كتاب 3D Printing for Product Designers
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب 3D Printing for Product Designers

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب 3D Printing for Product Designers    كتاب 3D Printing for Product Designers  Emptyالجمعة 17 فبراير 2023, 11:48 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
3D Printing for Product Designers
Innovative Strategies Using Additive Manufacturing
Jennifer Loy, James Novak, and Olaf Diegel

كتاب 3D Printing for Product Designers  3_d_p_14
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
List of figures viii
List of tables xv
Acknowledgements xvi
Author biographies xvii
Introduction 1
1 Demystifying 3D printing processes and workflow 12
2 Working with a design for additive manufacturing (DfAM)
consultancy 52
3 Strategy 1: Working with existing production 67
4 Strategy 2: Product redesign and new product design 96
5 Strategy 3: Digital business innovation 122
6 Case studies: 3D printing from the product designers’
perspective 145
7 DfAM: Design guidelines for product designers 207
8 3D printing sustainability and digital ecosystems 244
9 Making the future/remaking product design 266
Glossary of terms and acronyms 275
Notes on organisations, companies, and designers 278
Index 281viii u
List of figures
1.1 A new framework for additive manufacturing technologies
for product designers. Solid boxes/circles indicate overlap
with the ISO/ASTM 52900 standard categories of additive
technologies 17
1.2 Close-up detail of the layers on a dual-material 3D print
produced on a desktop FFF machine using 0.2 mm layer
thickness and a PLA material (grey) and TPU (white) 22
1.3 Stereolithography (SLA) – laser cured resin with internal
resin support structure (Loy) 23
1.4 Multiple material, full-colour material jetting technology used
for medical models as communication and planning tools,
such as on the Mimaki printer (a) and on a Connex (b) 25
1.5 HP Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) colour sample that is cut open to
show interior grey colour 25
1.6 The three main processes required to go from CAD to 3D print 26
1.7 A solid model of a tube in CAD software (a) compared to a
low-resolution STL (b) and high-resolution STL (c) 28
1.8 The two core components of an OBJ file are the 3D mesh
file (a) and PNG image file (b) that combines into a full-colour
model (c) 29
1.9 The same STL file with error in two different slicing
programs, with only one of them clearly indicating a
problem through red colouring 31
1.10 Mesh repair software can be used to highlight and correct
problems in 3D print files, in this case overlapping triangles 32
1.11 A mesh hole (a) which has been repaired to follow
surrounding geometry compared with a more organic
addition (b) that does not suit the designers’ intent 33
1.12 Typical file conversion stages from CAD to 3D printer 34
1.13 Imported STL (a), sliced model (b), and detail of some of the
slices showing the pathway of the print nozzle (c) 35
1.14 Setting up different supports for a Selective Laser Melting
(SLM) process 35ix u
List of figures j
1.15 Process of removing the “cake” from the SLS printer and
then removing parts by hand on a table with a built-in
vacuum to collect powder 41
1.16 Blast cleaning the parts and detail of a part with fine details
where blasting does not completely remove excess powder 41
1.17 Handle manufactured in stainless steel using selective laser
melting (Loy) 46
1.18 Handle showing support material from the selective laser
melting process 47
1.19 Multiple prints attached to the base plate (top); manual
removal of support material (bottom) 48
1.20 Small test pieces for understanding support material
strategies for metal printing 49
1.21 Creating an assembly with metal printing is possible
and requires an understanding of support placement (a)
and tolerances, informed by an understanding of post
processing (support structures removed) (b, c) 50
2.1 Mapping the technology adoption journey 54
3.1 Overview of Strategy 1 approaches to 3D printing 67
3.2 68
3.3 Example of rapid prototyping – MagnaLatch Series 3 pool
safety gate latch 72
3.4 Example of bridge manufacturing: drug delivery storage container 74
3.5 Example of fixtures for welding 77
3.6 Example of a jig – angled drilling jig to achieve a precise
31.6° angle 82
3.7 Example of enhanced tooling – conformal cooling channels
shown through both cross-section (left) and transparent
print (right) 86
3.8 Example of agile manufacturing – a one-off mould for
vacuum forming utilising a 3D scan of someone’s face, to be
used for some chocolate moulds 88
3.9 Example of a positioning jig 94
4.1 Overview of Strategy 2 approaches to 3D printing 96
4.2 97
4.3 Example of part consolidation – guitar holder and guitar stand 104
4.4 Example of light-weighting – Atlas Copco Hydraulic Manifold 106
4.5 Example of customisation – topology-optimised walking
frame lugs 111
4.6 Example of form determined by function – Canal House wall
construction 114
4.7 DUS Architects 3D printed formwork creates voids that can
then be filled with different materials, such as concrete or pulp 115
4.8 Example of product innovation – Tuber9 light series 117x u
j List of figures
4.9 Fox Coral Solutions can now supply their traditional aftermarket motorcycle parts like foot pegs (green), while also
providing customised 3D printed inserts (orange) that can
be sold as part of the package, or individually curated
by riders online 119
5.1 Overview of Strategy 3 approaches to 3D printing 122
5.2 123
5.3 Example of a digital inventory project – parts digitised,
redesigned, and validated in Australia for 3D printing,
then 3D printed in Nairobi, for the Oxfam G.B.
WASH project 125
5.4 Example of a distributed manufacturing context – low-cost,
open-source 3D printed face shield called the RC3, designed
by Prusa Research (Novak) 128
5.5 Example of personalisation – Child’s Play prosthetic made to
fit an arm scan 131
5.6 3D scanning interfaces are becoming easier to work with,
and a wider range of equipment is now available 132
5.7 Example of the creation of an adaptable system – Nodal Design 134
5.8 Example of an automatically generated race car spaceframe
from a solid CAD model 136
5.9 Example of digital business innovation – Prosfit, led by Alan
and Christopher Hutchison 138
6.1 A selection of Rehook prototypes 3D printed using desktop
FFF to allow quick and cost-effective iteration (a) SLS
production of Rehook in progress 146
6.2 Evolution of Rehook from prototype to final product 147
6.3 Process of topology optimisation of the seat post bracket
with a final image of the bracket in its printed orientation,
amongst other frame pieces on a build plate 148
6.4 Complete 3D printed titanium bicycle frame from Empire
Cycles and Renishaw 149
6.5 Compression testing of early lattice sample (left),
comparison of aerodynamic properties of a standard tube
and lattice geometry using simulation (right) 150
6.6 FIX3D bicycle frame 151
6.7 Wind tunnel testing of Dynaero at 44 km/h 153
6.8 Dynaero 3D printed bike helmet and accompanying mobile app 153
6.9 The Atom 155
6.10 FEA analysis showing deflection of original ODD Guitar body
(a), 2nd iteration (b), and 3rd (c) 156
6.11 A production run of Americana and Atom guitars. Each guitar
has features specific to each musician (Diegel) 158
6.12 The Scarab ST full-colour 3D printed guitar (Diegel) 159xi u
List of figures j
6.13 Aluminium guitar still welded to the build-plate, and close-up
showing the support material below the barbed wires (a).
Finished Heavy Metal aluminium 3D printed guitar (b) 160
6.14 The GreenAxe 3D printed wood guitar. Printed in sawdust
and lignin-based bio epoxy using a proprietary binder-jetting
3D printing process 161
6.15 Close-up of Adrian McCormack’s SLS guitar 162
6.16 Marbled finish achieved using hydro-dipping for the SLS
printed guitar (McCormack) 162
6.17 Multiple piece guitar, filament printed 163
6.18 Berto Pandolfo designed the “MND” furniture series
exploring the relationship between the handmade and
machine-made, in timber with 3D printed legs 164
6.19 Fingerprint Stool 165
6.20 Failed print after being dislodged from the build plate
without raft (a) and completed stool in the BigRep ONE
printer (b). 166
6.21 Ghost Chair 168
6.22 Pneumatic, flexible water-creatures by Ross Stevens (a)
and rigid 3D printed prop glove by Tor Robinson and Ross
Stevens of Victoria University, New Zealand (b) 170
6.23 Material jetting, 3D printed, multi-material eyes 171
6.24 3D printed faces based on 3D scan, with 3D printed eye
inserts – see Figure 6.23 171
6.25 Large format 3D printing by Studio Kite: Chariot for the
movie Thor: Love and Thunder; statue and column for
Thor: Love and Thunder prior to finishing 175
6.26 Textile assembly printed as a single part (a), 3D printing
directly on fabric (b) 175
6.27 Examples of SCAN2CAST 3D printed custom splints 178
6.28 Setting up the trim and split lines to automatically generate
a ready-to-print splint 179
6.29 Custom-made, 3D printed decorative splint 180
6.30 Stigma-to-Silver-Linings 181
6.31 Super-abled 182
6.32 Angel Leg 183
6.33 3D printed artery model with stent 184
6.34 Detailed view of a prototype implant housing which was
printed using FFF (a); a collection of different prototypes
can be printed with FFF in <30 minutes at this scale
(b); testing the fit of different sized magnet housing on
different 3D printed skull anatomy (c); a collection of SLS
printed housings to be embedded in the silicone prosthesis
(d); fitting of a prosthetic ear using the magnet systemxii u
j List of figures
over a skin-like silicone sheet (e); detailed view of early
experiments directly gluing magnets into a prosthesis to
match the 3D printed implant design (f) 185
6.35 Experimenting with materials and simple prototypes from
a Stratasys J750 Digital Anatomy Printer to gain feedback
from neurosurgeons about haptic and other qualities
compared with real anatomy 187
6.36 Cartridge system models designed by Liam Georgeson 187
6.37 A final prototype of the EVD training model, along with
some material samples, and a StealthStation navigation
device set up in the background 188
6.38 Topology-optimised mask produced using FFF being fit
tested to a phantom (a, designed by Amirhossein Asfia),
full-colour MJF printed mask featuring light-weight lattice
structure and markers for tracking (b, designed by Faizan Badar) 189
6.39 Intubation simulation with the mask fitted with square filter
housings (left), fit testing with the Halyard qualitative fit
testing kit (right) 190
6.40 Creating samples as a catalogue of digital printing to inform
practice and for communication with clients 191
6.41 Exploring the ability to create form with 3D printing using
SLM, SLS (right), and MJF (left), designs modelled in Solidworks 192
6.42 Exploration of organic form, designed, 3D modelled, and 3D
printed by David Haggerty 193
6.43 Fractilus range of jewellery designed by David Haggerty,
using 3D printing in different ways during the process (a)
direct metal printing, and (b) lost wax casting 193
6.44 Material jetting vases, showing prior to postprocessing
through finishing, and a large example of a print (approx.
height 600 mm and a close-up showing internal detail) 194
6.45 Ball within a ball trophy design and Bling3D earrings/cufflinks 195
6.46 Smallest versions of the earrings (a) and larger size showing
the level of detail that can be achieved (b) 195
6.47 Underside of failed experimental print (a); series of
postprocessing steps (b); finished bracelet designs (c) 196
6.48 Comparison of a conventional mass-produced kitesurfing fin
and 3D printed ABS version (left), 3D printed kitesurfing fin
during early tests on the water (right) 198
6.49 Example range of surf fin shapes that can be generated
algorithmically using Grasshopper and Rhino, with users
interacting with a simple control interface that hides the
complex model processes (a), 3D printed carbon fibre-filled
nylon surf fin, generated algorithmically (b) 199xiii u
List of figures j
6.50 Cross-section through 3D printed heat exchanger 200
6.51 Illustrative example of a single gyroid cell (two versions on
the left) and network of connected gyroid cells (two versions
on the right). The red (hot) zone is kept separate from the
blue (cold) zone 201
6.52 Basic CAD body for a radiator showing 10 separate bodies
that form the radiator sub-components (left) and a diagram
of a heat exchanger (right) 202
6.53 Creation of a gyroid with a cell size and wall thickness to
meet specified heat transfer characteristics (a) with a cross
section of the TPMS (b) 202
6.54 Section view of completed heat exchanger, including hot
and cold fluid zones (a), the printed part showing minimal
support material requirements (b), printed heat exchanger
section (c), and assembly for testing (d) 203
6.55 Using a related workflow to go from a heat exchanger
to a radiator (a). Printed radiator made using same heat
exchanger workflow (b) and cross-sectional view (c) 204
7.1 Cut sample off an HP Jet Fusion 580 machine showing the
difference between the internal fusing agent (dark grey) and
external detailing agent with colour 211
7.2 3D FFF printed lattice structures 221
7.3 Colour test pieces printed on a HP Jet Fusion 580 machine
prior to surface treatment: (a) font and colour testing on
curved geometry, (b) CMYK swatches which can be sampled
through spectrophotometry and compared to digital colours 224
7.4 From left to right: Original CAD model; High resolution
STL mesh; Low resolution STL mesh; Detail showing the
variable spacing between assembled parts and faceted curves 225
7.5 ‘THEY’ principles of support and orientation 228
7.6 Example of packing for the HP Jet Fusion 580 3D printer 229
7.7 Different infill geometries commonly available for FFF 3D
printing. All of these were specified within slicing software 232
7.8 Alternative surface finishes for metal prints – a part that has
been polished (a), and the same part bead blasted with a
more matte surface finish (b) 236
7.9 From left to right: Raw aluminium ring from SLM process
with some support material removed; ring after support
removal, filing, and bead blasting; ring after polishing for five
minutes with a polishing wheel 237
7.10 Test pieces: Support structure for FFF can be difficult to
remove (a); designing to eliminate support structure (b);
complex structures avoiding supports (c) 240xiv u
j List of figures
8.1 Hexa-Phone Amplifier won the iMaterialise 3D Printed Wood
Challenge. It is 3D printed using selective laser sintering,
with the bulk of the powder made up of waste wood product 245
8.2 Australian start-up Polylab developed a screw-based
extruder system which can utilise shredded plastic from
discarded prints, or other waste products, through a hopper
system. In this example, HDPE material is being turned into
a new product 246
8.3 Examples of 3D printing used to repair common household
products: Replacement drawer roller (a), corner joint for
aluminium window screen (b), bracket to retain control
buttons inside a kitchen rangehood (c) 248
8.4 3D printed versions of “inflatables” artwork by Gregor
Kregar, showing support structure on metal 3D print 250
8.5 At-home, desktop 3D printer fridge vent repair 261xv u
List of tables
1.1 Data for tube STL files 28
7.1 Commonly available materials for SLS and MJF 211
7.2 Opportunities and challenges of PBF in relation to the three
strategies of this book 212
7.3 Commonly available materials for FFF and metal extrusion 213
7.4 Opportunities and challenges of FFF in relation to the three
strategies of this book 214
7.5 Commonly available materials for DMLS/SLM and EBM 216
7.6 Opportunities and challenges of metal PBF in relation
to the three strategies of this book 217
7.7 Overview of build volumes for key additive technologies 218
7.8 Minimum distance between moving parts 222
Index
3D scanning 83–84, 131–132, 152–153, 170–171,
176, 188–189
3MF/AMF files 29–30, 223; see also file
Accuracy 28, 79
Aerodynamics 150, 152–153
Agile manufacturing 88–92
Algorithmic design 113, 116, 108–109, 167–168,
198–199
Anatomical model 183–184, 186–188
Animation 116, 141; stop motion 172–174
Anisotropy 80–81, 225
Anodising 232–233
Architecture/buildings 113–115, 134–135
Art 191–195, 250
Assembly printed as one see part consolidation
Automation 133, 135, 139, 179,
227–228, 235
Batch production 146; see also bridge
manufacturing
Bead blasting 40–41, 235–236
Bicycles 145–153
Binder Jetting (BJ) 18, 23, 160–161, 209
Bound metal deposition 213
Bridge manufacturing 74–76, 146–147
Build farm 129–130; see also distributed
manufacturing
Build envelope/volume 37–39, 218–219
Business: education 241–242, 268; future
practice 260–269; innovation 103, 116–119,
137–142, 173
Carbon fibre 79, 198–199
Circular economy 246–247, 258–259, 264
Climate change 256
Co-design 181–182
Collaboration 4, 119, 268–269
Colour printing 22–26, 28–29, 222–224;
full-colour 24–25, 110–111, 159, 169–171,
189, 211, 223–224; multi-colour 24, 222
Computational design see algorithmic design,
computer-aided design, parametric modelling
Computer-aided design (CAD) 26–34, 110, 132, 192
Computer numerically controlled (CNC)
machining 13–14, 53, 237–238; see also
machining
Conformal cooling 86–88, 236
Connectors (e.g., tube and lug) 110–111,
133–137
Consumer/consumerism 140–141, 250–251,
256–262
Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP)
208
COVID-19 4, 89, 127–128, 189–190, 261
Customisation 82, 110–119, 135, 140–141, 150,
177–180, 197–199
Design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) 12–14,
34, 97–99, 108, 207–242
Design thinking 268
Digital inventory 125–127, 272; see also
distributed manufacturing
Digital Light Processing (DLP) 90, 208
Digital thread 248
Dip coating 235
Directed Energy Deposition (DED) 210
Distributed manufacturing 127–130, 137, 150,
253, 263, 272; see also build farm; supply
chain
Dual extrusion/filament 209
Durability 80
Dyeing 211, 234
Education 14, 16–19
Electron beam melting (EBM) 215–216
Index282 u
j Index
Electroplating see metal plating
End-use parts 74–76
Entrepreneur see start-up
Epoxy coating 234–235
Ergonomics 82–83
Extended producer responsibility 247
Fablab 263
Fashion 171, 191; costumes 174–175; see also
jewellery; prosthetics
Filament see Fused Filament Fabrication
File: conversion 26–30; export 26–30, 32, 224–225;
repair 32–33; size 28; types 26–30, 223
Film and special effects 169–176
Finite element analysis (FEA) 111, 156; see also
topology optimisation
Fixtures 77–81
Form follows function 113–116
Furniture 45–50, 163–169
Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF, also called
Fused Deposition Modelling, FDM) 19,
72–73, 163, 165–167, 174–175, 184–186,
198–199, 209–210, 213–215; see also infill
Future: technology 2–5, 269–270
Generative design 108–109, 112–113, 116–117,
167–168, 250–251
Guitars 154–163; stand 103–104
Gyroid 199–204
Health see medical devices, prosthetics
Heat exchangers 199–204
Heat treatment 238–239
Helmets 150–153
Hybrid manufacturing 237–238
Hydrographics (aka. Hydro dipping) 162, 232–233
Implant 184–186
Implicit modelling 178–180, 199–201
Industry 4.0 254–258
Industry 5.0 258
Infill 231–232; see also gyroid
Intellectual property (IP) 127
Inventory see digital inventory
Jewellery 180–181, 192–197
Jigs 81–86
Joining details 220
Lattice structure 109–110, 150–151, 178–180,
189, 191–192, 199–204, 220–221
Layer thickness 219, 230–231
Legislation (e.g., extended producer
responsibility)
Lifecycle assessment 247–248
Lighting 116–117
Light-weighting 106–109, 178, 249; see also
lattice structure; topology optimisation
Logistical postponement 125, 136
Machining 237–238
Market testing 74–76
Material extrusion 209–210, 213–215, 219–220;
see also fused filament fabrication; infill
Materials (e.g., handling, storing) 100–101, 213
Material jetting (MJ) 22–25, 159, 169–171,
193–194, 209
Mechanical properties/tests: compression 150;
cyclic 149; grip 81; rigidity 79; shear 80–81;
tensile 80; wear 81; see also anisotropy;
finite element analysis; orientation
Medical devices 176, 178–180, 183–190; see
also prosthetics
Meshes: mesh modelling 26–29; mesh repair
30–33; see also STL file
Metal 3D printing 35, 44–51, 215–216; see also
bound metal deposition; electron beam
melting; selective laser melting
Metal plating 168, 236–237
Mobile application 153
Moulds (aka. tooling) 86–92; casting 90,
192–193; hybrid 89–90; injection 12–13;
polymer 89; vacuum forming 86, 90
Multi jet fusion (MJF) 24–25, 137–138, 189,
210–211; see also dyeing
Multi-material printing 186–188
Non-fungible tokens (NFT) 252
OBJ file 28–29, 223; see also file
One-off design 154–163; see also agile
manufacturing; personalisation
Open source 128, 197–199, 252
Optimisation see topology optimisation
Orientation 80–81, 129, 225–228; see also
support material
Packing density 228–230; see also build volume
Painting 232–233
Parametric modelling 78–79, 150, 198–199
Part consolidation 50, 103–105, 194–197,
221–222
Personalisation 82–84, 131–133, 152, 165–167,
177–180283 u
Index j
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 127–128,
189–190
Polishing 196, 237–238
Post-processing 232–239; SLM 45–50, 196–197;
SLS 40–42; see also surface finish
Powders: polymer 39, 211; metal
Powder Bed Fusion 208–212, 215–216, 219,
228–230; see also selective laser sintering;
multi jet fusion; selective laser melting
Powder coating 232–233
Pre-processing 38–40, 224–232
Process parameters 33–35, 218–222, 225–232
Product innovation 116–119
Prosthetics 131, 137–138, 176–183; see also
medical devices
Prosumer 130, 261
Prototype see rapid prototyping
Quality control 127, 129, 255
Rapid prototyping 71–73, 146–147, 184–186,
189–190
Rapid tooling 91
Recycling 101, 246–248
Repair 246–247
Resin 22–23, 100–101; see also material jetting;
vat photopolymerisation
Role of the designer 267–273
Safety 81–85, 216
Scalable systems of supply 133–137
Scenarios 55–66, 67–69, 93–94, 96–97, 119–120,
122–123, 142
Segmentation 131, 184
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 18–20, 36–43,
154–157, 161–162, 178–180, 210–212
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) / Direct Metal
Laser Sintering (DMLS) 44–51, 147–149, 160,
194–197, 215–216
Service bureau 20, 44–45, 139,
226
Sheet lamination 209
Slicing 33–36, 40, 231–232; see also process
parameters
Society 5.0 253–254; responsibility 257–260
Spare parts see digital inventory
Splints 178–180
Sporting products see bicycles, helmets, surf
fins
Standards (e.g., ISO/ASTM) 15–18, 30
Start-up 98, 122, 130, 146–147, 184–186
Stereolithography (SLA) 208
STL file 26–28, 224-225; see also file
Supply chain 89, 125, 139–140; see also digital
inventory; distributed manufacturing
Support material 80, 221–222, 226–227; metal
46–49, 200–203, 215–216; polymer 21,
213–214, 240; see also orientation
Surface finish 21–22, 232–238; see also bead
blasting; hydrographics; painting; polishing;
vapour smoothing
Surface quality 226; see also layer thickness;
orientation; surface finish
Surf fins 197–199
Surgical training 186–188
Sustainability 244–265; future 258–260; invested
objects 249–252; product service system
245–246; temporary products 246–248
Technology adoption 52–66, 69–71, 92–93
Test pieces 49–50, 230
Tolerances 221–222, 225; SLS 41, 43
Topology optimisation 107–108, 111, 147–149,
188–189
Tumbling 235–236
User-centred design 152, 178, 180–183, 264,
271–273
Vapour smoothing 234–235
Vat Photopolymerisation 23, 208; see also digital
light processing; stereolithography
Voxel 24
VRML file 29, 223; see also file
Wall thickness 219–220
Waste 101, 249, 261–262, 264; see also support
material
Wood 3D printing 160–161, 245
Workflow 26–43, 199–204
Workforce development / upskilling 69–71,
92–93
X3D file see VRML

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