniques, 288
In-mold techniques, 288
India Market, 35–36
Induction, 449
Industrial fibers, 331
Infusibility, 129–130
Infusion process, 356f
Inherently conductive polymers (ICPs), 428
Inherently dissipative polymers (IDPs), 428
Injected wood. See Extruded wood
Injection molding, 272–274
high-pressure, 272f
overmolding, 278
powder, 386–387
reaction, 278–280
thermoplastics, 401
blow, 42
thermosets, 17
low-pressure, 18
Innovative solutions, 428
Inorganic nanofibers, 485
Inrekor chassis, 333f
Inserts, 272
Insulation, 63
Interlaminar properties, 114
Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), 108
Intermediate semi-manufactured materials
advanced all-polymer prepregs, 348
BMC, 345
DMC, 346
examples, 348
GMT, 346–348
prepregs, 346
SMC, 344
ISO standards
crosslinking, 118
electrical properties, 117
environmental aspects, 118
flammability, 117–118
fluid contact behavior, 117
long-term properties, 116–117
mechanical properties, 113–115
optical properties, 118
oxygen index, 117–118
smoke generation, 117–118
test specimens production, 113
thermomechanical properties, 115–116
J
Joining, decoration, 150–152, 164, 172, 185, 195–196, 206–210, 230,
245, 257, 283, 368
L
Labor, 287–288
Laminated object modeling (LOM), 286
LCP. See Liquid crystal polymer
LCTC. See Low cost tooling for composites
LEFM. See Linear elastic fracture mechanics
Leisure, 471
LFI. See Long fiber injection
LFRT. See Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics
Light resin transfer molding (LRTM), 481
Light resistance, 116
LIM. See Liquid injection molding
Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), 116
Liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 42, 308, 312, 331, 434, 436t
fibers, 331
high heat, 457
Liquid injection molding (LIM), 233, 277–278
Liquid molding, 282
Liquid resin infusion (LRI), 262, 263t
Liquid silicone rubber (LSR), 233
Liquid thermoset processing, 277
casting, 277
composite processes, 282
foaming, 282
LIM, 277–278
molding by spraying, 277
RIM, 278–280
rotational molding, 280–281
Liquid thermosets molding, 17–18
LOM. See Laminated object modeling
Long fiber injection (LFI), 278
Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFRT), 374, 375t–376t,
400, 403, 485–486
Long-term light resistance, 109–110
Long-term mechanical properties, 109
Low cost tooling for composites (LCTC), 482
Low temperature behavior, 222
LRI. See Liquid resin infusion
LRTM. See Light resin transfer molding
LSR. See Liquid silicone rubber
Lubricants, 407
M
Machine control algorithm, 287
Machining, 18, 282–283
Magnetic composites, 448
compounds, 450
Magnetic polymers, 448
Maintenance cost savings, 48
Manufacturer, 289
associations, institutes, specialized websites, 289t–291t
machinery and equipment makers and distributors, 289,
291t–296t
MAP. See 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine
Market shares, 27t
application sectors, 28–32, 30f, 30t
composite consumption, 29f
composite matrixes, 30f
of composites, 28
in European countries, 34f, 35t
matrices, 30t
thermoplastic processings, 33f
thermoset application sectors, 31f, 31t
thermoset families, 27–28
thermoset processings, 33f
total plastic consumption, 29f
whole thermoset consumption, 29f520 Index
Market(ing), 478–480
Asian, 34–37
Brazil, 37
Chinese, 34–35
consumption trends of, 478–479
Indian, 35–36
laws of, 475–476
North American, 34
requirements, 15–16, 475–476, 479–480
Russia, 37
shares
of composites, 28
for main application sectors, 28–32
of thermoplastic families, 27–28
survey of, 48–67
Material consumption, 286
Material costs, 7–8, 480
Material hardness, 4f
Material safety data sheet (MSDS), 142
Material selection, 123–124
Material upgrading and competition
carbon fibers, 488
molecular reinforcement, 483
nano-carbon, 482–483
nanofibers, 483–485
new high-performance polymers, 488–490
polymer nanotubes, 483
short fiber reinforced thermoplastics, 485–486
thermoplastic, 486
thermoset competition, 486
3D reinforcements, 487–488
Mats, 319
Maximum energy product, 449
Mechanical assembly, 283–284
Mechanical measurements, 108
Mechanical properties, 3–4, 108–109, 113–115, 119–120,
149–150, 169–170, 183, 194, 204–205, 222, 241–242,
250–251, 257, 259
Medical market, 65–66
Melamine and urea-formaldehyde resins. See Amino resins
Melamine fibers, 331
Melamine/phenolic powder molding compounds (MP-PMCs), 185
Melt flow index (MFI), 141
Melt flow rate (MFR), 141
Metal consumption, 1–3
Metal Injection Molding (MIM), 387
Metal powders, 426
Metal replacement, 395–396, 402
Metals, 4–6, 477
MFI. See Melt flow index
MFR. See Melt flow rate
MIM. See Metal Injection Molding
Mineral fibers, 330
Mineral filled phenolic molding powders, 189t–190t
Mixed solutions, 428
Modified processes, 481
Molded parts, precision of, 124–126
Molding
centrifugal, 100
compression, 270–271
compression transfer, 271–272
condensation polyimides for, 234t–235t
continuous sheet, 99–100
injection, 272–274
LIM, 277–278
liquid thermosets, 17–18
powders, 187
RIM, 278–280
rotational, 280–281
solid thermosets, 17
by spraying, 277
thermoset polyimides for, 232t–233t
undefined polyimides for, 236t
Molecular reinforcement, 483
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), 445–446
Mono-material concept, 50, 52, 491
MoS2. See Molybdenum disulfide
MP-PMCs. See Melamine/phenolic powder molding compounds
MSDS. See Material safety data sheet
Multi-wall Nanotubes (MWNT), 342
MWNT. See Multi-wall Nanotubes
N
Nano-carbon
CNT, 482
graphene, 482–483
Nano-scaled graphene plates (NGP), 482
Nanocomposites, 369–370, 371t
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), 485
Nanofibers, 484–485
Nanofillers, 340–342, 483–484
Nanotubes, 483
Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), 490
NCC. See Nanocrystalline cellulose
NDE. See Non-destructive examination
NDI. See Non-destructive inspection
NDT. See Non-destructive testing
Neat thermoplastic matrices
continuous use temperatures, 313f
HDT A, 314f
tensile modulus, 315f
tensile strength, 316f
New processes, 481
NGP. See Nano-scaled graphene plates
Non-destructive examination (NDE), 111
Non-destructive inspection (NDI), 111
Non-destructive testing (NDT), 111
Non-oil alternatives, 101, 101f
Non-reactive solution adhesives, 283
North American Market, 34
NRL. See Naval Research Laboratory
O
Opacity, 432
Operating cost savings, 47
OPM. See Oxford Performance Materials
Optical properties, 111, 118, 121, 149, 169, 183, 194, 204, 222, 241
Organic filled phenolic molding powders, 190t–191t
Outdoor furniture, 57
Overbraiding, 362
Overmolding, 21, 421
Oxford Performance Materials (OPM), 454
Oxygen index, 111
ISO Standards, 117–118
P
PA. See Polyamide
PA 11, 115
PA 12, 115Index 521
Packaging, 66, 68, 77, 148
PAEK. See Polyaryletherketones
PAI. See Polyamide imide
PAN. See Polyacrylonitrile
Paper honeycomb, 390
Paraloid, 141
Patent analysis, 490
by polymer type, 490
by reinforcement type, 490–491
by structure and process type, 491
PBI. See Polybenzimidazole
PBI/PEEK alloys, 456
PBO. See Polybenzoxazoles
PBO fibers, 331
PC. See Polycarbonate
PCTFE. See Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PE. See Polyethylene
PE-RT. See Polyethylene of Raised Temperature
PEEK. See Polyetheretherketone
PEI. See Polyetherimide
PEK. See Polyetherketones
Perfluorinated thermoplastic composites, 463t
Perfluorinated thermoplastics, 462
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 311, 462
Perfluoropolyether (PFPE), 446
Permeability, 111, 333
PES. See Polyethersulfone (PESU)
PESU. See Polyethersulfone
PET, 308, 310
PET. See Thermoplastic polyesters
PEX-AL-PEX. See Polyethylene/Aluminum/Cross-linked Polyethylene
PF. See Phenolic resins
PFA. See Perfluoroalkoxy
PFPE. See Perfluoropolyether
PHA. See Polyhydroxyalkanoate
PHB. See Polyhydroxybutyrate
Phenolic resins (PF), 176, 266, 304
aging, 183–185
applications, 75–76
chemical behavior, 184t
consumption, 74–75
electrical properties, 185
foams, 185
ISO and ASTM standards, 185–187
joining, 185
mechanical properties, 183
optical properties, 183
phenolic BMC aging, 182f–183f
phenolic foam, 192t
phenolic molding powders, 179t–180t, 189t–190t
glass fiber reinforced, 188t–189t
mineral filled
organic filled, 190t–191t
tribological, 191t
properties, 179–182
SMC and BMC, 192t
thermal behavior, 182–183
Photovoltaic system (PV system), 103
Physical properties, 320t
PI. See Polyimides
PIM. See Powder injection molding
PIR. See Polyisocyanurate
PLA. See Polylactic acid
Plastic and metal consumption, 1
durability, 5–7
equal tensile stress, 2t
material
costs, 7–8
hardnesses, 4f, 4t
tensile modulus, 6f, 8f
tensile properties, 5t, 7t
tensile strength, 6f, 8f
mechanical properties, 3–4
plastics annual consumption, 3
production volume, 2t
production weight, 2t
world consumption evolutions, 4f
world consumption growth, 3t
Plastic costs, 39
additive costs, 39
part costs, 42–44
processing costs, 40–42
raw material costs, 39, 40f
reinforcement costs, 39, 41f
Plastic processing industry, 38
company and employment statistics, 39t
turnover statistics, 39t
Plastic properties evaluation, 105
chemical resistance by immersion, 110
electrical properties, 110
flammability, 111
gas permeability, 111
long-term light, 109–110
long-term mechanical properties, 109
low temperature behavior, 107
mechanical properties, 108–109
NDT, 111–112
optical properties, 111
polymers tensile behavior, 108f
thermal behavior, 105–107
Plastics, 13
economic requirements, 13–14
environmental requirements, 16
marketing requirements, 15–16
materials ratios, 14t
sustainability, 16
technical requirements, 14–15
tensile modulus vs. costs per liter, 15f
tensile strength vs. costs per liter, 15f
weaknesses, 16
Plywood-based composites, 339
Poisson’s ratios, 128, 138t
Pollution, 21
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), 308
Polyacetal (POM), 308, 310, 386
Polyacrylics, 308
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), 323
Polyamide (PA), 308, 489
Polyamide imide (PAI), 308, 457, 458t–459t
Polyaryletherketones (PAEK), 454
Polyarylketones, 456t
Polyarylsulfone, 462
Polybenzimidazole (PBI), 452
Polybenzoxazines, 262
Polybenzoxazoles (PBO), 262–264
Polycarbonate (PC), 308
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 311
Polycyanates. See Cyanates esters (Cy esters)
Polyester nanofibers, 485
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 57, 63, 312
alloys, 456, 456t
fibers, 331522 Index
Polyetherimide (PEI), 308, 312, 399, 463–464, 466t–467t
fibers, 331
foam, 337t
Polyetherketones (PEK), 454
Polyethersulfone (PESU), 311
foams, 338t
Polyethylene (PE), 308, 335t
Polyethylene of Raised Temperature (PE-RT), 261
Polyethylene/Aluminum/Cross-linked Polyethylene
(PEX-AL-PEX), 261
Polyglycolic acid, 500
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), 500
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), 500
Polyimides (PI), 213, 221f, 305
aging, 224–226
applications, 81–83
ASTM standards, 230–231
chemical behavior, 226t–229t
condensation polyimides, 234t–235t
consumption, 80–81
dynamic fatigue, 225f
electrical properties, 226–230
films, 237t
foamed polyimides and syntactic foams, 230
foams, 237t
joining, 230
for laminates, 237t
mechanical properties, 222
optical properties, 222
properties, 213–221
thermal behavior, 221–222
thermoset polyimides, 232t–233t
trade name and producer examples, 231
tribological properties, 223t
undefined polyimides, 236t
Polyisocyanurate (PIR), 147
Polylactic acid (PLA), 500
Polymer
composites, 11
advantages, 11
material costs, 12f, 14f
conductive, 110, 424f, 426f
consumption, 1–3
cost of, 7–8
customization of, 22
durability of, 5–7
economic possibilities of processing, 16–21
electrical properties of, 4–5
environmental constraints, 21–22
final material/process/cost compromise, 22
hybrid materials, 12–13
materials, weakness of, 16
mechanical properties of, 3–4
intrinsic, 3–4
specific, 4
nanotubes, 483
plastic and metal consumption, 1–3
plastics, 13–16
pollution associated with, 491–494
polymer composites, 11–12
recycling, 21–22
source examples, 22
thermal properties of, 10t
thermosets, 8–11
toxicity of, 21
upgrading of, 133–141
Polymethacrylimide foams, 337t
Polyolefins, 35
Polyphenylene ether (PPE), 308
Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), 308
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 308, 457, 492
fibers, 331
Polyphenylene sulfide composites, 460t–461t
Polyphenylenesulfone (PPSU), 462
Polyphthalamide (PPA), 462, 464t
Polypropylene (PP), 35, 288, 308–309, 336t
fibers, 331
foams, 335–336, 336t, 446
glass fibers-reinforced, 492, 497t
Polysiloxanes. See Silicones
Polystyrene (PS), 308, 335t
Polysulfone (PSU), 308, 311, 462
Polysulfone composites, 465t–466t
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 446
Polyurea properties, 164t
Polyurethanes (PUR), 67, 146, 306, 334t
aging, 150
automotive and transport, 69
castable polyurethanes, 159t–160t
chemical behavior, 151t–152t
coating and sealing application, 69
elastomer application, 69
electrical properties, 150
flexible polyurethane foams, 163t
foam application, 67–68
foams, 152–154, 154t
ISO and ASTM standards, 154–157
joining, 150–152
mechanical properties, 149–150
optical properties, 149
properties, 147–148
rigid polyurethane foams, 162t
RIM application, 68–69
elastomer polyurethanes, 161t
structural foam polyurethanes, 162t
semi-rigid polyurethane foams, 162t
thermal behavior, 148–149
trade name and producer examples, 157–158
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 309, 334t
foams, 51, 55
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 311, 337–338
foams, 337–338
Polyzole® fibers, 331
POM. See Polyacetal
Powder injection molding (PIM), 386
PP. See Polypropylene
PPA. See Polyphthalamide
PPE. See Polyphenylene ether
PPO. See Polyphenylene oxide
PPS. See Polyphenylene sulfide
PPSU. See Polyphenylenesulfone
Precision, of molded parts, 124–126
Prepreg
applications, 99–100
draping, 360, 365
Press fitting, 368
Pressure bag molding, 353f
Primary processes, 343–348
Processing costs, 481
compounding integrated example, 481
modified processes, 481
new processes, 481Index 523
Processing trends, 286–289
Property tables, 158, 173, 187, 199, 213, 231, 247, 254, 257, 259
Prototyping, 286, 288
PS. See Polystyrene
PSU. See Polysulfone
PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene
Pullwinding, 362, 362f
Pultrusion, 99, 361, 362f
Pultrusion–extrusion, 365
PUR. See Polyurethanes
PV system. See Photovoltaic system
PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride
PVDF. See Polyvinylidene fluoride
R
Rapid prototyping, 288
Raw material costs, 39
Raw polymers
aspect and dimensional stability, 139–140
characteristics, 140–141
cost cutters, 140
cure state, 136–137
customization, 133
dielectric loss factor examples, 137f
dielectric rigidity examples, 136f
fatigue examples, 134f
formulation, 133
mechanical Property Examples, 138t
modulus variation vs. crosslink density examples, 139f
part tolerances examples, 138t
processing enhancers, 140
property upgrading examples, 139f
reinforcement, 137–139
resistivity examples, 135f
upgrading, 133
Reaction injection molding (RIM), 154, 278
alternative methods, 278
elastomer polyurethanes, 161t
main advantages and drawbacks, 280
mixing heads, 278
principle, 280f
structural foam polyurethanes, 162t
Reactive adhesive, 368
Real-time monitoring, 287
Recycled plastics, 122
Recycling, 288
of polymers, 21–22
Reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM), 278, 355
Reinforcement, 137–139
CNT, 342–343
distributed short fibers, 302
fiber forms, 331–332
fibers, 313–331
foams for sandwich technology, 332–338
honeycombs, 338–339
nanofillers, 340–342
with orthogonal layers, 302
plywood, 339
sandwich properties, 340
unidirectional, 302
wood based composites, 339
Reinforcement costs, 39
Relative temperature index (RTI), 457
Relaxation, 5, 109, 116, 368
Renewable cellulose, 485
Repair possibilities, 21
Repairing composites, 369
Resin Film Impregnation (RFI), 356
Resin injection recirculation molding (RIRM), 481
Resin transfer molding (RTM), 481
Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS), 422
RFI. See Resin Film Impregnation
Rigid polyurethane foams, 162t
RIM. See Reaction injection molding
RIRM. See Resin injection recirculation molding
Riveting, 283
RoHS. See Restriction of Hazardous Substances
Room temperature vulcanizing (RTV), 233
Rotational molding, 280–281
Rotomolding. See Rotational molding
RRIM. See Reinforced reaction injection molding
RTI. See Relative temperature index
RTM. See Resin transfer molding
RTM process, 97–98
RTV. See Room temperature vulcanizing
Russia Market, 37
S
SAN. See Styrene acrylonitrile
Sandwich composites, 93–95, 365–367, 378
Sandwich properties
flexural modulus vs. density, 340f
flexural strength vs. density, 340f
Sandwich structure, 366f
Sandwich technology, 332–338
Scrap percentage, 287
Screwing, 283
SCRIMP. See Seemann composites resin infusion molding process
Secondary processing, 19–21
Seemann composites resin infusion molding process (SCRIMP), 468, 481
Selective laser sintering (SLS), 286
Self-reinforcing polymers, 93
Semi-rigid polyurethane foams, 162t
Semicrystalline Polyarylketones, 456t
Shear modulus, 108
Shear properties, 114
Sheet molding compound (SMC), 103, 265, 344, 486
Short aramid fibers, 373
Short carbon fibers, 372–373
Short fiber composites
conductive composites, 382–385
continuous fiber composites, 374–378
epoxy syntactic foams, 385t
foamed composites, 378
glass fiber reinforced SMCs, 376t–378t
hybrid composites, 381–382
LFRT and BMC, 374
PIM, 386–387
sandwich composites, 378
short aramid fibers, 373
short carbon fibers, 372–373
short glass fibers, 371
significant parameters, 370–371
smoke emission, 385t
Short fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, 485–486
Short glass fibers, 371
Silica fibers, 330
Silicones, 231, 446
aging, 242
applications, 83–85524 Index
Silicones (Continued)
consumption, 83
elastomers for electronics, 252t
electrical properties, 245
electronics and optics, 248t
fluorosilicone elastomers, 253t
fluorosilicone resins, 253t
and fluorosilicones, 243t–245t
foamed silicones and syntactic foams, 245–246, 246t
foams, 252t
glass fiber reinforced, 248t
HVR silicones, 249t
ISO and ASTM standards, 246–247
joining, 245
LSR silicones, 250t
mechanical properties, 241–242
optical properties, 241
properties, 236–240
RTV silicones, 251t
thermal behavior, 240–241
trade name and producer examples, 247
Simulation, 288
Single-wall Nanotubes (SWNT), 342
SLA. See Stereolithography
SLS. See Selective laser sintering
SMC. See Sheet molding compound
SMC process, 96–97
Smoke opacity, 111
ISO Standards, 117
Snap-fit, 368
Solid thermoset processing, 269
compression molding, 270–271
compression transfer molding, 271–272
extrusion, 272–274
injection molding, 272–274
injection unit characteristics examples, 273t–274t
methods, 270f
Solid thermosets, molding, 17
Solid-state molding, 282
Soy-derived polyesters, 265
SPDF. See Superplastic diaphragm forming
Spray lay-up molding, 98–99, 352, 352f
Spring work, 368
SRIM. See Structural reaction injection molding
SRRIM. See Structural reinforced reaction injection molding
Stainless steel fibers, 330
Stamping, 363, 364f
Steel fibers, 427
Stereolithography (SLA), 286
Strain
ultimate, 108
at yield, 108
Strength estimation, 302–304
Stress
ultimate, 108
at yield, 108
Structural reaction injection molding (SRIM), 278
Structural reinforced reaction injection molding (SRRIM), 278, 355
Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN), 309, 413t
foams, 336
Styrenics, 389, 407–408
Supercritical fluid technology, 496
Superplastic diaphragm forming (SPDF), 486
Surface resistivity, 110
Survey of main markets
aeronautics, space, armaments, 57
composites advantages, 58
composites disadvantages, 58
operational or development parts, 58–60
anti-corrosion equipment, 62–64
applications, 66–67
art, decoration, 66
automotive and transportation, 48
composites in railway applications, 52–53
thermosets and composites in, 49–52
barriers to composite use, 62
building and civil engineering industry, 53–54
composites in offshore oil rig construction, 61–62
composites in shipbuilding sector, 60–61
electric household appliances, 65
electricity, electronics, 64–65
furniture and bedding, 56
interior and communal furniture, 56–57
outdoor and street furniture, 57
medical, 65–66
office automation, 65
packaging, 66
refrigeration, 65
sports and leisure sector, 66
Sustainability, 16
Sustainable natural fibers
applications, 93
consumption, 92–93
Sustainable natural vegetal fibers, 327–330
Sustainable thermoplastics, 500
SWNT. See Single-wall Nanotubes
SymTerra™ composites, 500
Synthetic foams, 338, 338t
core influence on, 340
T
Tape winding, 365
Technical requirements, of plastic designing, 14–15
Temperature coefficients, 449
Tensile properties, 5t, 6f, 7t, 8f, 113
Tension set, 116
Tetrafluoroethylene, 311
Textile fibers, 330
TFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Thermal behavior, 6, 10, 105–107, 148–149, 167–169, 182–183,
193–194, 203–204, 369, 456t
Thermally conductive thermoplastics, 428
Thermoforming, 18
Thermolysis, 496
Thermoplastic composites, 95–96, 363–365
characteristics of, 348–369
conductive composites, 382–385
continuous fiber composites, 374–378
honeycombs, 338–339
long fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, 374
matrices, 304–312
plywood-based, 339–340
reinforcements, 312–343
by arranged continuous fibers, 302
by randomly distributed short fibers, 302
sandwich composites, 378
strength estimation, 302–304
wood plastic composites, 407
wood-based, 339Index 525
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), 388
Thermoplastic foams, 196
Thermoplastic polyesters (PET), 308, 310
Thermoplastic Polyimide (TPI), 453, 455t
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), 388
Thermoplastic resins, 259, 452
Thermoplastic starch, 388
Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), 51
Thermoplastics, 308, 486
neat thermoplastic matrices, 313f
Thermoset matrices
mechanical properties, 307f
thermal properties, 307f
Thermoset processing, 17–18
active parameters example, 287t
additive manufacturing techniques, 286
curing, 284–285
liquid thermoset processing, 277–282
manufacturer, converter and equipment maker search, 289
processing trends, 286–289
from renewable raw materials, 264
solid thermoset processing, 269–277
thermoset assembly, 283–284
thermoset machining, 282–283
Thermosets, 8–11, 304–307
advantages, 9
assembly, 282–283
calorific properties of, 497–498
competition, 486
composites, 349–363
before crosslinking, 15f
after crosslinking, 15f
disadvantages, 10
electrically conductive, 423
families, market shares of, 27–28
families of, 10
fatigue failure examples, 10f
fire retardant, 417–435
glass mat, 403
high heat-resistant, 452
large parts, advantage for, 21
machining, 282–283
magnetic, 448
materials thermal properties, 10t
mechanical properties of, 497–498
molding
liquid, 17–18
solid, 17
order of magnitude, 11t, 13t
perfluorinated, 462
physical and electrical properties, 9t
processing, 17–18
pyramid of excellence, 15f–16f
recycling of, 495–499
thermally conductive, 428, 430, 433
Thermosets and composites
answers and assets, 476–478
cost savings, 480–482
design diagram, 477f
environmental concerns in plastics, 491–494
laws and requirements, 475–476, 476f
low-cost tool examples, 482
markets, 478–480
material upgrading and competition, 482–490
patents, 490–491
project diagram, 477f
recent awards, 491–494
recycling, 495
costs, 498–499
main recycling routes, 496
recyclates, 497–498
specifics, 496–497
wastes collection and pre-treatment, 495
Thermosets selection criteria
analysis, 141–142
ASTM standards, 112–123
crosslinking, curing, hardening, 129–133
diagnostic equipment, 141–142
environmental trends, 142–143
ISO standards, 112–123
material selection, 123–124
molded parts precision, 124–126
plastic properties evaluation, 105–112
raw polymers, 133–141
thermoset and composite properties comparison, 126
elongation, 128f
flexural strength examples, 129f
tensile strength examples, 127f
Thermosetting bio-plastics development, 22
Thick Molding Compound (TMC), 346
Three-dimensional-reinforced composites, 487–488
3D-printing, 286
Torsion properties, 114
Toughening, 137–139
Toxicity of polymers, 21
TPEs. See Thermoplastic elastomers
TPI. See Thermoplastic Polyimide
TPU. See Thermoplastic polyurethanes
TPV. See Thermoplastic vulcanizates
Trade names, 323, 325–326, 434, 435t
Transportation, 48–53
Tribological additives, 445
Tribological phenolic molding powders, 191t
Tribological thermoplastics, 445
Two-dimensional-reinforced composites, 487
U
Ultimate strain, 108
Ultimate stress, 108
Ultraviolet resistance, 109–110
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
UL94 Fire Rating, 111
Unidirectional (UD), 137
United Soybean Board (USB), 102, 164, 264
Unsaturated polyesters (UP), 10, 158, 304
aging, 170–172
applications, 70–74
aramid and carbon fiber reinforced acrylate urethane, 179t
BMC, 176t
consumption, 69–70
electrical properties, 172
filled or short fiber reinforced, 175t
fire retardant vinylester resins, 176t
glass fiber reinforced, 178t
glazings, 477
ISO and ASTM standards, 172–173
joining, 172
mechanical properties, 169–170
optical properties, 169526 Index
Unsaturated polyesters (UP) (Continued)
properties, 158–167
SMC, 177t
thermal behavior, 167–169
trade name and producer examples, 173
unreinforced resins, 174t
vinylester neat resins, 175t
Unsaturated-polyester powder molding compounds (UP-PMCs), 172
Urea-formaldehydes (UF), 10
UTS-ultrafino, 485
UV vulcanization process, 288
V
Vacuum Assisted Resin Injection (VARI), 356, 357f, 481
Vacuum assisted Resin transfer molding (VARTM), 468, 481
Vacuum infusion process (VIP), 481
Vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF), 484–485
Vapor permeability, 117
Vegetable Oil Polymer Network (VOPNet), 389
Vicat softening temperature (VST), 107
ISO Standards, 116–117
Vinylester composites
flexural strength retention vs. aging time, 168f
flexural strength retention vs. time, 168f
tensile modulus retention vs. testing temperature, 168f
Viscoelastic behavior, 391, 395–396
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 173
Volume resistivity, 110
W
Waste(s)
collection of, 495
pretreatment of, 495
safe elimination of, 495
Weathering, 83, 121–122, 142, 150, 170, 242, 261
Weight savings, 395, 395f
Whiskers, 330
Wind energy, 102, 464–471
Wind Turbine Blade’ courtesy GURIT, 468f
Wood Plastics Composites (WPC), 104
Wood-based composites, 339
Y
Yield point, 108
Young’s modulus, 108
Z
ZMC process, 96–97
Zylon, 262, 263t


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