كتاب لحام الأنابيب - Pipe Welding
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب لحام الأنابيب - Pipe Welding

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كتاب لحام الأنابيب - Pipe Welding Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب لحام الأنابيب - Pipe Welding   كتاب لحام الأنابيب - Pipe Welding Emptyالجمعة 03 مارس 2023, 9:25 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب لحام الأنابيب
Pipe Welding - First Edition
Jeffus L., Baker B.

كتاب لحام الأنابيب - Pipe Welding P_w_j_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xi
Acknowledgments xii
About the Author xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction
to Pipe Welding 01
Objectives 1
Key Terms 1
Introduction 1
Piping Systems 2
Pipe Applications 3
How Pipe is Made 5
Pipe Versus Round Tubing 6
Pipe Standards 7
Pipe Dimensioning 8
Tubing Dimensions 9
Pressure and Strength Ranges 10
Pipe Systems Codes and Standards 10
Pipe Welding Processes 11
Types of Pipe Welding Jobs 11
Teamwork 12
Leadership 13
Metric Units 13
Summary 15
Review Questions 15
Chapter 2 Welding Safety 17
Objectives 17
Key Terms 17
Introduction 18
Burns 18
Injuries 19
Eye, Face, and Ear Protection 19
Eye and Face Protection 19
Ear Protection 19
Respiratory Protection 19
Ventilation 20
Material Specification Data 20
Waste Material Recycling and Disposal 21
Falls 21
Scaffolding 22
Ladder Safety 23
Types of Ladders 23
Ladder Inspection 23
Rules for Ladder Use 24
Excavations 24
Cave-ins 25
Excavation Walls 25
Other Excavation Hazards 26
Electrical Safety 27
Extension Cord Safety 28
Safety Rules for Portable Electric Tools 28
General Work Clothing 29
Special Protective Clothing 29
Fire Protection 29
Fire Watch 30
Planned Maintenance 30
Hoses 30
Cables 30
Hand Tools 30
Work Area 30
Material Handling 31
Hauling 31
Heavy Equipment 31
Rigging 33
Summary 35
Review Questions 35
Chapter 3 Shop Math 36
Objectives 36
Key Terms 36
Contents v
Introduction 36
Shop Math 37
Types Of Numbers 37
General Math Rules 38
Equations and Formulas 38
Mixed Units 40
Adding and Subtracting Mixed Units 40
Fractions 41
Adding and Subtracting Fractions 42
Finding the Fractions’ Common Denominator 42
Reducing Fractions 43
Multiplying and Dividing Fractions 43
Multiplying Fractions 43
Dividing Fractions 44
Converting Numbers 44
Converting Fractions to Decimals 44
Tolerances 44
Converting Decimals to Fractions 44
Conversion Charts 45
Volume 46
Tank Capacities 48
Measuring 48
Summary 49
Review Questions 49
Chapter 4 Blueprint Reading
and Welding Symbols 50
Objectives 50
Key Terms 50
Introduction 50
Types of Drawing Lines 52
Pipe Drawings 54
Dimensioning 58
Reading Dimensions 59
Finding Missing Dimensions 60
Drawing Scale 60
Piping Symbols 63
Types of Pipe Drawings 64
Materials 64
Pipe 64
Fittings 66
Valves 66
Pumps 67
Check Valves 68
Material Takeoff 68
Welding Symbols 70
Types of Welds 70
Weld Location 70
Significance of Arrow Location 72
Groove Welds 72
Consumable Inserts (Backing) 75
Fillet Welds 75
Summary 76
Review Questions 76
Chapter 5 Thermal-Cutting Processes 78
Objectives 78
Key Terms 78
Introduction 78
Oxyacetylene Cutting (OFC-A) 79
Oxyacetylene Gouging 79
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC) 80
Plasma Arc Gouging (PAG) 80
Air Carbon Arc Gouging (CAC-A) 80
Pipe Cutting 81
Freehand Pipe Cuts 81
Layout 82
Oxyacetylene Equipment Setup 83
Selecting the Correct Tip 83
Cleaning a Cutting Tip 84
Lighting the Torch 85
Getting Set to Cut 87
Starting a Cut 87
Freehand Oxyacetylene Pipe Cutting 89
Square Cutting Pipe 89
1G OFC-A Pipe Cutting 89
5G OF Pipe Cutting 90
2G OF Pipe Cutting 90
Rusty Nuts and Bolts 91
Oxyacetylene Gouging 92
1G OFC-A U-Grooving of a Pipe 92
1G OF Gouging Out a Pipe Weld 92vi Contents
5G OF Gouging Out a Pipe Weld 93
2G OF Gouging Out a Pipe Weld 93
PAC Equipment Setup 93
Freehand Plasma Arc Pipe Cutting 94
1G PA Pipe Cutting 94
5G PA Pipe Cutting 95
2G PA Pipe Cutting 96
Plasma Arc Gouging (PAG) 96
1G PA U-Grooving of a Pipe 97
1G PA Gouging Out a Pipe Weld 97
5G PA Gouging Out a Pipe Weld 98
2G PA Gouging Out a Pipe Weld 98
Air Carbon Arc Equipment Setup 99
1G Air Carbon Arc U-Grooving
of a Pipe 100
1G Air Carbon Arc J-Grooving
of a Pipe 101
1G Air Carbon Arc Gouging Out
a Pipe Weld 101
5G Air Carbon Arc Gouging Out
a Pipe Weld 102
2G Air Carbon Arc Gouging Out
a Pipe Weld 102
Machine Cuts 102
Summary 104
Review Questions 105
Chapter 6 Pipe Joint Design and
Preparation 106
Objectives 106
Key Terms 106
Introduction 106
Joint Geometry 108
Joint Preparation 109
Oxy-Fuel Pipe Cutting 110
Pipe Layout 113
Pipe Layout Tools 113
90-Degree Saddle on
Standard Wall Pipe 115
45-Degree Lateral on
Standard Wall Pipe 120
Orange Peel Pipe End 122
Fabricated Versus Commercial Pipe Fittings 124
Summary 124
Review Questions 125
Chapter 7 Pipe Fit-Up and Alignment 126
Objectives 126
Key Terms 126
Introduction 126
Code Standards 127
Preparation of Pipe for Fitting 127
Alignment Tools 127
Fitting Tools 128
Pipe Offsets 129
Solving Unknown Pipe Angles and Lengths
Using The Pythagorean Theorem 130
Solving Pipe Lengths Using the Angles
of a Right Triangle 131
Marking Butt Weld Elbows for
Nonstandard Angles 132
Take Outs and Root Opening 134
Summary 135
Review Questions 136
Chapter 8 Shielded Metal Arc
Welding of Pipe 137
Objectives 137
Key Terms 137
Introduction 137
Arc Strikes 138
Technique for Striking an Arc 138
Electrode Manipulation 139
Use Both Hands for Welding 139
Weld Pass 139
Tack Welds 141
Root Pass 144
Root-Pass 1G Position 144
Hot Pass 145
Filler Passes 146
Cover Pass 147
Weld Physics—Surface Tension 149
2G Pipe-Welding Position 149Contents vii
5G Pipe Welding Position 151
Summary 156
Review Questions 156
Chapter 9 Gas Metal Arc Welding
of Pipe 157
Objectives 157
Key Terms 157
Introduction 157
Types of Metal Transfer 158
Welding, Volts (Potential), and
Amps (Current) 160
CC Versus CP Welding Machines 160
Understanding CP and GMA Welding 161
GMAW Variables 161
Electrode Extension 161
Work Angle and Gun Angle 162
Travel Speed 162
Electrode Positioning 162
Tack Welds 163
Root Pass 163
Backing Gas 163
Welding Practices 163
Modulated Current Transfer 172
Modulated Current Process 172
Effect of Modulated Current on Welds 173
Summary 174
Review Questions 175
Chapter 10 Flux Cored Arc Welding
of Pipe 176
Objectives 176
Key Terms 176
Introduction 176
Application of FCAW to Pipe 177
Root Pass Welds 177
Summary 182
Review Questions 182
Chapter 11 Gas Tungsten Arc
Welding of Pipe 183
Objectives 183
Key Terms 183
Introduction 183
Preparation of Pipe for Welding 184
GTAW Pipe Techniques 185
Techniques for Adding Filler Metal 186
Summary 192
Review Questions 192
Chapter 12 Pipe Welding with
Multiple Processes 193
Objectives 193
Key Terms 193
Introduction 193
Preparation of Pipe
for Welding 194
GTAW Pipe Techniques 195
GTAW Root Weld 195
GMAW Root Weld 196
Filler and Cover Pass—SMAW Process 199
Summary 202
Review Questions 203
Chapter 13 Machine and Automatic
Pipe Welding 204
Objectives 204
Key Terms 204
Introduction 204
Automation 206
Planning for Automation 206
Property 206
Skilled Welders 207
Types of Equipment 207
Stationary Pipe-Welding Equipment 207
Orbiting Pipe-Welding Equipment 207
Multiple Weld Heads 208
Welding Torch Setup 208
Wire Feeder 209
Orbital Welding Head Setup 209
Summary 209
Review Questions 210
Chapter 14 Filler Metals 211
Objectives 211
Key Terms 211viii Contents
Introduction 211
Preheat, Interpass, and Postheat
Temperatures 212
SMAW Electrodes 212
E6010 AWS A5.1-04 212
E7010 AWS A5.5-96 212
E8010 AWS A5.5-96 212
E9010 AWS A5.5-96 213
E7016 AWS A5.1-04 214
E8016 AWS A5.5-96 214
E9016 AWS A5.5-96 214
E8018 AWS A5.5-96 214
E9018 AWS A5.5-96 214
E10018 AWS A5.5-96 214
E11018 AWS A5.5-96 214
E12018 AWS A5.5-96 214
GMAW Solid Wire 214
ER70S AWS A5.28-96 214
ER80S AWS A5.18-01 215
ER90S AWS A5.18-01 215
GTAW Filler Metals 215
Mild Steel Filler Metals 215
Stainless Steel Electrodes 215
Consumable Inserts 215
Filler Metal Storage and Handling 216
Hydrogen Embrittlement 216
Summary 217
Review Questions 218
Chapter 15 Welding Metallurgy 219
Objectives 219
Key Terms 219
Introduction 219
ASTM, ASME, and API 220
Carbon Steel Pipe 220
Mechanical Properties of Pipes 220
Hardness 220
Ductility 221
Brittleness 221
Toughness 221
Strength 221
Other Mechanical Concepts 222
Corrosion 222
Types of Corrosion 223
Factors that Affect Corrosion 223
Allowing for Corrosion 224
Heat, Temperature, and Energy 224
Example 1: Temperature versus Heat 224
Example 2: Temperature versus Heat 224
Example 3: Heat versus Temperature 224
Example 4: Heat versus Temperature 224
Grain Structures of Metal 224
Weld Metal Grain Structure 225
Heat-Affected Zone 225
Stainless Steels 226
Weld Distortion 226
Thermal Expansion 227
Thermal Conductivity 228
Summary 228
Review Questions 229
Chapter 16 Weld Discontinuities
and Defects 230
Objectives 230
Key Terms 230
Introduction 231
Discontinuities 231
Types of Discontinuities 231
Porosity 231
Inclusions 234
Inadequate Joint Penetration 235
Incomplete Fusion 235
Arc Strikes 236
Overlap 237
Undercut 237
Underfill 237
Weld Problems Caused By
Inherent Pipe Discontinuities 239
Laminations 239
Delaminations 239Contents ix
Cracks 239
Types of Cracks 239
Summary 241
Review Questions 242
Chapter 17 Pipe Weld Repairs 243
Objectives 243
Key Terms 243
Introduction 243
Repair Considerations 244
Nonmetallic Inclusions 244
Incomplete Joint Penetration 246
Repair of Cracks 246
Summary 247
Review Questions 247
Chapter 18 Testing and Inspecting
Welds 248
Objectives 248
Key Terms 248
Introduction 248
Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) 248
Codes and Standards 249
Codes and Standards Organizations 249
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) 249
WPS Form 250
Weld Testing 250
Destructive Testing (DT) 250
Tensile Testing 250
Nick-Break Test 251
Guided-Bend Test 251
Guided-Bend Test Procedure 254
Free-Bend Test 254
Alternate Bend 255
Impact Testing 255
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) 256
Visual Inspection (VT) 256
Penetrant Inspection (PT) 257
MT Procedure 259
Radiographic Inspection (RT) 259
Hydrostatic Testing 261
Ultrasonic Inspection (UT) 262
Eddy Current Inspection (ET) 263
Corrosion Protection 263
Pipe Preparation 263
Corrosion Protection Inspection 264
Summary 265
Review Questions 265
Chapter 19 Pipe Welding Certification—
Welding Procedures 266
Objectives 266
Key Terms 266
Introduction 266
Qualified Versus Certified Welders 267
AWS SENSE 267
SENSE Certification 267
SENSE Visual Inspection Tools 267
SENSE Visual Inspection Testing 267
SENSE Visual Inspection Test Results 269
SENSE Guided Bend Test Specimen
Selection 269
SENSE Guided Bend Test Specimen
Preparation 270
SENSE Guided Bend Test Jig 271
SENSE Guided Bend Test Results 271
Certification Records 271
Summary 272
Review Questions 272
Chapter 20 Pipe Threads 274
Objectives 274
Key Terms 274
Introduction 275
Types of Threads 275
Thread Specifications 276
Thread Gauges 277
Bolts, Machine Screws, and Studs 278
Bolt Grades 278
Cutting Oils 278
Using Thread Cutting Oils 279
Recycling Thread Cutting Oil 279x Contents
Disposing of Used Thread Cutting Oil 279
Disposing of Oil-Soaked Rags 279
Pipe Threading 279
Storing Taps and Dies 279
Tightening Threads 283
Torque Wrenches 283
Pipe Dope and Teflon Tape 283
Tightening Pipe Fittings 283
Summary 284
Review Questions 284
Appendix
I. Student Welding Report
and/or SENSE Record 287
II. AWS SENSE Drawing Detail Form 288
III. AWS SENSE Workmanship Sample
Drawing Form 289
Glossary/Glosario 290
Index 305
305
1G air carbon arc
gouging out pipe welds, 101–102
J-grooving pipes, 101
U-grooving pipes, 100–101
1G OF gouging out pipe welds, 92–93
1G OFC-A
pipe cutting, 89–90
U-grooving pipes, 92
1G PA
gouging out pipe welds, 97–98
pipe cutting, 94–95
U-grooving pipes, 97
1G position, mild steel pipe, 187–189, 196–198
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 187–189
multiple processes, 196–198
1G position, rolled, 177
cover pass, 178–179
filler pass, 178
hot pass, 177–178
2G air carbon arc gouging out pipe welds, 102
2G OF
gouging out pipe welds, 93
pipe cutting, 90–91
2G PA
gouging out pipe welds, 98–99
pipe cutting, 96
2G pipe-welding position, 149–151
2G position, mild steel pipe, 189–190, 198–199
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 189–190
multiple processes, 198–199
2G position, vertical fixed, 167–168, 180
cover pass, 151, 169
filler pass, 150–151, 168–169
hot pass, 150, 168
root pass, 149–150
5G air carbon arc gouging out pipe welds, 102
5G OF
gouging out pipe welds, 93
pipe cutting, 90
5G PA
gouging out pipe welds, 98
pipe cutting, 95–96
5G pipe welding position, 151–155
5G position, horizontal fixed, 169
cover pass, 153–154, 170–171
filler pass, 153, 170
hot pass, 152–153
root pass, 152, 170
tack welds, 169–170
5G position, mild steel pipe, 190–191
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 190–191
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW),
200–201
6G position, 45-degree fixed, 171
cover pass, 155, 172
filler pass, 155, 172
hot pass, 155, 172
root pass, 154–155, 171
6G position, mild steel pipe, 191–192
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 191–192
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 201–202
90-degree saddle on wall pipes, 115–116
A
acme, 274, 276
adding. See also math (shop)
fractions, 42
mixed units, 40–41
advances, 130
air carbon arc cutting, 78
air carbon arc equipment setup, 99–102
air carbon arc gouging (CAC-A), 78, 80–81
alignment tools, 127–128
alloyed pipes, automated welds, 206
alphabet of lines, 52
alternate bend tests, 255
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 7, 22
American National Thread types, 64
American Petroleum Institute (API), 10, 126,
220, 249
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM),
211, 220, 278
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),
8, 126, 220, 249
American Welding Society (AWS), 10, 63, 126, 211
certification, 266–272
SENSE, 266–271
amperage, 139–140
amperes, 160–161
angles
bevel, 108
drag travel, 140, 196
electrodes, 140
groove, 109
gun, 162
leading travel, 196
marking butt weld elbows, 132–132
profile, 274, 276
push travel, 140
saddles, 129
solving with Pythagorean Theorem, 130–131
solving with right triangles, 131–132
trailing, 196
work, 162
applications
of pipes, 3–4
of round tubing, 9
arc length, 132, 140
arc strikes, 138, 236–237
argon, 183
arithmetic, 37. See also shop math
arrow lines, 53
arrow side symbol, 70
as-cast structure, 224
atomic hydrogen, 216
Index306 Index
automatic pipe welding, 204–210, 206
automatic voltage control, 207
automation. See automatic pipe welding
axial spray transfer, 159
B
backhand technique
backhoe safety, 31–33
backing gas, 163
base metals, WPS forms, 250
beads
stringer, 150
welds, 138
benching, 25
bending radius of round tubing, 9
bends, travel, 130
bevel angles, 108
beveled-end (BE) pipes, 64
beveling, 127
machine pipe, 112–113
black ferrous oxide, 224
black iron pipe, 220, 223
blueprints, 50–51
dimensioning, 58–63
lines, types of, 52–53
materials, 64–70
pipe drawings, 54–58
pipe symbols, 63–64
welding symbols, 70–76
bolts, 274, 278
branch, 116, 129
break lines, 53
brittleness, 221
bubbles, 231. See also porosity
buried-arc transfer, 159
burns, 18–19
bushing symbol, 63
butt weld elbows (nonstandard angles), 132–132
buttress, 274, 276
C
cables, 30
cap symbol, 63
capacity of tanks, 48
carbide precipitation, 226
carbon steel pipe, 220
causes
of arc strikes, 237
of inadequate joint penetration, 235
of inclusions, 234–235
of incomplete fusion, 235–236
of overlap, 237
of porosity, 232–233
of undercut, 237
of underfill, 238
cave-ins, 25
center circumference lines, 120, 122
center lines, 52
certification, 266–273
chamfer, 193, 194
charts, conversion, 45–46
check valves, 68
chromium-carbide precipitation, 215
cleaning, 96
improper joint, 234
tips, 84–85
clothing
general work, 29
personal protective equipment (PPE), 18
special protective, 29
clustered porosity, 233
coatings, black iron pipe, 223
codes, 248, 249–250
standards, 126, 127
system, 10–11
cold cracks
cold lap, 140, 237
collection piping systems, 1, 2
commercial pipe fittings, 124
complete joint penetration, 246
compressive strength, 222
computer-aided design (CAD), 57
consistency of automation, 206
constant current (CC) machines, 160–161
constant potential (CP) machines, 160–161
construction pipe-welding jobs, 1, 11
consumable inserts
backing, 75
filler metals, 215–26
contamination, 216, 232–233
contour radius markers, 114
contour tools, 114
conversions
charts, 45–46
numbers, 44–45
standard to metric, 13
corrosion, 222–224
allowing for, 224
factors that affect, 223–224
protection, 263–265
types of, 223
cost-effectiveness of automation, 206
counterboring, 127
cover passes, 147–149
1G position, 148–149
1G position, rolled, 178–179
2G position, vertical fixed, 151, 169
5G position, horizontal fixed, 153–154,
170–171
6G position, 45-degree fixed, 155, 172
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW),
199–200
cracks, 239–241, 246–247
crater cracks, 239–240
crest, 274, 276
crevice corrosion, 223
crews, teamwork, 12–13
cross straight symbol, 63
cup walking, 195
currents, modulate transfers, 172–174
cutting, 127. See also gouging
1G air carbon arc J-grooving pipes, 101
1G air carbon arc U-grooving pipes, 100–101
1G OFC-A pipe cutting, 89–90
1G PA pipe cutting, 94–95
1G PA U-grooving pipes, 97
2G OF pipe cutting, 90–91
2G PA pipe cutting, 96
5G OF pipe cutting, 90
5G PA pipe cutting, 95–96
air carbon arc equipment setup, 99–102
air carbon arc gouging (CAC-A), 80–81
freehand oxyacetylene pipe cutting, 89–92
freehand pipe cuts, 81–82Index 307
cutting (continued)
freehand plasma arc pipe cutting, 94–99
hand-cutting pipes, 111
layouts, 82–83
machine cuts, 102–104
oils, 274, 278–279
oxy-fuel pipe, 110–113
oxyacetylene cutting (OFC-A), 79–80
oxyacetylene equipment setup, 83–89
oxyacetylene gouging, 92–93
PAC equipment setup, 93–94
pipes, 81–83
plane lines, 53
plasma arc cutting (PAC), 80
preparing to, 87
rusty nuts and bolts, 91–92
starting a cut, 87–89
cylindrical porosity, 231
D
decimal fractions, 36, 37
converting to, 44–45
defects, welds, 230–242, 266, 268
cracks, 239–241
discontinuities, 230–242
delamination, 239
denominators, 38
fractions, 42–43
reading dimensions without, 60–63
deposition rate, 177
design
joint, 234
pipe joint. See pipe joint design
destructive testing (DT), 248, 250–256
nick-break tests, 251
tensile testing, 250–251
Devers, P. K., 183
diameters
of pipes, 7
of round tubing, 8–9
Diamétre Nominal (DN), 7
die storage, 279–281
dimensioning, 36
blueprints, 58–63
lines, 52
locating dimensions, 60
pipes, 8–9
reading, 59–60
round tubing, 9–10
tolerance, 36, 44
direction of travel, 140
discontinuities, 230–242, 266
arc strikes, 236–237
inadequate joint penetration, 235
inclusions, 234–235
incomplete fusion, 235–236
overlap, 237
porosity, 231–234
types of, 231–239
undercut, 237
underfill, 237–239
weld problems caused by, 239
dismantling scaffolding, 22
disposal
cutting oils, 279
of oil-soaked rags, 279
waste material disposal/recycling, 21
distortion
thermal conductivity, 228
thermal expansion, 227–228
welds, 226–228
distribution piping systems, 1, 3
dividing fractions, 43–44. See also math (shop)
dope (pipe), 283
drag travel angle, 140, 196
drawings. See also blueprints
isometric, 58
lines, types of, 52–53
orthographic, 54, 58
perspective, 57
pipes, 54–58
scale, 60
dross, 94
dual shield, 176
dual torches
setup, 208
tandem welding, 209
ductility, 221
dwell time, 208
E
ear protection, 19
eddy current inspection (ET), 263
edges, facing, 127
elastic limit, 222
elasticity, 222
elbows
45º symbol, 63
90º symbol, 63
marking butt welds, 132–132
tools, 129
turned down symbol, 63
turned up symbol, 63
electrical safety, 27–29
electrodes
angles, 140
contamination, 216
E10018 AWS A5.5-96, 214
E11018 AWS A5.5-96, 214
E12018 AWS A5.5-96, 214
E6010 AWS A5.1-04, 212
E7010 AWS A5.5-96, 212
E7016 AWS A5.1-04, 214
E8010 AWS A5.5-96, 212–213
E8016 AWS A5.5-96, 214
E8018 AWS A5.5-96, 214
E9010 AWS A5.5-96, 213
E9016 AWS A5.5-96, 214
E9018 AWS A5.5-96, 214
extensions, 161–162, 178
manipulation, 139
positioning, 162–163
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 212–214
stainless steel (GTAW), 215
tips, 94
types of, 141
employment, teamwork, 12–13
ends
orange peel, 122
types of pipe, 65
energy, metallurgy, 224
environments, automation, 206
Equal Employment Opportunity Laws, 13
equations, 39–40308 Index
equipment, types of, 207–208
erecting scaffolding, 22
excavations, 24–27
exfoliation corrosion, 223
extension cords, 28
extension ladders, 22
extension lines, 52
extensions, electrodes, 161–162, 178
extra strong (XXS) pipe, 7
eye and face protection, 19
F
fabricated pipe fittings, 124
fabrication, 250
faces
groove, 109
roots, 109
facing, 127
falling loads, 26
falls, 21–22
excavation hazards, 26
fast fill, 141
fast freeze, 141
feeders, wire, 209
filler metals, 186–187, 211–218
adding, 186–187
consumable inserts, 215–26
ER308 AWS A5.9, 215
ER308L AWS A5.9, 215
ER309 AWS A5.9, 215
ER309L AWS A5.9, 215
ER316 AWS A5.9, 215
ER316L AWS A5.9, 215
ER316L-Si AWS A5.9, 215
ER70S-6 AWS A5.1801, 25
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 215
hydrogen embrittlement, 216–217
SMAW electrodes, 212–214
storage and handling, 216
temperatures, 212
WPS forms, 250
filler passes, 146–147
1G position, 147
1G position, rolled, 178
2G position, vertical fixed, 150–151, 168–169
5G position, horizontal fixed, 153, 170
6G position, 45-degree fixed, 155, 172
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 199–200
fillet welds, 70, 75–76
gas metal arc welded (GMAW), 163–165
finish of round tubing, 9
fire protection, 29–30
fire watch, 30
fish mouth, 118
fit for service, 230, 231
fit-up, improper joint, 235
fittings, 66
pipes, 8
preparing pipes for, 127
tightening, 283–284
tools, 128–129
flanges, 67
flaws, 231
flux core arc welded (FCAW), 11, 176–182, 205
1G position, rolled, 177
5G position, horizontal fixed, 180–181
application to pipe, 177–181
open-head orbital welding heads, 207
pipe 6G position, 45-degree fixed, 181
root pass welds, 177
footing, scaffolding, 22
forms (WPS), 250
formulas, 39
arc length, 133
Pythagorean Theorem, 130–131
fractions, 36, 37, 38, 41–43
adding, 42
converting to decimals, 44
denominators, 42–43
dividing, 43–44
multiplying, 43–44
numerators, 43
reducing, 43
subtracting, 42
free-bend tests, 254–255
freehand techniques
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 185, 195
oxyacetylene pipe cutting, 89–92
pipe cuts, 81–82
plasma arc pipe cutting, 94–99
fusion
improving, 173
incomplete, 235–236
lack of sidewall
G
galling, 283
galvanic corrosion, 223
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 11, 157–175, 193, 205
amperes, 160–161
constant potential (CP) machines, 160–161
electrode extension, 161–162
electrode positioning, 162–163
fillet welds, 163–165
mild steel pipe, 1G position, 187–189
mild steel pipe, 2G position, 189–190
mild steel pipe, 5G position, 190–191
mild steel pipe, 6G position, 191–192
modulate current transfer, 172–174
open-head orbital welding heads, 207
pipe 1G position, rolled, 165–167
root passes, 163
root welds, 196
solid wire, 214–215
tack welds, 163
travel speed, 162
types of metal transfer, 158–160
voltage, 160–161
welding practices, 163–172
work angles, 162
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 11, 183–193, 205
adding filler metal, 186–187
filler metals, 215
metallic inclusions, 234
open-head orbital welding heads, 207
pipe techniques, 185–186, 195
preparing pipes for, 184–185
root welds, 195–196
stainless steel electrodes, 215
gas, inert, 196, 197
gauges, threads (pipes), 277
general corrosion, 223
general work clothing, 29
geometry for joints, 106, 108–109Index 309
glasses, 19
globular metal transfer, 159
gouging, 78
1G air carbon arc gouging out pipe welds, 101–102
1G OF gouging out pipe welds, 92–93
1G OFC-A U-grooving pipes, 92
1G PA gouging out pipe welds, 97–98
2G air carbon arc gouging out pipe welds, 102
2G OF gouging out pipe welds, 93
2G PA gouging out pipe welds, 98–99
5G air carbon arc gouging out pipe welds, 102
5G OF gouging out pipe welds, 93
5G PA gouging out pipe welds, 98
oxyacetylene, 79
plasma arc gouging (PAG), 80, 96–97
grades
bolts, 278
pipe, 220
grain structures of metal, 224–225
Greeks, construction of piping systems, 1, 2
grinding, 184
grooves
angles, 109
faces, 109
improper preparation, 234
welds, 70, 72–73
ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI), 28
guided bend test jig (SENSE), 271
guided bend test specimen (SENSE), 269–271
guided-bend tests, 251–254
gun angles, 162
H
hand tools, planned maintenance (PM), 30
hand-cutting pipes, 111
handling filler metals, 216
hardness, 220–221
hauling (safety), 31
hazardous atmospheres, 27
headers, 115, 116, 120, 129
heads
multiple weld, 208
orbital welding, 207, 209
heat
lowering input, 173
metallurgy, 224
heat-affected zone (HAZ), 79, 141, 225
heating systems, 69–70
heavy equipment (safety), 31–33
Heliarc, 183
helium, 183
helmets, eye protection, 19
hidden lines, 52
high-frequency alternating current, 94
high-low, 127, 128
high-pressure piping systems, 1, 10
high-strength pipes, automated welds, 206
high-strength service pipes, 1, 10
Hobart, H. M., 183
holes, threading, 282–283
hoses, planned maintenance (PM), 30
hot cracks
hot lockers, 216
hot passes, 145–146
1G positions, 146
1G position, rolled, 177–178
2G position, vertical fixed, 150, 168
5G position, horizontal fixed, 152–153
6G position, 45-degree fixed, 155, 172
hybrid laser arc welding, 205
hydrogen embrittlement, 216–217
hydrostatic testing, 261–262
hypotenuse, 130, 132
I
identifying
parts, 68
weldment identification, 73
welds, 73–75
impact testing, 255–256
improper welding techniques, 232
inadequate joint penetration, 235
causes of, 235
types of, 235
inclusions
causes of, 234–235
discontinuities, 234–235
slag, 140–141
types of, 235
incomplete fusion, 235–236
causes of, 235–236
types of, 236
incomplete joint penetration, 246
inductance, 158
inert gas, 196, 197
injuries, 19
inside diameter (ID), 7, 127
inspection, 248–265
codes and standards, 249–250
corrosion protection, 263–265
eddy current inspection (ET), 263
ladders, 22–23
magnetic particle inspection (MT), 257–259
penetrant inspection (PT), 257
quality assurance (QA), 248
quality control (QC), 248
radiographic inspection (RT), 259–261
scaffolding, 22
SENSE visual inspection testing, 267–269
SENSE visual inspection tools, 267
ultrasonic inspection (UT), 262–263
visual inspection (VT), 256–257
WPS forms, 250
interpass cold lap, 236
interpass temperature, 141, 212
ionized gas, 80
isometric drawings, 57, 58
isometric views, sketching, 57–58
J
jack stands, 129
jobs, 1, 11–12
joints
cleaning, 234
commercial/fabricated pipe fittings, 124
connection pipe symbol, 63
design, 106–125, 234
expansion symbol, 63
geometry, 106, 108–109
inadequate joint penetration, 235
layouts, 113–124
oxy-fuel pipe cutting, 110–113
preparing, 109–110310 Index
roots, 107
types of, 107
WPS forms, 250
K
kerf, 79, 103
keyhole
kindling temperature, 79
knuckle threads, 275
L
lack of sidewall fusion, 236
ladders
extension, 22
inspection, 22–23
rules for use, 24
safety, 23–24
types of, 22
lamellar tears, 241
laminations, 239
lateral symbol, 63
lateral walking, 207
laterals, 120–122
layouts
90-degree saddle on wall pipes, 115–116
branch pipe, 116–120
cutting, 82–83
headers, 120
laterals, 120–122
orange peel pipe end, 122–123
pipe joint design, 113–124
pipe reducer, 123–124
tools, 129
leaders, 53
leadership, 13
leading travel angles, 196
length
of arcs, 132, 140
of pipes, 7
of round tubing, 9
solving with Pythagorean Theorem, 130–131
solving with right triangles, 131–132
light-duty service pipes, 1, 10
lighting torches, 85–87
Linde Air Products Company, 183
linear porosity, 233
linear slag inclusions, 235
lines
center circumference, 120, 122
ordinate, 117
types of, 52–53
liquid penetrant, 246
localized corrosion, 223
locating dimensions, 60
locations
significance of arrow, 72
welds, 70–72
low-hydrogen welds, 185
low-pressure piping systems, 1, 10
lowering heat input, 173
M
machine cuts, 102–104
machine pipe beveling, 112–113
machine screws, 274, 278
machine welding, 177, 204–210
magnetic particle, 246
magnetic particle inspection (MT), 257–259
major diameter, 274, 276
management, 13
manually threading ½ inch mild steep pipe, 281–282
manufacture of pipe, 5–6
manufacturing pipe-welding, 1
manufacturing pipe-welding jobs, 11
marking butt weld elbows, 132–132
materials
blueprints, 64–70
check valves, 68
fittings, 66
handling safety, 31–34
pipes, 2, 8, 64–66
pumps, 67–68
round tubing, 8
specifications, 20
takeoff, 68–70
valves, 66–67
waste material disposal/recycling, 21
math (shop), 36–49
conversion charts, 45–46
equations, 39–40
fractions, 41–44
mixed units, 40–41
rules, 39
types of numbers, 37–38
volume, 46–48
measurements, 48
high-low, 128
metric units, 13–15
mechanical drawings (blueprints), 50–51
mechanical properties of pipes, 220
medium structural service pipes, 1, 10
medium-pressure piping systems, 1, 10
Meredith, Russell, 183
metal rings, 113
metal transfer
axial spray transfer, 159
buried-arc transfer, 159
globular, 159
modulated current, 159–160
pulsed-arc metal transfer, 159
short circuit metal transfer, 158
types of, 158–160
metallurgy
carbon steel pipe, 220
corrosion, 222–224
energy, 224
grain structures of metal, 224–225
heat, 224
mechanical properties of pipes, 220
stainless steels, 226
standards, 220
temperatures, 224
weld distortion, 226–228
metals
consumable inserts, 215–26
ER308 AWS A5.9, 215
ER308L AWS A5.9, 215
ER309 AWS A5.9, 215
ER309L AWS A5.9, 215
ER316 AWS A5.9, 215
ER316L AWS A5.9, 215
ER316L-Si AWS A5.9, 215
ER70S-6 AWS A5.18-01, 215Index 311
metals (continued)
filler, 186–187, 211–218
grain structures of, 224–225
hydrogen embrittlement, 216–217
storage and handling, 216
metric system, 36
metric units, 13–15
mild steel pipe, 200–202
1G position, 187–189, 196–198
2G position, 198–199
5G position, 190–191
6G position, 191–192
mineral cutting oils, 278
minor diameter, 274, 276
mismatch, 195
missing dimensions, finding, 60
mixed fractions, 38
mixed units, 37, 40–41
mobile equipment hazards, 27
modulate current transfer, 172–174
modulated current metal transfer, 159–160
modulated current pipe weld 6G position, 173
cover pass, 174
filler pass, 174
root pass, 173–174
moisture contamination, 216
molecular hydrogen, 216
multiple processes, 193–203
mild steel pipe, 1G position, 196–198
mild steel pipe, 2G position, 198–199
preparing pipes, 194–195
multiple weld heads, 208
multiplying fractions, 43–44. See also math (shop)
N
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
(NEMA), 211
National Institution for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH), 20
national paper taper (NPT), 64
national pipe straight (NPS), 64
National Pipe Thread, 276
National Pipe Thread Fuel, 276
natural gas, 3
nick-break tests, 251
nominal pipe size (NPS), 7
nondestructive testing (NDT), 248, 250, 256–257
eddy current inspection (ET), 263
magnetic particle inspection (MT), 257–259
penetrant inspection (PT), 257
radiographic inspection (RT), 259–261
ultrasonic inspection (UT), 262–263
visual inspection (VT), 256–257
nonmetallic inclusions, 234, 244–245
notch-sensitive, 266
numbers
conversions, 44–45
types of, 37–38
whole, 37
numerators, 38
fractions, 43
O
object lines, 52
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA),
18, 279
offsets, 129–130
oil-soaked rags, disposal of, 279
openings, root, 109, 134–135
operations, sequence of mathematical, 39
orange peel, 122
orbiting pipe welding, 207
setup, 209
ordinate lines, 117
orthographic drawings, 54, 58
other side symbol, 70
outside diameter (OD), 115, 184
overlap, 237
oxy-fuel pipe cutting, 110–113
oxyacetylene cutting (OFC-A), 79–80
oxyacetylene equipment setup, 83–89
oxyacetylene gouging, 79, 92–93
oxyacetylene welded (OAW), 11
P
PAC equipment setup, 93–94
paint markers, 129
parts, identifying, 68
passes. See also specific passes
cover, 147–149
filler, 146–147
hot, 145–146
root, 144–145, 163
welds, 139–141
patterns, weave, 139
penetrant inspection (PT), 257
penetration, 139, 235
inadequate joint, 235
sidewall, 139
personal protective equipment (PPE), 18
perspective drawings, 57
phantom lines, 53
pilot arc, 94
pin alignment, 128
pinch effect, 158
pipe-weld repairs, 243–247
pipeline-welding jobs, 1, 12
The Pipe Fitter’s and Pipe Welder’s Handbook, 117
pipelines, trans-Alaskan, 3
pipes, 106–125. See also specific welding techniques
90-degree saddle on wall, 115–116
applications of, 3–4
black iron, 220
branch pipe layouts, 116–120
commercial/fabricated pipe fittings, 124
cutting, 81–83
definition of, 5
diameters of, 7
dimensions, 8–9
dope, 283
drawings, 54–58
facing, 127
fittings, 8
flux core arc welded (FCAW), 177–181
geometry, 108–109
grades, 220
header layouts, 120
headers, 116
layouts, 113–124
length of, 7
manually threading ½ inch mild steep, 281–282
manufacture of, 5–6
materials, 2, 8, 64–66312 Index
mechanical properties of, 220
multiple processes. See multiple processes
offsets, 129–130
orange peel, 122
oxy-fuel pipe cutting, 110–113
preparing, 109–110
preparing for fitting, 127
reducer layouts, 123–124
specifications, 7–8
standards, 7–8
symbols, 63–64
system codes, 10–11
threads, 274–285
versus round tubing, 6–10
welding processes, 10
piping
porosity, 234
systems, 2–3
pitch, 274, 276
pitch diameter, 274
pitting corrosion, 223
plain-end (PE) pipes, 64
planned maintenance (PM), 30–31
planning for automation, 206
plasma arc cutting (PAC), 78, 80
plasma arc gouging (PAG), 79, 80, 96–97
platforms, scaffolding, 22
porosity, 231–234
causes of, 232–233
types of, 233–234
portable electric tools, safety rules for, 28–29
positions
2G pipe-welding, 149–151
cover-pass 1G, 148–149
electrodes, 162–163
filler-pass 1G, 147
hot-pass 1G, 146
mild steel pipe, 1G position, 187–189, 196–198
mild steel pipe, 2G position, 189–190, 198–199
mild steel pipe, 5G position, 190–191, 200–201
mild steel pipe, 6G position, 191–192, 201–202
root-pass 1G, 144–145
postheat temperatures, 212
powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs), 20
preheating, 141, 212
flames, 83
holes, 84
preparing
chamfer, 194
corrosion protection, 263–264
grooves, 234
joints, 109–110
pipes for fitting, 127
pipes for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW),
184–185
pipes for multiple process welding, 194–195
to cut, 87
pressure ranges, 9, 10–11
process piping systems, 1, 3
processes
multiple. See multiple processes
thermal-cutting. See also thermal-cutting processes
profile angles, 274, 276
protection
clothing. See clothing
corrosion, 263–265
pulsed-arc metal transfer, 159
pumps, materials, 67–68
push travel angle, 140
Pythagorean Theorem, 130–131
Q
qualifications
for welders, 127
versus certified welders, 266
WPS forms, 250
quality assurance (QA), 248
quality control (QC), 248
quality of automated welds, 206
R
radiographic inspection (RT), 259–261
reading dimensions, 59–60
records, certification, 271–272
recycling
cutting oils, 279
waste material disposal/recycling, 21
reducer, concentric symbol, 63
reducing
fractions, 43
spatter, 173
removal, slag, 245
repairs
considerations, 244
cracks, 246–247
incomplete joint penetration, 246
nonmetallic inclusions, 244–245
pipe-weld, 243–247
slag removal, 245
welding, 246
rigging (safety), 33–34
right triangles, solving angles/lengths with, 131–132
rigid tubing, 9
rise, 129
risers, stress, 266, 268
robots, 205
rocking electrodes, 139
rods, ER70S-6 AWS A5.18.01 steel filler, 215
Romans, construction of piping systems, 1, 2
root, 274
faces, 109
joints, 107
openings, 109, 134–135
root cracks, 240
root faces, 184
root passes, 144–145, 163
2G position, vertical fixed, 149–150
5G position, horizontal fixed, 152, 170
6G position, 45-degree fixed, 154–155, 171
welds, 177
root welds
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 196
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 195–196
root-pass 1G positions, 144–145
round threads, 275
round tubing. See also tubing
applications of, 9
bending radius of, 9
diameters of, 8–9
dimensions, 9–10
finish of, 9
length of, 9
materials, 8
pipes versus, 6–10Index 313
round tubing (continued)
pressure ranges of, 9
specifications, 8–9
strength of, 9
temper of, 9
temperature ranges of, 9
wall thickness of, 9
rules
for ladder use, 24
for portable electric tools, 28–29
math (shop), 39
runs, 130
rusty nuts and bolts, cutting, 91–92
S
saddle in, 115
saddle on, 115
saddle out
saddles, angles, 129
SAE International (SAE), 278
safety, 17–35
burns, 18–19
ear protection, 19
electrical, 27–29
excavations, 24–27
extension cords, 28
eye and face protection, 19
falls, 21–22
fire protection, 29–30
general work clothing, 29
hauling, 31
heavy equipment, 31–33
injuries, 19
ladders, 23–24
material handling, 31–34
material specification data, 20
planned maintenance (PM), 30–31
respiratory protection, 19–20
rigging, 33–34
rules for portable electric tools, 28–29
scaffolding, 22–23
ventilation, 20
waste material disposal/recycling, 21
Safety Data Sheets (SDSs), 20
scaffolding, 22–23
scale drawings, 60
scattered inclusions, 235
scope, 127, 250
scribes, 129
seamed pipes, 1, 5
seamless pipes, 1, 5
section lines, 53
selecting tips, 83–84
self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), 20
self-shielded, 176
SENSE (AWS), 266–271
guided bend test jig, 271
guided bend test specimen, 269–271
visual inspection testing, 267–269
visual inspection tools, 267
sequence of mathematical operations, 39
settings, amperage, 139–140
setup
air carbon arc equipment, 99–102
dual-torch, 208
orbiting pipe welding, 209
oxyacetylene equipment, 83–89
tandem-torch, 208
torches, 208–209
shear strength, 222
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 11, 81,
137–156
2G pipe-welding position, 149–151
5G pipe welding position, 151–155
arc strikes, 138
using both hands, 139
cover passes, 147–149, 199–200
electrode classifications, 212–214
electrode manipulation, 139
filler passes, 146–147, 199–200
gun angles, 162
hot passes, 145–146
mild steel pipe, 5G position, 200–201
mild steel pipe, 6G position, 201–202
root passes, 144–145
surface tension, 149
tack welds, 141–144
weld passes, 139–141
shielding, 26
shocks, electrical, 27
shop math, 36–49
conversion charts, 45–46
converting numbers, 44–45
equations, 39–40
fractions, 41–44
math rules, 39
mixed units, 40–41
types of numbers, 37–38
volume, 46–48
shoring, 26
short circuit metal transfer, 158
shutoff valves, 66
side views, sketching, 54–57
sidewall penetration, 139
single-wire torch, 208
sketching. See also drawings
isometric views, 57–58
side views, 54–57
skilled welders, 207
slag, 81
inclusions, 140–141
removal, 245
sleeve symbol, 63
slipping (excavation hazards), 26
sloping, 25
soapstone, 129
solid wire
ER70S AWS A5.28-96, 214
ER80S AWS A5.18-01, 215
ER90S AWS A5.18-01, 215
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 214–215
spatter, reducing, 173
special protective clothing, 29
specifications
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 8
materials, 20
pipes, 7–8
round tubing, 8–9
threads (pipes), 276–278
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), 127,
249–250
speed, travel, 162
spherical porosity, 231
spiral pipes, 5
square threads, 274, 276314 Index
stainless steels
electrodes (GTAW), 215
metallurgy, 226
standards, 248, 249–250
codes, 127
metallurgy, 220
pipes, 7–8, 10–11
systems, 36, 126
to metric conversions, 13
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), 249–250
standoff distance, 94
starting a cut, 87–89
stationary pipe-welding equipment, 207
stepladders, 22
storage
dies, 279–281
filler metals, 216
taps, 279–281
straight ladders, 22
strain, 222
strength, 221–222
of round tubing, 9
ranges, 10–11
stress risers, 266, 268
strikes, arc, 138, 236–237
stringer beads, 150
stripping, 283
studs, 278
submerged arc welding (SAW), 5, 205
subtracting. See also math (shop)
fractions, 42
mixed units, 40–41
suck-back
supplied-air respirators (SARs), 20
surface tension, 149
symbols
arrow side, 70
other side, 70
pipes, 63–64
welding, 70–76
system codes, 10–11. See also codes
T
tack welds, 141–144
5G position horizontal fixed, 169–170
gas metal arc welded (GMAW), 163
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 141–144
take outs, 134–135
takeoff
materials, 68–70
zone hydronic heating system, 69–70
tandem-torch setup, 208
tank capacities, 48
tape, Teflon, 283
taps
drills, 274, 282
tap storage, 279–281
teamwork, 12–13
tees
outlet down symbol, 63
outlet up symbol, 63
straight symbol, 63
Teflon tape, 283
temper of round tubing, 9
temperatures
filler metals, 212
interpass, 141, 212
metallurgy, 224
postheat, 212
ranges of round tubing, 9
templates, 114–115, 129
tensile strength, 221, 225
tensile testing, 250–251
tension, surface, 149
testing, 248–265
alternate bend tests, 255
codes and standards, 249–250
corrosion protection, 263–265
destructive testing (DT), 250–256
eddy current inspection (ET), 263
free-bend tests, 254–255
guided-bend tests, 251–254
hydrostatic, 261–262
impact, 255–256
magnetic particle inspection (MT), 257–259
nick-break tests, 251
nondestructive testing (NDT), 250,
256–257
penetrant inspection (PT), 257
quality assurance (QA), 248
quality control (QC), 248
radiographic inspection (RT), 259–261
SENSE visual inspection, 267–269
tensile, 250–251
types of, 250–257
ultrasonic inspection (UT), 262–263
visual inspection (VT), 256–257
thermal conductivity, 228
thermal expansion, 227–228
thermal-cutting processes
1G air carbon arc gouging out pipe welds,
101–102
1G air carbon arc J-grooving pipes, 101
1G air carbon arc U-grooving pipes,
100–101
1G OFC-A pipe cutting, 89–90
1G PA gouging out pipe welds, 97–98
1G PA pipe cutting, 94–95
1G PA U-grooving pipes, 97
2G air carbon arc gouging out pipe welds, 102
2G OF pipe cutting, 90–91
2G PA gouging out pipe welds, 98–99
2G PA pipe cutting, 96
5G air carbon arc gouging out pipe
welds, 102
5G OF pipe cutting, 90
5G PA gouging out pipe welds, 98
5G PA pipe cutting, 95–96
air carbon arc equipment setup, 99–102
air carbon arc gouging (CAC-A), 80–81
freehand oxyacetylene pipe cutting, 89–92
freehand plasma arc pipe cutting, 94–99
machine cuts, 102–104
oxyacetylene cutting (OFC-A), 79–80
oxyacetylene equipment setup, 83–89
oxyacetylene gouging, 92–93
PAC equipment setup, 93–94
pipe cutting, 81–83
plasma arc cutting (PAC), 80
plasma arc gouging (PAG), 96–97
rusty nuts and bolts, 91–92
thickness
of pipe walls, 7–8
of round tubing walls, 9
threaded-end (TE) pipes, 64Index 315
threads (pipes), 274–285
cutting oils, 278–279
die and tap storage, 279–281
face, 274, 276
flank, 274, 276
gauges, 277
holes, 282–283
manually threading ½ inch mild steep pipe, 281–282
specifications, 276–278
tightening, 283–284
types of, 275–276
throat cracks, 240
throttling valves, 66
tightening threads (pipes), 283–284
time, dwell, 208
tips
cleaning, 84–85
cutting
electrode, 94
selecting, 83–84
titles (WPS forms), 250
toe cracks, 240
tolerance, weld, 231, 250
tolerances, 44
tools
alignment, 127–128
contour, 114
contour radius markers, 114
fitting, 128–129
layouts, 129
metal rings, 113
pipe layout, 113–115
planned maintenance (PM), 30
safety rules for, 28–29
templates, 114–115
Wrap-A-Round, 115
torches
dual-torch setup, 208
lighting, 85–87
pressure on, 186
setup, 208–209
single-wire, 208
tandem-torch setup, 208
torque wrenches, 283
torsional strength, 222
toughness, 221
trailing angles, 196
training, scaffolding, 22
trans-Alaskan pipeline, 3
transfers, modulate current, 172–174
transportation piping systems, 1, 2–3
travel, 130
direction of, 140
drag travel angles, 140
push travel angles, 140
speed, 162
trenches, 25. See also excavations
tubing
definition of, 5
diameters of, 8–9
materials, 8
pipes versus, 6–10
rigid, 9
specifications, 8–9
wall thickness of, 9
types
of American National Thread, 64
of corrosion, 223
of discontinuities, 231–239
of drawing lines, 52–53
of electrodes, 141
of equipment, 207–208
of inadequate joint penetration, 235
of inclusions, 235
of incomplete fusion, 236
of ladders, 22
of metal transfer, 158–160
of numbers, 37–38
of pipe drawings, 64
of pipe ends, 65
of pipe joints, 107
of piping systems, 2–3
of porosity, 233–234
of respiratory protection, 20
of testing, 250–257
of threads (pipes), 275–276
of welds, 70
U
ultimate strength, 222
ultrasonic inspection (UT), 262–263
underbead cracks, 241
undercut, 237
underfill, 237–239
underground utility hazards, 27
Underwriters Laboratories (UL), 22
Unified National Coarse (UNC), 274, 275
Unified National Fine (UNF), 274, 275
uniform corrosion, 223
uniformly scattered porosity, 233
union symbol, 63
unions, 67
V
V-grooves, 141
V-threads, 275
valves
check, 68
check symbol, 63
gate symbol, 63
globe symbol, 63
materials, 66–67
shutoff, 66
throttling, 66
ventilation, 20
views, 54
sketching isometric, 57–58
sketching side, 54–57
visual inspection (VT), 256–257
voltage, 160–161
volume, 46–48
W
wagon tracks, 244
walking the cup, 185–186
walking, lateral, 207
walls
excavations, 25–26
thickness of pipe, 7–8
thickness of round tubing, 9
warping, 226, 283
washing away, 96. See also cleaning
waste material disposal/recycling, 21316 Index
water mains, 2
weave patterns, 139
Welder and Welding Operator Qualification Test Record (WQR),
271–272
welders
qualifications for, 127
skilled, 207
welding
certification, 266–273
gas metal arc welded (GMAW), 163–172
hybrid laser arc, 205
improper techniques, 234
machine, 177, 204–210
metallurgy, 219–229. See also metallurgy
multiple processes. See multiple processes
repairs, 246
shielded metal arc, 137–156
symbols, 70–76
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), 127, 193, 248,
249–250
weldment identification, 73
welds
1G air carbon arc gouging out pipe,
101–102
1G OF gouging out pipe, 92–93
1G PA gouging out pipe, 97–98
2G air carbon arc gouging out pipe, 102
2G OF gouging out pipe, 93
2G PA gouging out pipe, 98–99
5G air carbon arc gouging out pipe, 102
5G OF gouging out pipe, 93
5G PA gouging out pipe, 98
arc strikes, 138
beads, 138
defects, 230–242
discontinuities, 230–242
distortion, 226–228
fillet, 75–76, 163–165
groove, 72–73
identifying, 73–75
inspection of, 5, 248–265
locations, 70–72
low-hydrogen, 185
metal grain structure, 225
passes, 139–141
pipe-weld repairs, 243–247
problems caused by discontinuities, 239
root, gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 196
root, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 195–196
tack, 141–144. See also tack weld
testing, 248–265
toes, 244
types of, 70
welds tolerance, 231
whole numbers, 37
wire
feeders, 209
wire (solid)
ER70S AWS A5.28-96, 214
ER80S AWS A5.18-01, 215
ER90S AWS A5.18-01, 215
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 214–215
work angles, 162
work areas, planned maintenance (PM), 30
wormholes, 231
Wrap-A-Round, 115
wraparounds, 129
Y
Y-connections, 129
yield
point, 221
strength, 221
Z
zone hydronic heating system takeoff, 69–70


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