كتاب Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites

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كتاب Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites    كتاب Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites  Emptyالإثنين 03 أبريل 2023, 1:31 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites
Michel Biron

كتاب Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites  T_p_a_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Acronyms and Abbreviations
5V UL fire rating
AAGR Average Annual Growth Rate
ABS Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
ACM-V Vulcanized acrylate rubber
ACS Acrylonitrile Chlorinated polyethylene
Styrene
AES or
AEPDS
Acrylonitrile EPDM Styrene
AMC Alkyd Moulding Compound
ArF or AF Aramid Fibre
ASA Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate
ASTM American Society for Testing and
Materials
ATBC AcetylTriButyl Citrate
ATH Aluminum TriHydrate
BF Boron Fiber
BMC Bulk Molding Compound
BMI BisMaleImide
BOPLA Bi-axially Oriented PolyLactic Acid
BOPP Bi-axially Oriented PolyPropylene
BRIC Brazil-Russia-India-China
CA Cellulose Acetate
CAB Cellulose AcetoButyrate
CAD Computer Aided Design
CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate
CBT Cyclic polyButadiene Terephthalate
CE Cyanate Ester
CF Carbon Fibre
CFC ChloroFluoroCarbon
CIC Continuous Impregnated Compound
CM or CPE Chlorinated PolyEthylene
CNT Carbon NanoTube
COC or
COP
Cyclic Olefin Copolymers or Cyclic
Olefin Polymers
CONC Concentrated solution
COP or
COC
Cyclic Olefin Polymers or Cyclic
Olefin Copolymers
COPE or
TPEE
COPolyEster TPE
CP Cellulose Propionate
CPE or CM Chlorinated PolyEthylene
CPVC or
PVC-C
Chlorinated PVC
CS Compression Set
CTLE Coefficient of Thermal Linear
Expansion
CUT Continuous Use Temperature under
unstressed state
Cy PolyCyanate
DAP DiAllyl Phthalate
DCPD Poly(DiCycloPentaDiene)
DMC Dough Molding Compound
DMTA Dynamic Mechanical Thermal
Analysis
DRIV Direct Resin Injection and Venting
DSC Differential Scanning Calorimeter
DTA Differential Thermal Analysis
EB Elongation at Break
EBA,
EGMA,
EMAH,
EEA, EAA
Ethylene-acid and ethylene-ester
copolymers, e.g. EthyleneButylAcrylate
ECTFE Ethylene
monoChloroTriFluoroEthylene
xxiiiEE, E&E Electrical & Electronics
EMA Ethylene-MethAcrylate ionomers
EMI ElectroMagnetic Interference
EP EPoxy
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPDM
rubber
Terpolymer ethylene, propylene,
diene
EPS Expandable (or Expanded)
PolyStyrene
ESBO Epoxidized SoyBean Oil
ESC Environmental Stress Cracking
ESD ElectroStatic Discharge
ETFE Ethylene-TetraFluoroEthylene
EVA,
E/VAC,
EVAC,
VAE, EVM
Ethylene-VinylAcetate copolymers
EVOH Ethylene-Vinyl alcohol copolymers
F-PVC Flexible PVC
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FEP Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
FIM Film Insert Molding
FR Fire Retardant
GF Glass Fiber
GFRP Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic
GMT Glass Mat Thermoplastic
HB UL fire rating
HDPE or
PE HD
High Density PolyEthylene
HDT Heat Deflection Temperature
HFFR Halogen Free Fire Retardant
HIPS High Impact PS
HPGF High-Performance short Glass Fiber
reinforced polypropylene
HSCT High Speed Civil Transport (aircraft)
HTPC Hybrid ThermoPlastic Composite
HTV High Temperature Vulcanization
ICP Inherently Conductive Polymer
IDP Inherently Dissipative Polymer
ILSS InterLaminar Shear Strength
IMC In-Mold Coating
IMD In-Mold Decoration
IML In Mold Labeling
IPN Interpenetrating Polymer Network
IRHD International Rubber Hardness
IRM International Referee Material
ISO International Standardization
Organization
LCA Life Cycle Assessment
LCP Liquid Crystal Polymer
LCTC Low Cost Tooling for Composites
LDPE or
PE LD
Low Density PolyEthylene
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEFM Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
LFRT Long Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic
LFT Long Fiber reinforced Thermoplastic
LGF Long Glass Fiber
LIM Liquid Injection Molding
LLDPE Linear Low Density PolyEthylene
LOI Limiting Oxygen Index
LRTM Light RTM
LSR Liquid Silicone Rubber
LWRT Light Weight Reinforced
Thermoplastic
MABS Methylmethacrylate-AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene
MAH Maleic AnHydride
MBS Methyl methacrylate-ButadieneStyrene
MDPE Medium Density PolyEthylene
MF Melamine
MPR Melt Processable Rubber (TPE)
MVTR Moisture Vapor Transmission Rate
xxiv ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSMWNT MultiWalled carbon NanoTubes
NB No Break
NVH Noise Vibration Harshness
O&M Organization & Methods department
OIT Oxygen Induction Time
OPET Oriented PET
OPP Oriented PP
OPS Oriented PS
OTR Oxygen Transmission Rate
PA PolyAmide
PA-T Transparent amorphous PolyAmide
PAA PolyArylAmide
PAI PolyAmide Imide
PAEK PolyArylEtherKetone
PAN PolyAcryloNitrile
PAS PolyArylSulfone
PB PolyButene-1 or PolyButylene-1
PBB Polybrominated biphenyls
PBDE Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
PBI PolyBenzImidazole
PBO PolyphenyleneBenzoOxazole
PBT or
PBTP
PolyButyleneTerephthalate
PC PolyCarbonate
PCB Printed Circuit Board
PC-HT PolyCarbonate e High Temperature
PCL PolyCaproLactone
PCT PolyCyclohexylene-dimethylene
Terephthalate
PCTA Terephthalate/Isophthalate
PCTFE PolyChloroTriFluoroEthylene
PCTG PolyCyclohexylene-dimethylenediol/
ethyleneglycol Terephthalate
PDMS PolyDiMethylSiloxane
PE PolyEthylene
PEAA PolyEthylene Acrylic Acid
PEAR PolyEtherAmide Resin
PEBA PolyEther Block Amide
PEEK PolyEtherEther Ketone
PEG PolyEthylene Glycol
PEI PolyEtherImide
PEK PolyEtherKetone
PEKK Poly Ether Ketone Ketone
PEN PolyEthylene
Naphthalenedicarboxylate
PES or
PESU
PolyEtherSulfone
PET or
PETP
PolyEthylene Terephthalate
PETG PolyEthyleneGlycol/cyclohexylenedimethylenediol Terephthalate
PETI PhenylEthynyl with Imide
Terminations
PEX Crosslinked PolyEthylene
PF Phenolic resin
PF1Ax PF general purpose, ammonia free
PF2Cx PF heat resistant, glass fiber
reinforced
PF2Dx PF impact resistant, cotton filled
PF2E1 PF mica filled
PFA PerFluoroAlkoxy
PGA PolyGlycolic Acid
PHA PolyHydroxyAlkanoate
PHB PolyHydroxyButyrate
PHBH PolyHydroxyButyrate-Hexanoate
PHBV PolyHydroxyButyrate-cohydroxyValerate
PI PolyImide
PK PolyKetone
PLA PolyLactic Acid
PMI PolyMethacrylImide
PMMA Poly MethylMethAcrylate
PMP PolyMethylPentene
PO PolyOlefin
POE PolyOlefin Elastomer
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxvPOM PolyOxyMethylene or Polyacetal
POP PolyOlefin Plastomer
POSS Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane
PP PolyPropylene
PPA PolyPhthalAmide
PPE PolyPhenylene Ether
PP/EPDM Unvulcanized EPDM blended with
polypropylene or block copolymerized
PP-EPDM (reactor TPO) e (TPE)
(TPO)
PP/
EPDM-V
Vulcanized EPDM dispersed in
polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
PP/IIR-V Vulcanized butyl rubber dispersed
in polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
PP/NBR-V Vulcanized nitrile rubber dispersed
in polypropylene (TPE) (TPV)
PPO PolyPhenylene Oxide
PPS PolyPhenylene Sulfide
PPSU PolyPhenyleneSulfone
Prepreg Preimpregnated
PS PolyStyrene
PSU PolySulfone
PS-X or
XPS
Crosslinked PolyStyrene
PTFE PolyTetraFluoroEthylene
PTMT or
PBT
PolyTetraMethylene Terephthalate
or PolyButyleneTerephthalate
PTT PolyTrimethylene Terephthalate
PUR PolyURethane
PV Pressure*Velocity
PVA or
PVAL or
PVOH
PolyVinyl Alcohol
PVAC PolyVinyl ACetate
PVAL or
PVA or
PVOH
PolyVinyl ALcohol
PVB PolyVinyl Butyrate
PVC PolyVinyl Chloride
PVDC PolyVinyliDene Chloride
PVC-C or
CPVC
Chlorinated PVC
PVC-U Unplasticized PVC
PVDF PolyVinyliDene Fluoride
PVF PolyVinyl Fluoride
PVOH or
PVAL or
PVA
PolyVinyl Alcohol
REACH Registration Evaluation Authorisation
and Restriction of CHemicals
RF Radio Frequency
RFI Resin Film Impregnation
RH Relative Humidity or Hygrometry
RIM Reaction Injection Molding
RIRM Resin Injection Recirculation
Molding
RoHS Restriction of Hazardous Substances
RP Reinforced Plastic
RRIM Reinforced Reaction Injection
Molding
RT Room Temperature
RTM Resin Transfer Molding
RTP Reinforced ThermoPlastic
RTV Room Temperature Vulcanization
SAN Styrene AcryloNitrile
SAP Super Absorbent Polymer
SATUR Saturated solution
SB Styrene Butadiene
SBC Styrenic Block Copolymer
SBS Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (TPE)
SCRIMP Seeman’s Composite Resin Infusion
Moulding Process
SEBS Styrene Ethylene/Butylene Styrene
(TPE)
SEPS Styrene Ethylene/Propylene Styrene
(TPE)
SFRT Short Fiber Reinforced
Thermoplastic
SGF Short Glass Fiber
xxvi ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSSi Silicone
SIS Styrene Isoprene Styrene (TPE)
SMA Styrene Maleic Anhydride
SMC Sheet Molding Compound
SMMA Styrene-Methyl MethAcrylate
SN curve Plot of stress or strain (S) leading to
failure after N cycles of repeated
loading
SOL Solution
SPpolyimides
Condensation polyimides
SPC Statistical Process Control
SPDF Super Plastic Diaphragm Forming
SR Self Reinforced
SRRIM Structural (Reinforced) Resin
Injection Molding
SWNT Single-Walled carbon
NanoTubes
TAC TriAllyl Cyanurate
TDI Toluene-2,4-DiIsocyanate
TFE TetraFluoroEthylene
Tg Glass Transition Temperature
TGA ThermoGravimetric Analysis
TGV High-speed train
TMC Thick Moulding Compound
TP ThermoPlastic
TPE ThermoPlastic Elastomer
TPE/PVC PVC-based TPE, alloys of PVC and
rubber (TPE) (TPO or TPV)
TPEE or
COPE
ThermoPlastic Elastomer Ester
TPI ThermoPlastic Imide
TPO ThermoPlastic Olefin
TPR ThermoPlastic Rubber
TPS ThermoPlastic Styrenic
TP/Si-V TPV of a vulcanized silicone rubber
dispersed in a thermoplastic phase
TPU ThermoPlastic polyUrethane
TPV ThermoPlastic Vulcanizate
TR Temperature-Retraction procedure
TS Tensile Strength
UD UniDirectional composite
UF Urea-Formaldehyde
UHMWPE
or PEUHMW
UltraHigh Molecular Weight PE
UL Underwriters Laboratories
Unkn. Unknown
UP Unsaturated Polyester
UV UltraViolet
V0 to V2 UL fire rating
VAE Ethylene-VinylAcetate copolymers
VARI Vacuum Assisted Resin Injection
VARTM Vacuum Assisted RTM
VE VinylEster
VGCNF Vapor grown carbon nanofibers
VIP Vacuum Infusion Process
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
VST Vicat Softening Temperature
WPC Wood Plastic Composite
XLPE Crosslinked LDPE
XPE or
PEX
Crosslinked PolyEthylene
XPS or
PS-X
Crosslinked PolyStyrene
ZMC A highly automated process using
Molding Compounds
1 Outline of the Actual Situation of Plastics Compared to Conventional Materials
2 The Plastics Industry: Economic Overview
3 Basic Criteria for the Selection of Thermoplastics
4 Detailed Accounts of Thermoplastic Resins
5 Thermoplastic Processing
6 Thermoplastic Composites
7 Plastics Solutions for Practical Problems
8 Future Prospects for Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites
Index
Note: Page numbers with “f” denote figures; “t” tables.
A
Abrasion, 753e754, 963
ABS/PA alloys, 605e608
ABS/PC alloys, 602e603
ABS/PVC alloys, 616
Absorbent polymers, 919e927
Accelerated aging, 135e136
ISO Standards, 148
Acetal, 64, 77, 429e441
Acetylated monoglyceride, 977
Acrylate rubber-modified styrene acrylonitrile (ASA), 340e349
Acrylics, 403e415, 882
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 51, 72, 76, 89, 101, 108, 114,
123, 125, 328e340, 892
Acrylonitrile chlorinated polyethylene styrene, 340e349
AcrylonitrileeEPDMestyrene (AES), 340e349
Additive costs, 42e43
Additives
aging protection in, 178e179
antifogging, 953e954
for antifriction polymers, 183
antistatic, 914
biocidal, 946e947
compounding with, 168e187
conventional conductive, 912e914
halogen-free fire retardant, 892e894
for long-lasting compounds, protective, 874e875
reinforcing, 874
based on phosphorous derivatives, 893
proprietary, 893e894
tribological, 918e919
Adhesion, 960e967
Adhesive(s)
bonding, 756e757
hot-melt, 757
non-reactive solution, 757
reactive, 757
Agriculture, 123e126
Airbag systems, 83
Alkylsulfonic phenyl ester (ASE), 975
Alloy(s/ing), 599e639, 909
ABS/PA, 605e608
ABS/PC, 602e603
ABS/PVC, 616
ASA/PC, 603e605
LLDPE/COC, 634e639
PBI/PEEK, 632e633
PC/AES, 634
PC/SAN, 634
PE/COC, 634e639
PEI/PC, 623
PEI/PSU copolymer, 623
PPE/PP, 634
PP/PA, 608e611
PPS-elastomer, 623
proprietary, 708e709
PSU-based, 622e623
thermoplastic polyester, 611e616
TPI/PEEK, 632
Aluminium honeycombs, 805e806
Aluminum powders, as thermal conductivity enhancers, 929e930
AM techniques, 758e759
Analysis and diagnostic equipment, 155e156
Ancillary equipment, 83
Annealing, 757e758
Antifogging solutions, 951e960
Antifriction polymers, additives for, 183
Antifriction thermoplastics, 916e919
Antimicrobial solutions, 945e951
Antistatic additives, 914
Antistatic specialities, 182
Aramid fibers (AFs)
for polymer reinforcement, 793e794
short, 818
Aramid honeycombs, 805
Arc resistance, 142
ASA/PC alloys, 603e605
Asian market, 39e41
Assembly of fabricated parts, 755e757
of fabricated parts, 755e757
mechanical, 757
ASTM Standards, 151e155, 208e210, 231, 241, 263, 297e302,
309e310, 327e328, 349, 402, 441, 526, 785, 789e790,
792e793, 827
Autoclave, 741e743
Automation, 1019
Automotive, 73e86, 841
Awards, 1012e1021
B
Basalt fibers, 797
Battenfeld’s Microsystem technology, 719
Bedding, 121e123
Behavior at high frequencies, 197, 223, 245, 252, 258, 290, 307, 320,
335, 360, 371
Bio-based products, ASTM Standards, 155
Biocidal additives, 946e947
Biocides, natural sourced, 950e951
Biodegradability, 150e151
Biodegradable polymers, 52
Biodegradable thermoplastics, 1007e1009
Bioplastics, 105, 1010e1012
1035Biosourced composites, 710
Biosourced plastics, 129e131
Biosourced polymers
glass fiber-reinforced, 854e855
natural fiber-reinforced, 853e855
Biosourced thermoplastics, 699e701
Bio-thermoplastics from renewable sources, development of,
28e29
Blowing agents-contained thermoplastics, extrusion of,
737e738
Blow molding, 22, 37, 722e723
injection, 21
Blown film extrusion, 731e732
Body elements, 85
Boilermaking, 23, 25, 750e751
Boron/CF hybrids, 797
Boron fibers, 797
Bottles, 56e60
Brittle point, 136
Building
exteriors, 66e69
glass applications in, 841
interiors, 69e70
Building and civil engineering, 61e73
Bumpers, 82
C
Calendering, 22, 732
Calorific properties, 1005
Capillary rheometers, 144e145
Carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP), 837
Carbon fibers (CFs), 919, 1000e1001
for polymer reinforcement, 790e794
short, 816e818
as thermal conductivity enhancers, 932
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 808e810, 849, 914e916, 949e950,
994
as thermal conductivity enhancers, 932
Casting, 726
Cast nylon, 389e392
Cellulose acetate (CA), 511e516
Cellulose acetobutyrate (CAB), 511e516
Cellulose-based plastics, 706e707
Cellulose nanofibers, 996e997
Cellulose propionate (CP), 511e516
Cellulosics, 52, 64, 77, 90, 103, 110, 115, 120, 123, 511e516,
882
Ceramic fibers, 797
Ceramic nanofibers, 997
Ceramics, as thermal conductivity enhancers, 930e932
Characteristics studies, influence of, 135
Chemical etching, 754
Chemical pickling, 754, 963
Chemical reaction, 956e959
Chemical resistance, 141e142, 149, 197, 223, 235e236, 245e248,
252, 258, 268, 270, 274, 290, 307, 312, 320, 335, 345e346, 360,
371e372, 376, 379, 383, 387e388, 398, 410, 424, 437, 448,
465, 476e477, 484, 494, 500e501, 508, 512, 522, 532e533,
542, 551e552, 559e562, 570e571, 588e591, 597, 650, 659,
666, 670e672, 675, 678e679, 684, 687e688, 694, 886,
955e960
Chinese market, 40
Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), 63, 88, 107, 278e282
Chlorinated PVC (PVC-C), 63, 107, 306e310
Citrates, 977
Cladding, 67
Clamping, 757
Clash and Berg test, 136
Cleaning, 963
of plastic parts, 753
solvent, 963
Clearmelt process, 863
Clink, 757
Coating(s), 732e735, 842e845
antifogging, 954e955
durability enhancement by, 875e876
electrostatic deposition, 734
extrusion, 732e733
films, solvent casting of, 734e735
foaming, 735e738
hydrophilic, 926e927
laminating, 735
powdering, 734
protective, 860e861
roll dipping, 733
spreading, 733
Coercive force, 935
Co-injection molding, 720
Composite(s)
consumption trends of, 38
insert molding, 740
larger parts, advantage of, 27
market shares of, 34
matrices, 774e779
nanocomposites, 813, 849
processing, 25e27, 739e746
primary, 25e26
secondary, 26e27
properties versus thermoplastic properties, 160e164
recycling of, 1003e1005
thermoplastic, 79
with wood, 70
Compounding with additives, 168e187
Compression molding, 725, 740e741
thermoplastics, 21
thermosets, 24
Compression properties, 146
Compression set, 148
Compressionetransfer molding
thermoplastics, 21
thermosets, 24
Conductive carbon blacks, 182, 912
Conductive carbon fibers, 913e914
Conductive composites, 822e823
Conductive fibers, 182
Conductive plastics, consumption and applications, 911
Conductive polymers, 182
Consumption trends, 37e38
of composites, 38
of thermoplastics, 37e38
Contact, chemical resistance by, 141e142
Containers, 56e60
Continuous fiber composites, 819
Continuous use temperature, 134
Control equipment, 96
Converters, 761
Copolyester thermoplastic elastomer (COPE), 65, 80, 92, 105, 113,
116, 121, 123, 126, 685e688, 892
Copolymerization, 909
Copolymers, 216
Co-processing, 760
Corrugated HDPE drainage pipe, service life for, 879e880
1036 INDEXCost(s)
of crude oil, 126e131
cutters, 184e187
of materials, 10
per liter, 10
per volume, 10
per weight, 10
of plastics, 42e47
additive costs, 42e43
processing costs, 44e45
raw material costs, 42
reinforcement costs, 43e44
processing, economic comparison of, 23
recycling, 1005
savings, 833e834, 991e993
by fiber reinforcement, 781e782
hybrids, 992
material costs, 991
processing costs, 992e993
Creep, 139, 148, 194, 221, 235, 243, 245, 251, 258, 288, 318, 334, 345,
358, 371, 383, 387, 397e398, 409, 422, 435e436, 448, 463,
476, 483e484, 494, 500, 521, 532, 542, 550, 558, 569,
586e588, 597
Cross-linked EVA, 263
Cross-linked polyethylene, 205
Crude oil
cost of, 126e131
polymer cost evolution versus, 128
drying up, 126e131
Crystallization, 148
Curing of thermoplastics, 746e747
Custom satisfaction, 1019
Cycle time reduction, 760
Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), 51, 88, 101, 107, 119,
248e253, 883
Cyclic polybutylene terephthalates (CBTs), 1001e1002
D
Dashboards, 82
Decoration, 68, 754e755, 860e861
Dendrimers polymers, 712e714
Density, 136
Developing applications, 81
Dielectric strength, 142
Differential scanning calorimetry, 144
Differential thermal analysis, 144
Dimensional stability, 194, 221, 235, 243, 258, 288, 306e307, 312,
318, 334, 345, 356, 371, 386, 397, 409, 422, 435, 463, 476, 483,
494, 500, 508, 512, 520, 542, 550, 558, 569, 586, 597, 649e650,
659, 665, 670, 672, 675, 684
Dipping, 22, 727
roll, 733
Direct gas extrusion process, 738
Distributors, 767
Draping
pressure bag molding after, 742e743
vacuum bag molding after, 741e743
Durability, 154
enhancement
by additives, 866e875
by coatings, 875e876
forcasting, 877e878
optimization, 876
parameters, 865f
of polymers, 8e10
specification and tests, choosing, 876
tracks, 866f
Dynamic fatigue, 141, 153
Dynamic mechanical properties, 148e149
Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), 145
E
Eco-design strategy, 761
Economic comparison, of processing costs, 23
Economic requirements, of plastic designing, 18e19
Elastic modulus, 138
Electrically conductive thermoplastics, 910e916
Electrical market, 86e96
Electrical properties, 7e8, 8t, 142, 149, 197, 229, 236, 248, 253,
262
Electric components, 94
Electromagnetic bonding, 756
Electronic equipment, substrates for, 96
Electronics applications, 1019
Electronics market, 86e96
Electrostatic deposition, 734
e-Manufacturing, 761
Emerging applications, 81
Energy consumption, 759e760
Engine covers, 83
Engineering plastics, 70
Entertainment appliances, 96e105
Environmental concerns, 1001e1002
Environmental constraints, 27e29
Environmentally degradable plastics, ASTM Standards,
155
Environmental requirements, of plastic designing, 19e20
Environmental stress cracking (ESC), 142, 876, 955e956
Environment-friendly structural solutions, 851e855
natural fiber-reinforced composites, boosters and brakes for,
852e853
EPDM, 655e659
Epoxy esters, 977
EPS, 51, 63, 101, 108, 114, 125
foams, 60
Equipment makers, 761, 767
Esthetic parts, 855e864
modeling, 857
optical properties, 857e860
permanence during service life, 864
prototyping, 857
simulation, 857
ETFE, 883
Ethylene acid, 278
Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE), 52, 90, 110,
120, 484e497
Ethyleneeester copolymers, 278
Ethylene-methacrylate ionomers (EMA), 51, 63, 76, 107, 114, 122,
271e276, 884
foams, 295e297
Ethyleneepropylene elastomers, modified, 216
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers, 51, 88, 107, 114, 253e264,
883e884
cross-linked, 263
foams, 263e264
rubbers, 264
Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH), 51, 62e63, 75, 124,
264e271, 838, 884
Expandable beads, molding of, 736
Extenders, 862
INDEX 1037Extrusion, 21e22, 36, 728e731
coating, 732e733
blown film, 731e732
of blowing agents-contained thermoplastics, 737e738
direct gas, 738
Extrusion-compression process, 739e740
F
Fabricated parts, assembly of, 755e757
Fascias, 67
Fatigue, 139e140
dynamic, see Dynamic fatigue
failure, 10f
mechanical properties, ISO Standards, 148e149
thermal, due to cold/heat cycling, 907e908
Fenders, 85
Fibers, 779e798
aramid, 793e794
basalt, 797
boron, 797
carbon, 790e794, 913e914, 919, 932, 1000e1001
ceramic, 797
conductive, 182
forms of, 798e799
glass, 785e790, 794, 1000e1001
industrial, 207
nanofibers, 996e997
quartz, 797
reinforcement, 170e174, 834e835
silica, 797
steel, 797, 913e914
sustainable natural vegetal, 794e796
whiskers, 797
Filament winding, 743e744
Fillers
nanofillers, 175e176
nonblack, 185
Film insert molding (FIM), 846
Films, 119
aging protection in, 178e179
for packaging, 54e56
profile cladding, 863
solvent casting of, 734e735
versatility of, 54f
Finishing, 752e755
Fire resistance, 153e154, 181e182, 197, 228, 236, 248, 253, 262,
294, 307, 312, 323, 335, 346, 363, 375, 383, 389, 401e402,
410, 428, 440, 448, 465, 480, 497, 501, 508, 515, 525, 533, 542,
553, 562, 575, 591, 597, 650, 659, 666, 671e672, 675, 679, 688,
695
Fire retardant thermoplastics, 888e894
Flammability, 143, 149e150, 888e889
Flexible structures, 68e69
Flexidone, 975e976
Flexural properties, 145e146
Flow-coating, 863
Flow improvers, 861
Fluid-assisted injection molding, 863
Fluid contact behavior, ISO Standards, 149
Fluorinated poly(imide-ether-amide)s, 1002
Fluoroplastics, 777e778
Foam(s/ing), 38, 50, 60e62, 75, 86, 229e230, 263e264, 295e302,
735e738
lightweight, 847e848
liquid, 738
for sandwich technology, 799e804
structural, 863
structural injection, 736e737
thermoplastic, 968e969
ultrasoft, 945
Fogging, 864
Formulation of thermoplastics, 965e967
Friction, 194, 221
Friction joining, 756
Fuel cells, 96
Fuel tanks, 81, 838
Functionalized polymers, 948e949
Furniture, 121e123
indoor, 121e122
outdoor, 121
Fused deposition modeling (FDM), 758
G
Gaı ¨alene, 704
Gas-assisted injection molding, 720e721
Gas permeability, 142e143
Gas transmission, 149
Gehman test, 136
Gel permeation chromatography, 144
Geogrids, 72e73
Geomembranes, 72e73
Geotextiles, 72e73
Glass beads, reinforcement with, 175
Glass fibers (GFs), 1000e1001
for polymer reinforcement, 785e790, 794
short, 816
Glass mat thermoplastics (GMTs), 810e811, 836
sheets, compression molding of, 740e741
Glass replacement, 838e845
applications of, 839e841
automotive, 841
building, 841
glazing, 841
lighting, 841
packaging, 839e841
transparent protection, 841
coatings, 842e845
hybrids, 842e845
multilayer structures, 842e845
permeability, 841e842
polymers, 845
Glazing, 67, 85, 841
Global plastics industry, 31e33
Gloss/mat balance, 859e860
Glossy polymers, 860
Glycerin acetates, 977e978
Grade, influence of, 134e135
Graphene, 916, 997e998
Graphite, 918
H
Halogen-free fire retardant (HFFR) thermoplastics, 888e894
additives, 892e894
based on phosphorous derivatives, 893
proprietary, 893e894
grades of, 890e892
polypropylene, 894
Hardness, 138e139, 147
Heat deflection temperature (HDT), 135
ISO Standards, 147e148
Heat dissipaters, 919
1038 INDEXHexafluoropolypropylene, 883
High-energy radiation, 196e197, 223, 245, 252, 258, 268, 290, 320,
335, 437, 465, 476, 484, 494, 500, 522, 532, 542, 551, 559, 570,
588
High heat-resistant thermoplastics, 894e905
HIPS (high-impact polysyrene), 123
Hi-tech prepregs, 846
Homopolymers, 216
Honeycombs, 804e806
Hot alkaline degreasing, 963
Hot-melt adhesives, 757
Household appliances, 96e105
Humidity, 149
Hybrids, 17e18, 27, 746, 769, 836e837, 842e845,
992, 1017
Hydrogenated phthalates, 975
Hydrophilic coatings, 926e927
Hyperbranched polymers (HBP), 712e714
I
Immersion, chemical resistance by, 141e142
Impact modifiers, 176e177
Impact testing, 138, 147
Indian market, 41
Indoor furniture, 121e122
Induction, 935
Industrial fibers, 207, 797e798
Inherently conductive polymers (ICPs), 914
Inherently dissipative polymers (IDPs), 914
Injection micro-molding, 719
Injection molding, 715e722
co-injection, 720
gas-assisted, 720e721
high-pressure, 716f
micro-molding, 719
over-molding, 720
power, 721e722
reaction, 727
for simple, flexible, and high-output solutions, 835e836
standard, 715e718
thermoplastics, 21, 36
blow, 21
low-pressure, 22
thermosets, 24
low-pressure, 24
In-line techniques, 760
In-mold coating (IMC), 863
In-mold decoration (IMD), 846
In-mold graining, 863
In-mold techniques, 760
Innovative design, 1019e1020
Innovative solutions, 914e916
Inorganic nanofibers, 997
Inserts, 751
installatio of, 751e752
Installation of inserts, 751e752
Insulation, 66e67
Intake manifold, 83e85
Interior(s)
translucent design elements for, 848
trims, 82
Interlaminar properties, 147
Interlaminar shear strength, 138
Intermediate semi-manufactured materials, 810e813
Intrusion resistance, of laminated glass, 885
Isosorbide diesters, 977
ISO Standards, 145e151, 208e209, 230e231, 241, 262e263, 270,
297e302, 309e310, 327e328, 349, 402, 441, 526, 782e784,
788e789, 792
J
Japanese market, 40
Joining, decoration, 197, 229, 241, 248, 253, 262, 295, 307, 324, 339,
349, 363, 375e376, 402, 410, 428, 441, 448e452, 465, 480,
484, 497, 501, 504, 508, 515, 525, 533, 545, 553, 562, 575e576,
592, 650, 659, 666, 671e672, 675, 681, 688, 695
L
Labor, 760
Laminated glass, intrusion resistance of, 885
Laminated object modeling (LOM), 758
Laminating, 735
Leisure, 113e117
Lenses, 83
Lighting, 96, 841
Light resistance, 149
Light structural functions, 67e68
Liquid crystal polymers (LCP), 79, 91e92, 104, 111e112, 115, 121,
577e592, 779
fibers, 798
high heat, 902
Liquid foam process, 738
Liquid thermoplastics, molding, 22
Liquid thermosets, molding, 24e25
LLDPE/COC alloys, 634e639
Long fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (LFRTs), 739e740, 818e819,
834, 998e999
Long-lasting parts, 864e881
designing, 865e866
Long-term light resistance, 140e141
Long-term mechanical properties, 139e140
ISO Standards, 148e149
Low temperature, 148
applications, thermoplastics for, 905e910
behavior, 136
Lubricants, 862
M
Machining, 23, 750
Magnetic polymers, 184
Magnetic thermoplastics, 933e938
compouds, 936
density effects, 940
heavy, 938e940
processing choices, 938
Manufacturers, 761
Market(ing), 989e991
Asian, 39e41
Chinese, 40
consumption trends of, 989e990
Indian, 41
Japanese, 40
laws of, 985
North American, 38
requirements, 19, 985, 991
shares
of composites, 34
for main application sectors, 34e36
of thermoplastic families, 33
survey of, 47e126
Western European, 38
INDEX 1039Marking, 754e755
Mater-Bi, 701e704
Material hardness, 4t
Material consumption, 759
Material costs, 10, 991
per liter, 10
per volume, 10
per weight, 10
Material selection, 156e157
Mats, 86
Maximum energy product, 935
MBS, 403e415
Measuring equipment, 96
Mechanical assembly, 757
Mechanical engineering, 105e113
Mechanical properties, 4e5, 136e140, 145e147, 151e153, 168e177,
194e195, 221e222, 235, 243, 251, 257e258, 268, 274,
288e289, 306e307, 312, 318e319, 334, 345, 356e358, 371,
381, 386, 397e398, 409, 421e422, 435e436, 447e448, 457,
462e463, 476, 483, 494, 500, 508, 512, 520e521, 531e532,
541e542, 550, 558, 568e569, 586e588, 597, 649, 659, 665,
670, 672, 675, 678, 684, 687, 694, 771e774, 885, 1005
Medical market, 117e121
Melamine fibers, 798
Melt flow index (MFI), 145
Melt flow rate (MFR), 145
Melt-processable rubber (MPR), 65, 92, 112e113, 116, 126, 681e684
Metal consumption, 1e3
Metal injection molding (MIM), 721
Metal powders, 182e183, 913
Metal replacement, 831, 832f, 833e838, 1017e1018
Methylmethacrylateeacrylonitrileebutadieneestyrene (MABS),
328e340
Mineral fillers, reinforcement effect with, 174e175
Mirel, 707e708
Mixed solutions, 916
Molded parts, precision of, 157e159
Molding, 715e728
blow, 722e723
composite insert, 740
compression, 740e741
injection, see Injection molding
of expandable beads, 736
pressure bag, 742e743
rotomolding, 725e726
slush, 726
of test specimens, 145
of thermoplastics, 36
liquid, 22
solid, 21
of thermosets
liquid, 24e25
solid, 24
vacuum bag, 741e743
Molecular reinforcement, 998
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), 918
Mono-material concept, 81, 847, 849
Morphology of polymers, 144e145
Multiarm polymers, 712e714
Multilayer architectures, 894
glass replacement in, 842e845
N
Nanocomposites, 849
characteristics of, 813
Nanofibers, 996e997
Nanofillers, 175e176, 807e808, 994e996
Natural fiber-reinforced composites, boosters and brakes for, 852e853
Nonblack fillers, 185
Non-reactive solution adhesives, 757
North American market, 38
O
Odors, 181
Office appliances, 96e105
Opacity, 859
Optical properties, 143, 150, 154, 193e194, 220e221, 235, 243, 251,
257, 268, 857e860
Outdoor furniture, 121
Outserts, 751e752
Overbraiding, 744
Overmolding, 720, 894
Oxygen index, 143
ISO Standards, 149e150
P
PA 6, 354e365
PA 11, 63e64, 76, 89, 102, 108, 115, 125, 365e376
PA 12, 63e64, 76, 89, 102, 108, 115, 125, 365e376
PA 46, 379e384
PA 66, 354e365
PA 610, 376e379
PA 612, 376e379
Packaging, 48e61, 839e841, 924
containers, 56e60
bottles, 56e60
films, 54e56
foams, 60e61, 190
luxury, transparency for, 886
polypropylene applications in, 219, 230
Panels, 67
Paraphenylene, 886
Patents analysis, 1012
by polymer type, 1012
by reinforcement type, 1012
by structure and process type, 1012
PBI/PEEK alloys, 632e633
PBO fibers, 798
PBT, 392e403
PC/AES alloys, 634
PC/SAN alloys, 634
PCT, 392e403
PCTA, 392e403
PCTG, 392e403
PE/COC alloys, 634e639
PEI/PC alloys, 623
PEI/PSU copolymer, 623
PEN, 392e403
Perfluorinated thermoplastics, 64, 90, 103, 109e110, 120
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), 64, 77, 90, 103, 109e110, 120, 460e471,
883, 903
Permeability, 149, 197, 223e228, 248, 253, 262, 270, 290e294, 312,
320e323, 360, 372, 398e401, 424e428, 437e440, 465,
479e480, 484, 494e497, 501, 508, 522, 688, 695, 841e842
PET, 72, 392e403
PETG, 392e403
Phenylene polysulfide (PPS), 78, 91, 103, 111, 126, 530e536, 836,
902e903
-elastomer alloys, 623
Phosphorous-free solutions, 892e893
1040 INDEXPhotovoltaic solar cells, 95e96
Phthalate-free solutions, 969e978
Physical properties, 8t
Physicochemical etching, 754
Pipes, 70e72
Plasticization, 177, 908
Plasticizers, 862, 874
proprietary nonphthalate, 977
bio-based, 977e978
Plastics
application sectors, market shares of, 34e36
biosourced, 129e131
consumption, 1e3
costs, 42e47
additive costs, 42e43
processing costs, 44e45
raw material costs, 42
reinforcement costs, 43e44
reasons for using, 46e47
Plastics processing industry, structure of, 41e42
Plasticulture, 123e124
Plyphthalamide (PPA)
semi-aromatic, 385e389
Plywood-based composites, 806
PMI, 403e415
Poisson’s ratio, 194, 221, 288, 318, 334, 345, 356e357, 387, 397, 409,
422, 435, 447e448, 463, 476, 483, 494, 500, 508, 512,
520e521, 532, 542, 550, 558, 569, 586, 597, 650, 659,
665e666, 670, 684
Pollution, associated with polymers, 28
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), 64, 77, 89, 102, 108, 115, 120,
125, 403e415
Polyacetal, 429e441, 777
Polyacrylics, 776e777
Polyalkanals, 949
Polyamide (PA), 776, 883, 891e892
semi-aromatic, 886
Polyamide imide (PAI), 78, 91, 104, 111, 115, 556e562, 778e779, 902
Polyamides (PA), 52, 76, 89, 102, 108, 114e115, 123, 125, 349e392,
711
aromatic, 76, 89, 102, 108, 120
semi-aromatic, 385e389
Polyarylamide (PAA)
semi-aromatic, 385e389
Polyaryletherketones (PAEK), 536e545, 897e899
Polyarylketones, 897e899
Polyarylsulfone, 518e526
Polybenzimidazole (PBI), 92, 112, 592e599, 896e897
alloys, 899e901
Polybutene-1 (PB), 232e241
Polybutylene (PB), 62, 101
flexible, 72
Polybutylene-1, see Polybutene-1
Polycaprolactone, 52
Polycarbonate (PC), 52, 64, 77, 90, 102, 108e109, 115, 120, 123, 125,
415e429, 777, 882, 892
alloys, 892
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 52, 90, 103, 110, 120, 480e484,
883
Polyester blend resin, 892
Polyester nanofibers, 997
Polyether block amides (PEBA), 65, 80, 92e93, 105, 113, 116e117,
121, 123, 126, 688e695
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 52, 78, 91, 103, 111, 120, 536e545,
778, 837, 883, 897e899
alloys, 899e901
fibers, 798
Polyetherimide (PEI), 78, 91, 104, 111, 120, 548e553, 778, 883, 905
fibers, 797
foams, 803e804
Polyetherketones (PEK), 536e545, 897e899
Polyethersulfone (PES), 518e526, 904e905
Polyethersulfone (PESU)
foams, 804
Polyethylene (PE), 50, 61e62, 69, 72, 75, 88, 100, 106e107, 113, 119,
122, 124, 189e211, 775
foams, 50, 60e62, 75, 86, 107, 114, 119, 124, 205e207, 801e802
fibers, 62, 75, 124, 797
classification of, 190
industrial fibers, 207
Polyformaldehyde (POM), 90, 102e103, 109, 115, 123, 125, 429e441
Polyglycolic acid, 52
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), 52, 707e708
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), 52, 707e708
Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate, 707e708
Polyhydroxybutyrateehexanoate (PHBH) copolymer, 707e708
Polyhydroxyvalerate, 707e708
Polyimides (PI), 64, 78, 91, 104, 111, 115, 562e577, 883, 897
Polylactic acid (PLA), 52, 704e706, 849
fiber-reinforced, 849
Polymer(s), 1e10, 845
absorbent, 919e927
biodegradable, 52
biosourced, 853e855
composites, 17
conductive, 182
consumption, 1e3
cost evolution versus crude oil price, 128
cost of, 10
customization of, 164e187
dendrimers, 712e714
durability of, 8e10
electrical properties of, 7e8
fluid diffusion in, 956e957
functionalized, 948e949
glossy, 860
with high thermal conductivity, 183e184
hyperbranched, 712e714
magnetic, 184
materials, weakness of, 20
mechanical properties of, 4e5
intrinsic, 4
specific, 4e5
morphology of, 144e145
multiarm, 712e714
nanotubes, 998
pollution associated with, 28
price evaluation for, 988e989
modeling from crude oil prices, 989
modeling from historical prices, 989
recycling of, 28
star-branched, 712e714
structure of, 144e145
superabsorbent, 919e927
thermal properties of, 7e8
toxicity of, 28
upgrading of, 164e187
Polymethacrylimide foam, 803
Polymethylpentene (PMP), 51, 88, 101, 107, 119, 241e248
Polymethylpentenes (PMPs), 884
Polyolefins, 710e712, 892
Polyoxymethylene, 429e441
INDEX 1041Polyphenylene ether (PPE), 52, 64, 77, 90, 103, 109, 125, 441e453,
777
Polyphenylene oxide (PPO), 441e453, 777, 892
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 777
fibers, 798
Polyphenylenesulfone (PPSU), 518e526
Polyphthalamide (PPA), 903e904
Polypropylene (PP), 50, 62, 72, 75, 88, 100, 107, 114, 119, 122, 124,
216e232, 655e659, 775, 883
foams, 50e51, 61, 75, 107, 114, 124, 229e230, 802
fibers, 797
glass fibers-reinforced, 850e851
halogen-free fire retardant, 894
natural fiber-reinforced composites, boosters and brakes for, 852e853
transparent, 884
Polyquinoxalines, 1002
Polystyrene (PS), 51, 107, 114, 120, 123, 314e328, 775e776
cross-linked, 324
foams, 324e325, 801
Polysulfone (PSU), 64, 78, 91, 103, 110e111, 120, 123, 125, 518e526,
778, 883
-based alloys, 622e623
Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), 64, 77, 90, 103, 109e110, 120,
453e508, 797, 883, 903, 918
Polythene, 189e211
Polyurethane foams, 801
Polyvinyl acetate, 314
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL, PVOH), 313e314
Polyvinyl butyrate (PVB), 314, 883
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 51, 63, 65, 76, 80, 89, 92, 101, 104, 107, 112,
114, 116, 119, 122e126, 282e302
chlorinated, 63, 107, 306e310
foams, 63, 76, 107, 114, 123, 125, 775, 800, 882
modified, 72
rigid, 70
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 64, 77, 90, 110, 504e508, 883
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), 51, 119, 310e313
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 64, 77, 90, 110, 115, 498e504, 883
foams, 804
Polyzole fibers, 798
Powdering, 734
Power injection molding (PIM), 721e722
PP/EPDM-V, 663e666
PP/IIR-V, 671e673
PP/NBR-V, 666e671
PP/PA alloys, 608e611
PPE/PP alloys, 634
Precision, of molded parts, 157e159
Prepregs, 811, 813
draping, 741e743
Press fitting, 757
Pressure bag molding, after draping, 742e743
Primary processing, 25e26
Primers, 965
Processing costs, 44e45, 992e993
Processing trends, 759e761
Property tables, 211, 232, 241, 248, 253, 264, 271, 276, 282, 302, 310,
313, 328, 340, 349, 365, 376, 379, 384, 389, 403, 415, 429, 441,
453, 471, 480, 484, 497, 504, 508, 516, 526, 536, 545, 553, 562,
577, 592, 599, 655, 659, 666, 671, 673, 676, 681, 684, 688, 695,
827
Proprietary alloys, 708e709
Protective coatings, 860e861
PTMT, 392e403
PTT, 392e403
Pullwinding, 744
Pultrusion, 744
Pultrusioneextrusion, 744
Q
Quartz fibers, 797
R
Radiator fan, 85
Radio-frequency welding, 756
Rapid prototyping, 761
Raw material costs, 42, 759
Reaction injection molding (RIM), 727
Reactive adhesive, 757
Reactive phthalate blocking migration, 976e977
Ready-to-install modules, 81
Real-time monitoring, 760
Recycled plastics, 154e155, 186e187
Recycling, 760, 1020e1021
of polymers, 28
Refractive index, of thermoplastics, 886e888
high, 887e888
low, 888
Reinforcement, 168e177, 216, 769, 779e810, 849
costs, 43e44
effect, with mineral fillers, 174e175
with fibers, 170e174, 834e835
with glass beads, 175
molecular, 998
by randomly distributed short fibers, 771e772
with two orthogonal layers, 772e773
unidirectional, 772
additives, 874
Relaxation, 139, 148, 194e195, 221e222, 288e289, 318e319, 358
Repair possibilities, 757
Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS), 979e981
Rheological properties, of polymer, 144
Rigidity in torsion, 136
Riveting, 757
Roll dipping, 733
Rotomolding, 21, 725e726
S
Sandwich composites, 745, 819e822
foams for, 799e804
Sandwich structures, 847e849
SBS, 647e655
Scrap percentage, 760
Scratch resistance, 864
improvement, 181
Screwing, 757
Sealing, 68, 85
Seals, 68
Seating, 86
SEBS, 647e655
Secondary processing, 26e27, 747e752
Selective laser sintering (SLS), 758e759
Self-spreading ionic silicone oligomers, 948
Semi-manufactured products, 967e968
Sensory properties, 179e181
SEPS, 647e655
Sesame injection machine, 719
Shear properties, 146
Shields and barriers, 86
Short fiber composites
characteristics of, 813e818
1042 INDEXglass, 816
carbon, 816e818
Short fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, 739, 998e999
Short shots, 863
Shuttering, 67
Silica fibers, 797
Silicone, 919
Silver compounds, nano-sized, 949
Simulation, 760e761
SIS, 647e655
Size-exclusion chromatography, 144
Slush molding, 726
SMMA, 403e415
Smoke opacity, 143
ISO Standards, 149e150
Snap-fit, 757
Soft contact lenses, 925e926
Solid thermoplastics, molding, 21
Solid thermosets, molding, 24
Solvent casting of films, 734e735
Sports, 113e117
Spraying, 728
Spreading, 733
Spring work, 757
Stainless steel fibers, 797
Stamping, 740e741
Star-branched polymers, 712e714
Steel fibers, 913e914
Stereolithography (SLA), 758
Stimuli responsive smart polymers, 926
Strain
ultimate, 138
at yield, 138
Strength estimation, 773e774
Stress
ultimate, 138
at yield, 138
Structural foam injection, 736e737
Structural foams, 863
Structure of polymers, 144e145
Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN), 76, 89, 101e102, 108, 114, 123,
340e349, 884
foams, 803
Styreneemethylmethacrylate (SMMA),
884e885
Styrenics, 69, 89, 101, 123, 882
Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), 919e927
Super-soft thermoplastics, 940e945
Super-TPV, 695e698
Surface
bent, 862
bowed, 862
defects and processing parameters, 862
modification, 963e965
resistivity, 142
treatments of plastic parts, 753e754
twisted, 862
warped, 862
Survey of main markets, 47e126
Sustainability, 19e20
Sustainable materials, 1021
Sustainable natural vegetal fibers, 794e796
Sustainable thermoplastics, 1007e1010
high-performance reinforcements, 1009e1010
Synthetic foams, 804
core influence on, 806
T
Tape winding, 743e744
Technical requirements, of plastic designing, 19
Temperature coefficients, 935
Tensile properties, 5t, 6f, 6t, 7f, 145
Tensile strength (TS), 831e832
Tension set, 148
Test specimens
molding of, 145
preparation, ASTM Standards for, 151
Tetrafluoroethylene, 883
Tetrafluoroethylene and ethylene copolymer (ETFE), 52, 90, 103, 110,
471e480
Textile fibers, 797
TFE, see Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)
Thermal behavior, 7e8, 9t, 133e136, 153e154, 192e193, 208, 220,
235, 243, 251, 257, 268, 274, 287e288, 306, 312, 317, 333, 344,
355e356, 370e371, 376, 381, 385, 395e397, 408e409,
420e421, 434e435, 446e447, 462, 475, 483, 493e494,
499e500, 507, 519e520, 531, 540e541, 549e550, 557,
566e567, 585e586, 592e597, 649, 658e659, 665, 670, 672,
675, 678, 684, 687, 694, 885e886
Thermal fatigue, due to cold/heat cycling, 907e908
Thermally conductive thermoplastics, 927e933
Thermal welding, 756
Thermoforming, 22, 747e750
Thermoplastic composites, 79, 769e830
characteristics of, 813e827
conductive composites, 822e823
continuous fiber composites, 819
defined, 769
honeycombs, 804e806
long fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, 818e819
matrices, 774e779
mechanical performance of, 771e774
plywood-based, 806
principles of, 769e770
reinforcements, 779e810
by arranged continuous fibers, 772e773
by randomly distributed short fibers, 771e772
sandwich composites, 819e822
strength estimation, 773e774
wood plastic composites, 823e827
wood-based, 806
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), 15e16, 52, 64, 80, 92, 104, 112, 116,
123, 126, 639e698, 884, 1018
elasticity of, 15
families of, 15e16
properties of, 15
structure of, 15f
Thermoplastic foams, 968e969
Thermoplastic olefinics (TPO), 65, 79, 92, 104, 112, 115e116, 121,
123, 126, 655e659
Thermoplastic polyester elastomers (TPEEs), 685e688
Thermoplastic polyesters, 51, 76, 89, 102, 108, 392e403, 711, 776,
836, 883, 892
alloys, 611e616
foams, 804
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), 65, 80, 92, 105, 112, 116, 121,
126, 676e681, 712, 885, 892
Thermoplastic resins, 189e714
Thermoplastics, 10e15
advantages of, 14
alloying, 166e168
answers and assets, 985e988
INDEX 1043Thermoplastics (Continued)
antifriction, 916e919
biodegradable, 1007e1009
calorific properties of, 1005
characteristics of, 56
combined with thermoset skins, 848
competition, 999e1000
consumption trends of, 37e38
curing of, 746e747
disadvantages of, 14
electrically conductive, 910e916
families, market shares of, 33
fire retardant, 888e894
glass mat, 836
high heat-resistant, 894e905
large parts, advantage for, 24
magnetic, 933e940
mechanical properties of, 1005
molding, 36
solid, 21
liquid, 22
perfluorinated, 64, 90, 103, 109e110, 120
processing, 20e24, 715e768
properties versus composite properties, 160e164
recycling of, 1003e1005
refractive index of, 886e888
high, 887e888
low, 888
selection criteria for, 133e188
structural solutions for, 845e855
structure of, 14f
super-soft, 940e945
sustainable, 1007e1009
thermally conductive, 927e933
Thermoplastic starch, 701e704
Thermoplastic styrenics (TPS), 64, 79, 92, 104, 112, 115, 123, 126,
647e655
Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), 65, 79e80, 92, 104, 112, 116, 121,
123, 126, 661e698
Thermosets, 16e17, 774
competition, 999e1000
families of, 16e17
molding
liquid, 24e25
solid, 24
processing, 24e25
Thickness, influence of, 135
3D-printing, 759
Three-dimensional-reinforced composites, 1000
Titanium dioxide, nano-sized, 948
Torsion properties, 146e147
Toughening, 168e177
Toxicity of polymers, 28
TPE/PVC, 673e676
TPI/PEEK alloys, 632
Trade names, 211, 231e232, 241, 248, 253, 264, 271, 274, 278, 282,
302, 310, 313e314, 328, 340, 349, 365, 376, 379, 384, 389, 392,
402, 415, 429, 441, 453, 480, 484, 497, 504, 508, 516, 526, 536,
545, 553, 562, 577, 592, 599, 602, 605, 608, 611, 616, 623,
632e634, 639, 654, 659, 666, 671, 673, 675, 681, 684, 688, 695,
701
Transparency, 68, 859, 881e888
Transparent amorphous polyamide (PA-T), 385e389
Transparent protection, 841
Transportation, 73e86
polyethylene applications in, 190e191
polypropylene applications in, 229e230
Tribological additives, 918e919
Tribological thermoplastics, 918
Tribology, at extreme low temperatures, 909e910
Tubing, 70e72
Two-dimensional-reinforced composites, 1000
U
Ultimate strain, 138
Ultimate stress, 138
Ultrasoft foams, 945
Ultraviolet resistance, 140e141
Under-the-hood, 83
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
temperature index, 87, 99, 134
UL94 Fire Rating, 87e96, 99, 143
Unpainted parts, 1018e1019
V
Vacuum bag molding, after draping, 741e743
Vapor permeability, 149
Vicat softening temperature (VST), 135
ISO Standards, 148
Viscoelastic behavior, 831, 833
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
lower, 981e983
reduction of, 982
sources of, 982
Volume resistivity, 142
W
Warpage, 862e863
Waste(s)
collection of, 1003
pretreatment of, 1003
safe elimination of, 1003
use of, 849
Waterproofing, 68
Weathering, 195e196, 222e223, 245, 251, 268, 274, 290, 307, 312,
320, 335, 345, 359e360, 371, 398, 409e410, 422, 424,
436e437, 448, 463, 465, 476, 484, 494, 500, 508, 512, 522, 532,
542, 551, 569e570, 588, 597, 650, 659, 666, 670, 675, 678, 684,
687, 694
Weight savings, 833e834, 833f
Welding, 22e23, 756, 837
by Joule effect, 756
radio-frequency, 756
thermal, 756
Weld lines, 863
Western European market, 38
Whiskers, 797
Wire and cable coating, 93e94
Wiring equipment, 96
Wood
-based composites, 806
composites with, 70
liquid, 708
Wood plastic composites (WPCs), 823e827
Y
Yield point, 138


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