كتاب Design of Mechanical Elements - A Concise Introduction to Mechanical Design Considerations and Calculations
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Design of Mechanical Elements - A Concise Introduction to Mechanical Design Considerations and Calculations

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Design of Mechanical Elements - A Concise Introduction to Mechanical Design Considerations and Calculations    كتاب Design of Mechanical Elements - A Concise Introduction to Mechanical Design Considerations and Calculations  Emptyالخميس 09 مارس 2023, 3:41 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Design of Mechanical Elements
A Concise Introduction to Mechanical Design Considerations and Calculations
Prof. Bart Raeymaekers
University of Utah
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Salt Lake City, UT

كتاب Design of Mechanical Elements - A Concise Introduction to Mechanical Design Considerations and Calculations  D_o_m_17
و المحتوى كما يلي :


TABLE OF CONTENTS
About the author xi
Preface xiii
About the Companion Site xv
1 Mechanical Design 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Mechanical Design Process 1
1.3 Mechanical Elements 4
1.4 Standards and Codes 4
1.5 Uncertainty in Mechanical Design 5
1.6 Design for Safety 9
1.7 Key Takeaways 9
1.8 Problems 10
2 Material Selection 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Material Classification 13
2.3 Mechanical Properties 14
2.3.1 Strength and Stiffness 14
2.3.2 Elastic Versus Plastic Strain 16
2.3.3 Resilience 17
2.3.4 Toughness 18
2.3.5 Engineering Stress–Strain Diagram Summary 19
2.3.6 True Stress–Strain Diagram 19
2.4 Materials Processing 20
2.4.1 Hot Versus Cold Processing 20
2.4.2 HotWorking 21
2.4.3 ColdWorking 21
2.4.3.1 Process 21
2.4.3.2 Reduction in Area 22
2.4.3.3 ColdWork Factor 23
2.4.3.4 Modifying Material Properties Using ColdWork 23
2.5 Alloys 26
2.5.1 Numbering Systems 26
2.5.2 Plain Carbon Steels 27
2.5.3 Alloy Steels 28
2.6 Key Takeaways 28
2.7 Problems 29
3 Statistical Considerations 33
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 Random Variables and Distributions 33
3.3 Density Functions 34
3.3.1 Probability Density Function 34
3.3.2 Cumulative Density Function 34
3.4 Metrics to Describe a Distribution 35
3.5 Linear Combination of Random Variables 37
3.6 Types of Distributions 39
3.6.1 Uniform Distribution 39
3.6.2 Normal Distribution 41
3.6.3 Weibull Distribution 45
3.7 Key Takeaways 48
3.8 Problems 48
4 Tolerances 53
4.1 Introduction 53
4.2 Terminology 53
4.3 Preferred Fits and Tolerances 55
4.3.1 ISO 286 Method 55
4.3.2 Unit Shaft and Unit Hole System 59
4.4 Tolerance Stacks 60
4.5 Key Takeaways 63
4.6 Problems 64
5 Design for Static Strength 69
5.1 Introduction 69
5.2 Simple Loading 70
5.2.1 Axial Loading 70
5.2.2 Bending 71
5.2.3 Torsion 72
5.3 Stress Concentrations 73
5.4 Failure Criteria 79
5.4.1 Failure Criteria for Ductile Materials 79
5.4.1.1 Maximum Normal Stress Theory (Rankine) 79
5.4.1.2 Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Tresca) 79
5.4.1.3 Distortion Energy Theory (Von Mises) 80
5.4.1.4 Comparison Between Different Failure Criteria 81
5.4.2 Failure Criteria for Brittle Materials 82
5.4.2.1 Maximum Normal Stress Theory (Rankine) 82
5.4.2.2 Coulomb–Mohr Theory 83
5.4.2.3 Comparison Between Different Failure Criteria 83
5.5 Key Takeaways 85
5.6 Problems 85
6 Design for Fatigue Strength 91
6.1 Introduction 91
6.1.1 Types of Dynamic Loads 91
6.1.2 Fatigue Failure Mechanism 92
6.2 Fatigue-life Methods 93
6.3 Fatigue Strength 95
6.4 Endurance-limit Modifying Factors 96
6.4.1 ka: Surface Factor 97
6.4.2 kb: Size Factor 97
6.4.3 kc: Load Factor 98
6.4.4 kd: Temperature Factor 99
6.4.5 ke: Reliability Factor 99
6.4.6 kf : Miscellaneous Effects Factor 100
6.5 Fluctuating Stresses 101
6.6 Stress Concentrations 105
6.7 Key Takeaways 106
6.8 Problems 106
7 Shafts 111
7.1 Introduction 111
7.1.1 Practical Considerations Related to Shaft Design 111
7.1.2 Torque Transmission 112
7.1.2.1 Relationship Between Torque, Power, and RPM 112
7.1.2.2 Belt–Pulley Torque Transmission 113
7.2 Recipe for Shaft Calculations 113
7.2.1 Design Calculation 114
7.2.2 Verification Calculation 114
7.3 Example Calculations 115
7.4 Critical Rotation Frequency of a Shaft 122
7.5 Key Takeaways 126
7.6 Problems 126
8 Bolted Joints 131
8.1 Introduction 131
8.2 Power Screws 131
8.2.1 Screw Thread Nomenclature and Geometry 131
8.2.2 Power Screw Torque 132
8.2.3 Self-locking 135
8.2.4 Efficiency of a Power Screw 135
8.2.5 Collar Friction 136
8.3 Fasteners 139
8.3.1 Screw Thread Nomenclature and Geometry 139
8.3.2 Fastener Strength Category 141
8.3.3 Bolt Preload 141
8.3.4 Hexagonal Nuts 142
8.3.5 Washers 142
8.3.6 Torque Requirement 142
8.3.7 Bolted Joints in Tension (Static) 143
8.3.7.1 Determining the Preload Fi 145
8.3.7.2 Stiffness of the Bolt 146
8.3.7.3 Stiffness of the Members 148
8.3.7.4 Stiffness of Members with a Gasket 149
8.3.8 Bolted Joints in Tension (Dynamic) 154
8.3.9 Bolted Joints in Shear 157
8.4 Key Takeaways 159
8.5 Problems 160
9 Welded Joints 165
9.1 Introduction 165
9.1.1 Welding Versus Brazing 165
9.1.2 Techniques and Materials 165
9.2 Welded Joint Geometry 168
9.3 Calculation ofWelded Joints 169
9.3.1 Butt Welded Joints 170
9.3.2 Simple Loading of Unidirectional FilletWelded Joints 170
9.3.2.1 Case 1: Axial Load 170
9.3.2.2 Case 2: Longitudinal Load 172
9.3.2.3 Case 3: Transverse Load 173
9.3.2.4 Case 4: In-plane Bending Moment 175
9.3.2.5 Case 5: Out-of-plane Bending Moment 177
9.3.2.6 Case 6: Torque Moment 178
9.3.3 Combined Loading of Unidirectional FilletWelded Joints 180
9.3.4 Multidirectional FilletWelded Joints 182
9.3.4.1 Multidirectional FilletWelded Joints with In-plane Load, No Bending 182
9.3.4.2 Multidirectional FilletWelded Joints with In-plane Load and Bending 182
9.3.4.3 Multidirectional FilletWelded Joints with Torque Moment 183
9.4 Key Takeaways 187
9.5 Problems 187
10 Rolling Element Bearings 191
10.1 Introduction 191
10.1.1 Definition 191
10.1.2 Terminology and Geometry 191
10.1.3 Design Parameters 191
10.2 Types of Rolling Element Bearings 192
10.3 Hertz Contact Stress 193
10.3.1 Hertz Contact Stress Between Spherical Bodies 195
10.3.2 Hertz Contact Stress Between Cylindrical Bodies 196
10.4 Bearing Calculations 198
10.4.1 Bearing Life 198
10.4.2 Bearing Load 198
10.4.3 Bearing Reliability 200
10.4.4 Combined Radial and Axial Loading 203
10.5 Key Takeaways 205
10.6 Problems 205
11 Gears 209
11.1 Introduction 209
11.1.1 Types of Gears 209
11.1.2 Terminology 211
11.2 Conjugate Gear Tooth Action 213
11.3 Kinematics 214
11.3.1 Involute 214
11.3.2 Contact Ratio 216
11.3.3 Gear Tooth System 217
11.3.4 Interference 217
11.4 Gear Force Analysis 219
11.5 Gear Manufacturing 222
11.5.1 Forming 222
11.5.2 Machining 222
11.6 Key Takeaways 223
11.7 Problems 223
A Area Moment of Inertia 225
A.1 Introduction 225
A.2 Terminology 225
A.3 Parallel Axis Theorem 226
A.4 Rotation About the Origin 227
B Internal Force Diagrams 231
B.1 Cantilever Beam with End Load 231
B.2 Cantilever Beam with Intermediate Load 231
B.3 Simple Supported Beam with Center Load 232
B.4 Simple Supported Beam with Intermediate Load 233
C Elementary Stress Element 235
C.1 Introduction 235
C.2 Principal Stresses 235
C.3 Maximum Shear Stress 235
Index 237
x
a
addendum 211, 216–18, 223
addendum circle 211, 215
addendum circle diameter 216, 223
alloying elements 14, 26, 28, 111, 166
alternating stress 91–92, 101, 105–6, 114, 121
angle of action 215–16
angle of approach 215
angle of recess 215
angle of twist 72, 85
angular frequency 112–13, 122–23
angular velocity 91–92, 94, 212–13, 219
angular velocity ratio 213–14, 223
application factor 202, 206–7
area moment of inertia 226–28
b
backlash 212
base circle 211, 214–15, 217–19, 223–24
basic load rating 199–207
bearing life 192, 198–201, 203, 205–7
bearing load 191, 198–201, 203
axial 192
radial 192–93, 198, 200, 203–4, 206bearing reliability 192, 200–203, 205–6
bearing types 192–94
belt 112–13, 117, 119, 126–30, 206–7, 209–10
bending stiffness 123, 125–26
bolt preload. See preload
bolt stiffness 144, 146, 151, 153
butt weld 167–70
c
carbon steel 10–12, 14, 26–28, 94–95, 112, 166
CDF. See cumulative density function
circular pitch 211, 216–17, 223–24
clearance fit. See fit, clearance
coarse‐pitch series 139–40
cold work 14, 21–26, 30–31
collar 136, 138–39, 160
contact area 142, 192–93, 195–97
contact pressure 142, 156–57, 162–63
contact stress. See Hertz contact stress
correlation coefficient 36–37, 39, 48–51
corrosion 5, 13–14, 28, 100, 192
covariance 36–38, 48
critical bending RPM 122–23, 125–26
lowest 124–26
cumulative density function (CDF) 33–35, 39–43, 45, 47–48, 50
d
dedendum 211, 216–18, 223dedendum circle 211
dedendum circle diameter 216, 223
deep‐groove ball bearing 192–93, 204, 206–7
deflection 111–12, 123, 125, 143–44, 225
dependent variable 53, 61–63
design factor 5–12, 69, 86, 88–89, 103, 107–8, 114–17, 119–20, 126–30,
158, 161, 170–72, 180, 182, 187–90
design for safety 9–10
design process 1–6, 9–10, 13, 55, 112
design specifications 1–3, 9, 53, 55, 60–61, 63, 114, 192, 201
distribution 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 45, 47–48
normal 39, 41–43, 46–51, 66, 99–100
standard normal 42–44, 47–48, 99–100
uniform 39, 48, 63, 66–67
Weibull 39, 45–48, 50, 198, 200–201, 206–7
dog‐bone specimen 15–17, 19–20
e
efficiency 128, 135, 160, 221
elastic limit (EL) 15–17
elastic modulus. See Young's modulus
elastic strain 17, 22–23, 195–96
elementary stress element 235–36
endurance limit 94–97, 99–101, 103–4, 106–7, 109, 116, 120–21, 125,
155, 157
endurance limit modifying factors 96–97, 100, 104, 106, 116, 120–21,
125, 155
engineering strain 15, 19engineering stress 15–20, 22, 29
equivalent normal stress 80, 114, 116, 120–21, 125, 168, 170, 172, 177,
181, 186–87
error 48, 60, 65
fractional 65
propagation 37, 48
statistical 53, 60–62, 65
worst‐case 60–63
f
failure criteria 79, 81–86, 101–2, 168–70
brittle materials 82–84
ductile materials 79, 81, 83
fatigue 114, 125, 154
fluctuating stress 101–2
fastener 131, 139–57
screw thread. See screw thread, fastener
screw thread geometry 139
strength category 140–41
fatigue failure 92–94, 97, 124–25, 155–57
fatigue failure criterion
Gerber 101–2, 106
Goodman 101, 109, 114, 129, 154–55, 157
Soderberg 101–2, 106, 108–9, 115–17, 120–22, 126, 129–30
fatigue life 94–96, 101–9, 115, 117, 120, 124–30, 142, 154, 159, 162
fatigue strength 91, 94–95, 99–100, 104–7
fatigue strength fraction 96, 104filler material 165–67, 169
fillet weld 167–75, 177–81, 187, 189–90
circumferential 183, 188
multidirectional 182–83
unidirectional 170, 180
fine‐pitch series 139–40
fit 53–55, 57, 59, 63–64, 66
clearance 54, 58, 60, 63
interference 54, 58, 60, 66–67
transition 54, 58, 60
flank 211, 215–16, 218
flexure formula 71–72, 116, 120–21, 125
fluctuating stress 91–93, 101–2, 106, 109, 142, 154
force couple 177–79
friction coefficient 113, 117, 126, 129, 133, 135–36, 141, 158, 160–62,
207
frustrum 148
g
gasket 149–51, 162
Gaussian distribution. See distribution, normal
gear 209–24
bevel 209–10
helical 209–10
herringbone 209
spur 209–11, 213, 216–17, 221
worm 209–10, 222gear ratio 219, 223
gear teeth 193, 209, 211–14, 216, 218–19, 222–23
conjugate action requirement 213, 215–16, 218, 223
minimum number of 219, 223
generating line. See pressure line
Gerber parabola. See fatigue failure criterion, Gerber
Goodman line. See fatigue failure criterion, Goodman
grip 146–48, 151–52, 156
h
Hertz contact stress 193, 195–97, 205
hydrodynamic analogy 183
i
independent variable 53, 61–63
interference 217–19, 223
interference fit. See fit, interference
involute 213–19, 222–23
IT‐grade 55–56, 58, 63
l
line contact 192–93
load factor 98, 101, 104
logarithmic strain. See true strain
m
major diameter 131, 139–40, 142, 147–48, 158, 160
maximum clearance 57, 59, 64, 66
maximum distortion energy criterion 81–82
maximum normal stress criterion 79, 81–84maximum shear stress criterion 79–82
melt pool 166–67
member separation 145–46, 154, 156–57, 162–64
member stiffness 145, 148–49, 151, 154
members 141–52, 154–59, 162
metric bolts 139–41, 148, 151–52, 155–56
minimum clearance 59, 64
minor diameter. See root diameter
miscellaneous effects factor 100
module 211–12, 216, 221, 223–24
preferred values 212
modulus of resilience 17–18, 28–29
modulus of toughness 18–19, 29
Moore specimen 94, 96–98, 100, 103, 106, 116, 120–21, 125
n
necking 16, 19–20, 24, 30
neutral axis 71–72, 175, 185
notch sensitivity 105–6, 120, 127–28
nut 131, 133–36, 141–43, 146–47, 160
p
Palmgren‐Miner 102–3, 106
parallel axis theorem 226–27, 229–30
PDF. See probability density function
pinion 212–13, 215–17, 219–24
pitch 132, 139–40, 160, 217
pitch circle 211–12, 214–15, 217–18, 222pitch circle diameter 211–14, 216–17, 219–20, 223
plastic strain 16–17, 22–24
point contact 192–93
power screw 131–39, 143, 159
preload 141–46, 150, 152, 154–59, 161–64
press fit. See fit, interference
pressure angle 215–19, 223–24
pressure line 215–16, 218–20
principal stress 79–82, 84–86, 235
probability density function (PDF) 33–35, 39–43, 45–46, 48, 50
proportionality limit (PL) 15, 17
pulley 4, 73, 111–14, 117, 119, 123, 126, 128–30, 206–7, 209–10
r
race 191, 199, 205
inner 191
outer 191–93
rack 213, 216, 222
random experiment 33–36, 39–42, 45
random variable 33–43, 45–48, 63, 200–201
continuous 34–36, 48
discrete 34–36
linear combination 37–39, 48
Rankine failure criterion. See maximum normal stress criterion
rating life 198, 201
reliability 1–2, 99–100, 106
reliability factor 99–100residual stress 100, 167, 170, 187
resilience 17–18, 28
rolling element bearing 191–93, 198
rolling elements 191–94, 199, 205
root diameter 131, 140
RPM (rotations per minute) 112, 114–15, 122–23, 126–30, 198, 200, 203,
205–7, 221, 223–24
s
safety factor 6–7, 10–12, 30–31, 83–84, 86–87, 107–9, 117, 124–26, 128–
29, 150–52, 154–57, 162–64, 176–77, 186–87, 189
safety hierarchy 9
screw thread 131–34, 139–40, 142, 159–60
fastener 139–40, 155, 159–60, 162
square 131–34
trapezoidal 131–32, 134
self‐locking 135, 137–39, 160
shaft 31, 50, 57–59, 63, 66–67, 73, 86–87, 91–92, 100–101, 103–4, 106–
8, 111–30, 191, 206–7, 209, 219–21, 223–24
size factor 97, 101, 104
Soderberg line. See fatigue failure criterion, Soderberg
spring 125, 146, 149
standard deviation 36–39, 43, 47–51, 66
strain energy 80–81
strain‐strengthening coefficient 24–25
strain‐strengthening exponent 24–25
strength category. See fastener, strength categorystress concentration 6, 15, 73–75, 77–78, 92–93, 97, 105, 120–21, 126,
155
stress concentration factor 73–74, 78, 85, 105, 121, 126
fatigue 105, 121
theoretical 73–74, 78, 86–87, 105
theoretical shear 73, 85, 105, 121
stress‐life method 93, 106
stress range 101
stress ratio 101
surface factor 97, 100, 104
surface quality 93, 97, 100, 143, 191
t
temperature 21, 99, 166, 205
temperature factor 99, 101
tensile stress area 139–40, 147, 159
throat section 168–81, 183–87
tolerance 21, 53–64, 66–67, 192
bilateral 54, 61–62, 65
lower limit 53–55, 58, 63
preferred 55, 57, 59, 63
stacks 53, 60
upper limit 53, 58, 63
tooth profile 213, 217–19, 223
toughness 14, 18–19, 28
transition fit. See fit, transition
Tresca failure criterion. See maximum shear stress criteriontrue strain 19–20, 23–25
true stress 19–20, 23–25
u
uncertainty 5–7, 10, 33, 48
undercutting 218–19, 223
unit hole system 59–60
unit shaft system 59–60
v
variance 36–38, 48
Von Mises failure criterion. See maximum distortion energy criterion
w
washer 142–43, 148, 156–57, 162–63
Weibull parameters 47, 201–2, 205
y Y
oung's modulus 15, 28–29, 62, 65, 71, 111, 125, 147–49, 206
Table of Contents
Cover
Title Page
Copyright
About the Author
Preface
About the Companion Site
1 Mechanical Design
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Mechanical Design Process
1.3 Mechanical Elements
1.4 Standards and Codes
1.5 Uncertainty in Mechanical Design
1.6 Design for Safety
1.7 Key Takeaways
1.8 Problems
Notes
2 Material Selection
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Material Classification
2.3 Mechanical Properties
2.4 Materials Processing
2.5 Alloys
2.6 Key Takeaways
2.7 Problems
Notes3 Statistical Considerations
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Random Variables and Distributions
3.3 Density Functions
3.4 Metrics to Describe a Distribution
3.5 Linear Combination of Random Variables
3.6 Types of Distributions
3.7 Key Takeaways
3.8 Problems
4 Tolerances
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Terminology
4.3 Preferred Fits and Tolerances
4.4 Tolerance Stacks
4.5 Key Takeaways
4.6 Problems
Notes
5 Design for Static Strength
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Simple Loading
5.3 Stress Concentrations
5.4 Failure Criteria
5.5 Key Takeaways
5.6 Problems
Notes6 Design for Fatigue Strength
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Fatigue‐life Methods
6.3 Fatigue Strength
6.4 Endurance‐limit Modifying Factors
6.5 Fluctuating Stresses
6.6 Stress Concentrations
6.7 Key Takeaways
6.8 Problems
Notes
7 Shafts
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Recipe for Shaft Calculations
7.3 Example Calculations
7.4 Critical Rotation Frequency of a Shaft
7.5 Key Takeaways
7.6 Problems
8 Bolted Joints
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Power Screws
8.3 Fasteners
8.4 Key Takeaways
8.5 Problems
Notes9 Welded Joints
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Welded Joint Geometry
9.3 Calculation of Welded Joints
9.4 Key Takeaways
9.5 Problems
Note
10 Rolling Element Bearings
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Types of Rolling Element Bearings
10.3 Hertz Contact Stress
10.4 Bearing Calculations
10.5 Key Takeaways
10.6 Problems
Notes
11 Gears
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Conjugate Gear Tooth Action
11.3 Kinematics
11.4 Gear Force Analysis
11.5 Gear Manufacturing
11.6 Key Takeaways
11.7 Problems
Notes
A Area Moment of InertiaArea Moment of Inertia
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Terminology
A.3 Parallel Axis Theorem
A.4 Rotation About the OriginB Internal Force DiagramsInternal Force Diagrams
B.1 Cantilever Beam with End Load
B.2 Cantilever Beam with Intermediate Load
B.3 Simple Supported Beam with Center Load
B.4 Simple Supported Beam with Intermediate Load
C Elementary Stress ElementElementary Stress Element
C.1 Introduction
C.2 Principal Stresses
C.3 Maximum Shear Stress
Index
End User License Agreement
List of Tables
Chapter 1
Table 1.1 Five categories of mechanical elements.
Table 1.2 Excerpt from supplier catalog.
Table 1.3 Excerpt from supplier catalog.
Table 1.4 Cross‐sectional area of the circular tubes.
Table 1.5 Excerpt from supplier catalog.
Table 1.6 Excerpt from supplier catalog.
Table 1.7 Excerpt from supplier catalog.Chapter 2
Table 2.1 Example categories of material properties.
Table 2.2 Comparison of material properties of selected hot rolled and cold
...
Table 2.3 Mechanical properties of selected materials.
Table 2.4 SAE steel grades (major classification only).
Table 2.5 SAE/ASTM unified numbering system (steel classification only).
Chapter 3
Table 3.1 Comparison of the yield stress of AISI 1040 HR steel specimens
fro...
Table 3.2 Standard normal distribution table.
Chapter 4
Table 4.1 International tolerance (IT) grades for metric dimensions in (
)....
Table 4.2 Fundamental deviations for metric dimensions in (mm).
Table 4.3 Cantilever parameters.
Table 4.4 Cantilever parameters.
Chapter 5
Table 5.1 Excerpt from supplier catalog.
Chapter 6
Table 6.1 Surface factor .
Table 6.2 Temperature factor .
Table 6.3 Reliability factor .Chapter 8
Table 8.1 Comparison of metric bolt dimensions, showing the coarse‐pitch
and...
Table 8.2 Standard bolt lengths.
Table 8.3 Dimensions of regular metric hexagonal nuts.
Table 8.4 Dimensions of regular metric plain washers.
Table 8.5 Surface quality for torque requirement calculation.
Table 8.6 Young's modulus of common gasket materials.
Table 8.7 Endurance limit of metric bolts with rolled screw thread.
Chapter 10
Table 10.1 Different rolling element bearing types and their function.
Table 10.2 Typical bearing application factor values .
Table 10.3 Equivalent radial load factors for ball bearings.
Table 10.4 Excerpt from a bearing manufacturer catalog for deep‐groove
ball ...
Chapter 11
Table 11.1 Gear tooth system.
List of IllustrationsChapter 1
Figure 1.1 The design process relates a specific set of requirements to an
o...
Figure 1.2 Overview of the nine phases of the mechanical design process,
wit...
Figure 1.3 Cantilever beam with square cross‐section.
Figure 1.4 Circular tube.
Figure 1.5 Circular tube made from low‐carbon steel.
Figure 1.6 Circular rod made from low‐carbon steel.
Figure 1.7 Rectangular bar made from aluminum.
Figure 1.8 T‐bar made from 304 stainless steel.
Figure 1.9 Square tube made from carbon steel.
Figure 1.10 Hexagonal bar made from carbon steel.Chapter 2
Figure 2.1 Material classification by microstructure.
Figure 2.2 A dog‐bone specimen for a uniaxial tensile test.
Figure 2.3 Engineering stress–strain diagram of (a) a ductile and (b) a brit...
Figure 2.4 Engineering stress–strain diagram of a ductile material,
graphica...
Figure 2.5 Engineering stress–strain diagram graphically indicating the
resi...
Figure 2.6 Engineering stress–strain diagram graphically indicating the
toug...
Figure 2.7 Engineering stress–strain diagram, graphically indicating how
its...
Figure 2.8 Comparison of the true versus engineering stress–strain diagram
o...
Figure 2.9 (a) Engineering stress–strain diagram of a ductile material
befor...
Figure 2.10 Load versus (decreasing) cross‐sectional area.
Figure 2.11 True stress–strain diagram, showing the region of plastic
deform...
Figure 2.12 Engineering stress–strain diagram.
Figure 2.13 Engineering load‐extension diagram.
Figure 2.14 Stainless steel rod attached to a rigid frame.
Figure 2.15 Stainless steel bar attached to a rigid frame.Chapter 3
Figure 3.1 Example of a probability density function of (a) a continuous
ran...
Figure 3.2 (a) Example of a cumulative density function of random variable
Figure 3.3 (a) Probability density function and (b) cumulative density
funct...
Figure 3.4 (a) Probability density function and (b) cumulative density
funct...
Figure 3.5 (a) Probability density function and (b) cumulative density
funct...
Figure 3.6 (a) Probability density function and (b) cumulative density
funct...
Figure 3.7 (a) Probability density function and (b) cumulative density
funct...
Figure 3.8 Three examples of (a) the probability density function and (b)
th...
Figure 3.9 Mars rover grasping rocks.Chapter 4
Figure 4.1 Mechanical element with nominal size , indicating the upper (
) ...
Figure 4.2 Two mechanical elements that fit together in an assembly. The
fit...
Figure 4.3 ISO 286 tolerance method, showing the size of the tolerance
(doub...
Figure 4.4 ISO 286 tolerance method, showing the locations of and
tolera...
Figure 4.5 Schematic illustration of the different tolerances with respect t...
Figure 4.6 Unit hole system: we fix the tolerance of all internal
dimensions...
Figure 4.7 Unit shaft system: we fix the tolerance of all external
dimension...
Figure 4.8 Microscale cantilever beam with rectangular cross‐section.
Figure 4.9 Shaft and bushing assembly.
Figure 4.10 Several elements fitting together in an assembly.
Figure 4.11 Cantilever beam with rectangular cross‐section.
Figure 4.12 Cantilever beam with circular cross‐section.
Figure 4.13 Shaft that runs through a sleeve bearing pressed into a frame.
Figure 4.14 Bushing pressed into a bracket.Chapter 5
Figure 5.1 Relating external forces to internal forces and stress.
Figure 5.2 Simple axial loading, showing uniform (a) normal and (b) shear
st...
Figure 5.3 Uniaxial bending of a prismatic beam, showing the normal stress
a...
Figure 5.4 Torsion of a cylinder, illustrating the angle of twist, and the d...
Figure 5.5 (a) Solid and (b) hollow cylinder cross‐section.
Figure 5.6 Stress concentration around an elliptical hole in a plate, with a...
Figure 5.7 Notched plate subject to an axial load.
Figure 5.8 Grooved shaft subject to an axial load.
Figure 5.9 Grooved shaft subject to bending.
Figure 5.10 Grooved shaft subject to torque.
Figure 5.11 Shoulder fillet subject to an axial load.
Figure 5.12 Shoulder fillet subject to bending.
Figure 5.13 Shoulder fillet subject to torque.
Figure 5.14 A circular shaft with an oil groove subject to an axial load.
Figure 5.15 Mohr circle of a uniaxial tensile test.
Figure 5.16 Distortion energy concept, showing (a) total strain energy, (b) ...
Figure 5.17 Comparison of the three failure criteria for ductile materials i...
Figure 5.18 Coulomb–Mohr failure criterion for a plane stress‐state.
Figure 5.19 Comparison of the two failure criteria for brittle materials in ...
Figure 5.20 Graphical representation of the three stress states (a), (b), an...
Figure 5.21 Circular tube.
Figure 5.22 Cantilever beam with circular cross‐section.
Figure 5.23 Stationary shaft with circular cross‐section and with shoulder
f...Figure 5.24 Stationary shaft with circular cross‐section and with an oil gro...
Figure 5.25 Stationary shaft with circular cross‐section and with a
shoulder...
Figure 5.26 Horizontal beam with vertical tension link.
Figure 5.27 Structure to attach a sign to a store front.
Figure 5.28 Horizontal T‐beam.Chapter 6
Figure 6.1 (a) Alternating stress and (b) fluctuating stress, showing
magnit...
Figure 6.2 Cross‐sectional view of a mechanical element, showing the
differe...
Figure 6.3 Schematic of the standardized material specimen typically used
in...
Figure 6.4 Typical – curve for carbon steel, showing the fatigue
strength ...
Figure 6.5 Fatigue strength fraction as a function of ultimate tensile stres...
Figure 6.6 Equivalent diameter , showing (a) a nonrotating rectangular
cros...
Figure 6.7 Fluctuating stress, illustrating different characteristic paramet...
Figure 6.8 Failure criteria for fluctuating stresses, showing the Goodman
an...
Figure 6.9 Failure criteria for fluctuating stresses, showing the Gerber par...
Figure 6.10 Rotating shaft with diameter .
Figure 6.11 Free‐body diagram and internal force diagrams.
Figure 6.12 – curve, indicating the fatigue life corresponding to
loadin...
Figure 6.13 Solid rotating shaft.
Figure 6.14 Cantilever beam with square cross‐section.
Figure 6.15 Solid, rotating shaft with transverse load.
Figure 6.16 Solid rotating shaft with transverse load.
Figure 6.17 Mixer mounted on a rotating shaft.
Figure 6.18 Rotating shaft.
Figure 6.19 Cantilever beam with circular cross‐section.Chapter 7
Figure 7.1 Schematic of a shaft layout, showing a typical stepped‐cylinder
d...
Figure 7.2 Motor‐machine torque transmission.
Figure 7.3 Belt–pulley torque transmission.
Figure 7.4 Package delivery drone.
Figure 7.5 Shaft design, free‐body diagram.
Figure 7.6 Shaft design.
Figure 7.7 Free‐body diagrams in the ‐plane and ‐plane.
Figure 7.8 Vector sum of two moment vectors.
Figure 7.9 Parametric shaft design.
Figure 7.10 Rotating shaft, showing the eccentricity between its center of
m...
Figure 7.11 Shaft design.
Figure 7.12 Free‐body diagram.
Figure 7.13 Shaft with belt and pulley transmission.
Figure 7.14 Rotating shaft.
Figure 7.15 Rotating shaft with oil groove.
Figure 7.16 Motor‐driven pump.
Figure 7.17 Rotating shaft with shoulder fillet.
Figure 7.18 Shaft that drives a fan with a belt and pulley transmission.
Figure 7.19 Shaft of a paper‐printing machine that carries a paper roll.
Figure 7.20 Rotating shaft with a flywheel and a belt and pulley
transmissio...
Figure 7.21 Rotating stepped shaft.Chapter 8
Figure 8.1 Power screw thread types, showing (a) square screw thread and
(b)...
Figure 8.2 Power screw thread made of a square screw thread wrapped
around a...
Figure 8.3 (a) Power screw setup with nut, showing a single developed
screw ...
Figure 8.4 Geometry of trapezoidal power screw thread, showing the
projectio...
Figure 8.5 Power screw setup with nut, and a thrust collar against the
frame...
Figure 8.6 Car jack to manually raise and lower a car.
Figure 8.7 Car jack load and geometry.
Figure 8.8 Total torque required to raise and lower the load as a
function...
Figure 8.9 Geometry of metric fastener screw thread.
Figure 8.10 Strength category of a metric bolt.
Figure 8.11 Bolted joint in tension, showing the preload , the external
ten...
Figure 8.12 Load versus deflection diagram, graphically indicating the
stiff...
Figure 8.13 Stiffness of the bolt and the members, and graphical
representat...
Figure 8.14 Equivalent stiffness of multiple springs in (a) parallel and (b)...
Figure 8.15 Determining bolt dimensions for a through hole with a bolt and
n...
Figure 8.16 Determining bolt dimensions for a blind hole with a bolt.
Figure 8.17 Determining the member stiffness, assuming a frustrum‐
shaped...Figure 8.18 Members with gaskets.
Figure 8.19 Pressure vessel with a gasket between the members.
Figure 8.20 Traffic sign, anchored with four bolts.
Figure 8.21 Bolted joint subject to a dynamic axial load, schematically
illu...
Figure 8.22 Monkey cage toy, anchored with two bolts.
Figure 8.23 Bolted joint subject to an external shear load.
Figure 8.24 Lap joint with two bolts and three plates.
Figure 8.25 Screw jack.
Figure 8.26 Flange clutch.
Figure 8.27 Bracket and rigid structure.
Figure 8.28 Machine frame.
Figure 8.29 Bracket.
Figure 8.30 Rotating shaft supported in a pillow block.
Figure 8.31 Tilted bracket.
Figure 8.32 Arm structure.Chapter 9
Figure 9.1 Schematic illustration of an arc welding process.
Figure 9.2 Heat affected zone adjacent to the welded joint, resulting from
t...
Figure 9.3 Instead of obtaining (a) the intended assembly of mechanical
elem...
Figure 9.4 Examples of butt welds, illustrating different ways to prepare
th...
Figure 9.5 Examples of fillet welds, showing (a) a tee joint and (b) a lap j...
Figure 9.6 Thickness of the throat section of a welded joint showing (a)
a...
Figure 9.7 Four stress components in the throat section of a welded joint
σ∥...
Figure 9.8 Unidirectional fillet welds subject to an axial load .
Figure 9.9 Lap joint with two fillet welded joints, subject to an axial load...
Figure 9.10 Lap joint with two fillet welded joints, showing the force and
s...
Figure 9.11 Unidirectional fillet welds subject to a longitudinal load .
Figure 9.12 Unidirectional fillet welds subject to a transverse load .
Figure 9.13 Unidirectional fillet welds subject to an in‐plane bending
momen...
Figure 9.14 Bracket attached to a rigid structure with two fillet welded joi...
Figure 9.15 Bracket attached to a rigid structure with two fillet welds.
Figure 9.16 Unidirectional fillet welds subject to out‐of‐plane bending
mome...
Figure 9.17 Unidirectional fillet welds subject to a torque moment .
Figure 9.18 Two steel parts welded together with two fillet welds.Figure 9.19 Two steel parts welded together with two fillet welds, showing
(...
Figure 9.20 Multidirectional fillet welded joints with in‐plane loading, no ...
Figure 9.21 Multidirectional fillet welded joints subject to in‐plane loadin...
Figure 9.22 Multi‐directional fillet welded joints around a circular tube su...
Figure 9.23 Multidirectional fillet welded joints around a rectangular tube
...
Figure 9.24 Two steel parts welded together with combined longitudinal
and t...
Figure 9.25 Location, direction, and sense of resulting from (a)
longitudi...
Figure 9.26 Two plates welded together.
Figure 9.27 Fork lift.
Figure 9.28 Square tube welded to a rigid frame.
Figure 9.29 Triangular tube welded to a rigid frame.
Figure 9.30 L‐shaped element welded to a rigid frame.
Figure 9.31 Bracket welded to a rigid frame.
Figure 9.32 Bracket welded to a rigid frame.
Figure 9.33 Two plates welded together with two fillet welds.
Figure 9.34 U‐shaped beam welded to a rigid frame.
Figure 9.35 Bracket welded to a rigid frame.Chapter 10
Figure 10.1 Rolling element bearing terminology.
Figure 10.2 (a) Radial and (b) axial rolling element bearing.
Figure 10.3 (a) Deep‐groove ball bearing with point contact and (b)
cylindri...
Figure 10.4 Hertz contact stress between two spherical bodies.
Figure 10.5 Schematic illustration of the semi‐elliptical Hertz contact stre...
Figure 10.6 Ratio of the stress magnitude and the maximum stress versus
orth...
Figure 10.7 Hertz contact stress between two cylindrical bodies.
Figure 10.8 Schematic representation of bearing life.
Figure 10.9 Log–log presentation of bearing load versus bearing life.
Figure 10.10 Log–log presentation of bearing load versus bearing life, for
d...
Figure 10.11 Combined loading of a bearing showing two nondimensional
parame...
Figure 10.12 Shaft supported in two bearings.
Figure 10.13 Shaft supported in two bearings.
Figure 10.14 Shaft supported in two bearings.Chapter 11
Figure 11.1 Rotation direction of (a) belt and pulley transmission, and (b) ...
Figure 11.2 Different gear categories (a) spur gears, (b) helical gears, (c)...
Figure 11.3 Gear terminology.
Figure 11.4 Gear rotation direction for (a) external gear pair and (b) inter...
Figure 11.5 Two meshing gear teeth.
Figure 11.6 Schematic illustration of developing an involute by tracking
the...
Figure 11.7 Gear tooth engagement and disengagement, between driver
(pinion)...
Figure 11.8 Rack and pinion configuration.
Figure 11.9 Schematic of interacting gear teeth illustrating (a) no interfer...
Figure 11.10 Schematic of forces acting on meshing spur gears.
A Area Moment of Inertia
Figure A.1 Definition of the area moment of inertia.
Figure A.2 Definition of the parallel axis theorem.
Figure A.3 Rotation of the area moment and product of inertia about the
orig...
Figure A.4 Rectangle.
Figure A.5 Triangle.
B Internal Force Diagrams
Figure B.1 Cantilever beam with end load.
Figure B.2 Cantilever beam with intermediate load.
Figure B.3 Simple supported beam with center load.
Figure B.4 Simple supported beam with intermediate load.
C Elementary Stress Element
Figure C.1 Elementary stress element.


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