عدد المساهمات : 18617
التقييم : 34421
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
|موضوع: كتاب 3D Printing Third Edition الثلاثاء 28 فبراير 2023 - 7:40
أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
3D Printing Third Edition
و المحتوى كما يلي :
Preface: Beyond the Hype
1. The Revolution Continues
2. 3D Printing Technologies
3. The 3D Printing Industry
4. Direct Digital Manufacturing
5. Personal Fabrication
7. Brave New World?
3D Printing Directory
About the Author
Note that a constantly-updated, online version of this directory can be accessed from
INDUSTRIAL 3D PRINTER MANUFACTURERS
3D SYSTEMS — 3dsystems.com
3D Systems makes hardware based on a wide range of technologies, including vat photopolymerization
(stereolithography), powder bed fusion (laser sintering and DMLS), binder jetting (ColorJet Printing), material jetting
(MultiJet Printing) and material extrusion (PlasticJet Printing).
3GEOMETRY — 3geometry.com
3Geometry in India produces 3D printers for making sand cast molds and cores.
ADDITIVE INDUSTRIES — additiveindustries.com
Additive industries produces the MetalFab1 powder bed fusion 3D printer for making final components in metal.
ADMATEC — admatec.nl/nl/
ADMATEC produces 3D printers that fabricate highly detailed ceramic parts.
AGILISTA — agilista.jp
Agilista are a Japanese manufacturer of material jetting 3D printers.
ARCAM — arcam.com
Arcam produces 3D printers based on a powder bed fusion technology called electron beam melting.
ASIGA — asiga.com
Asiga produces desktop vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers.
ASPECT — aspect.jpn.com
Aspect are based in Japan and produce powder-bed fusion 3D printers.
BEAM — beam-machines.fr
BeAM is a French manufacturer of 3D printers based on the directed energy deposition process.
BIGREP — bigrep.com
BigRep produce a material extrusion 3D printer called the BigRep ONE that features a 1.3 cubic metre build volume.
BLUEPRINTER — blueprinter.dk
Blueprinter produces a desktop 3D printer that uses a powder bed fusion technology called selective heat sintering
CARMINA — carima.co.kr
Carmina are a South Korean manufacturer of vat photopolymerization (DLP projection) 3D printing hardware.
CMET — cmet.co.jp/eng
CMET produce vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers in Japan.
CONCEPT LASER — concept-laser.de
Concept Laser produce 3D printers based on a powder bed fusion technology called laserCUSING.
DWS SYSTEMS — dwssystems.com
DWS Systems in Italy produce vat photopolymerization 3D printers for producing waxups.
ENVISIONTEC — envisiontec.de
EnvisionTEC produce a range of vat photopolymerization 3D printers based on DLP projection and 3SP (scan, spin and
selectively photocure). The company also sells a 3D-Bioplotter for tissue engineering (bioprinting).EOS — eos.info
EOS manufactures a range of powder bed fusion 3D printers based on selective laser sintering. Different models are
dedicated to making things in metals, plastics or sand (for sand casting).
EXONE — exone.com
ExOne sells industrial 3D printers that use binder jetting to build objects in sand (to enable sand casting), as well as
stainless steel, bronze, Inconel and glass.
FABRISONIC — fabrisonic.com
Fabrisonic produce sheet lamination 3D printers that create objects by ultrasonically welding together layers of metal
tape using what they term ‘ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM).
FARSOON — farsoon.com/english
Farsoon is a Chinese manufacturer of powder bed fusion (laser sintering) 3D printers.
HP INC. — https://www8.hp.com/us/en/printers/3d-printers.html
HP Inc. manufacture industrial 3D printers based on their own, unique technology called multijet fusion (MJF).
ILIOS — ilios3d.com/en/
Ilios produce two photopolymerization-based 3D printers.
INSSTEK — insstek.yehkwang.com
InssTek is a Korean manufacturer of directed energy deposition 3D printers.
LITHOZ — lithoz.com/en
Lithoz is an Austrian manufacturer of 3D printers that are based on a process called lithography-based ceramic
LUXEXCEL — luxexcel.com
LUXeXceL have developed a material jetting technology called Printoptical that enables the 3D printing of functional
MARKFORGED — markforged.com
Markforged make material extrusion 3D printers called the Mark Two, the Mark X and the Mark X Enterprise that
embed continuous strands of carbon fiber, fiberglass or Kevlar into their printouts.
MATSURRA — lumex-matsuura.com/english/
Matsurra produces a hybrid, direct metal 3D printer that incorporates both powder bed fusion and CNC milling
MCOR TECHNOLOGIES — mcortechnologies.com
Mcor Technologies makes 3D printers that use a sheet lamination process called selective deposition lamination (SDL)
to produce full-colour printouts out of paper.
NANOSCRIBE — nanoscribe.de/en
Nanoscribe produce a nanolithograhic 3D printer that uses two photon polymerization (2PP) to create 3D objects on a
OPTOMEC — optomec.com
Optomec produces 3D printers based on a directed energy deposition technology called ‘laser engineered net shaping’,
as well as ‘Aerosol Jet’ hardware that can print working electronics onto 3D surfaces.
PRODWAYS — prodways.com/en
Prodways are a Groupe Gorgé company who produce 3D printers based on a vat photopolymerization process called
REALIZER — realizer.com/en
Realizer produce powder bed fusion 3D printers based on selective laser melting.
RENISHAW — renishaw.com
Renishaw produce powder bed fusion 3D printers than additively manufacture metal objects.SLM SOLUTIONS — slm-solutions.com
SLM Solutions produce a range of 3D printers based on a powder bed fusion technology called selective laser melting.
SCIAKY — sciaky.com
Sciaky produce 3D printers based on a direct-metal proccess that they term ‘electron beam additive manufacturing’
SHAANXI HENGTONG — china-rpm.com/en
Shaanxi Hengtong produce vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers.
SHANGHAI UNION TECHNOLOGY — union-tek.com/en
Shanghai Union Technology produce vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers.
SINTERIT — sinterit.com
Sinterit make a desktop laser sintering 3D printer called the Lisa.
SINTRATEC — sintratec.com
Sintratec produce low-cost desktop laser sintering 3D printers.
STRATASYS — stratasys.com
Stratasys makes 3D printers based on material extrusion (FDM) and material jetting (Polyjet and WDM) technologies.
TIERTIME — tiertime.com/products/industrial_3d_printer
Tiertime produces industrial 3D printers based on material extrusion, or what it terms ‘melted extrusion modeling’.
TPM — trumpsystem.com/E_index.asp
TPM in China produce powder bed fusion 3D printers.
TRUMPF — trumpf-laser.com/en/products.html
TRUMPF is a German manufacturer of powder bed fusion and directed energy desposition direct-metal 3D printers.
VOXELJET — voxeljet.de/en
voxeljet produces 3D printers that use binder jetting to produce plastic objects or 3D sand cast molds from powders. The
company’s largest model, the VX4000, has a build volume of 4 x 2 x 1 metres.
WUHAN BINHU MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL CO — binhurp.com/en
Wuhan Binhu Mechanical & Electrical Co makes 3D printers based on powder bed fusion and vat photopolymerization.
PERSONAL 3D PRINTER MANUFACTURERS
AFINIA — afinia.com
Afinia sell rebranded Tiertime desktop material extrusion 3D printers in the United States.
AIO ROBOTICS — zeus.aiorobotics.com
AIO Robotics sell an all-in-one 3D printer and 3D scanner called the Zeus, which includes an integrated STL model
BEEVERYCREATIVE — beeverycreative.com
BeeVeryCreative make a range of very stylish and easily portable material extrusion 3D printers.
BOOTS INDUSTRIES — bootsindustries.com
Boots Industries produce low-cost material extrusion 3D printers under the name Rostock.
BUILDER — 3dprinter4u.com
BUILDER make material extrusion 3D printers, including a model with a dual extruder that can mix two thermoplastics
in the same build.
BY FLOW — 3dbyflow.com
By Flow produce a foldable, material extrusion 3D printer with interchangeable print heads, and which can 3D print
food.CEL — robox.cel-uk.com
CEL produce a material extrusion 3D printer called the Robox.
DWS LAB — dwslab.com
DWS Lab produce a desktop vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printer called the XFAB.
ECKERTECH — eckertech.com
Ekertech makes a material extrusion 3D printer called the eksbot.
EDISON — 3disonprinter.nl
Edison sell material extrusion 3D printers that can print not just in thermoplastics, but also in chocolate, as well as a
FLASHFORGE — flashforge.com
FlashForge is a highly-regarded Chinese manufacturer of material extrusion 3D printers called the Finder, Dreamer and
FORMLABS — formlabs.com
Formlabs produces desktop vat photopolymerization 3D printers called the Form 1+ and Form 2.
FUSION3 DESIGN — fusion3design.com
Fusion3 Design make desktop material extrusion 3D printers called the F400 and F306.
GERMANREPRAP — germanreprap.com/en
German RepRap produce material extrusion 3D printers called the Neo and X400.
IONCORELTD — ioncoretechnology.com
IonCoreLtd produce two material extrusion 3D printers called the Zinter and Zinter PRO.
LEAPFROG 3D PRINTERS — lpfrg.com
Leapfrog produces a range of material extrusion 3D printers, with several of its models offering the ability to extrude
LEWIHE — lewihe.com/store
Lewihe produce thermoplastic extrusion 3D printers called the Play, Sneaker and Sneaker XL.
LULZBOT — lulzbot.com
Lulzbot produce three highly regarded thermoplastic extrusion 3D printers called the Taz 5, the Taz 6 and the Taz Mini.
M3D — printm3d.com/themicro/
M3D produce a small, low cost thermoplastic extrusion 3D printer called the M3D Micro, and a bigger printer called the
MAKERBOT INDUSTRIES — makerbot.com
MakerBot produce a range of MakerBot material extrusion 3D printers including the Replicator 2X and Replicator Fifth
MAKEGEAR — makergear.com
MakerGear sells its own M Series material extrusion 3D printers, as well as some RepRap open source hardware.
PHOTOCENTRIC — photocentric3d.com
Photocentic make low-cost vat photopolymerization 3D printers based on a process called daylight photopolymer
PORTABEE — portabee3dprinter.com
The Portabee make a small, foldable material extrusion 3D printer called the Portabee Go.
PRINTRBOT — printrbot.com
PrintrBot produce low-cost material extrusion 3D printers called the Play, the Simple and the PrintrBot Plus.
REPRAPUNIVERSE.COM — reprappro.comReprapUniverse.com sell kits for MendleMax and Prussa open source, material extrusion RepRap 3D printers.
TIERTIME — tiertime.com/en
Tiertime Corporation is a Chinese manufacturer of material extrusion 3D printers including the UP Mini, Up Plus 2 and
the UP BOX.
TINKERINE — tinkerine.com
Tinkerine is a Canadian manufacturer of material extrusion 3D printers called the Litto, Ditto+ and Ditto Pro.
ULTIMAKER — ultimaker.com
Ultimaker produces very well respected material extrusion 3D printers called the Ultimaker 3, Ultimaker 3 Extended,
Ultimaker2+, Ultimaker 2+ Extended, and the Ultimaker 2 Go.
VSHAPER — vshaper.com/en/
VShaper sell a range of material extrusion 3D printers.
WEISTEK — ideawerk3dprinter.com
Weistek produce the IdeaWerk and X-Master material extrusion 3D printers.
ZMORPH — zmorph3d.com/3d-printers
Zmorph sell a material extrusion 3D printer called the Zmorph 2.0.
ZORTRAX — zortrax.com
Zortrax produce a range of material extrusion 3D printers that include the M200, M300 and Inventure.
XYZPRINTING — xyzprinting.com
XYZprinting sell a range of low-cost material extrusion 3D printers under their Da Vinci brand, as well as a vat
photopolymerization model called the Nobel 1.0.
3D BIOPRINTING SOLUTIONS — bioprinting.ru/en/
3D Bioprinting Solutions are a Russion bioprinting pioneer who have developed a bioprinter called the FABION.
3DISON — en.3disonprinter.com/product-invivo.php
3Dison sell a ‘hybrid bio 3D printer’ called the Rokit Invivo.
BIOBOTS — biobots.io
Biobots have developed a ‘fun to use’ bioprinter called the BioBots 1.
CELLINK — cellink.eu
Cyfuse have developed a bioprinter called the Inkredible.
CYFUSE — cyfusebio.com/en/regenova.html
Cyfuse have developed a bioprinter called the Regenova.
ENVISIONTEC — envisiontec.com/3d-printers/3d-bioplotter/
EnvisionTEC have developed a bioprinter system called the 3D-Bioplotter.
ORGANOVO — organovo.com
Organovo are a leading, publicly-traded bioprinting pioneer who have developed a bioprinter called the Novogen MMX.
OZBOLAT LAB — personal.psu.edu/ito1/
The Ozbolat Lab at the Penn State University focuses on developing cutting-edge bioprinting science and technology.
REGENHU — regenhu.com
RegenHU have developed bioprinters called the BioFactory and the 3DDiscovery.
REGENOVO — regenovo.com/english/
Regenovo in China has developed three bioprinters called the Bio-Printer-Lite, Bio-Printer-Pro and Bio-Printer-WS.
WAKE FOREST INSTITUTE —wakehealth.edu/WFIRM/The Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine is a leading pioneer of bioprinting and tissue engineering.
3D PRINTING SOFTWARE
3D TRANSFORM — 3dtransform.com
3D Transform is a free, online 3D object file converter.
AUTOCAD — usa.autodesk.com/autocad-products
AutoCAD is an industry leading CAD package from Autodesk.
AUTODESK 123D — 123dapp.com
Autodesk 123D is a range of free 3D printing design applications.
BLENDER — blender.org
Blender is a free, open-source 3D design package that includes modelling tools for 3D print.
LEOPOLY — leopoly.com
Leopoly is a sculpting package for creating models for 3D print. The free Leopoly.com runs in a web browser, while the
more feature-rich LeopolyNEXT is downloadable via subscription.
LIMITSTATE — print.limitstate.com
LimitState is an application for fixing STL files prior to 3D printing.
RHINO — rhino3d.com
Rhino is an excellent mid-range CAD package for 3D modelling.
SCULPTRIS — pixologic.com/sculptris
Sculptris is a free-version of the ZBrush 3D sculpting package.
SKETCHUP — sketchup.com
SketchUp (formerly Google Sketchup) is a 3D modelling application from Trimble Navigation. There are two versions:
SketchUp Make, which is free to download, and a paid professional edition.
SOLIDWORKS — solidworks.com
SolidWorks is a professional CAD package from Dassault Systèmes.
TINKERCAD — tinkercad.com
Tinkercad is free, browser-based 3D design package.
TURBOCAD — turbocad.com
TurboCAD is a popular, low-cost design package that can be used to create objects for 3D printout.
Z BRUSH — pixologic.com/zbrush
Z Brush is a really cool, high-end 3D sculpting package.
3D PRINTING SERVICE BUREAU
3BIGGG.com (France) — 3biggg.com/professionnels/en
3D Creation Lab (UK) — 3dcreationlab.co.uk
3D Hubs (whole planet network) — 3dhubs.com
3D Material Technologies (US) — 3dmaterialtechnologies.com
3D Print Bureau (UK) — 3dprintbureau.co.uk
3DPhacktory (Canada) — 3dphacktory.com
3D Print UK (UK) — 3dprint-uk.co.uk
3DPrintus (Russia) — 3dprintus.ru
3D ProParts (US) — 3dproparts.com
3D Prototype Design (Canada) — 3dprototype.com3D Quick Printing (UK) — 3dquickprinting.com
3T RPD Ltd (UK) — 3trpd.co.uk
Axis Prototypes (Canada) — axisproto.com
FIT Production (Germany) — fit-production.de
Formwurx (UK) — formwurx.co.uk
GROWit (US) — growit3d.com
Halo Technologies (US) — halotechnologiesllc.com
i.materialise (Belgium) — i.materialise.com
IDC Models (UK) — idcmodels.com/services/sla
Inition (UK) — inition.co.uk/3d-printing-and-scanning-services
Industrial Plastic Fabrications Limited (UK) — ipfl.co.uk
KAIAO Rapid Manfacturing (China) — kaiao-rprt.com
Laser Prototypes Europe Limited (Ireland) — laserproto.com
LGM Architectural Visualization (US) — lgmmodel.com
Made For Me (US, Austrailia & New Zealand) — madefor.me
Make Mode (US) — makemode.co
Materialise OnSite (Belgium) — materialise-onsite.com
Midwest Prototyping (US) — midwestproto.com
Objex (Canada) — objexunlimited.com
Ponoko (New Zealand, US, Germany, UK & Italy) — ponoko.com
Print To 3D (US) — printo3d.com
Proto3000 (Canada) — proto3000.com
Purple Porcupine (US) — purpleporcupine.com
Quickparts (US) — quickparts.com
Rapid 3D (South Africa) — rapid3d.co.za
Rapido3D (UK) — rapido3d.co.uk
Sculpteo (US & France) — sculpteo.com
Shapelize (France) — shapelize.com
Shapeways (US & The Netherlands) — shapeways.com
Stratasys Direct Express (US) — express.stratasysdirect.com
Stratasys Direct Manufacturing (US) — stratasysdirect.com
Tri Axis Art (US) — triaxisart.com
Vivid 3D (Northen Ireland) — vivid3d.co.uk
x3D Print (France) — x3d-print.com/en/
Xometry (US) — xometry.com
3D OBJECT REPOSITORIES
3Dagogo — 3dagogo.com
CGTrader — cgtrader.com
Cuboyo — cuboyo.comCults3d — cults3d.com
df3d — store.df3d.com/index.php/store.html
Humster — humster3d.com/3d-printing-ready/
Kraftwurx — kraftwurx.com
MyMiniFactory — myminifactory.com
Pinshape — pinshape.com
Redpah — redpah.com
Repables — repables.com
Thingiverse — thingiverse.com
Treatstock — treatstock.com
YouMagine — youmagine.com
XYZprinting Artist Collection — us.gallery.xyzprinting.com
2PP — see two-photon polymerization
3D MANUFACTURING FORMAT
The 3D manufacturing format (3MF) is a standard for 3D files that is being developed by the 3MF Consortium. 3MF
improves on the older STL format by including information on materials as well as geometry.
3MF — see 3D manufacturing format
3SP — see scan, spin and selectively photocure
ABS — see acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
ACRYLONITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is a common thermoplastic that is often used as the build material or ‘filament’ in
ACRYLONITRILE STYRENE ACRYLATE
Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA) is a thermoplastic that can be 3D printed via material extrusion.
ADDITIVE LAYER MANUFACTURING
Additive layer manufacturing (ALM) is another term for additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of building objects by depositing material in layers. 3D printing is therefore
an additive manufacturing process. Engineers often refer to 3D printing as additive manufacturing, although increasingly
the two terms are used interchangeably.
ADDITIVE METAL MANUFACTURING
Additive metal manufacturing (AMM) refers to any 3D printing technology that builds up metal objects in layers. Such
technologies include those based on powder bed fusion, such as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), laserCUSING and
electron beam melting (EBM). However, AMM can also encompass any form of directed energy deposition (DED), the
fused deposition modelling of metals (FDMm), electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM), wire and arc additive
manufacturing (WAAM) and nanoparticle jetting (NPJ).
ALM — see additive layer manufacturing
Alumide is a 3D printing material that is a two-part mix of nylon and aluminum powders. It is used in powder bed fusion
3D printers to produce objects with a metal feel and sparkle at relatively low cost.
AM — see additive manufacturing
American Society for Testing and Materials
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a standards development organization that has worked with
the International Standards Organization (ISO) to develop ISO/ASTM 52900.
AMM — see additive metal manufacturing
APD — see augmented polymer deposition
APM — see atomically precise manufacturing
ASA — see acrylonitrile styrene acrylate
ASTM — see American Society for Testing and Materials
ATOMICALLY PRECISE MANUFACTURE
Atomically precise manufacture refers to ‘bottom-up’ nanotechnological processes, such as self-assembly, that allow
items to be created without the intervention of conventional-scale production tools.
AUGMENTED POLYMER DEPOSITIONAugmented polymer deposition (APD) is material extrusion technology invented by Rise Inc. It jets a ‘repelling ink’
between an object and its support structures in order to facilitate the latter’s easy removal.
Binder jetting is the generic term for all 3D printing technologies that spray a binder from an inkjet-style print head onto
successive layers of powder. Binder jetting hardware from different manufacturers can currently build objects from a
range of materials that include plastics, ceramics, gypsum-based powders, sand, and even metal nanoparticles held in
Bio-ink is a culture of living cells that is used as a build material in a bioprinter.
Bio-paper is a support material used in bioprinting, and is usually a hydrogel, such as a water-collagen mix.
A bioprinter is a 3D printer that outputs objects made of living cells, rather than plastics, metals or other inorganic
BREAKAWAY SUPPORT TECHNOLOGY
Breakaway support technology (BST) is featured on 3D printers that add extra build material to an object during printout
to hold in place upward sloping or orphan parts that would otherwise fall away.
BST — see breakaway support technology
CFF — see composite filament fabrication
CLIP — see continuous liquid interface production
CNC stands for ‘computer numerical control’, and is used in reference to automated production tools such as CNC
ColorJet printing is 3D System’s implementation of binder jetting that can create full-colour 3D prints.
COMPOSITE FILAMENT FABRICATION
Composite filament fabrication is a term coined by Markforged to refer to their technology which adds continuous
reinforcement strands to 3D printed objects during the process of material extrusion.
A concept model is a representation of a final product that approximates its form, but which lacks its functionality.
CONTINUOUS LIQUID INTERFACE PRODUCTION
Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) is an inverted vat photopolymerization 3D printing process created by
Contour crafting is another name for the material extrusion of concrete. The term was coined by Behrokh Khoshnevis,
who describes it as a ‘mega scale layered fabrication process which builds large scale three-dimensional parts by
depositing paste materials’.
DAYLIGHT POLYMER PRINTING
Daylight polymer printing (DPP) is a vat photopolymerization process created by PhotoCentric. It solidifies
photopolymer layers using natural light wavelengths projected through an LCD panel.
DDM — see direct digital manufacturing
DIRECT DIGITAL MANUFACTURING
Direct digital manufacturing (DDM) refers to the production of final products, or parts thereof, using a 3D printer.
DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING
Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a form of powder bed fusion that uses a laser to selectively heat and so fuse
together metal powders.DIRECTED ENERGY DEPOSITION
Directed energy deposition is the generic name for any 3D printing technology that deposits metal powders that are
fused into object layers using a laser or electron beam.
DLP projection is a vat photopolymerization technology in which a DLP or ‘digital light processing’ projector is used to
solidify layers of a photopolymer, typically on the base of a UV-transparent vat.
DMLS — see direct metal laser sintering
DMP — see direct metal printing
DPP — see daylight polymer printing
DROP-ON-DEMAND — see wax deposition modelling
EBAM — see electron beam additive manufacturing
EBF3 — see electron beam melting
EBM — see electron beam melting
ELECTRON BEAM ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
Electron beam additive manufacturing is a 3D printing technology developed by Sciaky. It feeds two solid metal wire
feedstocks into an electron beam that fuses them into potentially very large industrial parts.
ELECTRON BEAM FREEFORM FABRICATION
Electron beam freeform fabrication is another term for electron beam melting.
ELECTRON BEAM MELTING
Electron beam melting (EBM) is a powder bed fusion technology that builds up metal objects in a vacuum by using an
electron beam to selectively melt and so fuse together successive layers of a metal powder.
Fab@Home was an open source 3D printer project started in 2006 by Hod Lipson & Evan Malone. Deemed a success, it
was closed in 2012.
FDC — see fused deposition of ceramics
FDM — see fused deposition modelling
FDMm — see fused deposition modelling of metals
FFF — see fused filament fabrication
FFM — see fused filament modelling
Figure 4 is a developmental vat photopolymerization and robotic 3D printing process created by 3D Systems. It employs
modularization and new hybrid resins to offer high-speed industrial part production.
Filament is used to 3D print objects via material extrusion, also commonly referred to as ‘fused deposition modelling’
(FDM). Filament is typically a thermoplastic (such as ABS or PLA) that is fed to a print head as a solid, and then heated
for extrusion from a nozzle. Filament is typically 1.75 mm or about 3 mm in diameter.
A functional prototype is a representation of a final product created to test its form, fit and function before committing to
FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a material extrusion 3D printing process that creates objects in layers by
depositing a heated thermoplastic from a computer-controlled print head nozzle. FDM was invented by a company called
Stratasys, which has trademarked the term. Other companies subsequently refer to this kind of material extrusion
technology as ‘plastic jet printing’ (PJP), ‘fused filament modelling’ (FFM), ‘fused filament fabrication’ (FFF), the
‘fused deposition method’ and ‘melted and extruded modelling’ (MEM).
FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING OF METALSThe fused deposition modelling of metals (FDMm) is a form of material extrusion that deposits a molten metal to 3D
print objects in successive layers. See also wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) and electron beam additive
FUSED DEPOSITION OF CERAMICS
The fused deposition of ceramics (FDC) refers to the 3D printing of ceramic objects using multiphase jet solidification
FUSED FILAMENT FABRICATION
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is another term for material extrusion, also commonly referred to as fused deposition
FUSED FILAMENT MODELLING
Fused filament modelling (FFM) is another term for material extrusion, also commonly referred to as fused deposition
GRANULAR MATERIALS BINDING
Granular materials binding is a generic term for all forms of 3D printing that create objects by selectively sticking
together the granules of a powder. Granular materials binding therefore encompasses binder jetting, powder bed fusion
and directed energy deposition.
HIPS stands for high impact polystyrene, and is a thermoplastic that can be used by some material extrusion 3D printers.
HTPLA stands for ‘high temperature PLA’, and is a stronger and more durable form of the traditional thermoplastic
ISO/ASTM 52900 categorizes most additive manufacturing (3D printing) technologies under the seven generic headings
of material extrusion, vat photopolymerization, material jetting, binder jetting, powder bed fusion, directed energy
deposition and sheet lamination
LAMINATED OBJECT MANUFACTURE
Laminated object manufacture (LOM) is a sheet lamination technology that builds up objects by adhering successive
sheets of cut paper.
LAMP — see large area maskless photopolymerization
LARGE AREA MASKLESS PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION
Large area maskless photopolymerization (LAMP) is a 3D printing technology developed by DDM Systems. It uses a
moving DLP projector to solidify layers of a liquid and ceramic powder composite.
LASER BEAM MELTING
Laser beam melting (LBM) refers to all powder-bed fusion 3D printing technologies that use a laser beam to fuse
together successive layers of a powdered build material. This distinguishes such technologies from those that use another
heat source, such as an electron beam.
Laser direct-writing (LDR) uses laser energy to 3D print on the microscale or nanoscale. LDR includes techniques such
as two-photon polymerization (2PP), as well as an experimental bioprinting technique that creates precise biological
patterns using laser energy to transfer individual cells from a ‘donor slide’ to a ‘collector slide’.
LASER ENGINEERED NET SHAPING
Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) is a directed energy deposition 3D printing technology pioneered and trademarked
LASER METAL DEPOSITION
Laser metal deposition (LMD) is a form of directed energy deposition independently developed by BeAM, Toshiba and
LASER POWDER FORMING
Laser powder forming is another term for directed energy depositionLASERCUSING
LaserCUSING is a powder bed fusion technology that uses high power lasers to fuse together the granules of a metal
LBM — see laser beam melting
LCM — see lithography-based ceramic manufacturing
LDM — see local digital manufacturing
LDR — see direct laser writing
LENS — see laser engineered net shaping
LITHOGRAPHY-BASED CERAMIC MANUFACTURING
Lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM) is a vat photopolymerization technology developed by Lithoz in
Austria. The process selectively cures a photosensitive resin that contains ceramic particles.
LMD — see laser metal deposition
LOCAL DIGITAL MANUFACTURING
Local digital manufacturing (LDM) uses digital technologies to make products on demand very close to the location of
their final consumer.
LOM — see laminated object manufacture
LOW-TEMPERATURE DEPOSITION MODELLING
Low-temperature deposition modelling is a form of material extrusion that works at low temperatures, and which has
particular potential application in tissue engineering.
LS — see selective laser sintering
Material extrusion is the generic term for all 3D printing technologies that build objects in layers by extruding a material
– such as a molten thermoplastic – from a computer-controlled print head nozzle. Many people refer to material
extrusion as fused deposition modelling (FDM), although this label is trademarked by Stratasys. Other terms for material
extrusion include fused filament modelling (FFM), fused filament fabrication (FFF), thermoplastic extrusion, melted and
extruded modelling (MEM), and plastic jet printing (PJP).
Material jetting is the name for any 3D printing technology that emits a liquid from a print head. In most material jetting
processes, the build material is a photopolymer that is set solid with UV light before the next layer is printed on top of it.
Such ‘photopolymer material jetting’ is known via a variety of other names, including ‘PolyJet’ (short for ‘photopolymer
jet’, the term used by Stratasys), ‘MultiJet Printing’ (MJP, the term used by 3D Systems), and ‘inkjet photopolymer
printing’. See also wax deposition modelling and nanoparticle jetting.
MELTED AND EXTRUDED MODELLING
Melted and extruded modelling (MEM) is another term for those 3D printing technologies generically known as material
MEM — see melted and extruded modelling
MICRO LASER SINTERING
Micro laser sintering (MLS) is a powder bed fusion 3D printing technology that can achieve a minimum feature
resolution of 1 μm (0.001 mm). It was developed by EOS e-Manufacturing Solutions and 3DMicromac in Germany.
A microfabricator is the equivalent in manufacturing of a microprocessor in computing. Theoretically, 3D printing and
related LDM technologies will one day allow the creation of such microscale and nanoscale machines that will use selfassembly techniques to manipulate physical matter, rather than bits of information.
MJF — see multi jet fusion
MJP — see multijet printing
MJS — see multiphase jet solidificationMLS — see micro laser sintering
MOVINGLight is a DLP vat photopolymerization technology created by Prodways. It works like standard DLP
projection, but achieves a greater resolution by physically moving a top-mounted projector, rather than statically
projecting each object layer onto the base of the photopolymer vat. See also DLP projection.
MULTI JET FUSION
Multi Jet Fusion is a 3D printing technology unique to HP. It lays down a layer of powder from one print carriage, before
a second print head selectively sprays droplets of ‘fusing and detailing agents’ that are then fused solid using a heat
MultiJet Printing (MJP) is the name used by 3D Systems to refer to its material jetting 3D printers.
MULTIPHASE JET SOLIDIFICATION
Multiphase jet solidification (MJS) is a 3D printing process where a ceramic or metal powder is mixed with a binder so
that it can be heated and extruded through a nozzle.
NanoParticle Jetting (NJP) is a material jetting 3D printing technology developed by XJet. It fabricates metal objects by
jetting nanoparticles of metal that are initially held in a liquid suspension, before being fused with heat.
Nanotechnology refers to measuring and manufacturing at a level of precision of between 1 and 100 nanometres.
Specific technologies include nanolithography, the production of nanocomposites, and forms of organic and inorganic
NPJ — see NanoParticle Jetting
PA12 is a polyamide that is commonly used for making plastic objects via powder bed fusion.
A pattern is a master version of an object that is created for the purposes of taking a mold.
PC — see polycarbonate
PC-ISO — see polycarbonate-ISO
PETG — see polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified
PHA — see polyhydroxyalkanoate
Photopolymers are liquid plastic resins that solidify when exposed to light, and which are used as the build materials in
vat photopolymerization and most material jetting 3D printers.
PJP — see plastic jet printing
PLA — see polylactic acid
PLASTIC JET PRINTING
Plastic jet printing (PJP) is the name used by 3D Systems for their 3D printing process that extrudes a molten
thermoplastic. It is what Stratasys call fused deposition modelling (FDM). See also material extrusion.
PMMA — see polymethylmethacrylate
Polyamides, such as nylon, are semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers, and may be used as both thermoplastic
extrusion and powder bed fusion 3D printing build materials.
Polycarbonate (PC) is a thermoplastic that is sometimes used as the build material in material extrusion 3D printers.
POLYCARBONATE-ISOPolycarbonate-ISO is a polycarbonate thermoplastic that can be sterilized with gamma radiation or ethylene oxide, and
which offers good biocompatibility for the fabrication of 3D printed medical devices.
POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE GLYCOL-MODIFIED
Polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (PETG) is a thermoplastic that can be used as the build material in some
material extrusion 3D printers.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a bioplastic that is sometimes used as the build material in material extrusion 3D
PolyJet – or PolyJet Matrix – is a Stratasys material jetting technology that can fabricate full-colour, multiple material
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a bioplastic that can be used as the build material or ‘filament’ in many material extrusion 3D
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a clear thermoplastic that can be used as the filament in some material extrusion 3D
Polyphenylsulfone is a thermoplastic that can be used to 3D print objects that require very high temperature and
Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) is a synthetic polymer that is sometimes used by material extrusion 3D printers to create soluble
POWDER BED FUSION
Powder bed fusion is the generic term for all 3D printing technologies that build objects in layers by using a heat source
to selectively stick together successive layers of powder. It therefore encompasses laser sintering (LS), selective laser
sintering (SLS), selective laser melting (SLM), selective heat sintering (SHS), direct metal laser sintering (DMLS),
electron beam melting (EBM) and laserCUSING.
PPSF — see polyphenylsulfone
Printoptical is a material jetting technology created by LUXeXceL. It can 3D print functional lenses and other optical
PVA — see polyvinyl acetate
RAPID PLASMA DEPOSITION
Rapid plasma deposition (RPD) is a direct-metal 3D printing process created by Norsk Titanium.
Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to any technology used to create a prototype object from digital data using computercontrolled hardware. Rapid prototypers include, but are not limited to, 3D printers. ‘Rapid prototyping’ and ‘3D printing’
are hence not interchangeable terms.
RepRaps – or ‘replicating rapid prototypers’ – are open source 3D printers capable of making many of their own parts.
RP — see rapid prototyping
RPD — see rapid plasma deposition
A sacrificial mold is a single-use mold, such as a sand cast mold, that is destroyed during the production process that
SCAN, SPIN AND SELECTIVELY PHOTOCUREScan, spin and selectively photocure (3SP) is a vat photopolymerization 3D printing technology pioneered by
SDL — see selective deposition lamination
SELECTIVE DEPOSITION LAMINATION
Selective deposition lamination’ (SDL) is the name used by Mcor Technologies for its sheet lamination 3D printing
SELECTIVE HEAT SINTERING
Selective heat sintering (SHS) is a powder bed fusion technology created by a company called BluePrinter. The process
is similar to selective laser sintering (SLS), but uses a thermal print head rather than a laser to selectively fuse together
successive layers of a plastic powder.
SELECTIVE LASER MELTING
Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder bed fusion 3D printing technology that uses a very high power laser to
entirely melt metal powder granules in order to form object layers.
SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a powder bed fusion 3D printing technology that uses a laser to selectively fuse or
‘sinter’ together the granules of successive layers of powder.
Self-assembly is the process that allows living things, synthetic biological constructs, and bleeding-edge
nanotechnologies, to assemble cells, inorganic polymers and potentially other nanoscale materials without the aid of
Sheet lamination is the generic term for all 3D printing processes that build objects by adhering sheets of cut paper,
plastic or metal foil.
SHS — see selective heat sintering
SLA — see stereolithography
SLM — see selective laser melting
SLS — see selective laser sintering
SOLUBLE SUPPORT TECHNOLOGY
Soluble support technology (SST) is featured on 3D printers that output a dissolvable material (such as PVA) to hold in
place the upward sloping or potentially ‘orphan’ parts of an object that would otherwise fall away. As the name suggests,
soluble supports are removed after printout using a liquid solvent, such as a water-based detergent.
SST — see soluble support technology
Stereolithography is a vat photopolymerization process that builds objects in layers using a StereoLithographic
Apparatus (SLA). Objects are created by a laser beam that traces out and solidifies each successive layer on the surface
or base of a vat of liquid photopolymer.
STL is a computer file format widely used in 3D printing. Exactly what STL is an acronym for is debated, though most
commonly it is taken to be short for ‘standard tessellation language’.
Support structures are additional parts that are added to objects during 3D printing to prevent overhanging or orphan
parts falling away.
Synthetic biology (SynBio) is a digital manufacturing technology that breaks DNA into modular building blocks than
can be re-arranged in a computer and chemically rendered as living matter.
A thermoplastic is a plastic whose shape can be changed by heating it into a molten form and then allowing it to coolback into a solid. Thermoplastics are widely used as the build material in material extrusion and powder bed fusion 3D
A thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is a material that can be used to create highly flexible parts in some material extrusion
3D printers. Examples include thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs, also known as TPE-Us).
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU or TPE-U) is a thermoplastic elastomer that can be used in some material extrusion
3D printers to create rubber-like parts.
Tissue engineering refers to the creation or alteration of living matter, as may be achieved using a bioprinter.
TPE — see thermoplastic elastomer
TPU — see thermoplastic polyurethane
Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is a vat photopolymerization 3D printing technology that uses a femtosecond pulsed
laser to selectively solidify successive layers of a specially developed liquid photopolymer. This build material includes
‘initiator’ molecules that trigger monomer solidification when stuck by two photons. Two-photon polymerization can
currently achieve a layer thickness and an X-Y axes accuracy down to 100 nanometres (0.0001 mm).
UAM — see ultrasonic additive manufacturing
ULTEM 9085 is a specialist thermoplastic 3D printing material from Stratasys that is certified for use in aviation.
ULTRASONIC ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a sheet lamination 3D printing technology developed by Fabrisonic. It
create objects by ultrasonically welding together layers of metal tape.
Vat photopolymerization is the generic term for all 3D printing technologies in which a vat or tank of liquid
photopolymer is selectively solidified using a laser beam or other light source. Vat photopolymerization processes
currently include stereolithography, DLP projection, MOVINGLight, daylight polymer printing (DPP), scan, spin and
selectively photocure (3SP), lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM), continuous liquid interface production
(CLIP), Figure 4, and two-photon polymerization (2PP).
WAAM — see wire and arc additive manufacturing
WAX DEPOSITION MODELLING
Wax deposition modelling (WDM) is a Stratasys material jetting technology that creates sacrificial casting patterns by
depositing layers of a special thermoplastic called TrueWax. WDM is also known as drop on demand (DOD).
WDM — see wax deposition modelling
WIRE AND ARC ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a 3D printing technology that feeds a thin titanium wire to the tip of an
adapted arc fusion welding robot, where it is heated to a molten state for deposition into object layers.
A wood/polymer composite (WPC) is a filament used in material extrusion 3D printing that is made from a traditional
thermoplastic (such as PLA) mixed with sawdust or other wood fibers.
WPC — see wood/polymer composite3D Pr
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