كتاب Weathering of Plastics - Testing to Mirror Life Performance
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 كتاب Weathering of Plastics - Testing to Mirror Life Performance

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Weathering of Plastics - Testing to Mirror Life Performance    كتاب Weathering of Plastics - Testing to Mirror Life Performance  Emptyالثلاثاء 04 أبريل 2023, 5:10 am

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Weathering of Plastics - Testing to Mirror Life Performance
George Wypych, Editor

كتاب Weathering of Plastics - Testing to Mirror Life Performance  W_o_p_10
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Table of Contents
Preface Vll
George TVypych
Basic Parameters in Weathering Studies
George Wyp)Jch and T0111 Faulkner
Choices in the Design of Outdoor Weathering Tests 15
LarlY W Masters and Laurence F. Bond
A Comparison of New and Established Accelerated Weathering Devices in
Aging Studies of Polymeric Materials at Elevated Irradiance and Temperature 29
Jorg Boxha111111er and Kurt P. Scott
Current Status of Light and Weather Fastness Standards. New Equipn1ent
Technologies, Operating Procedures and Application of Standard Reference
Materials 43
Jorg Boxhal11111er
Weatherability of Vinyl and Other Plastics 61
Jal11es W SUl11111ers and Elvira B. Rabinovitch
Aging Conditions' Effect on UV Durability 69
Robert L. Gray, Robert E. Lee, and Brent M Sanders
Molecular Weight Loss and Chemical Changes in Copolyester Sheeting with
Outdoor Exposure 77
D. R. Fagerburg and M E. Donelson
Fourier Transform Infrared Micro Spectroscopy. Mapping Studies of
Weathered PVC Capstock Type Formulations. II: Outdoor Weathering in
Pennsylvania 83
Dana Garcia and Janine Black
Effects of Water Spray and Irradiance Level on Changes in Copolyester
Sheeting with Xenon Arc Exposure 93
D. R. Fagerburg and M. E. Donelson
Hot Water Resistance of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics 99
Takafu111i Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki Nishilnura,Fu111iaki Miwa,
Kazunori Ito, Takashi Kuri}'a111a, and Ikuo Narisawa
Surface Telnperatures and Temperature Measurement Techniques on the Level
of Exposed Samples During Irradiation/Weathering in Equipment 105
Jorg Boxhanl111eriv Table of Contents
Infrared Welding of Thermoplastics: Characterization of Transmission
Behavior of Eleven Thermoplastics 121
Hong Jlln Yeh and Robert A Grimm
Infrared Welding of Thermoplastics. Colored Pigments and Carbon Black
Levels on Transmission of Infrared Radiation 127
Robert A GriJnnl and Hong Yeh
Predicting Maximum Field Service Temperatures From Solar Reflectance
Measurements of Vinyl 133
Henry K. Hardcastle III
Residual Stress Distribution Modification Caused by Weathering 141
Li Tong and J R White
Residual Stress Development in Marine Coatings Under Simulated Service
Conditions 151
Gu Yan and J R White
Balancing the Color and Physical Property Retention of Polyolefins Through
the Use of High Performance Stabilizer Systems 161
M J. Paterna, A. H Wagner and S. B. Salnuels
Activation Energies of Polymer Degradation 169
Sanlliel Ding, Michael T. K. Ling, Atul Khare and Lecon Woo
Failure Progression and Mechanisms of Irradiated Polypropylenes and
Other Medical Polymers 177
L. Woo, Samuel Y Ding, Atul Khare, and Michael T. K. Ling
Chemical Assessment of Automotive Clearcoat Weathering 185
R. O. Carter III, John L. Gerlock and Cindy A. Sn1ith
Effect of Aging on Mineral-Filled Nanocomposites 195
A. Ya. Goldnlan, J. A. Montes, A. Barajas, G. Beall and
D. D. Eisenhour
The Influence of Degraded, Recycled PP on Incompatible Blends 211
Claudia M. C. Bonelli, Agnes F. Martins, Eloisa B. Mano
and Charles L. Beatty
Interactions of Hindered Amine Stabilizers in Acidic and Alkaline Environments 217
K. Keck-Antoine, D. Scharf and H. Koch
Interactions of Pesticides and Stabilizers in PE Films for Agricultural Use 225
Edina Epacher and Bela Pllkanszky
The Influence of Co-Additive Interactions on Stabilizer Performance 233
Robert L. Gray and Robert E. LeeTable of Contents
New High Performance Light Stabilizer Systems for Molded-in Color TPOs:
An Update
Peter Solera and Gerald Capocci
Stabilization of Polyolefins by Photoreactive Light Stabilizers
Gilbert Ligner and Jan Malik
Effect of Stabilizer on Photo-Degradation Depth Profile
T. J. Turton and J. R. White
New Light Stabilizer For Coextruded Polycarbonate Sheet
Jalnes H. Botkin and Andre Schn1itter
Ultraviolet Light Resistance of Vinyl Miniblinds. Part 2. Reaction Products
Formed by Lead in Air
Richard F. Grossnzan
Case Studies of Inadvertent Interactions Between Polymers and Devices in
Field Applications
Joseph H. Groeger, Jeffrey D. Nicoll, Joyce M Riley, and
Peter T. Wi·onski
Automotive Clearcoats
George W}pJ)ch and Fred Lee
Index
A
ABS 61
accelerated electrons 178
accelerated tests 10
acceleration factor 12
acid etching 303
acid rain 162
acids 218
acrylic-melamine 296
acrylics 297
activation energy 173
additives 253
agriculture 218, 225
alkalinity 217
alkyd-lnelalnine 293
alninoplasts 298
alnorphous 77, 183, 199
antagonistic interaction 225
antioxidants 169, 179, 225, 234
antistatics 5
appliances 99
Arizona 5, 19,72,77,93
Arrhenius
activation energy 169
equation 171
plot 180
ASA61
AIR 78,186
autoillotive 29, 43, 72, 161, 185, 241
autolnotive coatings 293
B
bags 211
basecoats 293
benchtop instrulnents 10
bioburden 178
biocides 5
blends 212
blistering 151
bond
breaking energy 62
cleavage 70
bottles 211
Brabender 212
branching 81
brittle layer 178
brittleness 63
buildings 15, 70, 133
C
calciuln stearate 84
carbon black 127
carbon fiber 99
carbon-arc 7, 16
carbonyl groups 78, 228, 261, 301
catastrophic failure 307
chain
cleavage 78, 215
scission 141, 170, 301
chenlical resistance 237
chelni-crystallization 141, 149
chemiluminescence 170
chromophores 97, 228
ClRA8
clearcoat 185, 296
clilnates 17, 261
coatings 186
coextrusion 93, 271
color 61, 96, 134
Index316
compatibilization 212
cOlnpressive stress 155
COlnpton secondary electrons 178
condensation 5
conductive cooling 137
construction 161
Inaterials 1
consumer goods 161
containers 211
corrosion 151
CPE 61
CPVC 61
crack depth 182
cracking 151
cracks 102
crosslinking 301
crosslinks 267
crystalline regions 199
crystallinity 141, 197, 214
change 142
crystallite size 197
crystallites 170
crystallization temperature 213
D
dark colors 138
daylight irradiance 4
debonding 102
degradation
mechanism 10 - 11
rate 1
telnperature 214
degrading parameters 11
delalnination 151, 307
design life 2
diffraction 197
diffusion 229, 253
DIN 113
discoloration 162
disposal 2
DSC 169, 177
durability 169
durability testing 2
E
early degradation 218
elongation 70, 230, 233
elnbrittlelnent 173, 233
end-groups 77
EPDM 170
epoxy resin 99
EPR 170,178
equatorial tracking 24
equipment 7, 50, 105
ESR 186,307
ethylene-propylene CopolYlner 262
F
factors of aging 69
failure 1, 2, 178, 188, 295
criteria 137
fiber 233
fiber-reinforced plastics 99
fibrils 173, 182
films 180, 218, 225
filter system 34
flaking 151
flame retardants 71, 238
Florida 5, 18 - 19, 72, 93, 236, 273, 308
fluorescent lamps 7, 16
Fresnel-reflecting mirrors 16
FTIR83, 186,212,229,286
fuel combustion products 162
G
gas fading 162, 248
Gaussian distribution 199
GC 282
glass fiber 103, 195
glass transition 183
gloss 306
GPe 78,94,212,263
IndexIndex
greenhouses 225, 271
H
HALS 161, 164, 185,225,233
deactivation 222
haze 96,307
heat
buildup 133
deflection telnperature 136
HIPS 61
HMDI297
hot water 99
HPLC 177
hUlnidity 309
hydrolysis 5, 61
hydroperoxide titration 186
hydroperoxides 170,227,268, 300
I
imnlersion 155
tests 99
il11pact strength 61, 233
inductive coupled plasllla 84
infrared
energy 4
heating 121
initiation 227
injection molding 141
installation 2
interface 103, 170
international organizations 15
IPDI297
IR 107
reflective piglnents 134
irradiance 3 - 4, 47, 95
irradiation 105
ISO 113
isocyanurate 297
L
latitude 22
layer rellloval procedure 141
lead stabilizer 277
life prediction 15
light penetration 203
lightfastness 29
long-tenn data 10
Lorentz 199
low-volatility 272
M
macroradicals 301
maintenance 2
marine coatings 151
Inaterial degradation paralneters 2
mathematical weighing process 135
Inatrix 102
Ineasureillent geometry 135
Inechanical stress 83
melaluine 304
Inelting telnperature 213
nletallocene 69
methane cOlnbustion 162
luethods of measureillent 12
microcracking 307
Inicrocracks 233, 274
migration 72
milling 262
111iniblinds 277
Mn 79
l110de of failure 306
lTIodulus 141
lTIoisture 5
monoclinic fonl1 207
Mz/Mn81
N
nanoconlposites 196
NMR 186,212
Norrish 206
NOx 162
317318
o
OIT 69, 169, 177
optical properties 134
outdoor exposure 15
oxidation 78
oxygen 261
diffusion 182
p
paint 185
parafocus 199
PAS 186
performance criteria 10 - 11
pesticides 225
pH 177
phenolic antioxidants 161
photohydrolysis 97
photoinitiators 300
photons 178
photo-oxidation 141
pigtnents 127, 134,237, 265
pKa-value 217
plasticizers 5, 286
plastics 1
PMMA61
polarization 199
polishing 200
pollutants 5
polyacrylate 297
polyalnide 5, 61
polybutyleneterephthalate 172, 195
polycarbonate 3, 5, 271
polyester 5, 170, 297
polyethers 61
polyethylene 61, 170, 178, 211, 218, 225, 261,
286
polyethyleneterephthalate 77, 93
polyol297
polyolefins 211, 21 7
polyoxymethylene 99, 129
polyphenylene sulfide 282
Index
polyphenyleneether 99
polyphenylenesulfide 99
polypropylene 61, 71, 144, 170, 177, 211, 233,
261
polystyrene 56, 61
polyurethane 39, 296
polyvinylchloride 61, 83, 107, 277, 286
post application 2
post-irradiation 169
failure 184
powder coating 296
prediction tnethods 174
preliminary studies 10, 13
product temperature 4
propagation 182
pUlnps 99
Q
quenchers 70
QUV 84, 262, 277
R
radiant energy 133
radiation 7, 177
global 107
simulation 46
radical trapping 71
radicals 77, 170, 181, 231, 268
Ralnan 186
reaction kinetics 108
reactive chetnicals 218
recycling 211
reference Inaterial 35
reflectance 135
relaxation 141
relief melnbrane 283
renewable resources 2
replacen1ent 2
residual stress 141,147 - 148, 151
rigid vinyl 136
routine testing 11Index
S
salt formation 218
scattering 199
scission 263
secondary crystallization 141
SEM 99, 173, 182,284
sensors 99
shelf-life 169
shrinkage 151
siding 83
skylights 271
slnog 162
solar absorptance 136
solar cut-on 3 - 4
solar spectfUln 133 - 134
solidification 141
solubility 253
spectral irradiance 106
spectfUln 8
spinning stability 221
stabilization 70
stabilizers 233, 267
package 225
standard reference Inaterial43
standards 49
sterilization 177
strain 143
stress 6, 143
build up 154
distribution 141
intensity 183
surface crazing 233
swelling 141
switch 282
T
temperature 4, 8,49,72, 105, 124, 169, 171,309
gradient 141
tensile 233
strength 12,73, 99, 230, 233
terrestrial body 106
test fixtures 21
testing conditions 69
textiles 1
T
g 109
TGA 213
thennal conductivity 48
thennolneters 112
thickness 156
through-translnission 121
tie molecules 170
tilt angles 21
titning 24
titaniuln dioxide 84
toys 161
TPO 241
transit shelters 271
translucent polymers 124
transmittance 135, 222
transparent polYlners 124
U
unsaturations 215, 228
urethane 302
UV
absorbers 70, 77, 164, 185, 233
cycling 265
radiation 3
spectra 228
spectroscopy 186
stabilizers 5
V
valves 99
viscosity 275
volatility 253
W
walkways 271
warping 146
water uptake 155
waterborne 296
319320
wavelength 3, 135
Weather-Ometer 9, 72, 94, 242
Wien's Law 127
welding 127
window profile 83
X
xenon-arc 7, 16, 43
Xenotest 30, 228
X-ray 197
y
yellowness index 273
yield point 216
Young's modulus 146, 151
Z
zinc stearate 84


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