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 كتاب Machinery’s Handbook Pocket Companion

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Machinery’s Handbook Pocket Companion
Compiled and Edited by Richard P. Pohanish
A Reference Book for the Mechanical Engineer, Designer, Manufacturing Engineer, Draftsman, Toolmaker, and Machinist
Christopher J. Mccauley, Senior Staff Editor
Muhammed Iqbal Hussain, Associate Project Editor

كتاب Machinery’s Handbook Pocket Companion  M_h_b_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Mathematical Formulas and Tables
1 Areas and Dimensions of Figures
1 Circular Sector
1 Circular Segment
1 Circular Ring
2 Circular Ring Sector
2 Spandrel or Fillet
2 Ellipse
3 Parabola
3 Formulas for Polygons
4 Segments of Circles
6 Geometrical Propositions
10 Trigonometric Relationships
10 Signs of Trigonometric Functions
11 Relationships Among Angles
11 Law of Sines
11 Law of Cosines
13 Solution of Triangles
14 Solution of Right–Angle
Triangles
15 Solution of Oblique–Angle
Triangles
16 Tables of Trigonometric
Functions
19 Formulas for Compound Angles
20 Length of Chords of Circles
21 Coordinates for Locating Equally
Spaced Holes
22 Decimal Equivalents, Squares,
Cubes, Square Roots, Cube
Roots, and Logarithms
24 Diameter, Circumference and
Area of Circles
MEASUREMENT AND
INSPECTION
25 Sine Bars
26 Calculation Using Sine Bars
27 Measuring Tapers with Vee–block
and Sine Bar
28 Constants for Setting Sine Bar
35 Measurement of Angles and
Tapers
35 Rules for Figuring Tapers
36 Tapers per Foot and
Corresponding Angles
38 Gage Block Sets - Inch Sizes
38 Measuring Dovetail Slides
MEASUREMENT AND
(Continued)
INSPECTION
39 Checking a V– shaped Groove by
Measurement Over Pins
40 Diameters of Wires for Measuring
Whitworth Screw Threads
41 Formulas for Checking Pitch
Diameters of Screw Threads
42 Three-Wire Method Applied to
Buttress Threads
43 Constants in Formulas for
Measuring the Pitch Diameters
STANDARD TAPERS
44 Morse Taper
44 Morse Standard Taper Shanks
46 Dimensions of Morse Taper
Sleeves
46 Jarno Taper
47 Jarno Taper Shanks
47 Brown & Sharpe Taper
48 Brown & Sharpe Taper Shanks
49 Spindle Noses for Milling
Machines
51 Dimensions for Spindle Nose with
Large Flange
52 Dimensions of Tool Shanks for
Milling Machines
53 Dimensions of V-flange Tool
Shanks
54 Dimensions of V-flange Tool
Shank Retention Knobs
THREADS
55 Thread Classes
56 Sharp V-thread
58 Unified Internal and External
Screw Thread Design Profiles
58 Fine-Thread Series
59 Unified Screw Thread Series
71 Basic Dimensions, Taper Pipe
Threads
73 Metric Screw Threads M Profile
73 M Profile Definitions
74 Formulas for Limiting
Dimensions
76 M Profile Data
77 Internal Metric Thread
79 External Metric ThreadTABLE OF CONTENTS
vii
FASTENER INFORMATION
83 Grade Identification Marks
84 Applicability of Hexagon and
Spline Keys and Bits
85 Hexagon and Spline Socket Head
Cap Screws
86 Socket Head Cap Screws Metric
Series
87 Hexagon and Spline Socket Set
Screws
88 Drill and Counterbore Sizes
89 Hexagon and Spline Socket Flat
Countersunk Head Cap Screws
90 Slotted Flat Countersunk Head
Cap Screws
91 Hardened Ground Machine Dowel
Pins
92 Hardened Ground Production
Dowel Pins
93 Chamfered and Square End
Straight Pins
93 Standard Straight Pins
93 Standard Taper Pins
95 Parallel Steel Dowel Pins
97 Spring Pins
97 Slotted Type Spring Pins
98 T-Nuts
99 Wrench Openings
100 Wrench Clearences
101 Bolts and Screws Specification
101 Primary Criteria
101 British Unified Machine Screws
and Nuts
104 British Standard Whitworth and
Fine Machine Screws
CUTTING FLUIDS
106 Recommendations for Turning and
Milling
107 Recommendations for Drilling and
Tapping
DRILLING AND REAMING
108 Generally Used Drill Point Angles
109 US and Metric Size Commercial
Drills
113 Drilling Difficulties
113 Combined Drills and
Countersinks
(Continued)
DRILLING AND REAMING
114 Counterboring
115 Length of Point on Twist Drills
116 Solid Counterbores with Integral
Pilot
116 Solid Carbide Square Boring
Tools
117 Reamers
117 Reamer Terms
118 Reamer Difficulties
TAPPING
119 Tap Terms
120 Tap Dimensions, Inch and Metric
121 Threading Formulas
122 Tapping Specific Materials
125 Tap Drill Sizes for Threads
126 Tap Drills and Clearance Drills
126 Tap Drills for Pipe Taps
127 Tapping Drill Sizes for ISO
Metric
127 Tap Drill or Core Hole Sizes
SPEEDS AND FEEDS
128 Cutting Speeds for Plain Carbon
and Alloy Steels
130 Cutting Speeds for Ferrous Cast
Metals
131 Cutting Speeds for Stainless
Steels
132 Cutting Speeds for Tool Steels
133 Cutting Speeds for Light Metals
133 Cutting Speeds for Titanium
Alloys
134 Cutting Speeds for Superalloys
135 Cutting Speeds for Copper Alloys
136 Adjustment Factors for Turning
with HSS Tools
137 Feeds for Milling with HSS
Cutters
139 RPM for Drills of Number and
Letter Sizes
140 RPM for Various Cutting Speeds
and Diameters
144 Speeds and Feeds in Diamond
Grinding
144 Speeds and Feeds for Drilling
Holes in Plastics
144 Sawing Plastics MaterialsTABLE OF CONTENTS
viii
MILLING CUTTERS
145 Milling Cutter Terms
145 End Mill Terms
146 Sharpening Milling Cutters
146 Grinding Wheels for Sharpening
Cutters
147 Wheel Speeds and Feeds for
Sharpening Milling Cutters
147 Clearance Angles for Milling
Cutter Teeth
147 Rake Angles for Milling Cutters
148 Set-ups Used in Grinding
Clearance Angle on Milling
Cutter Teeth
149 Multiple- and Two-Flute SingleEnd Helical End Mills
150 Multiple-Flute Medium Helix
Single-End End Mills
151 Form Relieved Corner Rounding
Cutters
151 Two-Flute, High Helix SingleEnd End Mills with Weldon
Shanks
152 Two-Flute, Medium Helix, Plainand Ball-End, Single-End End
Mills
153 Three- and Four-Flute, Medium
Helix, Center Cutting, SingleEnd End Mills
154 60-Degree Single Angle Milling
Cutters
154 Key Size Versus Shaft Diameter
155 Keys and Keyways for Milling
Cutters
156 Woodruff Keyseat Cutters
KEYS AND KEYSEATS
157 Depth Control Values for Shaft
and Hub
159 Fits for Parallel and Taper Keys
160 Plain and Gib Head Keys
161 Depth of Keyseat
161 Woodruff Keys and Keyseats
162 Woodruff Keyseat Dimensions
BROACHING
164 Pitch of Broach Teeth
165 Data for Surface Broaches
165 Broaching Pressure
166 Causes of Broaching Difficulties
CUTTING TOOLS FOR TURNING
167 Cutting Tool Terms
168 Chipbreakers
168 Chipbreakers
168 Identification System for
Indexable Inserts
170 Standard Shank Sizes for
Indexable Insert Holders
171 Letter Symbols for Qualification
of Tool Holders
172 Numerical Control Tooling
172 Insert Radius Compensation
175 Threading Tool Insert Radius
Compensation
175 Cemented Carbides
176 Classifications of Hardmetals
MACHINING OPERATIONS
177 Machining Aluminum
178 Machining Magnesium
179 Machining Zinc Alloy DieCastings
179 Machining Monel and Nickel
Alloys
180 Machining Copper Alloys
180 Machining Hard Rubber
181 General Turning Practical Tips
183 Tool Troubleshooting
185 Common Tool Faults, Failures,
and Cures
COMPUTER NUMERICAL
CONTROL
188 Format Classification
189 G-Code Addresses
191 Letter Addresses
192 Miscellaneous FunctionsTABLE OF CONTENTS
ix
GRINDING WHEELS
193 Grinding Wheel Safety
193 Handling, Storage and Inspection
193 Machine Conditions
193 Grinding Wheel Mounting
194 Safe Operating Speeds
195 RPM of Various Grinding Speeds
and Wheel Diameters
196 Portable Grinders
196 Maximum Peripheral Speeds for
Grinding Wheels
197 Principal System of Surface
Grinding Diagrams
198 Periphery of Wheel
198 Face (Side) of Wheel
199 Recommendations for Surface
Grinding
200 Common Faults and Possible
Causes in Surface Grinding
201 Grinding Wheel Markings
201 Sequence of Markings
201 Composition of Diamond and
Cubic Boron Nitride Wheels
202 Conventional Abrasives Grinding
Wheel Recommendations
212 Shapes and Sizes of Grinding
Wheels
212 Standard Shapes and Inch Size
Ranges
216 Standard Shapes and Metric Size
Ranges
218 Standard Shapes of Grinding
Wheel Faces
219 Diamond Wheel Core Shapes and
Designations
219 Diamond Wheel Cross-sections
and Designations
220 Designations for Location of
Diamond Section
221 Designation Letters for Diamond
Wheels
222 Wheel Type and Abrasive
Specification
223 Standard Shapes and Inch Sizes of
Mounted Wheels and Points
225 Standard Shapes and Metric Sizes
of Mounted Wheels and Points
226 Lapping Lubricants
226 Sharpening Carbide Tools
227 Silicon Carbide Wheels
(Continued)
GRINDING WHEELS
227 Diamond Wheels, Grits and
Grades
227 Diamond Concentration
228 Dry Versus Wet Grinding of
Carbide Tools
228 Coolants for Carbide Tool
Grinding
228 Peripheral Versus Flat Side
Grinding
228 Lapping Carbide Tools
229 Chip Breaker Grinding
GEARING
230 Gear Tooth Nomenclature
231 Gear Tooth Forms
232 Formulas for Standard Spur Gears
233 Circular Pitch in Gears
235 Series of Involute, Finishing Gear
Milling Cutters
236 Gear Design Based upon Module
System
236 Tooth Form for Spur and Bevel
Gears
237 Tooth Dimensions Based Upon
Module System
238 Module System of Gearing
239 Equivalent Diametral Pitches,
Circular Pitches, and Metric
Modules
240 Measurement of Gear Tooth
240 Checking Spur Gear Size by
Chordal Measurement
241 Chordal Measurements over Spur
Gear Teeth
242 Number of Teeth Included in
Chordal Measurement
242 Formulas for Chordal Dimensions
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
243 Standard Steel Classification
243 Classification of Tool Steels
244 System of Designating Carbon
and Alloy Steels
245 Classification,Compositions, and
Properties of Tool and Die
Steels
247 Quick Reference Guide for Tool
Steel SelectionTABLE OF CONTENTS
x
(Continued)
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
249 Molybdenum High-Speed Steels
250 Hot Work Tool Steels
251 Tungsten High-Speed Tool Steel
252 Cold Work Tool Steels
253 Shock Resisting, Mold Tool Steels
254 Temperature of Steel as Indicated
by Color
256 Comparative Hardness Scales for
Steel
259 Weights of Various Metals and
Shapes
262 Thermal Properties of Various
Metals
264 Characteristics of Plastics
265 Working With Plastics
STANDARDS FOR DRAWINGS
266 Shop Prints, Reading and
Interpreting
267 Symbols for Section Lining
268 ANSI and ISO Symbols
269 Symbols for Datum Referencing
SURFACE TEXTURE
272 Surface Texture Symbols
273 Roughness Sampling Length
274 Roughness Average Values
274 Waviness Height Values
275 Lay Symbols
275 Example Designations
276 Application of Symbols
278 Surface Roughness Produced by
Common Production Methods
ALLOWANCES AND
TOLERANCES
279 Limits and Fits
279 Preferred Basic Sizes
279 Tolerances and Allowances
280 Standard Tolerances
280 Relation of Machining Processes
to Tolerance Grades
280 Tolerances for Cylindrical Parts
281 Designation of Standard Fits
282 Graphical Representation of
Limits and Fits
284 Running and Sliding Fits
286 Clearance Locational Fits
ALLOWANCES AND
(Continued)
TOLERANCES
288 Transition Locational Fits
289 Interference Locational Fits
290 Force and Shrink Fits
292 Preferred Metric Limits and Fits
293 Preferred Metric Sizes
293 Preferred Fits
295 Terms for Preferred Fits
296 Preferred Hole Basis Metric
Clearance Fits
298 Hole Basis Metric Transition and
Interference Fits
300 Preferred Shaft Basis Metric
Clearance Fits
302 Preferred Shaft Basis Metric
Transition and Interference Fits
304 Gagemakers Tolerances
305 Relation of Machining Processes
to IT Tolerance Grades
305 Usage of IT Tolerance Grades
CONVERSION FACTORS
306 Metric Conversion Factors
312 Factors and Prefixes of SI Units
313 Inch to Millimeter and Inch to
Centimeter
314 Decimals of an Inch to
Millimeters
316 Millimeters to Inches
318 Fractional Inch to Millimeter and
Foot to Millimeter
319 Thousandths of an Inch to
Millimeters
320 Greek Letters and Standard
Abbreviations
320 Roman Numerals
320 Rounding off Numbers
320 Commonly Used Constants
321 Weights and Volumes
INDEX
323
A
ABS plastics 264
Acetal plastics 264
Acrylic plastics 264
Addendum,chordal 235
Addresses, letter, NC 191
Allowances and tolerances for
cylindrical fits 279–305
fits 279–305
fits, preferred series 280
Alloy steels
AISI-SAE designations 244
selection for making tools 247–248
Aluminum
machining 177
melting point 262
Angles
cutting tool 167
sine bar for measuring 25–27
taper per foot corresponding to 36
to find, for given taper per foot 35
ANSI Standard
bolts, screws, and nuts, metric 86
datum referencing symbols 269
diamond wheels 144, 219–222
drawing and drafting practices
symbols
between 268
comparison to ISO 268
controlled radius 268
diameter 268
parallelism 268
part tolerance 268
perpendicularity 268
position 268
roundness 268
runout 268
section lining 267
statical tolerance 268
total runout 268
engineering drawings 266
gage makers, tolerances 304
gear tooth forms 231
geometric characteristic symbols 268–
269
geometric dimensioning and
tolerancing 269
grinding wheel safety 193
ANSI Standard (continued)
grinding wheels 201
keys and keyseats 154, 163
keys and keyways for milling cutters and
arbors 155
limits and fits 279
metric screw threads, M profile 73
metric screws,bolts,nuts,and washers 86
milling cutters 145–152
pins 91–97
pipe thread 71
preferred
basic sizes 293
fits 293
metric limits and fits 292
metric sizes 293
screws and bolts,metric 86
section lining symbols 267
set screws socket type 87
set-screw heads and points 87
socket head cap screws 85, 88–89
spline socket set screws 87
spur gear tooth forms 231
surface texture 272–278
surface texture symbols 272–276
symbols
concentricity 268
datum referencing 269
for section lining 267
taps and threading dies 119
T-nuts 98
tolerances 280
gagemakers 304
symbols 268–269
tolerances and allowances 279–305
twist drills 115
unified threads 59
woodruff keys 162–163
wrench openings 99–100
Arbors
keys and keyways for 155
standard milling machine 49–50
Arc, checking radius of 39
Area, circular ring 1
Area, circular ring sector 2
Austenite 254
B
Base circle, spur gear, diameter 230
Base oils for metal cutting 106INDEX
324
Bevel gearing tooth form 236
Block, NC 188
Bolt head
markings, inch 83
wrench and socket clearances 99–100
Bolt hole circles, coordinates for 20
Bolts and nuts
ANSI inch dimensions, T-nuts 98
British Standard
Whitworth 102, 104
grade markings for steel 83
spacing for wrench clearances 99–100
wrench clearances 100
wrench openings 99
Box wrench clearances 100
Briggs (now ANSI) standard pipe thread 72
Brinell hardness 256, 258
Brinell-Rockwell hardness conversion
tables 256–258
British Standard
countersunk head screws 102–104
dowel pins, metric 95
ISO metric tapping drill sizes 127
metric dowel pins 95
tapping drill sizes 127
Unified machine screws and nuts 101–
103
Unified screws and nuts 102
Broaches
clearance angles for teeth 164
depth of teeth 164
face angle or rake 164
land width 164
pitch of teeth 164, 166
radius of tooth fillet 164
surface 165
total length 164
Broaching 164–166
depth of cut per teeth 164
difficulties 166
pressure 165
types of machines 164
Brown & Sharpe taper 48
Buttress threads, wire method of
measuring 42
C
Caliper, gear tooth 240
Cap screws 85–90
drill and counterbore sizes for 88
flat head 89
hexagon socket type 85, 89
spline socket type 85, 89
Carbide
cemented 175
titanium 175
tungsten 175
tungsten-titanium 175
Carbide tools
grinding 226–228
insert holders 170–172
insert type 168
materials for 176
sharpening 226
Carbides and carbonitrides 176
Carbon steels 243
Carbon steels, AISI-SAE designations 244
Carbonitrides and carbides 176
Cemented carbide 175–176
Cemented carbide tools
grinding 227–228
Centering tools, length of point 115
Centimeter-inch conversion tables 313
Centipoises 312
Centistokes 312
Checking, radius of arc 39
Chipbreakers 168
grinding 228
Chord length for given number of
divisions 20
Chordal thickness milled, full-depth gear
teeth 234
Chordal thickness, gear teeth 235
Circle
area 1, 24
chords for dividing circumference of 20
circumference 1, 24
diameter 24
geometry of 9
lengths of chords for dividing 20
Circular
pitch gears, diameters of 233
ring sector, area 2
ring, area 1
sector segment 20
Circular Sector
angles 1
area 1
length of arc 1
Circular Segment
angles 1
area 1
length of arc 1
Circumference, chords for dividing 20
Clearance
angles milling cutters 147
drill sizes, machine screw 126
for wrench 99–100
British Standard 127
CNC programming 188–192
Coiled type spring pins 96
Cold-form tapping 127
Compensation, insert radius, NC 172–174
Computer numerical control, CNC
programming 188
Conductivity, thermal 262–263INDEX
325
Conversion tables
cutting speed and diameter to rpm 139–
142
hardness 258
miscellaneous english units 312
Coolants for machining
aluminum 177
magnesium 178–179
tool sharpening 228
zinc alloys 179–180
Coordinates, for jig boring 20
Copper, linear expansion 262–263
Core drills 114
Corner-rounding milling cutters 151
Counterbores 116
Countersunk head
screws 89
screws, British Standard 102–104
CPVC plastics 264
Cross section lining, ANSI Standard for
drawings 267
Cutter
clearance angles 147
compensation, NC 172–174
grinding 146–148
rake angles 147
tooth rest positions 148
wheels for sharpening milling
cutters 146–147
Cutter compensation, NC 174
Cutters
angular, milling 145–146
milling 145–152
milling, steels for 247–253
spur gear, formed type 235
woodruff keyseat 156
Cutting
abrasive 225
fluids 106
chlorinated oils 106
mineral oil 106
selection 106
sulfurized oils 106
various alloys 106
tools 167–168
Cutting speeds and feeds 139–143
cutting speed calculations 136
cutting tool materials 248–253
drilling
copper alloys 135
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
titanium and titanium alloys 133
tool steels 132
equivalent
rpm for given cutting speed 139–143
Cutting speeds and feeds (continued)
equivalent
rpm for given drill sizes and speed 139
formulas for 136
milling
feeds for high-speed steel cutters 137
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
tool steels 132
reaming
copper alloys 135
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
tool steels 132
rpm for different speeds and
diameters 140–143
tool angles 167–168
tool inserts 174
tool life,adjusting factors 136
turning
copper alloys 135
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
titanium and titanium alloys 133
tool steels 132
Cutting tools 167–171
angles 167–174
application codes, ISO 176
carbide grade selection 176
cemented carbides 176
cubic boron nitride (CBN) 220
grades 176
inserts 172
single-point 167–168
specifications, ISO 176
trouble-shooting checklist 183–184
D
Datum referencing 269
Decimal equivalents
cube roots 22
cubes 22
logarithms of fractions 22
square roots 22
squares 22
Density, metals 262–263
Diametral
equivalent circular pitch and tooth
proportions 239
equivalent modules 239INDEX
326
Diametral (continued)
pitch, gear teeth sizes 230–232
Diamond
grinding wheels 144, 220, 222
wheels 144, 219–228
designation symbols 219–221
diamond concentration 227–228
feeds and speeds 144
grades, grit sizes 227
modifications 221
selection of 222
shapes of standard 219–220
speeds and feeds 144
Die blocks, steels for 246
Dies and taps
tap drill size 125–127
metric 127
Unified 125–126
Dies, sheet metal
heat-treatment, steels for 246
steels for various classes of die parts 246
Dimensioning and tolerancing,
geometric 269
Double angle milling cutters 145
Dovetail slides, measuring 38
Dowel pins 91–92, 95
designation 92
ductility 92
hardened ground production 92
metric 95
shear strength 92
Drafting practices, ANSI Standard 269
Drawing
ANSI Standard line conventions 266
line conventions 266
symbols
ANSI Standard section lining 267
geometric 268
ISO 268
lines 266
materials 267
Drawings
ANSI Standard
drafting practices 269
surface texture symbols 272–276
symbols 269
Drill, sizes for tapping 125–127
Drilling
cutting speeds for
copper alloys 135
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
titanium and titanium alloys 133
tool steels 132
difficulties 113
Drills
Drills (continued)
angle of cutting point 108
combined drills and countersinks 114
cutting speeds and equivalent rpm 139
diameters of tap 125–127
for taper pin reamers 94
jobbers length 112
length of point 115
sharpening 226
straight-shank drill sizes
letter 110–111
number 110
straight-shank, taper-length, drill sizes
fractional 109
letter 110–111
metric 109
number 109–110
tap and clearance hole sizes 126
Drop-forging dies, steels for 247–248
Duranickel, machining 179–180
E—F
Ellipse
area 2
perimeter 2
End mills, ANSI Standard 153
Expansion coefficient of (linear)
metals 262–263
Feet per minute into rpm 139
Fits
cylindrical allowances and
tolerances 279–305
cylindrical ANSI Standard 279–305
cylindrical British Standard 305
cylindrical clearance 282
cylindrical definitions 292
cylindrical forced 290
cylindrical preferred series 280
cylindrical running 282–284
cylindrical shrinkage 282, 290
cylindrical transition 283, 288
Fits and limits
graphical representation 282–283
tolerances designation 293
Flat
head cap screws 89
head machine screws 104
Forced fits, allowances 290
Format
classification 188
detail, NC 191
word address, NC 188, 191
Formulas
compound angles 19
polygon 3
trigonometric 11INDEX
327
G
Gage blocks, precision 38
inch sizes 38
Gagemakers tolerances 304–305
Gages usage, ANSI Standard 304
G-code programming, NC 188–192
Gear tooth caliper, vernier 240–241
Gearing 230–242
calculating spur gears 232
chordal measurement of teeth 241
geometry of gear teeth 230
measuring 240–241
module system 236–239
Geometical formula 1
Geometric symbols for drawings 269
Geometrical
propositions 6–9
symbols for drawings 268
symbols, comparison of ANSI and
ISO 268
Geometrical dimensioning and
tolerancing 269
Geometrical formula
circular ring 1
circular ring sector 2
circular sector 1
circular segment 1
ellipse 2
parabola 3
spandrel or fillet 2
German standard gear tooth 236
Gib-head keys 160
Grade identification marks 83
Grade markings on bolts and nuts
ASTM and SAE 83
inch 83
Greek letters 320
Grinders safety for 193
Grinding 198–222
abrasives 201
carbide tools 226–228
chip breakers 228
diagram 197
diamond wheel 144, 220–228
milling cutters 146–147
silicon carbide wheels 227–228
surface 198–200
tools, carbide 226–228
wheel safety 193
handling 193
portable grinders 196
storage 193
wheels 193–218
abrasive materials for 201
CBN 201
faces, shapes of 218
Grinding (continued)
wheels
markings, standard 201
mounted wheels and points 223–224
shapes and sizes, standard 212–218
wheel markings 201
Grinding wheel
material
alnico 202
aluminium 202
brass 202
chrome plating 203–204
copper 203
copper alloys 203
cutlery 203
cylinders 204
die forging 204
dies 204
drills
ductile iron 205
manufacturing 204
resharpening 204
fasteners 205
forgings 205
gauges
plug 205
ring 205
thread 205
gears, hardened steel 205
hastalloy 205
inconel 205
jet blades 205
lapping 205
lawn mowers 205
lucite 205
pistons 207
rotors 208
rubber hard 208
rubber soft 208
scissors and shears 208
shafts 208
shear blades 208
spline shafts 208
steel 208
steel castings 208
steel forgings 208
stellite 210
tappets 210
taps 210
tentalum 210
titanium 210
Grinding wheel characteristics
centerless
hard 202–211
soft 202–211
cylindrical 202–211
floor stands 202–211
internal 202–211
mounted wheels 202–211
offhand 202–211
portable grinders 202–211INDEX
328
Grinding wheel characteristics (continued)
surfacing
segments 202–211
straight wheel 202–211
Grinding wheel characteristics bars 202–211
G-word, NC 189
H
Hard rubber, machining 180
Hardened ground machine dowel pins 91
Hardmetals 176
ISO classifications 176
Hardness
testing 256–258
Brinell 256–258
diamond pyramid 256
Hultgren ball 256
Rockwell 256–258
scleroscope 256
vickers 256
tool steels 250–252
Heat treatment
steel 254
steel quenching 254
Helical gearing chordal thickness and
addendum 235
High-speed steels 249, 251
molybdenum 249
tungsten 250–251
High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels 244
Holders for NC, insert 171–174
Honing process, carbide tools 228
Horsepower equivalents 311
Hot-working, tool steels for 250
HSLA steels 244
I—K
Identities, trigonometric 11
Inch decimals of, into millimeters 313–317
Inch millimeters into decimals 318
Inches into centimeters and millimeters 313
Indexable
carbide inserts 168
insert holders, NC 170–174
inserts, single-point tools 168
Insert holders for NC 171–174
Insert radius compensation, NC 174
Inserts hardmetal materials 176
Inserts indexable 168–174
Inspection methods 275–276
ISO Standard tapping drills for 127
Jarno taper 47
Jig boring equally spaced holes 21
Jobbers reamers drills 112
Keys and keyseats
ANSI Standard 154–162
depths for milling keyseats 157–161
fitting 159
gib-head keys 160
key fitting 159
keyseat milling cutters, Woodruff 156
keyseats, depth of 157–161
parallel 157–160
plain 160
size vs. shaft diameter 154
taper 157–159
woodruff 162–163
L
Lapping carbide tools 228
Lapping lubricants 226
Law of cosines 11
Law of sines 11
Lead angles of cutting tools 167–174
Letter addresses, NC 191
Light metals speeds, for drilling, reaming,
turning and milling 133
Limits and fits
cylindrical fits 279–292
definitions 292
gages, plain 304
graphical representation 282–283
holes and shafts 298
metric 292–303
preferred metric 292–305
tolerance designation 293
Line geometry of 8
Line of action, gearing 230
Linear expansion metals 262–263
Lubricants
cutting 106
gasoline 226
kerosene 226
lapping 226
lard oil 226
machine oil 226
soda water 226
M
Machine screw taps 119
Machine screws
B.S.W and B.S.F 102, 104
British Metric 102
British Unified 101–102
tap and clearance drills 125–126
tap drill sizes 126
taps for 119
Machining
aluminum 177
copper alloys 179–180INDEX
329
Machining (continued)
hard rubber 179–180
magnesium 178–179
monel and nickel alloys 179–180
nonferrous metals 177–180
zinc alloy die castings 179
Machining processes
effect on surface roughness 278
tolerance grade relationships 280
Machining processes, ANSI Standard
tolerance grade relationships 305
Magnesium alloys
cutting fluids for 178–179
machining 178–179
M-codes (M-words), NC 192
Measurement of angles and tapers 35
Measuring
angles with sine-bar 25–34
dovetail slides 38
gear size 241
instruments and gaging methods 25, 36,
38, 272, 276
radius or arc, over rolls 39
surface texture 278
tapers 27, 35–37
threads
buttress 42
by screw thread gage 42
by three-wire method 42
V-shaped groove, over pins 39
Mechanical properties
bolts and screws 83
bolts, inch sizes 83
steel 246
Melting points various metals 262–263
Metal
bonded grinding wheels 227
melting points 262–263
specific gravity and properties 262–263
Metric
bolts and screws 127
conversion factors 306–312
tables 313–317
dimensions on drawings 276
dowel pins, British Standard 95
equivalents 306–315
fasteners, ANSI 86
ISO limits and fits 305
module, gear cutter teeth 236–239
Metric screw threads
design profile 73
fundamental deviation 73
limiting dimensions 74
limiting profile 73
major diameter 55
minor diameter 55
M-profile 73
pitch diameter 55
profile 73
Metric screw threads (continued)
sharp V- thread 56
thread class 55
Millimeters
hundreds of, into inches 313
inches into 313
into inches 316–318
thousandths of an inch, into 314–317
Milling
feeds for high-speed steel cutters 137
speeds and feeds copper alloys 138
Milling angular 145
Milling cutters 145–155
ANSI Standard 145–155
arbor keys and keyways 155
corner rounding 151
double angle 145
elements of 145
end mills 153
grinding or sharpening 146–147
keys and keyways for 155
rake angles 147
setting angles for milling teeth in 146
single angle 145
spline shaft 146
steels for 247–248
terminology 145
Milling machine
spindle noses 49–51
tapers for 49
tool shanks 52
V-flange, NC 53–54
Miscellaneous functions (M-words), NC 192
Module system of gear teeth 236–239
Molds, steels for permanent 253
Molybdenum high-speed steels
tool steels 249
Molybdenum steels, SAE 244
Monel metals, machining 179–180
Monel, machining 180
Morse taper, stub taper shanks 45
Morse tapers 44–48
Mounted wheels and mounted points 223–
225
M-words, NC 192
N
NC programming 192
Nickel alloys, machining 179–180
Nickel, melting point 262–263
Nitinol, machining 179–180
Nonferrous alloys, machining 177–180
Numbering systems for steel 244
Numerical control 172–192
addresses, letter 191
APT programming 174
automatically programmed tool
(APT) 174INDEX
330
Numerical control (continued)
block 188, 191
cutter compensation 174
cutter location data 188
G-code addresses 189
insert holders for NC 171, 174
insert radius compensation 174
letter addresses 191
miscellaneous functions, (M-Words) 192
part programming 188
part tolerance symbols
compared to ISO 268
postprocessor 188
preparatory word 189
programming NC 174, 188–192
tool compensation 174
tool nose radius compensation 174
V-flange tool shanks 53–54
word 191
word address format 191
Nut taps 119
Nuts
ANSI, inch dimensions,T-type 98
British Standard
Fine 104
metric 102
Unified 102
Whitworth 102, 104
wrench clearances 100
wrench openings 99
O—P
Oils
and compounds, machining 106, 177–
180
mineral 106
sulfurized and chlorinated 106
Open-end wrench clearances 100
Parabola, length of arc 3
Parallel steel dowel pins 95
Parallelogram geometry of 8
Pearlite 254
PEEK plastics 264
Permanickel, machining 180
PET plastics 264
Phenolic plastics 264
Pin method for checking
screw threads 39
V-shaped grooves 39
Pin method of checking
gear sizes 242
Pins
dowel 91–92, 95
metric dowel 95
spring 96–97
straight 92–93
taper 93–94
Pipe and pipe fittings
dryseal taper 71
taps, dimensions
British Standard 127
straight 119
taper 119
threads American National Standard 71
Pitch
broach teeth 165–166
circular, of gears 232
diameters, gears
circular pitch 233
pin method of checking 242
spur 232–233
diameters, thread
M profile 75
diameters, thread checking 41
diameters, thread, Unified 59
diametral, of gears 232
gear 232
Planing tool grinding 167
Plastics materials 264
Plastics properties
elasticity 265
safety 265
support 265
thermal expansion 265
Plastics work
cutting off 265
drilling 265
milling 265
sawing 265
tapping and threading 265
turning 265
Poise 312
Polycarbonate plastics 264
Polygon
area 3
circumscribed radius 3
Inscribed radius 3
length of side 3
Polypropylene plastics 264
Polysulphone plastics 264
Polyurethane plastics 264
Postprocessor, NC 188
Precision gage blocks 38
Preferred
basic sizes, ANSI Standard 293
fits, ANSI Standard 293–294
hole basis metric fits 293–298
metric sizes ANSI Standard 293
series for tolerances and allowances 280
shaft basis metric fits 294–302
Preparatory word, (G-word) NC 189–190
Pressure angle, gearing 230
Pressure unit conversion 311
Programming
G-code 189–192
numerical control 189–192INDEX
331
Properties of materials
standard steels 243–244
thermal 262–263
tool steels 185–253
PTFE plastics 264
Pulleys (sheaves) speeds, rpm into feet per
minute 140
Punches and dies
steel for 247–248
steel for hot-working 247–248
Punches, steels for 247–248
PVC plastics 264
PVDF plastics 264
R
Rack gear 231
Radius of arc, checking 39
Rake angles, turning tool 167
Reamer difficulties 118
cause 118
problem 118
solution 118
Reamers
drills for taper pin 94
steels for 247–248
taper pin reamers, drills for 93–94
Reaming
cutting speeds for
copper alloys 135
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
tool steels 132
Relationships among angles 11
Resinoid bonded wheels 227
Retention knobs, V-flange tool shanks 53–
54
Rockwell hardness test 256–258
Rockwell-Brinell hardness conversion
tables 256–258
Roughness
control of 272–278
cutoff 273
symbols indicating degree of 277
Round head machine screws 102
Rpm for various cutting speeds and
diameters, inch units 140
metric units 143
Rpm for various grinding speeds and
diameters 195
Running fits, allowances 282–284
S
SAE Standards
steel specification numbers 244
woodruff keyseat cutters 156
SAE steels
basic numbering system 244
compositions 244
numbering system for 244
Scleroscope 256
Screw machines drills 111
Screw threads and thread systems 56, 73–75
ANSI M-profile 73–75
allowances 74
basic profile 73
coarse pitch 73
crest and root form 73
design profile, M series 73
limits of size 75
tolerance grades 74
ANSI Unified 56–57, 59
standard series, tables of 59
classes of tolerance 56–57
designation of Unified threads 56, 59
limits
Class 2A and 2B 59
Class 3A and 3B 59
measuring 41–42
metric series threads
ANSI M profile 73–75
pipe, ANSI Standard 71
pipe, taper 71
tap drill sizes 125–127
Unified
allowances 56–57, 59
coarse thread series 59
coated 56–57
crest clearances 56–57
dimensions 59
fine and extra fine series 59
limits 56–57, 59
thread classes 56–57
tolerances 56–57
wire method of checking 41–42
Screw threads measuring diameters of
wires 40
Screws
British Standard inch 102–104
British Standard Whitworth 102–104
British Unified 102
cap 85, 88–89
grade markings for steel 83
set 87
tap drills 125–127
Unified Standard 102
Section lining, standard for drawings 267
Segments of Circles 4
Set-screws
American National Standard 87INDEX
332
Set-screws (continued)
fluted socket type 87
hexagon socket type 87
spline socket type 87
Shafts allowances and tolerances for
fits 279–305
Shanks, taper 44–48
Shapes of grinding wheels 212–218
Shapes of mounted wheels and points 223–
225
Sharpening
carbide tools 226
drills 108
Shears steel for hot-working 250
Shock 253
Shore's scleroscope 256
Shrinkage fits 282, 290
Signs of trigonometric functions 10
Silicon carbide grinding wheels 226–227
Sine bar
checking angle of templet 26
checking taper per foot 26
finding angle when height is known 26
gage 26
measuring angle of templet 26
setting to a given angle 26
10-inch 26
Sine bar, use of 25, 27
Single-angle milling cutters 145
Single-point cutting tools 167–168
chipbreakers 168
definitions and terms 167
indexable inserts 168
insert toolholders 170–174
lead angles 167
nose radius 167
numerical control tool compensation 174
planing tools 168
side cutting edge angles 167
tool contour 167
tool holders, indexable inserts 168–171
Sintered carbide tools, ANSI Standard 176
Sleeves, Morse taper 46
Socket
head, screw type
drill and counterbore sizes for 88
keys and bits for 84
set 87
head, screw type, cap 85–90
taper shank 44–48
wrench clearances 100
Solution of
oblique angle triangles 13, 15
right angle triangles 13–14
Spacing holes on jig borer 20
Spandrel or fillet area 2
Speeds
calculating cutting speeds 139–143
rpm for different diameters and cutting
speeds 139–143
Speeds and feeds, machining
cutting 139–143
drilling
drilling
copper alloys 135
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
titanium and titanium alloys 133
tool steels 132
drilling diameters and rpm 139–143
grinding with diamond wheels 144
milling
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
tool steels 132
nonferrous metals 177–180
reaming
copper alloys 135
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
tool steels 132
surface grinding 199–200
turning
copper alloys 135
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
titanium and titanium alloys 133
tool steels 132
Speeds and feeds, machining, tool life,
adjusting factors 136
Spindle noses 49–54
Splines, involute
milling 146
socket keys and bits 84
Spring pins 96–97
coiled type 96
Spur gearing 230–235
American National Standard tooth
forms 231
caliper measurement of tooth 240
checking gear size 240, 242
chordal addenda and thicknesses for
milled full-depth teeth 235
chordal addendum 235
chordal addendum measurement 240–
242
chordal thickness 235
circular pitch system 233
composite teeth 231–232INDEX
333
Spur gearing (continued)
diametral pitch system 230
diametral pitches shown full size 230
dimensions, formulas for 232
full-depth, teeth 231, 235
gear milling cutters, series of 235
gear tooth parts 231–232
checking 241–242
German standard tooth form 236
measurement of tooth with caliper 240
module system 236–239
outside and root diameters 233
pitch diameters, tabulated 233
pressure angles 230, 232
root and outside diameters 233
tooth dimensions 231
tooth forms 231
tooth thickness measurement 235, 242
wire method of checking 242
Standard fits 281
basic shaft 282
bilateral hole 282
close running 281
close sliding 281
force 282
force or shrink 282
free running 281
heavy drive 282
light drive 282
locational clearance 281
locational interference 282
locational transitional 281
loose running 281
medium drive 282
medium running 281
precision running 281
running and sliding clearence 281
Standard steels 243–244
classification 243–244
Steel
carbon steel structure 254
compositions for tools 253
compositions of SAE 244
heat treatment 254
high-speed 243
high-strength, low-alloy 244
hot-working, for dies, shears 250
manganese, SAE compositions 244
molybdenum compositions 244
molybdenum nickel 244
molybdenum nickel-chromium 244
molybdenum, high-speed 249
numbering systems for 244
properties of heat-treated 246
SAE compositions 244
SAE specification numbers 244
taps 247–248
tool 185–253
tool and die 246
tools of different types 247–248
tungsten
Steel (continued)
compositions 251
high-speed 250–251
Stoke 312
Straight pins 93
Stub tooth gearing 231
former American Standard 231
outside and root diameters 232
Superalloys speeds, for drilling, reaming,
turning and milling 134
Superhard tool materials (CBN) 220
Surface
grinding 198–200
common faults and possible causes
in 200
principal systems 198
process data for 199
selection of grinding wheels for 198–
218
roughness 278
roughness relationship to tolerances 278
speeds, diameters and rpm
cutting speeds formula 139–143
grinding wheels 195
texture
applying symbols 272–276
castings 276
drawing practices for symbols 272
Symbols
ANSI Y14.5M 267–268
applying surface texture 272–276
between, ANSI 268
concentricity, ANSI 268
controlled radius, ANSI 268
diameter, ANSI 268
diamond wheel marking 219–221
drawing practices for surface texture 272
geometric characteristic 268
grinding wheel markings 201
lines for drawings 266
parallelism, ANSI 268
perpendicularity, ANSI 268
roundness, ANSI 268
runout, ANSI 268
section lining
aluminum 267
bronze 267
cast and malleable iron 267
earth 267
insulation 267
magnesium 267
materials 267
rock 267
sand 267
steel 267
white metal 267
statical tolerance, ANSI 268
surface profile, ANSI 268
surface texture 272–276
tolerances 293
total runout, ANSI 268INDEX
334
T
Tap dimensions
cut thread 119, 121
ground thread 119, 121
Tap drill diameters 125–127
cold form tapping 127
machine screw sizes 126
Tap drill sizes 125–127
Taper
pins, standard 94
drills for 94
pipe threads 71–72
Tapers
applications of standard 47
Brown & Sharpe 48
Jarno 47
keys 154–159
machine tool spindles 47
measurement methods 27–37
measuring with V-block and sine bar 27
milling machine spindles, arbors and
spindle noses 49–52
Morse 44
per foot and corresponding angles 36
rules for figuring 35
Tapping
alloys 122
aluminium 122
brass 122
bronze 122
copper 122
high speed 123
iron
cast 122
ductile 122
malleable 122
nodular 122
magnesium 122
monel metal 122
plastics 123
rubber 123
steel
high speed 123
molybdenum 123
stainless 123
titanum 123
Tapping and thread cutting 125–127
British Standard drill sizes 127
cold form 127
tap drills
clearance drills for machine screws 126
for American form threads 125–126
for ISO metric threads 127
Taps
hand, types of 119
nut 119
pipe 119
pulley 119
Taps (continued)
removing broken 127
spiral pointed 119
types of 119
Temperature
critical, heat treating of steel 254
melting point metals 262–263
Thermal
conductivity 262–263
expansion coefficients 262–263
Threads and threading
ANSI Standard
M profile thread
profile data 76
ANSI Standard M profile thread
data 76
limiting dimensions 77
profile data 76
pipe taper 72
Three wire method
buttress threads 42
formulas for checking pitch diameter 40
helix angle 40
lead angle 40
measuring pitch diameter 43
measuring pitch diameter of metric
screws 43
pitch diameter 43
thread angle 40
Three-wire measurement of screw
threads 41–42
Throwaway carbide inserts 168
Titanium and titanium alloys speeds, for
drilling, reaming, turning and milling 133
Titanium carbides as cutting tool
materials 176
T-nuts, ANSI Standard 98
Tolerance grades, relative to machining
processes 280, 305
Tolerances
ANSI Standard 280
symbols 268, 293
cylindrical fits 279–305
designation of limits and fits 293
indicating on drawings 269
keys and keyways 160, 162
obtainable by various operations 280
preferred series of 280
relationship to surface roughness 278
symbols 268
taps 119
Tolerancing and geometric
dimensioning 269
Tool
compensation, NC 174
contour, cutting tools 167
grinding, angles 167–168
holders 170–171
indexable inserts 168–174
materials 176INDEX
335
Tool (continued)
NC machines 53–54
nose radius compensation, NC 174
shanks, ANSI Standard for milling
machines 52
sharpening
carbide tools 226
grinding wheels 226–228
grinding wheels for 227–228
twist drills 108, 226
single-point 167–168
steels 243
air hardening 252
carbon 246
chromium types 250
classification of 243–246
faults and failures, common 185
hot work 250
mold 253
molybdenum types 249
oil hardening 252
selection of 247–248
shock resisting 253
special purpose 253
tungsten types 251
Tool life, adjusting factors 136
Tool steels speeds, for drilling, reaming,
turning and milling 132
Tool trouble-shooting checklist 183
Tooling, carbide 176
Tooth rest position, milling cutter
grinding 148
Torque, calculating, for tightening bolts 83
Triangle geometry of 6
Triangles solution 11
Trigonometric
formulas 11
functions 11
functions of angles 11
identities 11
Trigonometric relations 10
Trouble-shooting
broaching 166
tools 185
Tungsten steels 251
compositions 246
tool steels 251
Tungsten-carbide tools
grinding 227–228
Tungsten-carbide tools grinding 226–228
Turning
built up edge 181
chip hammering 181
crater wear 181
cutting speeds for
copper alloys 135
ferrous cast metals 130
light metals 133
cutting speeds for
plain carbon and alloy steels 128
Turning (continued)
stainless steels 131
superalloys 134
titanium and titanium alloys 133
tool steels 132
flank and notch wear 181
frittering 181
grinding tools for 167–168
insert breakage 181
problems 181
problems causes 181
problems remedy 181
slice fracture 181
thermal crack 181
Turning, cutting speeds for copper
alloys 135
Twist drill 109–114
equivalent of gage or letter size 110
grinding (sharpening) 108
U—Z
Unified internal and external thread 58
Unified screw thread standard ANSI 56–59
Velocity converting to rpm 139–143
V-flange tool shanks and retention
knobs 53–54
Vickers hardness 256
Vitrified bonded wheels 227
V-shaped groove, checking by pins 39
Weight metals 262–263
Weights and measures 306–312
Weights of carbon bar steel
hexagonal shape 260–261
octagonal shape 260–261
round shape 260–261
square shape 260–261
Weights of various materials
flat shape 259
hexagon shape 259
octagon shape 259
round shape 259
round tubing 259
square shape 259
Weights of various shapes
aluminium 259
beryllium 259
brass 259
cast iron 259
copper 259
gold 259
lead 259
magnesium 259
molybdenum 259
monel 259
nickel 259
silver 259
steel 259
tantalum 259INDEX
336
Weights of various shapes (continued)
tin 259
titanium 259
tungsten 259
zinc 259
zirconium 259
Weldon shanks, dimensions of 153
Wheels
abrasive cutting 225
diamond 144, 193–228
grinding 144, 193–222
silicon carbide 226–227
Whitworth standard bolts, screws, nuts,
washers, and studs 104
Wire
checking screw threads 41
buttress threads 42
Woodruff key 161
number 161
seat 161
seat milling cutter 161
Woodruff keyseat cutters 156
Word address format, NC 188, 191
Word, NC 188, 191
Wrench clearances
for box wrenches 99
for open end wrenches 100
for socket wrenches 100
for spacing of bolts 99–100
Wrench openings, ANSI Standard 9


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