كتاب Process Piping Design Handbook
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 كتاب Process Piping Design Handbook

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Process Piping Design Handbook    كتاب Process Piping Design Handbook  Emptyالأحد 12 مارس 2023, 11:14 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Process Piping Design Handbook
Volume One
The Fundamentalsof Piping Design Drafting and Design Methods for ProcessApplications
Peter Smith

كتاب Process Piping Design Handbook  P_p_d_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
List of Figures xiii
List of Tables xvii
Foreword xix
Preface xxi
1 Piping Codes, Standards, and Specifications . 1
1.1Introduction 1
1.2 Definitions 2
1.3 Codes 3
1.3.1 American Societyof Mechanical Engineers
Boiler Pressure Vessel Codes 3
1.3.2 American Societyof Mechanical Engineers B31,
Codes for Pressure Piping 14
1.4 Standards and Specifications 24
1.4.1 American Societyof Mechanical Engineers 26
1.4.2 American Petroleum Institute 30
1.4.3 American Society for Testing and Materials 32
1.4.4 American Societyfor Nondestructive Testing 39
1.4.5 American Society for Quality 39
1.4.6 American Welding Society 40
1.4.7 American Water Works Association 41
1.4.8 Copper Development Association 42
1.4.9 Compressed Gas Association 43
1.4.10 Canadian Standards Association 43
viiviii Contents
1.4.11 ExpansionJoint Manufacturers Association 43
1.4.12 Manufacturers Standardization Societyof
the Valve and Fittings Industry 43
1.4.13 National Association of Corrosion Engineers
1.4.14 National Fire Protection Association 45
1.4.15 Pipe Fabrication Institute 46
1.4.16 Societyof Automotive Engineers 48
45
2 Piping Components 49
2.1 Introduction to Piping Components 50
2.2 Pipe 51
2.2.1 Pipe Sizes 62
2.2.2 Pipe Ends 67
2.3.1 Butt-Weld End Fittings 72
2.3.2 Socket-Weldand Threaded-End Fittings 73
2.3.3 Flanged Joints 74
2.4.1 Valve Codes and Standards 82
2.4.2 Classificationof Operation Valves 87
2.4.3 Valve Classification 92
2.4.4 Valve Components 94
2.5.1 The Process of Joint Integrity 102
2.5.2 FlangeJoint Components 103
2.5.3 The Flanged Joint System 111
2.3 Pipe Fittings 70
2.4 Valves 80
2.5 Bolts and Gaskets (Fastenersand Sealing Elements) 101
3 Metallic Materialsfor Piping Components 115
3.1 Propertiesof Piping Materials 117
3.1.1 Chemical Propertiesof Metals 117
3.1.2 Mechanical Propertiesof Metals 118
3.1.3 Elongation and Reduction of Area 119
3.1.4 Physical Properties of Metals 120
3.2 Metallic Materials 122
3.3 Alloying of Steel 122Contents ix
3.4 Types of Steel 125
3.4.1 Mild (Low-Carbon) Steel 125
3.4.2 Medium-Carbon Steel 125
3.4.3 High-Carbon Steel 125
3.4.4 High-Tensile Steel 125
3.4.5 StainlessSteel 126
3.5 Steel Heat-TreatingMethods 131
3.5.1 Annealing 131
3.5.2 Normalizing 132
3.5.3 Hardening 132
3.5.4 Tempering 132
3.6 Nonferrous Metals in Alloying 132
3.7 Material Specifications 133
3.7.1 American Society for Testing and Materials 133
3.7.2 Unified Numbering System of Ferrous Metals
and Alloys 135
4 Roles and Responsibilities 137
4.1 The Lead Piping Engineer
4.2 Piping Materials Engineering Group
138
139
4.2.1 Project Lead Piping Materials Engineer 140
4.2.2 Senior Piping Materials Engineer 141
4.3.1 Project Piping Area/Unit Supervisor
4.3.2 Project Piping CAD Coordinator 143
4.3.3 Project Piping Designers-Checkers 144
4.4.1 Project Lead Piping Materials Controller 146
4.4.2 Project Piping Materials Controller 147
4.5.1 Project Lead Piping Stress Engineer 148
4.5.2 Project Piping Stress Engineer 148
4.6.1 Process Engineering 151
4.6.2 Mechanical Engineering 154
4.3 Piping Design Group 142
(Squad Boss) 143
4.4 Piping Materials Control Group 145
4.5 Piping Stress Engineering Group 148
4.6 Other Engineering Disciplines Involved 150x Contents
4.6.3 Instrument Engineering 155
4.6.4 Civil Engineering 155
4.6.5 Structural Engineering 155
5 Projects 157
5.1 Project Types 157
5.2 Project Phases 160
5.2.1 Feasibility Phase 160
5.2.2 Conception Phase 160
5.2.3 Front-End Engineering Development Phase 161
5.2.4 Detailed Engineering Phase 162
5.2.5 Construction Phase 166
5.2.6 Precommissioning and Commissioning
5.2.7 Startup and Handover to the Owner 169
Phase 169
6 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection 171
6.1 Codes and Standards Considerations
6.2 Fabrication Materials for Piping Systems
6.3 Fabrication Drawings 173
6.4 Fabrication Activities 174
172
172
6.4.1 Cutting 174
6.4.2 Beveling 174
6.4.3 Forming 175
6.4.4 Bending 175
6.5,l Welding Processes 179
6.5.2 Preheating 181
6.5.3 Heat Treatment 181
6.6 Brazing and Soldering 183
6.7 Protection of Carbon Steel in Corrosive Services
6.7.1 Corrosion Allowance 184
6.7.2 Internal Galvanizing of Pipe and Piping
Systems 184
6.7.3 Pipe Cladding 186
6.5 Welding 178
183Contents xi
7
A
B
6.8 Assembly and Erection 186
6.8.1 Alignment 186
6.8.2 FlangedJoints 188
6.8.3 Threaded Joints 188
Inspection and Testing 191
7.1 Piping Codes 191
7.2 Types of Examination 196
7.2.1 Visual Examination 197
7.2.2 Liquid Penetrant Examination 197
7.2.3 Magnetic Particle Examination 198
7.2.4 Radiographic Examination 199
7.2.5 Ultrasonic Examination 200
7.3.1 Some Limitations on the Pressure Testing
of Piping Systems 201
7.3.2 Special Provisions for Testing 202
7.3.3 Preparation for Leak Test 202
7.4.1 Hydrostatic Leak Test 202
7.4.2 Pneumatic Leak Test 204
7.4.3 Combination Hydrostatic-Pneumatic
7.4.4 Initial Service Leak Testing 205
7.3 Testing of Piping Systems 200
7.4 Leak-TestingMethods 202
Leak Test 204
7.5 Choice of Testing Medium
7.6 Test Pack 206
7.7 Punch List 206
205
Listed Material 209
A.O. 1 Ferrous Metals 209
A.0.2 Nonferrous Material 213
A.l American Petroleum Institute 217
General Engineering Data . 219
Index 231
INDEX
Index Terms Links
Numerics
100% examination 196
100% radiography 199
A
alignment 186
alloying 117
aluminum (Al) 122
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 25
American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) 14
American Petroleum Institute (API) 25 30
American Petroleum Institute’s API 5L 63
American Society for
Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) 25 39
American Society for Quality 39
American Society for Testing and Materials 25 32 133
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME) 4 25
American Water Works Association (AWWA) 25 41
American Welding Society (AWS) 25 40
annealing 131
full annealing 131
process annealing 131
spheroidizing annealing 131Index Terms Links
ASME
B1.20.1 1983, Pipe Threads,
General Purpose, Inch 67
B16.25, Butt Welding Ends 70
B16.34, Valves—Flanged,
Threaded, and Welding End 94
B16.47, Large Diameter Steel Flanges 80
B16.5, 2003, Pipe Flanges
and Flanged Fittings 79
B31, Codes for Pressure Piping 191
B31.3 116 186
B31.3, Process Piping Table 331.1 182
B31.4, Pipeline
Transportation Systems for Liquid 175
B31.8, Gas Transportation
and Distribution Piping Systems 175
B36.10M, Welded and
Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe 63
B36.19M, Stainless Steel Pipe 63
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 4 191
Boilers and Pressure Vessels 13
Fiber-Reinforced Plastic
Pressure Vessels 12
Material Specifications 5 6
Nondestructive Examination 10
Nuclear Components 13
Power Boilers 5
Recommended Guidelines
for the Care of Power Boilers 10Index Terms Links
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Cont.)
Recommended Rules for the
Care and Operation of
Heating Boilers 10
Rules for Construction and
Continued Service of
Transport Tanks 13
Rules for Construction of
Heating Boilers 9
Rules for Construction of
Nuclear Facility Components 7
Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels 10 11
Rules for In-Service
Inspection of Nuclear
Power Plant
Components 12
Welding and Brazing
Qualifications 12
ASME Codes and Standards
flanges 103
ASME Codes for Pressure Piping 14
Building Services Piping 18
Fuel Gas Piping 15
Gas Transmission and
Distribution Piping Systems 17
Managing System Integrity
of Gas Pipelines 18Index Terms Links
ASME Codes for Pressure Piping (Cont.)
Manual for Determining
Remaining Strength of
Corroded Pipelines 19
Pipeline Transportation
Systems for Liquid
Hydrocarbons and Other
Liquids 16
Power Piping 15
Process Piping 15 19
Refrigeration Piping and
Heat Transfer
Components 16
Slurry Transportation Piping Systems 18
ASME Guide for Gas
Transmission and
Distribution Piping
Systems 19
ASME Standard 26
Face-to-Face and End-to-End
Dimensions of Valves 28
Factory-Made Wrought Butt
Welding Fittings 28
Forged Fittings, Socket
Welding and Threaded 28
Large Diameter Steel Flanges 29
Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions 29
Metallic Gaskets for Pipe
Flanges, Ring Joint Spiral
Wound and Jacketed 28Index Terms Links
ASME Standard (Cont.)
Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for
Pipe Flanges 29
Orifice Flanges 29
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
NPS ½ through 24 27
Pipe Threads, General Purpose, Inch 27
Stainless Steel Pipe 30
Steel Line Blanks 30
Valves Flanged, Threaded
and Welding End 29
Welded and Seamless
Wrought Steel Pipe 30
assembly and erection 177
autogenous welds 180
AWWA Standards
Concrete Pipe 42
Ductile-Iron Pipe and Fittings 41
Plastic Pipe 42
Steel Pipe 42
Valves and Hydrants 42
B
backseat 101
bending 175
buckling 175
and forming 77
ovality 175
thinning 175Index Terms Links
beveled ends (BE) 72
beveling 174
boiler piessure vessel (BPV) 3
bolt 110
bolting 109
and gaskets 101
and nut selection 110
tightening 112
boron (B) 122
brazing and soldering 177 183
Brownfield project 158
buckling 175
butt-weld end fittings 72
C
camprofile 108
Canadian Standards Association 43
carbon (C) 122
chemical properties of metals 117
chromium (Cr) 123
circumferential butt welds 196
civil engineering 155
closing element 98
code 2
ASME B31.3 3
codes and standards
considerations 172
columbium (Nb) 123Index Terms Links
Combination HydrostaticPneumatic Leak Test 204
commissioning 169
commissioning phase 169
compressed asbestos fiber (CAF) gaskets
types of gaskets 107
compressed gas association 43
computer-aided design (CAD) 1
conception phase 160
construction 13 166
construction phase 166
continued service 13
copper (Cu) 123
Copper Development
Association 42
Copper Tube Handbook 42
corrosion allowance (CA) 66 184
corrosion-resistant alloys (CRA) 62
cutting 174
D
density 121
design code
ASME B31.3 24
detailed engineering 162
detailed engineering phase 162
diarnktre nominal (DN) 52 63 64 92
double random length (DRL) 61
dye penetrant inspection (DPI) 75Index Terms Links
E
engineering and procurement (E&P) 162
engineering, procurement, and
construction (EPC) 137 162
erection 171
exotic materials 66
Expansion Joint Manufacturers
Association 43
F
fabrication 171
fasteners 113
feasibility phase 160
ferrous materials 122
flange 74 103
blind 78
dimensional standards 79
lap-joint 78 188
screwed 188
slip-on 78 188
socket-weld 76 188
threaded 77
weld-neck 188
weldneck 75
flange faces 104
flat face 105
raised face 104
ring-type oint 104Index Terms Links
flange specification 105
flange pressure class 105
material 106
nominal pipe size 105
standard 106
type and facing 105
flanged joint system 74 111 188
assembly 113
bolt condition 112
flange condition 111
gasket condition 111
gasket quality 112
flux 180
forming 175
front-end engineering
development (FEED)
phase 161
G
gardening 132
gasket 106
glass-reinforced epoxy (GRE) 51
glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) 51
grade 21
grain 121
boundaries 121
size 121
grassroots project 157Index Terms Links
H
hardenability 121
hardness 119
health, safety, and
environmental (HSE)
requirements 1
heat treatment 176 181
heat-affected zone (HAZ) 181
high-carbon steel 125
high-tensile steel 125
hot cuts 174
hydrostatic testing 200 202
I
industrial piping systems
testing limitations 201
industrial pressure piping
design 194
fabrication 194 196
inspection 194
testing 200
initial service testing 200 205
inside diameter (ID) 52
installation 171
instrument engineering 155
iron (Fe) 123
iron pipe size (IPS) 62
issued for construction (IFC) 162Index Terms Links
J
joint integrity 102
K
Kammprofile gaskets 108
L
lead (Pb) 123
leakage field 198
liquid penetrant examination 197
longitudinal welds 53 196
low-temperature carbon steel (LTCS) 66
M
magnetic particle examination (MPE) 198
magnetic particle inspection (MPI) 75
manganese (Mn) 123
Manufacturers Standardization
Society (MSS) 25
of the Valve and Fittings
Industry 25 43
mechanical engineering 154
mechanical properties of metals 118
modulus of elasticity 119
molybdenum (Mo) 123Index Terms Links
N
National Association of
Corrosion Engineers (NACE) 25 45
National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA) 25
National Fire Codes 45
National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA) 45
necks down 119
nickel (Ni) 123
nominal pipe size (NPS) 52 64
nondestructive examination (NDE) 72
nonferrous materials 122 132
normalizing 132
nuts 110
O
outside diameter (O.D.) 52
ovality 175
P
phase 161 162 166
construction 166
detailed engineering 162
front-end engineering development 161
precommissioning and commissioning 169
phonographic 76
phosphorus (Ph) 124Index Terms Links
physical properties of metals 120
pipe 63
butt-weld ends 70
cladding 186
dimensional specifications 63
fabrication 172
fabrication 174
fittings 70
galvanizing 184
material specifications 66
sizes 62
threaded ends 67
pipe ends 67
dimensional standards 67
Pipe Fabrication Institute (PFI) 25 46
pipeline system 18
piping
design group 142
flexibility analysis 168
isometrics 168
materials control group 145
stress engineering group 148
system 50 51
pneumatic testing 200 204
precommissioning 169
precommissioning and
commissioning phase 169
precommissioning phase 169
preheating 176 181Index Terms Links
process
engineering 151 153
process flow diagrams (PFDs) 152
project lead piping
engineer (PEL) 137 138
materials controller 146
materials engineer 140
stress engineer 148
project phases 160
project piping
area/unit supervisor (squad boss) 143
CAD coordinator 143
designers-checkers 144
materials controller 147
stress engineer 148
project types 157
punch list 206
R
radiographic examination 199
random examination 196
random radiography 200
random spot examination 197
reprepped 67
requests for quotation (RFQs) 165
required-on-site (ROS) date 166
revamp 158Index Terms Links
S
schedule (SCH) 62
senior piping materials engineer 141
silicon (Si) 124
single random length (SRL) 61
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 25 48
specific heat 121
specification 2
spiral welding 60
spot examination 196
spot radiography 200
squad bosses 142
square cut 67
stainless steel 126
austenitic 126 127
duplex grades 128
ferritic grades 128
martensitic 127
precipitation hardenable 129 130
super stainless steels 130
standard 2
ASME B16.52
standard specifications 2
ASTM A1052
startup and handover to the owner 169
steel
medium-carbon 125
mild (low-carbon) 125Index Terms Links
stem packing 100
stem protector 101
stress isometrics 168
stress relief 131
structural engineering 155
sulfur (S) 124
T
technical bid evaluation (TBE) 165
tempering 132
test pack 206
thermal conductivity 121
thermal expansion 121
thinning 175
threaded joints 188
titanium (Ti) 124
toughness 120
tube 63
tungsten (W) 124
types of gaskets 106
compressed nonasbestos
fiber (CNAF) 107
nonmetallic gasket 107
semi-metallic gaskets 107
U
ultimate tensile strength (UTS) 118
ultrasonic examination 200Index Terms Links
unified numbering system
of ferrous metals and alloys 135
unlisted material 66
V
vacuum testing 200
valve 80 81
API specification 83
API standards 84
automatic 87
AWWA standards and specifications 83
codes and standards 82
linear 87
MSS standards 84
non-pressure-containing parts 99
plug-type 81
pressure class ratings 92
pressure containing parts 95
quarter-turn 87
rotary 87
seat 99
size 92
small-bore 92
valve stem 99
nonrising stem with inside screw 100
rising stem with inside screw 100
rising stem with outside screw and yoke 99
rotary stem 100
sliding stem 100Index Terms Links
vanadium (V) 124
visual examination 197
W
welding 176 178
gas metal arc (GMAW) 180
gas shielded arc 180
gas tungsten arc 180
metal inert gas (MIG) 180
shielded metal arc 179
submerged arc 180
tungsten inert gas (TIG) 180
weld repair 181
Y
yield strength 119
yoke 101
Young’s modulus 119


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