كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes
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 كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes

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عدد المساهمات : 14610
التقييم : 23816
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 29
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes   الأربعاء 02 مايو 2012, 11:40 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Handbook of Manufacturing Processes
How Products, Components and Materials Are Made
James G. Bralla
With Contributions by a Distinguished
Editorial Board


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface xxxii
Section I-Manufacturing Processes
Editorial Board
About the Author
Dedication
Preface
Acknowledgments
How to use this Handbook
Chapter 1-Casting Processes
A. Melting Metal for Casting
Al. cupola melting
A2. electric arc melting
A3. crucible melting
A4. air furnace (reverbatory) melting
AS. induction melting (high frequency
and low frequency)
A6. open-hearth melting
A7. pouring
B. Sand-mold Casting
B1. green sand casting
BZ. dry sand casting
B3. other sand-mold casting processes
B2a. skin-dried casting
B3a. shell mold casting
B3b. lost foam casting
B3c. magnetic molding
B3d. V-process casting (vacuum molding)
B3e. cement-sand molding
B3f. loam molding
B3g. flaskless mold casting
B3h. Antioch process
B4a. green sand cores
B4b. core blowing
B4c. core baking
B4d. oil-oxygen process
B4e. furan no-bake core process
B4. core making
B4f. carbon-dioxide process
B4g. shell process for cores
B5a. ramming
B5b. bench molding
B5c. floor molding
B5d. pit molding
B5e. machine methods
B5. sand mold methods
B5el. jolt-squeeze methods
B5eZ. sand slinging
B5e3. rap-jolt machines
B5e4. match-plate molding
B6. sand processing
B6a. sand mulling
B6b. reclamation of sand
B6bl. mechanical reclamation
B6bZ. thermal reclamation
B6b3. wet reclamation
B6c. metal separation from sand
B6d. cooling of sand
B7. pattern making
B8. post-molding operations
B8a. shakeout
B8b. core knockout
B8c. blast cleaning
B8d. tumble cleaning
B8e. wire brush cleaning
B8g. snagging
C. Other Expendable Mold Processes
C1. ceramic mold casting
CZ. ceramic-shell process
C3. Shaw process
C4. Unicast process
C5. plaster mold casting
D. Permanent Mold Processes
D1. permanent mold casting
DZ. low pressure permanent
mold casting
D3. slush casting
D4. pressed casting
D5. vacuum casting
E. Centrifugal Casting
El. true centrifugal casting
E2. semicentrifugal casting
E3. centrifuged casting
gate, riser and tin removal
C5a. foamed plaster mold casting
Die Casting
hot-chamber die casting
cold-chamber die casting
trimming
impregnation of die castings
Investment Casting (lost wax process)
flask method
shell method
Continuous Casting
Chapter %Metal Forming Processes
A.
A l . hot rolling
A2. hot drawing or cupping
A3. extrusion
Hot and Warm Forming Methods
A3a. indirect extrusion
A3b. Sejournet process
A4a. open-die drop-hammer forging
(hammer, flat-die or smith forging)
A4b. impression die forging (closed die forging)
(die forging)
A4bl. drop forging
A4b2. precision forging
A4b3. flashless forging
A4. forging
A4c. press forging
A4d. upset forging
A4e. roll forging
A4f. isothermal forging
A4g. swaging
A4h. ring rolling (mandrel forging)
piercing
pipe welding
hot spinning
warm heading
Primary Cold-working Operations
rolling
cold drawing
Sheet Metal Cutting Operations
shearing
Cla. squaring shears
Clb. alligator shears
Clc. rotary shears
nibbling
slitting
blanking
C4a. steel rule die blanking
C4b. dinking
c4c. cutoff
C4d. parting
C4e. photochemical blanking
punching
C5a. turret punching
CSb. notching
trimming
shaving
lancing
fineblanking
C9a. semi-piercing
Dl. bending
Press Bending and Forming Operations
of Sheet Metal
Dla. press brake bending
Dlb. V-die bending
Dlc. air bending
Dld. punch press (bending die) bending
D2. forming
D3. forming with rubber tooling
(rubber pad forming)
D3a. rubber tool forming
D3b. Guerin process
D3c. Marform process
D3d. rubber diaphragm forming
D3e. Verson-Wheelon process
(hydroform process) (fluid forming)
D4. drop hammer forming
D5. drawing (sheet metal parts)
DSa. shallow drawing
D5b. deep drawing
D5c. redrawing, direct and reverse
D6a. drop hammer coining
D6. coining
D7. embossing
D8. flanging
D9. beading
D10. hemming and seaming
D11. edge curling
D12. swaging
D13. sizing
D14. ironing
E. Multiple Die Stamping
Press Operations
El. progressive die operations
E2. transfer die (transfer press) operations
E3. compound die operations
F. Sheet Metal Operations Performed
on Equipment Other Than Presses
F1. rotary swaging
Fla. stationary die swaging
F2. three-roll forming
F3. stretch forming
F3a. stretch draw forming
F3b. stretch wrapping
F3c. compression forming
F3d. radial-draw forming
(stretch wrap forming)
F4. roll coining
F5. rotary embossing
F6. metal spinning
F6a. manual spinning
F6b. power spinning, “flow turning”
or “shear spinning”
roll forming (contour roll forming)
Ma. roll forming of tubing and pipe
M.
G. Wire Forming operations
G1. wire forming
Gla. manual forming of wire parts
Glb. wire forming in power presses
and special machines
G2. forming in four-slide machines
Die Casting
hot-chamber die casting
cold-chamber die casting
trimming
impregnation of die castings
Investment Casting (lost wax process)
flask method
shell method
Continuous Casting
Chapter 2-Metal Forming Processes
Hot and Warm Forming Methods
hot rolling
hot drawing or cupping
extrusion
A3a. indirect extrusion
A3b. Sejournet process
forging
open-die drop-hammer forging
(hammer, flat-die or smith forging)
impression die forging (closed die forging)
(die forging)
A4bl. drop forging
A4b2. precision forging
A4b3. flashless forging
press forging
upset forging
roll forging
isothermal forging
swaging
ring rolling (mandrel forging)
piercing
pipe welding
hot spinning
warm heading
Primary Cold-working Operations
rolling
cold drawing
Sheet Metal Cutting Operations
shearing
Cla. squaring shears
Clb. alligator shears
Clc. rotary shears
nibbling
slitting
blanking
C4a. steel rule die blanking
C4b. dinking
c4c. cutoff
C4d. parting
C4e. photochemical blanking
punching
C5a. turret punching
C5b. notching
trimming
shaving
lancing
fineblanking
C9a. semi-piercing
Press Bending and Forming Operations
of Sheet Metal
bending
Dla. press brake bending
Dlb. V-die bending
Dlc. air bending
Dld. punch press (bending die) bending
forming
forming with rubber tooling
D3a. rubber tool forming
(rubber pad forming)
D3b. Guerin process
D3c. Marform process
D3d. rubber diaphragm forming
D3e. Verson-Wheelon process
drop hammer forming
drawing (sheet metal parts)
D5a. shallow drawing
D5b. deep drawing
D5c. redrawing, direct and reverse
coining
D6a. drop hammer coining
embossing
flanging
beading
hemming and seaming
edge curling
swaging
sizing
ironing
Multiple Die Stamping
Press Operations
progressive die operations
transfer die (transfer press) operations
compound die operations
Sheet Metal Operations Performed
on Equipment Other Than Presses
rotary swaging
Fla. stationary die swaging
three-roll forming
stretch forming
F3a. stretch draw forming
F3b. stretch wrapping
F3c. compression forming
F3d. radial-draw forming
roll coining
rotary embossing
metal spinning
F6a. manual spinning
F6b. power spinning, “flow turning”
or “shear spinning”
roll forming (contour roll forming)
F7a. roll forming of tubing and pipe
Wire Forming Operations
wire forming
Gla. manual forming of wire parts
Glb. wire forming in power presses
and special machines
forming in four-slide machines
(hydroform process) (fluid forming)
(stretch wrap forming)
G3. spring forming
G4. Turk's-head rolling of wire
H. "bbing and Section Operations
H1. tube spinning
Hla. forward tube spinning
Hlb. backward tube spinning
H2. tube and section bending
H2a. draw bending
H2b. compression bending
H a . ram-and-press bending
H2d. stretch bending
H2e. wrinkle bending
H2f. roll bending
H2g. roll extrusion bending
H2h. bulging, mechanical
H2i. bulging, hydraulic
H2j.
I. Non-sheet Forming Operations
11. shearing of bars and other non-flat shapes
12. cold heading
13. thread rolling
14. impactkold extrusion
other methods of bulging tubing
I4a. backwards extrusion
I4b. forward extrusion
I&. combined extrusion
J. High-energy-rate Forming Methods
J1. explosive forming
52. combustible gas forming
53. electromagnetic forming (EMF)
54. spark-discharge forming
55. electrohydraulic forming
56. pneumatic-mechanical forming
57. peen forming
K. Straightening
K1. manual straightening
K2. press straightening
K3. parallel roll straightening
K4. rotary straightening
K5. epicyclic straightening
K6. stretch straightening
L. Other Forming Processes
L1. powder metallurgy ( P h l ) processes
Lla. metal powder manufacture
Llb. powder blending and mixing
Llc. pressing (compacting)
Lld. sintering
Lle. repressing
Llf. secondary operations
Llg. powder metal forging
(also known as magnetic pulse forming)
(electrospark forming)
L2. electroforming
L3. metal injection molding (MIM)
Chapter &Machining Processes
Al. lathe operations (general description)
Lathe and Other Turning Operations
Ala. turning
Alb. form turning
Alc. tracer turning
Ald. facing
Ale. grooving
Alf. knurling
Alg. cutting off (parting)
lathes and other turning machines
A2a. engine lathes
A2b. turret lathes
A2c. screw machines
A k l . single spindle screw machines
A2c2. Swiss-type screw machines
A M . multiple spindle screw machines
A2d. chucking machines
A2e. turning centers
Round-hole-making Methods
driI Iing
counterboring
countersinking
reaming
boring
B5a. jig boring
B5b. horizontal boring mills
B5c. vertical boring mills
gun drilling
trepanning
multiple-spindle drilling
Grinding and Abrasive Machining
cylindrical grinding
Cla. center-type cylindrical grinding
Clb. centerless grinding
Clbl. through-feed centerless grinding
Clb2. infeed centerless grinding
Clb3. end-feed centerless grinding
internal grinding
C2a. internal centerless grinding
surface grinding
C3a. horizontal spindle
C3b. vertical spindle surface grinding
C3c. creep-feed grinding
jig grinding
C4a. tool post grinding
low-stress grinding
plunge grinding
disc grinding
abrasive belt grinding
abrasive jet machining
surface grinding
C10. abrasive flow machining (AFM)
C11. ultrasonic machining
D. Milling
D1. face milling
D2. peripheral milling
D3. end milling
D4. slab milling
D5. form milling
D6. gang milling
D7. straddle milling
D8. fly cutter milling
D9. pin routing
D10. spotfacing
Clla. rotary ultrasonic machining
Screw Threads
hand-die external threading
internal thread tapping
single-point screw-thread cutting
thread cutting die heads
thread milling
thread grinding
thread rolling
cold-form tapping of internal threads
Broaching
internal broaching
external broaching
pot broaching
Sawing
circular sawing
band sawing
contour sawing
hacksawing
abrasive sawing
diamond-edge sawing
friction sawing
Flame Cutting (Thermal Cutting)
oxy-fuel gas cutting (OFC)
metal powder cutting (POC)
chemical flux cutting (FOC)
arc cutting
H4a. plasma-arc cutting (PAC)
H4b. air-carbn arc cutting and grooving
H4c. oxygen lance cutting (LOC)
H4d. gas metal arc cutting
H4e. gas tungsten arc cutting
H4f. shielded metal arc cutting
H4g. carbon arc cutting
laser cutting
Electrical Machining Processes
electrical discharge machining or EDM
Ila. ramEDM
Ilb. wire EDM
Ilc. electrical discharge grinding (EDG)
electrochemical machining (ECM)
I2a. electrochemical grinding (ECG)
I2b. electrochemical turning (ECT)
electrochemical discharge grinding (ECDG)
electrochemical honing (ECH)
electro etching
Finish Machining Operations
honing
lapping
superfinishing
burnishing
roller burnishing
Deburring
abrasive flow debumng
abrasive jet debumng
barrel tumbling
chemical debumng
electropolish deburring
electrochemical debumng
liquid hone debumng
manual debumng
K9. thermal energy debuning
K10. ultrasonic debumng
K11. vibratory debumng
K12. water-jet debumng
K13. centrifugal barrel tumbling
K14. spindle finishing
K15. powered brush deburring
K16. abrasive belt sanding
K17. laser debumng
Kl8. plasma glow deburring
K19. skiving
K20. edge rolling
K21. burnish debuning
K22. edge coining
K23. robotic debumng
K24. CNC machining center deburring
K25. cryogenic deflashing
Filing
bumng (rotary filing)
Water Jet Machining (Hydrodynamic Machining)
abrasive water jet machining (AWJ)
Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
Laser Beam Machining
laser-assisted hot machining (LAM)
Shaping
Planing
Slotting
Chemical Machining
chemical milling
chemical engraving
chemical blanking
photochemical blanking
Machining Centers
turning centers
multiple operation machines
Numerical and Computer Control
NC, numerical control
computer numerical control (CNC)
U2a. DNC (direct numerical control)
programmable controllers
digital readouts in machining
automatic tracing
robots and robotic operations
Trimming
High-speed Machining
Special Purpose Machines
Transfer Lines
CAD-CAM
Chapter &Processes for Plastics
How Plastics Are Made
definition - Plastics
polymerization reactions
A2a. addition polymerization
A2b. condensation polymerization
polymerization methods
A3a. bulk polymerization
A3b. solution polymerization
A3c. suspension polymerization
A3d. emulsion polymerization
A3e. gas-phase polymerization
compounding plastics
A4a. mixing by tumbling
A4b. intensive dry mixing
A4c. internal intensive batch mixing
A4d. continuous mixing
A&. single screw extruders
A4f. compounder-extruder mixing
A4g. twin screw extruder mixing
pelletizing and dicing of plastics
ASa. mixing and dicing with two-roll mills
A5b. strand pelletizers
A5c. underwater pelletizing
Compression and Transfer Molding
compression molding
Bla. automatic compression molding
transfer molding
B2a. plunger molding
B2b. screw transfer molding
cold molding
Injection Molding
conventional injection molding
Cla. hot runner molding
(heated runnerless molding)
injection molding of thermosetting plastics
structural foam molding processes
C3a. low-pressure injection molding
of structural foam plastics
C3b. reaction injection molding
C3c. high-pressure injection molding
of structural foam plastics
C3d. gas counterpressure molding
C3e. co-injection or sandwich molding
C3f. gas-assisted injection molding
C3g. casting of structural foam plastics
C3h. extrusion of structural foam plastics
C3i. slabstock foam process
expanded polystyrene foam processes
C4a. pre-expansion of EPS beads
C4b. shape molding of EPS beads
C4c. block molding of EPS
C4d. expanded polyolefin foam process
two-color injection molding
insert molding
Thermoforming (Vacuum Forming)
straight vacuum forming
pressure forming
drape vacuum forming
plug-assist forming
vacuum snap-back forming
slip-ring forming (slip forming)
matched mold forming
pressure-bubble plug-assist forming (also called
reverse-draw plug-assist forming, pressure-bubble
plug-assist forming, billow-up plug-assist forming
or reverse-draw with plug assist)
pressure-bubble vacuum-snapback forming
or billow-up vacuum snap-back forming
D10. trapped sheet, contact heat, pressure forming
D11. air-slip forming
D12. free forming (free blowing)
D13. dual sheet forming (twin sheet forming)
D14. solid phase pressure forming
E. Rotational Molding
F. Blow Molding
F1. extrusion blow molding
F2. injection blow molding
F3. In stretch blow molding
F4. multilayer blow molding
F5. dip blow molding
F6. other blow molding processes
G. Processes for Reinforced
Thermosetting Plastics
G1. hand lay-up
G2. spray-up
G3. vacuum-bag molding
G4. pressure-bag molding
G5. autoclave molding
G6. centrifugal casting
G7. Filament winding
G8. continuous laminating
G8a. continuous laminating with
a thermosetting plastic
G8b. continuous laminating with a thermoplastic
G9. matched metal mold forming (cold stamping)
(310. matched metal mold forming of reinforced
thermosetting material
G11. pultrusion
G12. pulforming
G13. resin transfer molding (RTM)
(liquid resin molding)
G14. other processes for reinforced
thermosetting plastics
H. Casting of Plastics
H1. casting of sheet
Hla. cell casting of sheet
Hlb. continuous casting of sheet
H2. casting structural foam parts
H3. casting nylon parts
H4. casting acrylic parts
H5. encapsulation and potting
I. Plastics Extrusion
11. profile extrusion
12. coextrusion (dual extrusion)
13. foam extrusion
14. extrusion coating and laminating
I4a. wire coating
15. extrusion of film and sheet
I5a. blown film extrusion
I5b. cast film extrusion
16. operations after extruding
J. Calendering
K. Vinyl Dispersion Processes
K1. spread coating
Kla. knife coating (knife-over-roll coating)
Klb. roll coating
K2. dip coating (hot dipping) and dip molding
K2a. cold dipping
slush molding
cavity, in-place and low-pressure molding
strand coating, using plastisols and organisols
spray coating
extrusion of plastisol
Welding and Adhesive Bonding of Plastics
friction or spin welding
hot plate welding
vibration welding
ultrasonic welding and sealing
ultrasonic spot welding
ultrasonic film and fabric welding
adhesive bonding of plastics
L7a. solvent cementing of plastics
L7b. pretreatment of plastic surfaces for bonding
L7c. electromagnetic adhesive bonding
induction welding
radio frequency sealing (dielectric sealing)
thermal sealing (heat sealing) of sheet
hot gas welding
Surface Finishing and Decorating
Processesfor Plastics
surface treatments for plastic parts
Mla. washing and cleaning
Mlb. chemical etching
Mlc. corona discharge
Mld. flame treatment
Mle. plasma treatment
hot stamping
M2a. transfer coating (hot transfer coating)
painting
M3a. spray and wipe
M3b. powder painting of plastics
M k . manufacture of powder coatings
M k l . dry blending
M k 2 . melt mixing
M3c3. solution method
decorating plastic parts with processes
that are also common to non-plastics
M4a. electroplating of plastics
in-mold decorating
sheet and film embossing
Other Plastics Processes
insert assembly
Nla. molding-in inserts
Nlb. ultrasonic insertion
Nlc. expansion installation
Nld. threaded hole installation
Nle. press insertion
Nlf. self tapping
Nlg. cemented installation
Nlh. hot insertion
other mechanical assembly of plastic parts
granulating plastics
coloring and blending of plastics
drying of plastics
machining of plastics
trimming and die cutting of plastics
radiation processing
NSa. non-ionizing radiation processing
N9. vacuum handling and loading of plastic materials
N10. robotic handling
N11. deflashing
N12. reel-to-reel molding (continuous strip molding)
0. Rubber and Elastomers
0 1 . natural rubber
0 2 . rubber, synthetic
0 3 . rubber compounding
0 4 . rubber fabrication methods
Chapter 5-Glass and Ceramics
Processes
A. GlassProcesses
Al. basic glassmaking
Ala. raw materials
Alb. batching
Alc. melting
A2a. pressing
A2b. blowing
Alal. coloring materials
A2. primary forming processes
A2bl. manual blowing
A2b2. lampworking (lamp blowing,
and scientific glass blowing)
A2b3. machine blowing
A2b3a. gob feeding machine
A2b3b. Owens bottle machine
A2b3c. the blow-blow process
A2b3d. the press-blow process
A2b3e. the rotary-mold (paste mc
A2b3f. ribbon machine blowing
(the suck-blow process)
process
process
A&. glass tubing manufacture
AM. centrifugal casting
A3a. manual methods
A3b. drawing sheet glass (the
Fourcault process)
A k . drawing sheet glass (the Colburn
or Libby-Owens process)
A3d. drawing sheet glass
(the Pittsburgh process)
A3e. plate glass manufacture
A3f. float glass process
A3g. rolling (casting) flat glass
A4. heat and chemical treating operations
A4a. annealing
A4b. tempering
A4c. chemical toughening
AS. secondary, finishing and decorating operations
A5a. bending and sagging
A5b. grinding
A5c. polishing
A5d. fusion sealing
A5e. grit blasting
A3. flat glass processes
acid etching
shrinking
staining
decorating with vitrifiable colors
(vitreous enamels)
metallic coating
organic decorating
silk screening (screen printing)
glass fiber manufacturing ~
A6a. mechanical drawing of continuous fibers
A6b. steam blowing
A&. flame blowing (superfine process)
A6d. rotary wool forming process
A&. methods for production of traditional
optical glass fibers
A6f. methods for production of optical
communications fibers
manufacture of other types of glass
A7a. glass ceramics manufacture
A7b. photosensitive glass manufacture
A7c. cellular glass (foam glass) manufacture
A7d. glass microsphere manufacture
powdered glass processes
A8a. dry pressing and sintering
ASb. slip casting of glass
A&. fritted filter manufacture
Ceramics Processes
the nature of ceramics
ceramic materials
ceramics operation sequence
ceramic material preparation
B4a. material preparation for advanced ceramics
pressing
BSa. isostatic pressing
injection molding
extruding
slip casting of ceramics
BSa. pressure casting
jiggering
B10. roll compaction
B11. tape casting
B12. throwing
B13. drying
B13a. partial in-process drying
B13b. final drying
B13c. microwave drying (also called dielectric
or radio frequency drying)
B14. machining and grinding
BIS. glazing
B16. sintering (firing)
B17. hot pressing
B17a. hot isostatic pressing (HIP)
Chapter &Woodworking Processes
A. Lumber Making Including
Saw Mill Operations
Al. debarking
A2. headsaw operation (breakdown sawing)
plain sawing of boards
quarter sawing
rift sawing
edging
trimming (cutting to length)
inspecting and grading boards
drying (seasoning)
A9a. airdrying
A9b. kiln drying
A9c. radio frequency drying
Making Wooden Components
cutting boards to size
Bla. ripping
Blb. cutting to length (crosscutting)
surfacing with planers and jointers
B2a. planing (surfacing)
B2b. jointing
contour (curved line) sawing
turning
drilling and boring
shaping and routing
other form, and special cutting and
joint-making operations
B7a. computer-controlled routering
B7b. laser machining of wooden parts
B7c. dedicated special machines and
multi-operation machines
filing and sanding
Making Wood Joints
butt joints
rabbet joints
dado and groove joints
tongue-and-groove joints
mortise and tenon joints
dovetail joints
dowelled and biscuit (joining plate)
joints
lap (halved and bridle), scarf
and bevelled joints
Making Bent Wooden Components
wet bending
making curved laminations
kerf bending
Assembly and Fastening Wood Products
clamps and fixtures
mechanical fastening
adhesive bonding
Assembling veneer and inlaid surfaces
Manufacture of Plywood and Other
Panel Materials
making veneer
making plywood
making wafer board (chipboard)
making oriented strand board
making particle board
making fiberboard
making en
making synthetic lumber (composite lumber)
and components from plastics
Wood Finishing
preparing the surface for finishing
staining
varnishing, lacquering and painting
polishing
Upholstery
installing webbing
installing springs
installing padding and cushioning
installing covering
cushions, channeling and tufting
Chapter 7-Assembly and Fusion
Joining) Processes
Soldering and Brazing
solder application methods
Ala. wire or rod soldering
Alb. preform soldering
Alc. solder paste soldering
Ald. Dip soldering (DS)
Ale. wave soldering
Alf. drag soldering
Alg. ultrasonic soldering
workpiece heating methods:
A2a. with soldering iron (INS)
A2b. with gas torch
A2c. oven or furnace heating
AM. selective infrared heating
A%. vapor-phase heating
A2f. Resistance heating (RS)
A2g. laser heating
A2h. induction heating
A2i. hot gas
fluxes
Brazing
application of tiller metal
torch brazing
furnace brazing
induction brazing (IB)
dip brazing
salt bath brazing
Resistance brazing (RB)
diffusion brazing
Welding
Arc welding
Albl. how solder preforms are made
Shielded-Metal Arc (SMAW)
or Stick Welding
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW)
Gas-metal arc welding (GMAW)
Gas-tungsten arc welding GTAW)
Plasma arc welding (PAW)
Electroslag welding (ESW)
induction welding (electromagnetic
Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW)
Electron beam welding (EBW)
Laser-beam welding (LBW)
Resistance welding
C6a. Spot welding (RSW)
C6b. Seam welding (RSEW)
C6c. projection welding (RPW)
stitch welding
stud welding
Friction welding (FRW)
Flash welding (FW)
welding)
C11. percussive welding or percussion
C12. Thermit welding (TW)
C13. Solid-state welding, (SSW)
welding
C13a. forge welding
C13b. forge-seam welding
C13c. cold welding
C13d. metal cladding
C13e. Roll welding (roll bonding) (ROW)
C13f. Explosive welding (EXW)
C13g. diffusion welding
(diffusion bonding)
C13h. ultrasonic welding (of metals)
C13i. Friction stir welding (FSW)
Adhesive Bonding
surface preparation methods for
adhesive bonding
Dla. cleaning
Dlb. surface roughening
Dlc. surface ionization pretreatment
adhesive application methods
D2a. brush, spray, dipping, roller
or spatula application
D2b. dry film application
D2c. hot melt adhesives application
DM. pressure sensitive and contact
adhesive application
D2e. pump/pressure application
of solid adhesives
joint assembly methods
curing methods
Welding of Plastics
Mechanical Assembly Processes
bench assembly
assembly lines
automatic assembly
F3a. parts feeding equipment
F3b. high speed assembly with dedicated
equipment
F3c. robotic assembly
mechanical fastening methods
F4a. assembly with threaded fasteners
F4b. riveting
F4c. stitchinghtapling
F4d. snap fit fastening
F4f. staking, seaming and crimping
press and shrink fit fastening
D10. vinyl plastisol coatings
Chapter &Finishing Processes E. Chemical Surface Treatments
(including Heat Treating) 329 El. anodizing
Cleaning Processes
mechanical cleaning processes
Ala. brushing
Alb. abrasive blasting
Albl. wet blast cleaning
Alb2. dry blast cleaning
Alc. steam jet cleaning
Ald. tumbling
chemical cleaning processes
A2a. solvent cleaning
A2al. immersion cleaning
A2a2. spray degreasing
A2a3. vapor degreasing
A2b. ultrasonic cleaning
A&. emulsion cleaning
AM. alkaline cleaning
A&. acid cleaning
A2f. pickling
A2g. salt bath cleaning
electrochemical cleaning processes
A3a. electrolytic cleaning
A3b. electrolytic pickling
Polishing Processes
conventional polishing
Bla. buffing
barrel polishing (tumbling)
electropolishing
burnishing
Plating Processes
conventional electroplating
electroless plating
barrel plating
mechanical plating
brush plating
electroplating of plastics
Painting (Organic Finishing)
brushing
roller coating
curtain coating
dip painting
flow coating
spray painting
Ma. air atomized spray
D6b. airless spray
electrostatic painting
D7a. with centrifugal spraying head
powdered paint coating
D8a. electrostatic spray powder coating
D8b. fluidized bed powder coating
D8c. electrostatic fluidized bed powder coating
D8d. friction static spraying
D8e. flame spraying of powdered paint
electrocoating (also referred to as electropainting,
electrophoresis, electrophoretic coating
or electrodeposition of paint)
Ela. hardcoat anodizing
phosphating
chromate conversion coatings
black oxide coating
Other Coatings
porcelain enameling
hot dip coating (galvanizing)
vacuum metalizing
F3a. sputtering
F3b. chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
F3bl. plasma-enhanced (or plasma-assiste
chemical vapor deposition
F3c. physical vapor deposition (PVD)
F3d. ion implantation
thermal spray coating
F4a. wire metalizing
F4b. powder spraying
F4c. detonation gun spraying
F4d. plasma arc spraying
F4e.
clad metals
Heat Treating of Metals
annealing
annealing processes for steel
G2a. full annealing
G2b. isothermal annealing
G k . spherodizing
G2d. stress relieving
G2e. normalizing
G2f. tempering
G2g. process annealing
hardening processes for steel
G3a. surface hardening
F4al. electric arc wire metalizing
F4dl. transferred plasma-arc spraying
high velocity oxy-flame coating (HVOF)
G3al. flame hardening
G3a2. induction hardening
G3a3. laser-beam hardening
G3a4. electron-beam hardening
G3aS. other surface heating methods
for hardening
G3b. case hardening
G3bl. carbunzing
G3bla. pack carburization
G3blb. liquid carburization
G3blc. gas carburization
G3b2. carbonitriding
G3b3. cyanidizing
G3b4. nitriding
G3bS. liquid nitriding
G3c. through hardening
G3d. martempering
G3e. austempering
solution treatinglprecipitation hardening
(aging or age hardening)
Table of Contents
heat treating processes for non-ferrous metals
G5a. Aluminum alloys
G5b. copper and copper alloys
G5c. magnesium alloys
G5d. nickel and nickel alloys
G5e. titanium and titanium alloys
Shot Peening
Product Marking Methods
manual marking
stamp indented marking
etching (chemical etching)
engraving
I4a. pantograph engraving
laser marking and engraving
stenciling
printing
17a. pad printing
I7b. screen printing (silk screening)
branding
Manufacture of Various Paper Grades
bond paper
newsprint
paperboard
sanitary papers
h a f t paper
vulcanized fiber
Printing
relief or letterpress printing
Dla. typesetting for letterpress printing
Dlb. flexographic printing
planographic printing
D2a. lithography and offset lithography
D2b. collotype (collography)
intaglio printing
D3a. gravure printing
D3b. making gravure plates
stencil and screen printing (porous printing)
M a . stencil printing
decal marking 357 D4b. screen printing (serigraphy)
110. casting and molding
I l l . embossing and coining
112. nameplates, labels and tags
113. hot stamping
114. dyeing
115. flocking
Chapter 9-Paper, Fiber
and Printing Processes
A. Definition,Paper
B. Paper-making Processes
B1. raw materials
B2. paper making from wood (by machine)
B2a. debarking of wood logs
B2b. pulping of wood
B2bl. mechanical pulping of wood
B2b2. chemical pulping of wood
B2b3. semi-chemical pulping of wood
B2c. refining
B2d. removing foreign material
B2e. bleaching and washing
B2f. beating
B2g. making paper from pulp
B2gl. Fourdrinier and cylindrical
paper-making machines
B2h. finishing (converting)
B2hl. extrusion coating and
B2h2. water dispersion coating
B2h3. sizing
B2h4. filling
laminating of paper
B3. paper making from rags and other textile fibers
B4. paper making from synthetic fibers
B5. paper making from waste paper (paper recycling)
B5a. waste paper processed with de-inking
B5b. waste paper processed without
de-inking
(silk screening)
D5. electronic printing methods
D5a. laser printing
D5b. copy machine printing
D5c. ink-jet printing
D5d. magnetographic printing
D5e. ion or electron deposition printing
(ionography)
D5f. microcapsule printing
D5g. thermal sublimation, dye sublimation,
thermal wax and wax transfer printing
D5h. dot-matrix printing
D5bl. electrophotographic printing systems
D6. sheet and web printing
D7. color printing
D8. halftone screens
D9. pad printing
Chapter 10-Textile Processes
Textile Fibers
natural fibers
manufactured and synthetic fibers
Yarn Making (Spinning)
picking (including opening and blending)
carding
combing
drawing (drafting), (re-blending)
spinning (twisting)
B6. spinning synthetic fibers
C. Weaving
C1. Jacquard loom weaving
C2. automatic bobbin changing
C3. shuttle-less looms
C4. pile weaving
D. Knitting
D1. weft or filling knitting
D2. warp knitting
Non-woven Fabrics
Finishing
preparation
bleaching
finishing to improve appearance
F3a. napping
F3b. shearing
F3c. brushing
F3d. beetling
F3e. decating
F3f. calendering
F3g. creping
F3h. embossing
F3i. optical brightening
F3j. tentering
F3k. crabbing
F3I. flocking
finishing to improve feel (tactile properties)
F4a. sizing (stiffening)
F4b. weighting
F4c. fulling, (felting or milling)
F4d. softening
finishing to improve performance
F5a. anti-shrinkage treatment
F5b. durable press (permanent press)
(wash and wear)
F5c. antistatic treatment
F5d. treatment for soil and stain
release properties
F5e. water repelling and water proofing
treatments
F5f. other treatments
Coloring
dyeing
Gla. stock dyeing
Glb. top dyeing
Glc. yam dyeing
Gld. piece dyeing
Gle. cross dyeing
Glf. solution pigmenting (dope dyeing)
printing
G2a. block printing
G2b. engraved printing (intaglio printing)
G2c. discharge printing
G2d. heat-transfer printing
G2e. stencil and screen printing
G2f. resist printing
G2g. warp printing
G2h. pigment printing
Manufacture of Clothing and Other
Sewn Products (“Needle Trades”)
spreadingktacking
marking
cutting (chopping or knifing)
sewing
H4a. stitch-less joining (seam bonding)
Of the fabric
G2bl. duplex printing
(heat sealing)
pressing
folding, labeling, wrapping/packing
Rug and Carpet Making
weaving rugs and carpets
tufting rugs
making knitted rugs
making needlepunch carpets
making hooked rugs
16. making braided rugs
17. making oriental rugs
18. making needlepoint rugs
Chapter 11-Chemical Processes
A. Batch Processes in General
B. Continuous Processesin Genkral
C. Separation Processes
C1. distillation
Cla. fractional distillation (rectification,
fractionation or enrichment)
Clb. vacuum distillation
Clc. flash distillation (equilibrium
distillation)
Cld. multiple-effect distillation
(multistage flash evaporation)
Cle. steam distillation
Clf. sublimation
Clg. destructive distillation
C2. absorption-stripping
C3. extraction and leaching
C4. expression
C5. crystallization
C6. precipitation
C7. fluid-particle separation
C7a. filtration
C7b. types of filters
C7c. membrane separation (including
ultra filtration)
C7d. sedimentation
C7e. centrifugation
C7f. bag filtering
C7g. evaporation
C7h. scrubbers - or wet collectors
C8. separation of solids
C8a. screening (sieving)
C8b. flotation
C8c. dense-media separation
C8d. magnetic separation
C8e. electrostatic separation
C9. adsorption and ion exchange
C10. electrolytic processes (electrolysis)
C11. electro thermal processes
C12. drying
C7el. cyclone separation, cycloning
C12a. spray drying liquid materials
Cl2b. freeze drying
D. Size Reduction
D1. crushing
D2. secondary crushing
D3. pulverizing
E. Size Enlargementtion
Mixing Methods
mixing gases with gases
mixing gases with liquids
mixing liquids with liquids
liquids-solids mixing
solids mixing
Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals
separation
Hla. fractional distillation of crude petroleum
Hlb. vacuum distillation of petroleum fractions
Hlc. absorptiodstripping of petroleum factions
Hld. solvent extraction
Hle. crystallization of petroleum fraction
contaminants
H2. conversion
H2a. cracking
H2al. thermal cracking
H2a2. catalytic cracking
H2b. polymerization
H2c. alkylation
H2d. reforming
H3. chemical and other treatments
H3a. sulfur removal (hydrogen treatment)
H3b. additive addition
H3c. blending
I. Chemical Reactions
11. gas-phase reactions
12. gashquid reactions
13. liquidlliquid reactions
14. gaslliquid/solid reactions
15. solids/solids and solids/gas reactions
16. reactions with catalysts
J. Heat-transfer Methods
J2. cooling with air
K1. recovery/refining processes
heat exchange for solid materials
Extracting and Recovering Metals from Ores
Kla. hydro metallurgy
Klal. precipitation in hydro metallurgy
Klb. pyrometallurgy processes
Klbl. roasting
Klb2. smelting
Klc. electrometallurgy
Klcl. electrowinning (electrolytic deposition)
Klc2. electrorefinning
K2. other chemical processes
K3. alloying processes
L. Esterification
Chapter 12-Food Processes
A. Cleaning Raw Food Materials
B. Sorting and Grading of Foods
C. Size Reduction
C1. roll crushing
hammer milling
ball milling (tumble milling)
disc attrition milling
milling grain
C5a. post-milling treatments
C5al. altering protein content
C5a2. bleaching flour
C5a3. enriching flour
Mixing
Separation Processes
filtration
expression
centrifugation
crystallization
extraction
Concentration
evaporation
freeze concentration
reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration
Thermal Processing of Foods
blanching
pasteurization
heat sterilization
canning
aseptic processing
cooking
baking
Dehydration and Drying
vacuum drying
spray drying
drum drying
fluidized-bed drying
freeze drying (freeze dehydration)
Cooling for Preservation
freezing food
Ila. freezing with refrigerated air
Ilb.
Ilc. indirect-contact freezing
dehydrofreezing
Other Operations
irradiation
homogenization
hydrogenation
fermentation
extrusion of foods
food additives
pickling
salting
sugar curing/sugar addition
candying and glazing
high-intensity pulsed electric field
processing (PEF)
high pressure processing (or ultra-high
pressure processing)
Meat Packing
stunning
slaughtering
butchering
Bottling
freezing with a liquid medium
M. Other Packaging
N. Storage
01. equipment rinsing
02. equipment cleaning
03. equipment sanitizing
04. other factors
Food Equipment Cleaning and Sanitizing
Chapter 13-Processes
for Electronic Products
A. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)
Al. making bare printed circuit boards
Ala. resists and photoresists
Alb. subtractive process for making
wiring patterns on the board
Alc. additive method
Ald. making photo masters and masks
Ale. screen printing the masks
Alf. stripping resists from printed
circuit boards
A2a. hole making in boards
A2b. contact finger plating
A%. solder fusing
AM. solder masks
A&. separating boards (depanelling)
A2f. silkscreen identification
A3. multilayer boards
A4. making flexible printed circuit boards
B. Wiring and Populating Boards
B1. populating boards with through-hole
B2. assembling surface mounted components
A2. ' other board operations
connections
B2a. dispensing adhesives
B2b. using solder paste
B2bl. syringe dispensing of solder paste
(pressure dispensing)
B2b2. pin transfer dispensing
of solder paste
B2b3. screen printing of solder paste
B2b4. stencil dispensing of solder paste
B2b5. submerged disk dispensing
of solder paste
B2b6. dip coating of solder paste
B2b7. roller coating of solder paste
B3. cleaning prior to soldering
B4. prebaking before soldering
C. Soldering Processes
C1. flux application
B2c. using solder preforms
Cla. dip fluxing
Clb. brush application of flux
Clc. foam flux application
Cld. spray application of flux
Cle. wave fluxing
Clf. roller fluxing
Clg. cored solder fluxing
Clgl. making flux cored wire solder
preheating
dip soldering
drag soldering
wave soldering
reflow methods
C6a. oven heating for reflow
C6b. vapor-phase soldering
C6c. laser soldering
hot gas soldering
soldering iron soldering
using lead-free solders
Cleaning After Soldering
solvent cleaning
water washing
semi-aqueous cleaning
Making Solder Paste
making solder powder by gas atomizal
spinning disk powder making
ultrasonic method of powder making
screen classification of powder
tion
air classification of powder
inspection of powder
mixing solder paste
inspection of paste
Ball Grid Arrays
Fluxes for Electronics
Tinning
Quality Control and Inspection Operations
visual inspection of joints
incoming inspection
solderability testing
Repair and Touch-up
Integrated Circuits (10)
(Microcircuits or Chips)
material preparation - making
ultra-pure silicon
making a single crystal of silicon
K2a. slicing into wafers
K2b. polishing the wafers
K2c. other wafer preparation operations
wafer fab
K3a. layering
K3al. oxidation of silicon
K3a2. nitridation
K3a3. chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
K3a4. vacuum deposition
K3a5. sputtering
K3a6. adding thick films
K3a7. adding protective layers
K3bl. lithography
K3a3a. epitaxy
K3b. patterning
K3bla. making masks
K3blb. applying resist
K3blc.
K3b2. etching
K3b2a. wet etching with liquid
etchants (wet chemical
etching)
(photoresist film)
expose and develop the I
K3b2b. dry etching 564
K3b2bl. plasma etching 564
K3b2b2. ion beam etching
(sputter etching or
ion milling) 564
K3b2b3. reactive ion
etching (RIE) 565
K3b3. stripping photoresist from wafers 565
K3c. doping (dopant defusion) 566
K3d. heat treating 568
K3dl. annealing 568
K3d2. alloying 568
K4. wafer testing and sorting 568
K5. packaging (assembly)of chips 569
K5a. backside preparation 570
K5b. dicing (die separation) 570
K5c. chip insertion and fastening
to the package 570
K5d. wire bonding 570
K5e. closing and sealing the package 571
KSf. lead plating and trimming 57 I
K5g. marking and final testing 57 1
K6. other methods of connecting the integrated
circuit to the board 573
K6a. chip on board (COB) technology 573
K6b. conductive adhesive connections 573
K6c. tape automated bonding (TAB) 573
K6d. flip-chips 574
L1. making resistors 575
L. Making Discrete &vices 575
L2. making capacitors 576
L3. making inductors (chokes, choke coils) 578
L4. making transformers 578
L5. making discrete transistors and diodes 582
M. Conformal Coatings 582
N. Other Chip Configurations 582
N1. multiple integrated circuit packages (multichip
devices, assemblies, modules [MCM], system
in a package (SIP) or packages) 582
Chapter 14-Advanced
Manufacturing Methods
A. Rapid Prototyping (RP)Methods
A l . initial step: computer aided design
(CAD)
A2. the STL file
A3. the SLI file
A4. liquid-based rapid prototyping systems
A4a. the stereolithography (SLA) system
A4b. QuickCast
A4c. solid ground curing (SGC)
A4d. solid creation system (SCS)
A4e. solid object ultraviolet-laser
printer (SOUP)
A4f. soliform System
A4g. MEIKO system
A4h. E-Darts system
solid-based systems
A5a. laminated object manufacturing (LOM)
A5b. fused deposition modeling (FDM)
A5c. paper lamination technology (PLT)
A5d. multi-jet modeling (MJM)
A5e. ModelMaker and PattemMaster
A5f. slicing solid manufacturing (SSM),
melted extrusion modeling (MEM)
and multi-functional RPM systems
(M-RPM)
powder-based systems
A6a. selective laser sintering (SLS)
A6b. EOSINT
A6c. three dimensional printing (3DP)
Rapid Tooling
direct shell production casting (DSPC)
Prometal 3D printing process
RapidTool
laminated metal tooling
direct AIM
SL composite tooling
3D Keltool
direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)
Manufacturing Cells (Group Technology)
(Family of Parts Concept)
Advanced Inspection Devices
coordinate measuring machines (CMMs)
machine vision
laser scanning
Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) Systems
Automated Storage/Retrieval (ASIR)
Systems
Use of Robots in Manufacturing
Operations
areas of robot applicability
robots in foundries
G2a. in die casting
G2b. in sand-mold casting
G2c. in investment casting
robots in forging
robots in metal stamping
robots in injection molding and other
plastics molding
robots in welding
robots in painting, sealing, coating
robots in material handling
robots in mechanical assembly
G10. robots in electronics
G11. robots in quality control
G12. robots in machining
G13. robots in heat treatment
G14. robots in some specific industries
G14a. in automobile assembly
G14b. in appliances
G14c. in the food industry
G14d. in glass making
G14e. in chemical industries
6141. in woodworking
G14g. in other industries
Section 11-How Products, Components
and MaterialsAre Made
(listed in alphabetical order)
A
abrasives
ABS plastics
acetal plastics
acetate fibers and fabrics - See chapter 10,
acetone
acrylic plastics
adhesives
advanced ceramic materials, (high technology ceramics),
air bags (for automotive passenger protection)
air conditioners
aircraft, (airplanes)
alcohol, denatured
alcohol, ethyl (ethanol)
alcoholic beverages
alcohol, isopropyl, (isopropanol or rubbing alcohol)
alcohol, methyl
ale
alloys
aluminum
aluminum foil
aluminum oxide - See abrasives.
ammonia
antifreeze
antimony
anti-shrink fabrics (cloth) - See 10F5a.
apple sauce
argon
asbestos / asbestos board
asphalt
aspirin
athletic shoes - See shoes, athletic.
automobile engines
automobile bodies
automobile chassis
automobiles
automobile windshields
particularly section 10A2.
(modern ceramics), (fine ceramics) - See 5B4a.
bacon
bags, paper
bags, plastic
baking powder
ball bearings
ball grid arrays - See 13F.
ballpoint pens
balls, athletic
banknotes - See paper money.
bar codes
baseballs
bathtubs, cast iron
bathtubs, plastic
bathtubs, steel
bats, baseball
batteries, flashlight (dry cells)
bauxite - See aluminum. '
beams, plastic, reinforced
beer
bells
bent wood components - See 6D.
bicycles
bills, dollar, and other paper money -
bleach
blue jeans
boats, small, plastic
boats, fiberglass
bolts (machine screws, cap screws, set screws)
books
bond paper
bottled drinks - See 12L and sofi drinks.
bottles, glass
bottles, plastic
bowling balls
bowls, glass
boxes, cormgated - See cartons, corrugated.
brake linings
brandy
brass
bread
breakfast cereal - See cereals, breakfast.
bricks
bronze
brushes
bulbs, light - See light bulbs.
bulletproof glass
bullet-proof vests
bullets (small arms ammunition or cartridges)
bungee cords
burlap
butter
buttons
See paper money.
C
cabinets, wood - See chapt. 6.
cams
candied fruit - See 12310.
candy
canned food - See 12G4.
cans, metal
capacitors, electronic - See 13L2.
carbon, activated
carbon black
carbon fibers
carpets
canying cases, power tools and instruments
cars - See automobiles.
cast iron
CDs - See compact discs.
cellophane
cellular glass - See 5A7c.
cellulose acetate plastics
cement, portland
ceramic materials, advanced, (high technology ceramics),
ceramics - See 5B.
cereals, breakfast
chairs, upholstered - See 6H.
chairs, wooden - See chapt. 6.
charcoal
cheese
cheese, Swiss
chewing gum
chinaware
chipboard (wafer board) - See 6F3.
chips, electronic - See 13K.
chlorine
chocolate
chokes, choke coils, inductors (electronic)
chromium
cider
clad metals - See 7C13d.
cloth, anti-shrink - See 10F5a.
cloth, knitted - See IOA, 10B and IOD.
cloth, non-woven - See IOA, 10B and IOE.
cloth, woven - See IOA, IOB and IOC.
clothing - See IOH.
coal gas - See gas, manufactured.
coffee
coffee, decaffeinated
coffee, instant
coils, electrical - See 13L3.
coins
combs
compact discs
composite structural lumber - See 6F7.
concrete blocks
condensers, electronic - See I3L2 and 13K3a6.
confectioner’s glaze - See candy..
contact lenses - See lenses, contact.
containers, plastic
cooking utensils
copper
corn flakes - See cereals, breakfast.
corn, frozen - See 121I .
corn oil
corrugated cartons
cotton fabric
cottonseed oil - See margarine.
crayons (wax)
crepe fabric - See 10F3g.
crystal, lead glass - See 5A1.
cups, plastic, disposable
cups, paper - See drinking cups, paper.
cut glass - See 5A5b.
(modern ceramics), (fine ceramics) - See 5B4a.
See 13L3.
denim
detergents
diamonds, synthetic
diesel fuel - Seefuel. diesel.
digital video discs (DVDs)
dinner plates - See chinaware.
diodes and transistors - See 13L5 and Fig. 13L5.
dishes, china - See chinaware.
dishes, glass
dishes, plastic
distilled spirits (distilled liquors)
downspouts, roof
drill bits
drinking cups, foam plastic
drinking glasses
drive screws - See screws.
drums, 55 gallon
dry cells - See batteries. flashlight.
dry ice
ductwork, steel
ductwork, plastic
DVD’s - See digital video discs.
dyed fabrics - See IOG 1.
dyes
dynamite
edible oils - See oils, edible.
elastomers
electrical wire - See wire, electrical.
electricity
electric light bulbs - See light bulbs and lights,
electric motors - See motors, electrical.
electric transformers - See 13L4.
electrical wire - See wire. electrical.
enamel, vitreous (porcelain enamel)
enclosures, shower
engineered lumber - See 6F7.
engine blocks
envelopes
epoxy
essential oils - See oils, essential.
etched glass - See 5A5f.
ethanol - See alcohol.
ethylene (ethene)
explosives - See dynamite.
eyeglasses
fluorescent.
F
fabrics, anti-shnnk - See 10F5a
fabrics, dyed - See I O G I .
fabrics, knitted - See IOA, IOB and 10D
fabrics, flocked - See 10F31.
fabrics, non-woven - See IOA, 10B and IOE.
fabrics, permanent press (wash and wear) - See 10F5b.
fabrics, printed - See 1CG2.
fabrics, stain release - See 10F5d.
fabrics, woven - See IOA, 10B and 1oC.
felt
felt-tip marking pens - See marking pens, felt tipped.
fertilizer
fiberboard, low density (insulation board) - See 6F6.
fiberboard, medium density - See 6F6.
fiberglass insulation
fibers. glass
fibers, textile - See IOA.
fibers, optical - See 5A6, 5A6e and 5A6f.
fibers, synthetic - See IOA2 and 10B6.
fiber, vulcanized - See 9C6.
film, photographic
film plastic - (See section 415.)
filters
finger-jointed lumber - See 6F7.
fireworks
fishing rods (poles)
flashlights
flatware (tableware)(silverware)
flexible printed circuit boards - See 13A4.
flocked fabrics - See 10F31.
floor covering, vinyl - See vinyl flooring.
flour
flour, bleached - See entry 12C5a2.
flour, enriched - See entry 12C5a3.
fluorescent lights
flux-cored wire solder - See 13Clg 1,
foam plastics - See 4C3.
food wrap, (“saran wrap”) - See saran.
footballs
footwear - See shoes.
Formica(r), Micarta(r) (rigid plastic laminates) - See 6F8
fragrances (perfumes)
freeze dried food - See 12H5.
frozen food - See 1211, 12Ila, 12Ilb, 12Ilc and 1212.
fuel, diesel
fuel, jet
furniture, upholstered - See 6H.
furniture, wooden - See chapt. 6.
and fig 6F8.
glass - See 5A
glass bottles - are made by glass blowing (5A2b)
glass, bulletproof (bullet resistant)
glass, cellular (foam glass) - See 5A7c.
glass ceramics - See 5A7a.
glass containers - See 5A2bl and 5A2b3
glass, cut - See 5A5b.
glasses, drinking - See drinking glasses.
glasses, eye - See eyeglasses.
glass, etched - See 5A5f.
glass, pyrex - See cooking utensils.
glass fibers
glass filters - See 5A8c
glass, foam (cellular glass) - See 5A7c.
glass jars
glass lenses - See lenses.
glass microspheres - See 5A7d.
glass, photosensitive - See 5A7b.
glass pitchers - See 5A2bl
glass, plate - See 5A3e.
glass, safety - See safety glass.
glass thermometers - See thermometers, glass.
glass tubing - See 5A2
glassware, laboratory (scientific) - See 5A2bI,
glass vases - See 5A2bl
glass, window - See flat glass processes, 5A3.
glass wool - See glassjibers.
glazing compound - See putty.
glove compartments, automotive
gloves
glue - See adhesives.
glued-laminate lumber (“glulam”)- See 6F7.
gold
golf balls
golf clubs
graphite
gravure printing plates - See 9D3b.
grease, lubricating
grinding wheels
guitars, acoustic
gum, chewing - See chewing gum.
guns (firearms)
gutters, roof
gypsum plaster
gypsum board - See plasterboard.
5A2b2, 5A5h and 5A5i.
garlic - See spices.
garments (clothing)
gaskets, packings and seals
gas, manufactured
gas, liquified petroleum (LPG)
gasoline
gears
Gemstones - See Jewelry.
gin - See distilled spirirs.
ginger - See spices.
girders, steel
ham
hammers
handles, cooking utensils
handles, tool
hand tools - See hammers, pliers, wrenches,
screwdrivers and handles, tool.
hardboard (including tempered hardboard) - See 6Fc
helium
herbicides
high-density polyethylene - See polyethylene,
high-density.
mii Table of Contents
hosiery (stockings and socks)
houses, prefabricated (modular houses)
housings, appliance
housings, business machine
hydraulic fluid
hydrochloric acid (HCI)
hydrogen
I
I-joists, wooden - See 6F7 and Fig. 6F7-I.
ice, dry - See dry ice.
ice cream
ice skates
inductors (chokes, choke coils) - See 13L3.
ink
in-line skates
insecticides (pesticides)
instant coffee - See coffee, instant.
insulation board (low-density fiberboard) - See 6F6.
integrated circuits - See 13K.
iron
isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) -
See alcohol, isopmpyl.
J
jars, glass - See 5A2b3.
jelly
jelly beans
jet engines (gas turbines)
jet fuel
jewelry
kerosene
Kevlar
keyboards, computer
keys
keys for computer keyboards
kidskin
knit fabrics
haft paper - See 9C5,9B and 9B2b.
L
lace
lacquer
ladders
lasers
latex
lawn mowers
lead
lead glass (lead crystal)
leather
leather goods
lenses
lenses, contact
licorice
light bulbs, incandescent
lights, fluorescent - Seefluorescent lights.
linen
liquid crystal displays (LCDs)
locks, combination
low-density fiberboard - See 6F6.
lubricating grease - See grease, lubricating.
lumber
lumber, pressure treated
magnesium
magnets
manganese
maple syrup
marbles
margarine
marking pens, felt tipped
matches
meat - See 12K.
meat tenderizer
melamine plastic - See urea and melamine plastic.
mercury
medium density fiberboard - See 6F6.
metal cans - See cans, metal.
metal powders - See powders, metal.
methane
microcircuits - See 13K.
microspheres, glass - See 5A7d.
milk, condensed
milk, powdered
milk, skim
mineral wool (rock wool) - See 5A6d.
mirrors
molybdenum
monuments
motors, electric
multiple chip packages (electronic) - See 13N1.
musical instruments
musical instruments, brass
nail polish
nails
nameplates - See 8112, 812, 814, 8I4a, 815, 817 and other
naphtha - See 1lHla and 1lH2al.
napkins, paper - See 9C4 and 9B5.
napped fabrics - See 1OF3a
natural gas
natural rubber - See 4 0 1.
needlepoint carpets - See 1018.
needlepunch carpets - See 1014.
neon signs
neoprene - See 402.
newspapers
items under 81 (Product Marking),
newsprint - See 9C2
nickel
nitrile rubber - See 402.
nitrogen
no-clean solder flux - See 13G
non-woven fabric - See 10E.
nuclear power - See electricity and Fig. El.
numerical controls - See 3U and 3U1.
nutmeg - See spices.
nuts, screw
nylon
oils, edible
oils, essential
oil, fuel (furnace oil)
oil, lubricating
oils, vegetable - See oils, edible: olive oil: oils, essential
olive oil
olives, green
optical glass fibers - See 5A6, 5A6e and 5a6f.
optical lenses - See lenses.
orange juice
oriented strand board (OSB) - See 6F5.
O-rings
Orlon
oxygen
P
packages, blister
paint
paint brushes - See brushes.
paint removers (paint strippers)
pallets, plastic
pallets, wood
pans, cooking - See cooking utensils.
paper - See 9A and 9B.
paperboard
paper, bond - See 9B and 9C1.
paper clips
paper hankerchiefs - See 9C4.
paper, haft - See 9B, 9B2b2 and 9C5.
paper money
paper, rag (rag bond) - See 9B and 9B3.
paper, sanitary - See 9B and 9C4.
paper towels - See 9C4.
particle board - See 6F5.
partition glass - See 5A3g.
pasta
patterns for casting - See 1B7.
peanut butter
pencils, lead
pens, ball point - See ballpoint pens.
pepper - See spices.
perfume
permanent press fabrics - See 1OF5b.
pesticides - See insecticides.
petrochemicals - See 11H.
petroleum
petroleum jelly (petrolatum,Vaseline)
pewter
phenolic plastics
photographic film - Seefilm. photographic.
pickles - See 12J.
pig iron
pile rugs (tufted rugs) - See 1012.
pipe, plastic - See tubing, plastic.
pipe and tubing,metal
pipe, cast - See 1El.
pipe, welded - See pipe and tubing, metal above.
plaster - See gypsum plaster.
plasterboard, gypsum board, wallboard and drywall
plastics
plastic film - See 415.
plastic laminates, rigid (“Formica” or “Micarta”) - See 6F8.
plastic wood, wood filler
plate glass - See 5A3e.
platinum
playground equipment
Plexiglas
pliers
plywood - See 6F2.
polycarbonate plastic, PC
polyester plastic
polyethylene plastic, PE
polyethylene plastic, high-density, HDPE
polyethylene plastic, linear, low density, LLDPE
polyethylene plastic, low-density, LDPE
polyethylene plastic, ultra-high-molecular-weight, UHMWPE
polypropylene plastic, PP
polystyrene plastic, PS
polyurethane plastic
polyvinyl chloride plastic, PVC, vinyl
polymers
porcelain
portland cement - See cement, portland.
“popcorn” loose-fill packaging
potato chips
pottery - See chinaware and 5B2.
powders, metal
powdered milk - See milk, powdered.
powder metal parts - See 2L1.
pretzels
printed circuit boards - See 13A through 13D.
printed fabrics - See 1OG2.
printing plates, gravure - See 9D3b.
propane - See gas, liquijed petroleum.
prototypes, rapid - See 14A.
Putty
Pyrex glass - See cooking utensils.
quarter-sawed lumber boards - See 6A2,6A4
quartz glass
quicklime
and Fig. 6A2-I,
rag paper (rag bond) - See 9B3.
rapid prototypes - See 14A.
rapid tooling - See 14B.
rattan furniture
rayon
refractories
resistors, electronic - See 13L1.
rice wine
rings (jewelry) - Seejewelry.
rock wool (mineral wool) - See 5A6d.
roller blades and skates - See skates, roller blade.
rope
rubber bands
rubber, natural - See 401.
rubber, synthetic - See 402.
rubber, silicone - See silicones
rubber, urethane - See polyurethane and 402
(synthetic rubber).
rubies and sapphires
rugs (carpets)
rum
safety glass for automobiles
sailplanes (gliders)
salt
sandpaper
sanitary paper - See 9B and 9C4.
sanitary ware
sapphire, synthetic
saran
satellites and spacecraft
satin
sausages
sauerkraut
screwdrivers
screws, machine and cap - See bolts.
screws, wood, drive, and sheet metal
screw threads - See 3E.
semiconductors
sewing machines
shampoo
shellac
shirts
shoes
shoes, athletic and sneakers
shortening
shrinkproof (shrink resistant) fabrics - See IOE5a.
signs, neon - See neon signs.
silicon - See 13K1 for silicon refining.
silicon carbide - See abrasives.
silicones (silicone plastic resins, silicone oils,
silicone rubber
silicon single crystals - See 13K2.
silicon rubber)
silicon wafers (for integrated circuits) - See 13K2c
silk
silver
silverware - Seeflatware.
single crystals of silicon - See 13K.
skim milk - See milk, skim.
soap
sodium carbonate (soda ash)
soft drinks
solar cells (photovoltaic cells)
solder
solder paste - See 13E.
solder preforms - See 7Alb.
solder powder - See 13E1 through 13E6.
spandex
spark plugs
spices
spirits, distilled - See distilled spirits.
sporting goods
springs
stained glass windows
stainless steels - See steels, stainless.
stain-release fabrics - See 10F5d.
stamps, postage
starch
steel
steels, stainless
structural composite lumber - See 6F7.
structural foam plastics - See 4C3.
styrofoam
sugar
suits - See manufacture of clothing (10H).
sulfuric acid
superconductors
swiss cheese - See cheese, Swiss.
switches, electrical - See electrical switches.
synthetic fibers and fabric - See IOAZ, 10B6, 1OC
synthetic lumber (composite lumber) - See 6F9.
synthetic rubber - See 402.
through 13K4
and IOD.
T
T-shirts
tableware, plastic
tableware, metal (silverware) - Seeflatware.
tacks
talcum powder, baby powder
tanks, fuel for automobiles
tanks, plastic, storage for chemicals
tea
tea, instant
teflon
tennis balls
textile fabrics - See chapt. 10.
thermometers
thermoplasticsTable of Contents xxv
thread
tiles, ceramic
tiles, floor - See vinyljooring.
tiles, plastic - See vinyljooring.
tin
tires, rubber
titanium
toilets and other sanitary ware - See sanitary ware.
toilet paper - See 1K4.
tooling, rapid - See 14B.
tools, hand - See hammers, pliers, wrenches
and handles, tool.
toothpaste
toothbrushes - See brushes.
towels, paper - See IK4.
trailers
trampolines
transformers - See 13L4.
transistors - See 13L5.
trays, plastic
trumpets and other brass musical instruments -
tubing, glass - See 5A2c.
tubing, metal, seamless and welded - Seepipe
tubing, plastic
tungsten
turbine blades - Seejet engines.
turpentine
See musical instruments, brass.
and tubing, metal.
U
ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene -
ultra-high-strength steels
umbrellas
undergarments (underwear)
unwoven fabric - See 10E.
upholstered furniture - See 6H.
uranium fuel
urea and melamine plastics
urethane rubber
utensils, cooking - See cooking utensils.
See polyethylene, ultra-high-molecular-weight,
V
vacuum bottles (Thermos(r) bottles,
vanilla
varnish
vases - (made by manual blowing) See 5A2b.
veneer, wood - See 6F1,6B7b,6E4,6D2.
vermouth
vials, glass - (made from tubing) See 5A2c.
vinegar
Dewer flasks)


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