كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes - صفحة 2
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 كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes

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عدد المساهمات : 14261
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes   الأربعاء 02 مايو 2012, 11:40 pm

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Handbook of Manufacturing Processes

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Preface xxxii
Section I-Manufacturing Processes
Editori Board
About the Author
Dedication
Preface
Acknowledgments
How to use this Handbook
Chapter 1-Casting Processes
A Melting Met for Casting
cupola melting
electric arc melting
crucible melting
A4 air furnace (reverbatory) melting
AS induction melting (high frequency
and low frequency)
A6 open-hearth melting
A7 pouring
B Sand-mold Casting
B1 green sand casting
BZ dry sand casting
B3 other sand-mold casting processes
B2a skin-dried casting
B3a shell mold casting
B3b lost foam casting
B3c magnetic molding
B3d V-process casting (vacuum molding)
B3e cement-sand molding
B3f loam molding
B3g flaskless mold casting
B3h Antioch process
B4a green sand cores
B4b core blowing
B4c core baking
B4d oil-oxygen process
B4e furan no-bake core process
B4 core making

B4f carbon-dioxide process
B4g shell process for cores
B5a ramming
B5b bench molding
B5c floor molding
B5d pit molding
B5e machine methods
B5 sand mold methods
B5el jolt-squeeze methods
B5eZ sand slinging
B5e3 rap-jolt machines
B5e4 match-plate molding
B6 sand processing
B6a sand mulling
B6b reclamation of sand
B6bl mechanic reclamation
B6bZ therm reclamation
B6b3 wet reclamation
B6c met separation from sand
B6d cooling of sand
B7 pattern making
B8 post-molding operations
B8a shakeout
B8b core knockout
B8c blast cleaning
B8d tumble cleaning
B8e wire brush cleaning
B8f
B8g snagging
C Other Expendable Mold Processes
C1 ceramic mold casting
CZ ceramic-shell process
C3 Shaw process
C4 Unicast process
C5 plaster mold casting
D Permanent Mold Processes
D1 permanent mold casting
DZ low pressure permanent
mold casting
D3 slush casting
D4 pressed casting
D5 vacuum casting
E Centrifug Casting
El true centrifug casting
E2 semicentrifug casting
E3 centrifuged casting
gate, riser and tin remov
C5a foamed plaster mold casting

vi Table of Contents
Die Casting
hot-chamber die casting
cold-chamber die casting
trimming
impregnation of die castings
Investment Casting (lost wax process)
flask method
shell method
Continuous Casting
Chapter %Met Forming Processes
A
hot rolling
hot drawing or cupping
extrusion
Hot and Warm Forming Methods
a indirect extrusion
b Sejournet process
A4a open-die drop-hammer forging
(hammer, flat-die or smith forging)
A4b impression die forging (closed die forging)
(die forging)
A4bl drop forging
A4b2 precision forging
A4b3 flashless forging
A4 forging
A4c press forging
A4d upset forging
A4e roll forging
A4f isotherm forging
A4g swaging
A4h ring rolling (mandrel forging)

piercing
pipe welding
hot spinning
warm heading
Primary Cold-working Operations
rolling
cold drawing
Sheet Met Cutting Operations
shearing
Cla squaring shears
Clb ligator shears
Clc rotary shears
nibbling
slitting
blanking
C4a steel rule die blanking
C4b dinking
c4c cutoff
C4d parting
C4e photochemic blanking
punching
C5a turret punching
CSb notching
trimming
shaving
lancing
fineblanking
C9a semi-piercing
Dl bending
Press Bending and Forming Operations
of Sheet Met
Dla press brake bending
Dlb V-die bending
Dlc air bending
Dld punch press (bending die) bending
D2 forming
D3 forming with rubber tooling
(rubber pad forming)
D3a rubber tool forming
D3b Guerin process
D3c Marform process
D3d rubber diaphragm forming
D3e Verson-Wheelon process
(hydroform process) (fluid forming)
D4 drop hammer forming
D5 drawing (sheet met parts)
DSa shlow drawing
D5b deep drawing
D5c redrawing, direct and reverse
D6a drop hammer coining
D6 coining
D7 embossing
D8 flanging
D9 beading
D10 hemming and seaming
D11 edge curling
D12 swaging
D13 sizing
D14 ironing
E Multiple Die Stamping
Press Operations
El progressive die operations
E2 transfer die (transfer press) operations
E3 compound die operations
F Sheet Met Operations Performed
on Equipment Other Than Presses
F1 rotary swaging
Fla stationary die swaging
F2 three-roll forming
F3 stretch forming
F3a stretch draw forming
F3b stretch wrapping
F3c compression forming
F3d radi-draw forming
(stretch wrap forming)
F4 roll coining
F5 rotary embossing
F6 met spinning
F6a manu spinning
F6b power spinning, “flow turning”
or “shear spinning”
roll forming (contour roll forming)
Ma roll forming of tubing and pipe
M
G Wire Forming operations
G1 wire forming
Gla manu forming of wire parts
Glb wire forming in power presses
and speci machines
G2 forming in four-slide machines
Table of Contents
Die Casting
hot-chamber die casting
cold-chamber die casting
trimming
impregnation of die castings
Investment Casting (lost wax process)
flask method
shell method
Continuous Casting
Chapter 2-Met Forming Processes
Hot and Warm Forming Methods
hot rolling
hot drawing or cupping
extrusion
a indirect extrusion
b Sejournet process
forging
open-die drop-hammer forging
(hammer, flat-die or smith forging)
impression die forging (closed die forging)
(die forging)
A4bl drop forging
A4b2 precision forging
A4b3 flashless forging
press forging
upset forging
roll forging
isotherm forging
swaging
ring rolling (mandrel forging)
piercing
pipe welding
hot spinning
warm heading
Primary Cold-working Operations
rolling
cold drawing
Sheet Met Cutting Operations
shearing
Cla squaring shears
Clb ligator shears
Clc rotary shears
nibbling
slitting
blanking
C4a steel rule die blanking
C4b dinking
c4c cutoff
C4d parting
C4e photochemic blanking
punching
C5a turret punching
C5b notching
trimming
shaving
lancing
fineblanking
C9a semi-piercing
Press Bending and Forming Operations
of Sheet Met
bending
Dla press brake bending
Dlb V-die bending
Dlc air bending
Dld punch press (bending die) bending
forming
forming with rubber tooling
D3a rubber tool forming
(rubber pad forming)
D3b Guerin process
D3c Marform process
D3d rubber diaphragm forming
D3e Verson-Wheelon process
drop hammer forming
drawing (sheet met parts)
D5a shlow drawing
D5b deep drawing
D5c redrawing, direct and reverse
coining
D6a drop hammer coining
embossing
flanging
beading
hemming and seaming
edge curling
swaging
sizing
ironing
Multiple Die Stamping
Press Operations
progressive die operations
transfer die (transfer press) operations
compound die operations
Sheet Met Operations Performed
on Equipment Other Than Presses
rotary swaging
Fla stationary die swaging
three-roll forming
stretch forming
F3a stretch draw forming
F3b stretch wrapping
F3c compression forming
F3d radi-draw forming
roll coining
rotary embossing
met spinning
F6a manu spinning
F6b power spinning, “flow turning”
or “shear spinning”
roll forming (contour roll forming)
F7a roll forming of tubing and pipe
Wire Forming Operations
wire forming
Gla manu forming of wire parts
Glb wire forming in power presses
and speci machines
forming in four-slide machines
(hydroform process) (fluid forming)
(stretch wrap forming)
Table of Contents vii
G3 spring forming
G4 Turk's-head rolling of wire
H "bbing and Section Operations
H1 tube spinning
Hla forward tube spinning
Hlb backward tube spinning
H2 tube and section bending
H2a draw bending
H2b compression bending
H a ram-and-press bending
H2d stretch bending
H2e wrinkle bending
H2f roll bending
H2g roll extrusion bending
H2h bulging, mechanic
H2i bulging, hydraulic
H2j
I Non-sheet Forming Operations
11 shearing of bars and other non-flat shapes
12 cold heading
13 thread rolling
14 impactkold extrusion
other methods of bulging tubing
I4a backwards extrusion
I4b forward extrusion
I& combined extrusion
J High-energy-rate Forming Methods
J1 explosive forming
52 combustible gas forming
53 electromagnetic forming (EMF)
54 spark-discharge forming
55 electrohydraulic forming
56 pneumatic-mechanic forming
57 peen forming
K Straightening
K1 manu straightening
K2 press straightening
K3 parlel roll straightening
K4 rotary straightening
K5 epicyclic straightening
K6 stretch straightening
L Other Forming Processes
L1 powder metlurgy (Phl) processes
Lla met powder manufacture
Llb powder blending and mixing
Llc pressing (compacting)
Lld sintering
Lle repressing
Llf secondary operations
Llg powder met forging
(so known as magnetic pulse forming)
(electrospark forming)
L2 electroforming
L3 met injection molding (MIM)
Chapter &Machining Processes
lathe operations (gener description)
Lathe and Other Turning Operations
a turning
b form turning
c tracer turning
d facing
e grooving
f knurling
g cutting off (parting)
lathes and other turning machines
a engine lathes
b turret lathes
c screw machines
Akl single spindle screw machines
c2 Swiss-type screw machines
AM multiple spindle screw machines
d chucking machines
e turning centers
Round-hole-making Methods
dri I I ing
counterboring
countersinking
reaming
boring
B5a jig boring
B5b horizont boring mills
B5c vertic boring mills
gun drilling
trepanning
multiple-spindle drilling
Grinding and Abrasive Machining
cylindric grinding
Cla center-type cylindric grinding
Clb centerless grinding
Clbl through-feed centerless grinding
Clb2 infeed centerless grinding
Clb3 end-feed centerless grinding
intern grinding
C2a intern centerless grinding
surface grinding
C3a horizont spindle
C3b vertic spindle surface grinding
C3c creep-feed grinding
jig grinding
C4a tool post grinding
low-stress grinding
plunge grinding
disc grinding
abrasive belt grinding
abrasive jet machining
surface grinding
C10 abrasive flow machining (AFM)
C11 ultrasonic machining
D Milling
D1 face milling
D2 peripher milling
D3 end milling
D4 slab milling
D5 form milling
D6 gang milling
D7 straddle milling
D8 fly cutter milling
D9 pin routing
D10 spotfacing
Clla rotary ultrasonic machining
Table of Contents
Screw Threads
hand-die extern threading
intern thread tapping
single-point screw-thread cutting
thread cutting die heads
thread milling
thread grinding
thread rolling
cold-form tapping of intern threads
Broaching
intern broaching
extern broaching
pot broaching
Sawing
circular sawing
band sawing
contour sawing
hacksawing
abrasive sawing
diamond-edge sawing
friction sawing
Flame Cutting (Therm Cutting)
oxy-fuel gas cutting (OFC)
met powder cutting (POC)
chemic flux cutting (FOC)
arc cutting
H4a plasma-arc cutting (PAC)
H4b air-carbn arc cutting and grooving
H4c oxygen lance cutting (LOC)
H4d gas met arc cutting
H4e gas tungsten arc cutting
H4f shielded met arc cutting
H4g carbon arc cutting
laser cutting
Electric Machining Processes
electric discharge machining or EDM
Ila ramEDM
Ilb wire EDM
Ilc electric discharge grinding (EDG)
electrochemic machining (ECM)
I2a electrochemic grinding (ECG)
I2b electrochemic turning (ECT)
electrochemic discharge grinding (ECDG)
electrochemic honing (ECH)
electro etching
Finish Machining Operations
honing
lapping
superfinishing
burnishing
roller burnishing
Deburring
abrasive flow debumng
abrasive jet debumng
barrel tumbling
chemic debumng
electropolish deburring
electrochemic debumng
liquid hone debumng
manu debumng
K9 therm energy debuning
K10 ultrasonic debumng
K11 vibratory debumng
K12 water-jet debumng
K13 centrifug barrel tumbling
K14 spindle finishing
K15 powered brush deburring
K16 abrasive belt sanding
K17 laser debumng
Kl8 plasma glow deburring
K19 skiving
K20 edge rolling
K21 burnish debuning
K22 edge coining
K23 robotic debumng
K24 CNC machining center deburring
K25 cryogenic deflashing
Filing
bumng (rotary filing)
Water Jet Machining (Hydrodynamic Machining)
abrasive water jet machining (AWJ)
Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
Laser Beam Machining
laser-assisted hot machining (LAM)
Shaping
Planing
Slotting
Chemic Machining
chemic milling
chemic engraving
chemic blanking
photochemic blanking
Machining Centers
turning centers
multiple operation machines
Numeric and Computer Control
NC, numeric control
computer numeric control (CNC)
U2a DNC (direct numeric control)
programmable controllers
digit readouts in machining
automatic tracing
robots and robotic operations
Trimming
High-speed Machining
Speci Purpose Machines
Transfer Lines
CAD-CAM
Chapter &Processes for Plastics
How Plastics Are Made
definition - Plastics
polymerization reactions
a addition polymerization
b condensation polymerization
polymerization methods
a bulk polymerization
b solution polymerization
c suspension polymerization
d emulsion polymerization
e gas-phase polymerization
compounding plastics
A4a mixing by tumbling
A4b intensive dry mixing
A4c intern intensive batch mixing
A4d continuous mixing
A& single screw extruders
A4f compounder-extruder mixing
A4g twin screw extruder mixing
pelletizing and dicing of plastics
ASa mixing and dicing with two-roll mills
A5b strand pelletizers
A5c underwater pelletizing
Compression and Transfer Molding
compression molding
Bla automatic compression molding
transfer molding
B2a plunger molding
B2b screw transfer molding
cold molding
Injection Molding
convention injection molding
Cla hot runner molding
(heated runnerless molding)
injection molding of thermosetting plastics
structur foam molding processes
C3a low-pressure injection molding
of structur foam plastics
C3b reaction injection molding
C3c high-pressure injection molding
of structur foam plastics
C3d gas counterpressure molding
C3e co-injection or sandwich molding
C3f gas-assisted injection molding
C3g casting of structur foam plastics
C3h extrusion of structur foam plastics
C3i slabstock foam process
expanded polystyrene foam processes
C4a pre-expansion of EPS beads
C4b shape molding of EPS beads
C4c block molding of EPS
C4d expanded polyolefin foam process
two-color injection molding
insert molding
Thermoforming (Vacuum Forming)
straight vacuum forming
pressure forming
drape vacuum forming
plug-assist forming
vacuum snap-back forming
slip-ring forming (slip forming)
matched mold forming
pressure-bubble plug-assist forming (so cled
reverse-draw plug-assist forming, pressure-bubble
plug-assist forming, billow-up plug-assist forming
or reverse-draw with plug assist)
pressure-bubble vacuum-snapback forming
or billow-up vacuum snap-back forming
D10 trapped sheet, contact heat, pressure forming
D11 air-slip forming
D12 free forming (free blowing)
D13 du sheet forming (twin sheet forming)
D14 solid phase pressure forming
E Rotation Molding
F Blow Molding
F1 extrusion blow molding
F2 injection blow molding
F3 In stretch blow molding
F4 multilayer blow molding
F5 dip blow molding
F6 other blow molding processes
G Processes for Reinforced
Thermosetting Plastics
G1 hand lay-up
G2 spray-up
G3 vacuum-bag molding
G4 pressure-bag molding
G5 autoclave molding
G6 centrifug casting
G7 Filament winding
G8 continuous laminating
G8a continuous laminating with
a thermosetting plastic
G8b continuous laminating with a thermoplastic
G9 matched met mold forming (cold stamping)
(310 matched met mold forming of reinforced
thermosetting materi
G11 pultrusion
G12 pulforming
G13 resin transfer molding (RTM)
(liquid resin molding)
G14 other processes for reinforced
thermosetting plastics
H Casting of Plastics
H1 casting of sheet
Hla cell casting of sheet
Hlb continuous casting of sheet
H2 casting structur foam parts
H3 casting nylon parts
H4 casting acrylic parts
H5 encapsulation and potting
I Plastics Extrusion
11 profile extrusion
12 coextrusion (du extrusion)
13 foam extrusion
14 extrusion coating and laminating
I4a wire coating
15 extrusion of film and sheet
I5a blown film extrusion
I5b cast film extrusion
16 operations after extruding
J Cendering
K Vinyl Dispersion Processes
K1 spread coating
Kla knife coating (knife-over-roll coating)
Klb roll coating
K2 dip coating (hot dipping) and dip molding
K2a cold dipping
slush molding
cavity, in-place and low-pressure molding
strand coating, using plastisols and organisols
spray coating
extrusion of plastisol
Welding and Adhesive Bonding of Plastics
friction or spin welding
hot plate welding
vibration welding
ultrasonic welding and seing
ultrasonic spot welding
ultrasonic film and fabric welding
adhesive bonding of plastics
L7a solvent cementing of plastics
L7b pretreatment of plastic surfaces for bonding
L7c electromagnetic adhesive bonding
induction welding
radio frequency seing (dielectric seing)
therm seing (heat seing) of sheet
hot gas welding
Surface Finishing and Decorating
Processes for Plastics
surface treatments for plastic parts
Mla washing and cleaning
Mlb chemic etching
Mlc corona discharge
Mld flame treatment
Mle plasma treatment
hot stamping
M2a transfer coating (hot transfer coating)
painting
M3a spray and wipe
M3b powder painting of plastics
Mk manufacture of powder coatings
M k l dry blending
Mk2 melt mixing
M3c3 solution method
decorating plastic parts with processes
that are so common to non-plastics
M4a electroplating of plastics
in-mold decorating
sheet and film embossing
Other Plastics Processes
insert assembly
Nla molding-in inserts
Nlb ultrasonic insertion
Nlc expansion instlation
Nld threaded hole instlation
Nle press insertion
Nlf self tapping
Nlg cemented instlation
Nlh hot insertion
other mechanic assembly of plastic parts
granulating plastics
coloring and blending of plastics
drying of plastics
machining of plastics
trimming and die cutting of plastics
radiation processing
NSa non-ionizing radiation processing

N9 vacuum handling and loading of plastic materis
N10 robotic handling
N11 deflashing
N12 reel-to-reel molding (continuous strip molding)
0 Rubber and Elastomers
01 natur rubber
02 rubber, synthetic
03 rubber compounding
04 rubber fabrication methods
Chapter 5-Glass and Ceramics
Processes
A GlassProcesses
basic glassmaking
a raw materis
b batching
c melting
a pressing
b blowing
coloring materis
primary forming processes
bl manu blowing
b2 lampworking (lamp blowing,
and scientific glass blowing)
b3 machine blowing
b3a gob feeding machine
b3b Owens bottle machine
b3c the blow-blow process
b3d the press-blow process
b3e the rotary-mold (paste mc
b3f ribbon machine blowing
(the suck-blow process)
process
process
A& glass tubing manufacture
AM centrifug casting
a manu methods
b drawing sheet glass (the
Fourcault process)
Ak drawing sheet glass (the Colburn
or Libby-Owens process)
d drawing sheet glass
(the Pittsburgh process)
e plate glass manufacture
f float glass process
g rolling (casting) flat glass
A4 heat and chemic treating operations
A4a anneing
A4b tempering
A4c chemic toughening
AS secondary, finishing and decorating operations
A5a bending and sagging
A5b grinding
A5c polishing
A5d fusion seing
A5e grit blasting
flat glass processes

acid etching
shrinking
staining
decorating with vitrifiable colors
(vitreous enamels)
metlic coating
organic decorating
silk screening (screen printing)
glass fiber manufacturing ~
A6a mechanic drawing of continuous fibers
A6b steam blowing
A& flame blowing (superfine process)
A6d rotary wool forming process
A& methods for production of tradition
optic glass fibers
A6f methods for production of optic
communications fibers
manufacture of other types of glass
A7a glass ceramics manufacture
A7b photosensitive glass manufacture
A7c cellular glass (foam glass) manufacture
A7d glass microsphere manufacture
powdered glass processes
A8a dry pressing and sintering
ASb slip casting of glass
A& fritted filter manufacture
Ceramics Processes
the nature of ceramics
ceramic materis
ceramics operation sequence
ceramic materi preparation
B4a materi preparation for advanced ceramics
pressing
BSa isostatic pressing
injection molding
extruding
slip casting of ceramics
BSa pressure casting
jiggering
B10 roll compaction
B11 tape casting
B12 throwing
B13 drying
B13a parti in-process drying
B13b fin drying
B13c microwave drying (so cled dielectric
or radio frequency drying)
B14 machining and grinding
BIS glazing
B16 sintering (firing)
B17 hot pressing
B17a hot isostatic pressing (HIP)
Chapter &Woodworking Processes
A Lumber Making Including
Saw Mill Operations
debarking
headsaw operation (breakdown sawing)

plain sawing of boards
quarter sawing
rift sawing
edging
trimming (cutting to length)
inspecting and grading boards
drying (seasoning)
A9a airdrying
A9b kiln drying
A9c radio frequency drying
Making Wooden Components
cutting boards to size
Bla ripping
Blb cutting to length (crosscutting)
surfacing with planers and jointers
B2a planing (surfacing)
B2b jointing
contour (curved line) sawing
turning
drilling and boring
shaping and routing
other form, and speci cutting and
joint-making operations
B7a computer-controlled routering
B7b laser machining of wooden parts
B7c dedicated speci machines and
multi-operation machines
filing and sanding
Making Wood Joints
butt joints
rabbet joints
dado and groove joints
tongue-and-groove joints
mortise and tenon joints
dovetail joints
dowelled and biscuit (joining plate)
joints
lap (hved and bridle), scarf
and bevelled joints
Making Bent Wooden Components
wet bending
making curved laminations
kerf bending
Assembly and Fastening Wood Products
clamps and fixtures
mechanic fastening
adhesive bonding
Assembling veneer and inlaid surfaces
Manufacture of Plywood and Other
Panel Materis
making veneer
making plywood
making wafer board (chipboard)
making oriented strand board
making particle board
making fiberboard
making engineered lumber, prefabricated
wooden beams and joists
making rigid plastic laminates
(high pressure laminates)
making synthetic lumber (composite lumber)
and components from plastics
Wood Finishing
preparing the surface for finishing
staining
varnishing, lacquering and painting
polishing
Upholstery
instling webbing
instling springs
instling padding and cushioning
instling covering
cushions, channeling and tufting
Chapter 7-Assembly and Fusion
(or

Joining) Processes
Soldering and Brazing
solder application methods
a wire or rod soldering
b preform soldering
c solder paste soldering
d Dip soldering (DS)
e wave soldering
f drag soldering
g ultrasonic soldering
workpiece heating methods:
a with soldering iron (INS)
b with gas torch
c oven or furnace heating
AM selective infrared heating
A% vapor-phase heating
f Resistance heating (RS)
g laser heating
h induction heating
i hot gas
fluxes
Brazing
application of tiller met
torch brazing
furnace brazing
induction brazing (IB)
dip brazing
st bath brazing
Resistance brazing (RB)
diffusion brazing
Welding
Arc welding
bl how solder preforms are made
Cla
Clb
Clc
Cld
Cle
Clf
Clg
Shielded-Met Arc (SMAW)
or Stick Welding
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW)
Gas-met arc welding (GMAW)
Gas-tungsten arc welding GTAW)
Plasma arc welding (PAW)
Electroslag welding (ESW)

induction welding (electromagnetic
Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW)
Electron beam welding (EBW)
Laser-beam welding (LBW)
Resistance welding
C6a Spot welding (RSW)
C6b Seam welding (RSEW)
C6c projection welding (RPW)
stitch welding
stud welding
Friction welding (FRW)
Flash welding (FW)
welding) 305

C11 percussive welding or percussion
C12 Thermit welding (TW)
C13 Solid-state welding, (SSW)
welding
C13a forge welding
C13b forge-seam welding
C13c cold welding
C13d met cladding
C13e Roll welding (roll bonding) (ROW)
C13f Explosive welding (EXW)
C13g diffusion welding
(diffusion bonding)
C13h ultrasonic welding (of mets)
C13i Friction stir welding (FSW)
Adhesive Bonding
surface preparation methods for
adhesive bonding
Dla cleaning
Dlb surface roughening
Dlc surface ionization pretreatment
adhesive application methods
D2a brush, spray, dipping, roller
or spatula application
D2b dry film application
D2c hot melt adhesives application
DM pressure sensitive and contact
adhesive application
D2e pump/pressure application
of solid adhesives
joint assembly methods
curing methods
Welding of Plastics
Mechanic Assembly Processes
bench assembly
assembly lines
automatic assembly
F3a parts feeding equipment
F3b high speed assembly with dedicated
equipment
F3c robotic assembly
mechanic fastening methods
F4a assembly with threaded fasteners
F4b riveting
F4c stitchinghtapling
F4d snap fit fastening
F4e
F4f staking, seaming and crimping
press and shrink fit fastening
D10 vinyl plastisol coatings
E Chemic Surface Treatments Chapter &Finishing Processes
(including Heat Treating) 329 El anodizing
Cleaning Processes
mechanic cleaning processes
a brushing
b abrasive blasting
bl wet blast cleaning
b2 dry blast cleaning
c steam jet cleaning
d tumbling
chemic cleaning processes
a solvent cleaning
immersion cleaning
spray degreasing
vapor degreasing
b ultrasonic cleaning
A& emulsion cleaning
AM kine cleaning
A& acid cleaning
f pickling
g st bath cleaning
electrochemic cleaning processes
a electrolytic cleaning
b electrolytic pickling
Polishing Processes
convention polishing
Bla buffing
barrel polishing (tumbling)
electropolishing
burnishing
Plating Processes
convention electroplating
electroless plating
barrel plating
mechanic plating
brush plating
electroplating of plastics
Painting (Organic Finishing)
brushing
roller coating
curtain coating
dip painting
flow coating
spray painting
Ma air atomized spray
D6b airless spray
electrostatic painting
D7a with centrifug spraying head
powdered paint coating
D8a electrostatic spray powder coating
D8b fluidized bed powder coating
D8c electrostatic fluidized bed powder coating
D8d friction static spraying
D8e flame spraying of powdered paint
electrocoating (so referred to as electropainting,
electrophoresis, electrophoretic coating
or electrodeposition of paint)
Ela hardcoat anodizing
phosphating
chromate conversion coatings
black oxide coating
Other Coatings
porcelain enameling
hot dip coating (gvanizing)
vacuum metizing
F3a sputtering
F3b chemic vapor deposition (CVD)
F3bl plasma-enhanced (or plasma-assiste
chemic vapor deposition
F3c physic vapor deposition (PVD)
F3d ion implantation
therm spray coating
F4a wire metizing
F4b powder spraying
F4c detonation gun spraying
F4d plasma arc spraying
F4e
clad mets
Heat Treating of Mets
anneing
anneing processes for steel
G2a full anneing
G2b isotherm anneing
Gk spherodizing
G2d stress relieving
G2e normizing
G2f tempering
G2g process anneing
hardening processes for steel
G3a surface hardening
F4 electric arc wire metizing
F4dl transferred plasma-arc spraying
high velocity oxy-flame coating (HVOF)
G3 flame hardening
G3 induction hardening
G3 laser-beam hardening
G3a4 electron-beam hardening
G3aS other surface heating methods
for hardening
G3b case hardening
G3bl carbunzing
G3bla pack carburization
G3blb liquid carburization
G3blc gas carburization
G3b2 carbonitriding
G3b3 cyanidizing
G3b4 nitriding
G3bS liquid nitriding
G3c through hardening
G3d martempering
G3e austempering
solution treatinglprecipitation hardening
(aging or age hardening)

heat treating processes for non-ferrous mets
G5a uminum loys
G5b copper and copper loys
G5c magnesium loys
G5d nickel and nickel loys
G5e titanium and titanium loys
Shot Peening
Product Marking Methods
manu marking
stamp indented marking
etching (chemic etching)
engraving
I4a pantograph engraving
laser marking and engraving
stenciling
printing
17a pad printing
I7b screen printing (silk screening)
branding
Manufacture of Various Paper Grades
bond paper
newsprint
paperboard
sanitary papers
haft paper
vulcanized fiber
Printing
relief or letterpress printing
Dla typesetting for letterpress printing
Dlb flexographic printing
planographic printing
D2a lithography and offset lithography
D2b collotype (collography)
intaglio printing
D3a gravure printing
D3b making gravure plates
stencil and screen printing (porous printing)
Ma stencil printing
dec marking 357 D4b screen printing (serigraphy)
110 casting and molding
I l l embossing and coining
112 nameplates, labels and tags
113 hot stamping
114 dyeing
115 flocking
Chapter 9-Paper, Fiber
and Printing Processes
A Definition, Paper
B Paper-making Processes
B1 raw materis
B2 paper making from wood (by machine)
B2a debarking of wood logs
B2b pulping of wood
B2bl mechanic pulping of wood
B2b2 chemic pulping of wood
B2b3 semi-chemic pulping of wood
B2c refining
B2d removing foreign materi
B2e bleaching and washing
B2f beating
B2g making paper from pulp
B2gl Fourdrinier and cylindric
paper-making machines
B2h finishing (converting)
B2hl extrusion coating and
B2h2 water dispersion coating
B2h3 sizing
B2h4 filling
laminating of paper
B3 paper making from rags and other textile fibers
B4 paper making from synthetic fibers
B5 paper making from waste paper (paper recycling)
B5a waste paper processed with de-inking
B5b waste paper processed without
de-inking
(silk screening)
D5 electronic printing methods
D5a laser printing
D5b copy machine printing
D5c ink-jet printing
D5d magnetographic printing
D5e ion or electron deposition printing
(ionography )
D5f microcapsule printing
D5g therm sublimation, dye sublimation,
therm wax and wax transfer printing
D5h dot-matrix printing
D5bl electrophotographic printing systems
D6 sheet and web printing
D7 color printing
D8 hftone screens
D9 pad printing
Chapter 10-Textile Processes
A


B
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
Textile Fibers
natur fibers
manufactured and synthetic fibers
Yarn Making (Spinning)
picking (including opening and blending)
carding
combing
drawing (drafting), (re-blending)
spinning (twisting)
B6 spinning synthetic fibers
C Weaving
C1 Jacquard loom weaving
C2 automatic bobbin changing
C3 shuttle-less looms
C4 pile weaving
D Knitting
D1 weft or filling knitting
D2 warp knitting
Non-woven Fabrics
Finishing
preparation
bleaching
finishing to improve appearance
F3a napping
F3b shearing
F3c brushing
F3d beetling
F3e decating
F3f cendering
F3g creping
F3h embossing
F3i optic brightening
F3j tentering
F3k crabbing
F3I flocking
finishing to improve feel (tactile properties)
F4a sizing (stiffening)
F4b weighting
F4c fulling, (felting or milling)
F4d softening
finishing to improve performance
F5a anti-shrinkage treatment
F5b durable press (permanent press)
(wash and wear)
F5c antistatic treatment
F5d treatment for soil and stain
release properties
F5e water repelling and water proofing
treatments
F5f other treatments
Coloring
dyeing
Gla stock dyeing
Glb top dyeing
Glc yam dyeing
Gld piece dyeing
Gle cross dyeing
Glf solution pigmenting (dope dyeing)
printing
G2a block printing
G2b engraved printing (intaglio printing)
G2c discharge printing
G2d heat-transfer printing
G2e stencil and screen printing
G2f resist printing
G2g warp printing
G2h pigment printing
Manufacture of Clothing and Other
Sewn Products (“Needle Trades”)
spreadingktacking
marking
cutting (chopping or knifing)
sewing
H4a stitch-less joining (seam bonding)
Of the fabric
G2bl duplex printing
(heat seing)

pressing
folding, labeling, wrapping/packing
Rug and Carpet Making
weaving rugs and carpets
tufting rugs
making knitted rugs
making needlepunch carpets
making hooked rugs
16 making braided rugs
17 making orient rugs
18 making needlepoint rugs
Chapter 11-Chemic Processes
A Batch Processes in Gener
B Continuous Processes in Genkr
C Separation Processes
C1 distillation
Cla fraction distillation (rectification,
fractionation or enrichment)
Clb vacuum distillation
Clc flash distillation (equilibrium
distillation)
Cld multiple-effect distillation
(multistage flash evaporation)
Cle steam distillation
Clf sublimation
Clg destructive distillation
C2 absorption-stripping
C3 extraction and leaching
C4 expression
C5 crystlization
C6 precipitation
C7 fluid-particle separation
C7a filtration
C7b types of filters
C7c membrane separation (including
ultra filtration)
C7d sedimentation
C7e centrifugation
C7f bag filtering
C7g evaporation
C7h scrubbers - or wet collectors
C8 separation of solids
C8a screening (sieving)
C8b flotation
C8c dense-media separation
C8d magnetic separation
C8e electrostatic separation
C9 adsorption and ion exchange
C10 electrolytic processes (electrolysis)
C11 electro therm processes
C12 drying
C7el cyclone separation, cycloning
C12a spray drying liquid materis
Cl2b freeze drying
D Size Reduction
D1 crushing
D2 secondary crushing
D3 pulverizing
E Size Enlargement
Fermentation
Mixing Methods
mixing gases with gases
mixing gases with liquids
mixing liquids with liquids
liquids-solids mixing
solids mixing
Petroleum Refining and Petrochemics
separation
Hla fraction distillation of crude petroleum
Hlb vacuum distillation of petroleum fractions
Hlc absorptiodstripping of petroleum factions
Hld solvent extraction
Hle crystlization of petroleum fraction
contaminants
H2 conversion
H2a cracking
H2 therm cracking
H2 catytic cracking
H2b polymerization
H2c kylation
H2d reforming
H3 chemic and other treatments
H3a sulfur remov (hydrogen treatment)
H3b additive addition
H3c blending
I Chemic Reactions
11 gas-phase reactions
12 gashquid reactions
13 liquidlliquid reactions
14 gaslliquid/solid reactions
15 solids/solids and solids/gas reactions
16 reactions with catysts
J Heat-transfer Methods
J1
J2 cooling with air
K
K1 recovery/refining processes
heat exchange for solid materis
Extracting and Recovering Mets from Ores
Kla hydro metlurgy
Kl precipitation in hydro metlurgy
Klb pyrometlurgy processes
Klbl roasting
Klb2 smelting
Klc electrometlurgy
Klcl electrowinning (electrolytic deposition)
Klc2 electrorefinning
K2 other chemic processes
K3 loying processes
L Esterification
Chapter 12-Food Processes
A Cleaning Raw Food Materis
B Sorting and Grading of Foods
C Size Reduction
C1 roll crushing

hammer milling
bl milling (tumble milling)
disc attrition milling
milling grain
C5a post-milling treatments
C5 tering protein content
C5 bleaching flour
C5 enriching flour
Mixing
Separation Processes
filtration
expression
centrifugation
crystlization
extraction
Concentration
evaporation
freeze concentration
reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration
Therm Processing of Foods
blanching
pasteurization
heat sterilization
canning
aseptic processing
cooking
baking
Dehydration and Drying
vacuum drying
spray drying
drum drying
fluidized-bed drying
freeze drying (freeze dehydration)
Cooling for Preservation
freezing food
Ila freezing with refrigerated air
Ilb
Ilc indirect-contact freezing
dehydrofreezing
Other Operations
irradiation
homogenization
hydrogenation
fermentation
extrusion of foods
food additives
pickling
sting
sugar curing/sugar addition
candying and glazing
high-intensity pulsed electric field
processing (PEF)
high pressure processing (or ultra-high
pressure processing)
Meat Packing
stunning
slaughtering
butchering
Bottling
freezing with a liquid medium
M Other Packaging
01 equipment rinsing
02 equipment cleaning
03 equipment sanitizing
04 other factors
Food Equipment Cleaning and Sanitizing
Chapter 13-Processes
for Electronic Products
A Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)
making bare printed circuit boards
a resists and photoresists
b subtractive process for making
wiring patterns on the board
c additive method
d making photo masters and masks
e screen printing the masks
f stripping resists from printed
circuit boards
a hole making in boards
b contact finger plating
A% solder fusing
AM solder masks
A& separating boards (depanelling)
f silkscreen identification
multilayer boards
A4 making flexible printed circuit boards
B Wiring and Populating Boards
B1 populating boards with through-hole
B2 assembling surface mounted components
' other board operations
connections
B2a dispensing adhesives
B2b using solder paste
B2bl syringe dispensing of solder paste
(pressure dispensing)
B2b2 pin transfer dispensing
of solder paste
B2b3 screen printing of solder paste
B2b4 stencil dispensing of solder paste
B2b5 submerged disk dispensing
of solder paste
B2b6 dip coating of solder paste
B2b7 roller coating of solder paste
B3 cleaning prior to soldering
B4 prebaking before soldering
C Soldering Processes
C1 flux application
B2c using solder preforms
Cla dip fluxing
Clb brush application of flux
Clc foam flux application
Cld spray application of flux
Cle wave fluxing
Clf roller fluxing
Clg cored solder fluxing
Clgl making flux cored wire solder
preheating
dip soldering
drag soldering
wave soldering
reflow methods
C6a oven heating for reflow
C6b vapor-phase soldering
C6c laser soldering
hot gas soldering
soldering iron soldering
using lead-free solders
Cleaning After Soldering
solvent cleaning
water washing
semi-aqueous cleaning
Making Solder Paste
making solder powder by gas atomiz
spinning disk powder making
ultrasonic method of powder making
screen classification of powder
tion
air classification of powder
inspection of powder
mixing solder paste
inspection of paste
Bl Grid Arrays
Fluxes for Electronics
Tinning
Quity Control and Inspection Operations
visu inspection of joints
incoming inspection
solderability testing
Repair and Touch-up
Integrated Circuits (10)
(Microcircuits or Chips)
materi preparation - making
ultra-pure silicon
making a single cryst of silicon
K2a slicing into wafers
K2b polishing the wafers
K2c other wafer preparation operations
wafer fab
K3a layering
K3 oxidation of silicon
K3 nitridation
K3 chemic vapor deposition (CVD)
K3a4 vacuum deposition
K3a5 sputtering
K3a6 adding thick films
K3a7 adding protective layers
K3bl lithography
K3a epitaxy
K3b patterning
K3bla making masks
K3blb applying resist
K3blc
K3b2 etching
K3b2a wet etching with liquid
etchants (wet chemic
etching)
(photoresist film)
expose and develop the I

xviii Table of Contents
K3b2b dry etching 564
K3b2bl plasma etching 564
K3b2b2 ion beam etching
(sputter etching or
ion milling) 564
K3b2b3 reactive ion
etching (RIE) 565
K3b3 stripping photoresist from wafers 565
K3c doping (dopant defusion) 566
K3d heat treating 568
K3dl anneing 568
K3d2 loying 568
K4 wafer testing and sorting 568
K5 packaging (assembly) of chips 569
K5a backside preparation 570
K5b dicing (die separation) 570
K5c chip insertion and fastening
to the package 570
K5d wire bonding 570
K5e closing and seing the package 57 1
KSf lead plating and trimming 57 I
K5g marking and fin testing 57 1
K6 other methods of connecting the integrated
circuit to the board 573
K6a chip on board (COB) technology 573
K6b conductive adhesive connections 573
K6c tape automated bonding (TAB) 573
K6d flip-chips 574
L1 making resistors 575
L Making Discrete &vices 575
L2 making capacitors 576
L3 making inductors (chokes, choke coils) 578
L4 making transformers 578
L5 making discrete transistors and diodes 582
M Conform Coatings 582
N Other Chip Configurations 582
N1 multiple integrated circuit packages (multichip
devices, assemblies, modules [MCM], system
in a package (SIP) or packages) 582
Chapter 14-Advanced
Manufacturing Methods
A Rapid Prototyping (RP) Methods
initi step: computer aided design
(CAD)
the STL file
the SLI file
A4 liquid-based rapid prototyping systems
A4a the stereolithography (SLA) system
A4b QuickCast
A4c solid ground curing (SGC)
A4d solid creation system (SCS)
A4e solid object ultraviolet-laser
printer (SOUP)
A4f soliform System
A4g MEIKO system
A4h E-Darts system
solid-based systems
A5a laminated object manufacturing (LOM)
A5b fused deposition modeling (FDM)
A5c paper lamination technology (PLT)
A5d multi-jet modeling (MJM)
A5e ModelMaker and PattemMaster
A5f slicing solid manufacturing (SSM),
melted extrusion modeling (MEM)
and multi-function RPM systems
(M-RPM)
powder-based systems
A6a selective laser sintering (SLS)
A6b EOSINT
A6c three dimension printing (3DP)
Rapid Tooling
direct shell production casting (DSPC)
Promet 3D printing process
RapidTool
laminated met tooling
direct AIM
SL composite tooling
3D Keltool
direct met laser sintering (DMLS)
Manufacturing Cells (Group Technology)
(Family of Parts Concept)
Advanced Inspection Devices
coordinate measuring machines (CMMs)
machine vision
laser scanning
Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) Systems
Automated Storage/Retriev (ASIR)
Systems
Use of Robots in Manufacturing
Operations
areas of robot applicability
robots in foundries
G2a in die casting
G2b in sand-mold casting
G2c in investment casting
robots in forging
robots in met stamping
robots in injection molding and other
plastics molding
robots in welding
robots in painting, seing, coating
robots in materi handling
robots in mechanic assembly
G10 robots in electronics
G11 robots in quity control
G12 robots in machining
G13 robots in heat treatment
G14 robots in some specific industries
G14a in automobile assembly
G14b in appliances
G14c in the food industry
G14d in glass making
G14e in chemic industries
6141 in woodworking
G14g in other industries
Section 11-How Products, Components
and Materis Are Made
(listed in phabetic order)
A
abrasives
ABS plastics
acet plastics
acetate fibers and fabrics - See chapter 10,
acetone
acrylic plastics
adhesives
advanced ceramic materis, (high technology ceramics),
air bags (for automotive passenger protection)
air conditioners
aircraft, (airplanes)
cohol, denatured
cohol, ethyl (ethanol)
coholic beverages
cohol, isopropyl, (isopropanol or rubbing cohol)
cohol, methyl
e
loys
uminum
uminum foil
uminum oxide - See abrasives
ammonia
antifreeze
antimony
anti-shrink fabrics (cloth) - See 10F5a
apple sauce
argon
asbestos / asbestos board
aspht
aspirin
athletic shoes - See shoes, athletic
automobile engines
automobile bodies
automobile chassis
automobiles
automobile windshields
particularly section 10
(modern ceramics), (fine ceramics) - See 5B4a
bacon
bags, paper
bags, plastic
baking powder
bl bearings
bl grid arrays - See 13F
blpoint pens
bls, athletic
banknotes - See paper money
bar codes
basebls
bathtubs, cast iron
bathtubs, plastic
bathtubs, steel
bats, basebl
batteries, flashlight (dry cells)
bauxite - See uminum '
beams, plastic, reinforced
beer
bells
bent wood components - See 6D
bicycles
bills, dollar, and other paper money -
bleach
blue jeans
boats, sml, plastic
boats, fiberglass
bolts (machine screws, cap screws, set screws)
books
bond paper
bottled drinks - See 12L and sofi drinks
bottles, glass
bottles, plastic
bowling bls
bowls, glass
boxes, cormgated - See cartons, corrugated
brake linings
brandy
brass
bread
breakfast cere - See ceres, breakfast
bricks
bronze
brushes
bulbs, light - See light bulbs
bulletproof glass
bullet-proof vests
bullets (sml arms ammunition or cartridges)
bungee cords
burlap
butter
buttons
See paper money
C
cabinets, wood - See chapt 6
cams
candied fruit - See 123 10
candy
canned food - See 12G4
cans, met
capacitors, electronic - See 13L2
carbon, activated
carbon black
carbon fibers
carpets
canying cases, power tools and instruments
cars - See automobiles
cast iron
CDs - See compact discs
cellophane
cellular glass - See 5A7c
cellulose acetate plastics
cement, portland
ceramic materis, advanced, (high technology ceramics),
ceramics - See 5B
ceres, breakfast
chairs, upholstered - See 6H
chairs, wooden - See chapt 6
charco
cheese
cheese, Swiss
chewing gum
chinaware
chipboard (wafer board) - See 6F3
chips, electronic - See 13K
chlorine
chocolate
chokes, choke coils, inductors (electronic)
chromium
cider
clad mets - See 7C 13d
cloth, anti-shrink - See 10F5a
cloth, knitted - See IOA, 10B and IOD
cloth, non-woven - See IOA, 10B and IOE
cloth, woven - See IOA, IOB and IOC
clothing - See IOH
co gas - See gas, manufactured
coffee
coffee, decaffeinated
coffee, instant
coils, electric - See 13L3
coins
combs
compact discs
composite structur lumber - See 6F7
concrete blocks
condensers, electronic - See I3L2 and 13K3a6
confectioner’s glaze - See candy
contact lenses - See lenses, contact
containers, plastic
cooking utensils
copper
corn flakes - See ceres, breakfast
corn, frozen - See 121 I
corn oil
corrugated cartons
cotton fabric
cottonseed oil - See margarine
crayons (wax)
crepe fabric - See 10F3g
cryst, lead glass - See 5
cups, plastic, disposable
cups, paper - See drinking cups, paper
cut glass - See 5A5b
(modern ceramics), (fine ceramics) - See 5B4a
denim
detergents
diamonds, synthetic
diesel fuel - Seefuel diesel
digit video discs (DVDs)
dinner plates - See chinaware
diodes and transistors - See 13L5 and Fig 13L5
dishes, china - See chinaware
dishes, glass
dishes, plastic
distilled spirits (distilled liquors)
downspouts, roof
drill bits
drinking cups, foam plastic
drinking glasses
drive screws - See screws
drums, 55 glon
dry cells - See batteries flashlight
dry ice
ductwork, steel
ductwork, plastic
DVD’s - See digit video discs
dyed fabrics - See IOG 1
dyes
dynamite
edible oils - See oils, edible
elastomers
electric wire - See wire, electric
electricity
electric light bulbs - See light bulbs and lights,
electric motors - See motors, electric
electric transformers - See 13L4
electric wire - See wire electric
enamel, vitreous (porcelain enamel)
enclosures, shower
engineered lumber - See 6F7
engine blocks
envelopes
epoxy
essenti oils - See oils, essenti
etched glass - See 5A5f
ethanol - See cohol
ethylene (ethene)
explosives - See dynamite
eyeglasses
fluorescent
F
fabrics, anti-shnnk - See 10F5a
fabrics, dyed - See IOGI
fabrics, knitted - See IOA, IOB and 10D
fabrics, flocked - See 10F31
fabrics, non-woven - See IOA, 10B and IOE
fabrics, permanent press (wash and wear) - See 10F5b
fabrics, printed - See 1CG2
fabrics, stain release - See 10F5d
fabrics, woven - See IOA, 10B and 1oC
felt
felt-tip marking pens - See marking pens, felt tipped
fertilizer
fiberboard, low density (insulation board) - See 6F6
fiberboard, medium density - See 6F6
fiberglass insulation
fibers glass
fibers, textile - See IOA
fibers, optic - See 5A6, 5A6e and 5A6f
fibers, synthetic - See IO and 10B6
fiber, vulcanized - See 9C6
film, photographic
film plastic - (See section 415)
filters
finger-jointed lumber - See 6F7
fireworks
fishing rods (poles)
flashlights
flatware (tableware)(silverware)
flexible printed circuit boards - See 13A4
flocked fabrics - See 10F31
floor covering, vinyl - See vinyl flooring
flour
flour, bleached - See entry 12C5
flour, enriched - See entry 12C5
fluorescent lights
flux-cored wire solder - See 13C lg 1,
foam plastics - See 4C3
food wrap, (“saran wrap”) - See saran
footbls
footwear - See shoes
Formica(r), Micarta(r) (rigid plastic laminates) - See 6F8
fragrances (perfumes)
freeze dried food - See 12H5
frozen food - See 1211, 12Ila, 12Ilb, 12Ilc and 1212
fuel, diesel
fuel, jet
furniture, upholstered - See 6H
furniture, wooden - See chapt 6
and fig 6F8
glass - See 5A
glass bottles - are made by glass blowing (5b)
glass, bulletproof (bullet resistant)
glass, cellular (foam glass) - See 5A7c
glass ceramics - See 5A7a
glass containers - See 5bl and 5b3
glass, cut - See 5A5b
glasses, drinking - See drinking glasses
glasses, eye - See eyeglasses
glass, etched - See 5A5f
glass, pyrex - See cooking utensils
glass fibers
glass filters - See 5A8c
glass, foam (cellular glass) - See 5A7c
glass jars
glass lenses - See lenses
glass microspheres - See 5A7d
glass, photosensitive - See 5A7b
glass pitchers - See 5bl
glass, plate - See 5e
glass, safety - See safety glass
glass thermometers - See thermometers, glass
glass tubing - See 5
glassware, laboratory (scientific) - See 5bI,
glass vases - See 5bl
glass, window - See flat glass processes, 5
glass wool - See glassjibers
glazing compound - See putty
glove compartments, automotive
gloves
glue - See adhesives
glued-laminate lumber (“glulam”) - See 6F7
gold
golf bls
golf clubs
graphite
gravure printing plates - See 9D3b
grease, lubricating
grinding wheels
guitars, acoustic
gum, chewing - See chewing gum
guns (firearms)
gutters, roof
gypsum plaster
gypsum board - See plasterboard
5b2, 5A5h and 5A5i
ham
hammers
handles, cooking utensils
handles, tool
hand tools - See hammers, pliers, wrenches,
screwdrivers and handles, tool
hardboard (including tempered hardboard) - See 6Fc
helium
herbicides
high-density polyethylene - See polyethylene,
high-density
mii Table of Contents
hosiery (stockings and socks)
houses, prefabricated (modular houses)
housings, appliance
housings, business machine
hydraulic fluid
hydrochloric acid (HCI)
hydrogen
I
I-joists, wooden - See 6F7 and Fig 6F7-I
ice, dry - See dry ice
ice cream
ice skates
inductors (chokes, choke coils) - See 13L3
ink
in-line skates
insecticides (pesticides)
instant coffee - See coffee, instant
insulation board (low-density fiberboard) - See 6F6
integrated circuits - See 13K
iron
isopropyl cohol (isopropanol or rubbing cohol) -
See cohol, isopmpyl
J
jars, glass - See 5b3
jelly
jelly beans
jet engines (gas turbines)
jet fuel
jewelry
kerosene
Kevlar
keyboards, computer
keys
keys for computer keyboards
kidskin
knit fabrics
haft paper - See 9C5,9B and 9B2b
L
lace
lacquer
ladders
lasers
latex
lawn mowers
lead
lead glass (lead cryst)
leather
leather goods
lenses
lenses, contact
licorice
light bulbs, incandescent
lights, fluorescent - See fluorescent lights
linen
liquid cryst displays (LCDs)
locks, combination
low-density fiberboard - See 6F6
lubricating grease - See grease, lubricating
lumber
lumber, pressure treated
magnesium
magnets
manganese
maple syrup
marbles
margarine
marking pens, felt tipped
matches
meat - See 12K
meat tenderizer
melamine plastic - See urea and melamine plastic
mercury
medium density fiberboard - See 6F6
met cans - See cans, met
met powders - See powders, met
methane
microcircuits - See 13K
microspheres, glass - See 5A7d
milk, condensed
milk, powdered
milk, skim
miner wool (rock wool) - See 5A6d
mirrors
molybdenum
monuments
motors, electric
multiple chip packages (electronic) - See 13N1
music instruments
music instruments, brass
nail polish
nails
nameplates - See 8112, 812, 814, 8I4a, 815, 817 and other
naphtha - See 1 lHla and 1 lH2
napkins, paper - See 9C4 and 9B5
napped fabrics - See 1 OF3a
natur gas
natur rubber - See 40 1
needlepoint carpets - See 1018
needlepunch carpets - See 1014
neon signs
neoprene - See 402
newspapers
items under 81 (Product Marking),
newsprint - See 9C2
nickel
nitrile rubber - See 402
nitrogen
no-clean solder flux - See 13G
non-woven fabric - See 10E
nuclear power - See electricity and Fig El
numeric controls - See 3U and 3U1
nutmeg - See spices
nuts, screw
nylon
oils, edible
oils, essenti
oil, fuel (furnace oil)
oil, lubricating
oils, vegetable - See oils, edible: olive oil: oils, essenti
olive oil
olives, green
optic glass fibers - See 5A6, 5A6e and 5a6f
optic lenses - See lenses
orange juice
oriented strand board (OSB) - See 6F5
O-rings
Orlon
oxygen
P
packages, blister
paint
paint brushes - See brushes
paint removers (paint strippers)
plets, plastic
plets, wood
pans, cooking - See cooking utensils
paper - See 9A and 9B
paperboard
paper, bond - See 9B and 9C 1
paper clips
paper hankerchiefs - See 9C4
paper, haft - See 9B, 9B2b2 and 9C5
paper money
paper, rag (rag bond) - See 9B and 9B3
paper, sanitary - See 9B and 9C4
paper towels - See 9C4
particle board - See 6F5
partition glass - See 5g
pasta
patterns for casting - See 1B7
peanut butter
pencils, lead
pens, bl point - See blpoint pens
pepper - See spices
perfume
permanent press fabrics - See 1 OF5b
pesticides - See insecticides
petrochemics - See 1 1 H
Table of Contents
petroleum
petroleum jelly (petrolatum, Vaseline)
pewter
phenolic plastics
photographic film - See film photographic
pickles - See 12J
pig iron
pile rugs (tufted rugs) - See 1012
pipe, plastic - See tubing, plastic
pipe and tubing,met
pipe, cast - See 1El
pipe, welded - See pipe and tubing, met above
plaster - See gypsum plaster
plasterboard, gypsum board, wlboard and drywl
plastics
plastic film - See 415
plastic laminates, rigid (“Formica” or “Micarta”) - See 6F8
plastic wood, wood filler
plate glass - See 5e
platinum
playground equipment
Plexiglas
pliers
plywood - See 6F2
polycarbonate plastic, PC
polyester plastic
polyethylene plastic, PE
polyethylene plastic, high-density, HDPE
polyethylene plastic, linear, low density, LLDPE
polyethylene plastic, low-density, LDPE
polyethylene plastic, ultra-high-molecular-weight, UHMWPE
polypropylene plastic, PP
polystyrene plastic, PS
polyurethane plastic
polyvinyl chloride plastic, PVC, vinyl
polymers
porcelain
portland cement - See cement, portland
“popcorn” loose-fill packaging
potato chips
pottery - See chinaware and 5B2
powders, met
powdered milk - See milk, powdered
powder met parts - See 2L1
pretzels
printed circuit boards - See 13A through 13D
printed fabrics - See 1OG2
printing plates, gravure - See 9D3b
propane - See gas, liquijed petroleum
prototypes, rapid - See 14A
Putty
Pyrex glass - See cooking utensils
quarter-sawed lumber boards - See 6,6A4
quartz glass
quicklime
and Fig 6-I,
rag paper (rag bond) - See 9B3
rapid prototypes - See 14A
rapid tooling - See 14B
rattan furniture
rayon
refractories
resistors, electronic - See 13L1
rice wine
rings (jewelry) - Seejewelry
rock wool (miner wool) - See 5A6d
roller blades and skates - See skates, roller blade
rope
rubber bands
rubber, natur - See 401
rubber, synthetic - See 402
rubber, silicone - See silicones
rubber, urethane - See polyurethane and 402
(synthetic rubber)
rubies and sapphires
rugs (carpets)
rum
safety glass for automobiles
sailplanes (gliders)
st
sandpaper
sanitary paper - See 9B and 9C4
sanitary ware
sapphire, synthetic
saran
satellites and spacecraft
satin
sausages
sauerkraut
screwdrivers
screws, machine and cap - See bolts
screws, wood, drive, and sheet met
screw threads - See 3E
semiconductors
sewing machines
shampoo
shellac
shirts
shoes
shoes, athletic and sneakers
shortening
shrinkproof (shrink resistant) fabrics - See IOE5a
signs, neon - See neon signs
silicon - See 13K1 for silicon refining
silicon carbide - See abrasives
silicones (silicone plastic resins, silicone oils,
silicone rubber
silicon single crysts - See 13K2
silicon rubber)
silicon wafers (for integrated circuits) - See 13K2c
silk
silver
silverware - See flatware
single crysts of silicon - See 13K
skim milk - See milk, skim
soap
sodium carbonate (soda ash)
soft drinks
solar cells (photovoltaic cells)
solder
solder paste - See 13E
solder preforms - See 7b
solder powder - See 13E1 through 13E6
spandex
spark plugs
spices
spirits, distilled - See distilled spirits
sporting goods
springs
stained glass windows
stainless steels - See steels, stainless
stain-release fabrics - See 10F5d
stamps, postage
starch
steel
steels, stainless
structur composite lumber - See 6F7
structur foam plastics - See 4C3
styrofoam
sugar
suits - See manufacture of clothing (10H)
sulfuric acid
superconductors
swiss cheese - See cheese, Swiss
switches, electric - See electric switches
synthetic fibers and fabric - See IOAZ, 10B6, 1OC
synthetic lumber (composite lumber) - See 6F9
synthetic rubber - See 402
through 13K4
and IOD
T
T-shirts
tableware, plastic
tableware, met (silverware) - See flatware
tacks
tcum powder, baby powder
tanks, fuel for automobiles
tanks, plastic, storage for chemics
tea
tea, instant
teflon
tennis bls
textile fabrics - See chapt 10
thermometers
thermoplastics
thread
tiles, ceramic
tiles, floor - See vinyljooring
tiles, plastic - See vinyljooring
tin
tires, rubber
titanium
toilets and other sanitary ware - See sanitary ware
toilet paper - See 1K4
tooling, rapid - See 14B
tools, hand - See hammers, pliers, wrenches
and handles, tool
toothpaste
toothbrushes - See brushes
towels, paper - See IK4
trailers
trampolines
transformers - See 13L4
transistors - See 13L5
trays, plastic
trumpets and other brass music instruments -
tubing, glass - See 5c
tubing, met, seamless and welded - See pipe
tubing, plastic
tungsten
turbine blades - See jet engines
turpentine
See music instruments, brass
and tubing, met
U
ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene -
ultra-high-strength steels
umbrellas
undergarments (underwear)
unwoven fabric - See 10E
upholstered furniture - See 6H
uranium fuel
urea and melamine plastics
urethane rubber
utensils, cooking - See cooking utensils
See polyethylene, ultra-high-molecular-weight,
V
vacuum bottles (Thermos(r) bottles,
vanilla
varnish
vases - (made by manu blowing) See 5b
veneer, wood - See 6F1,6B7b,6 E4,6D2
vermouth
vis, glass - (made from tubing) See 5c
vinegar
Dewer flasks)
vinyl flooring
vinyl plastic - See polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
vinyl plastisol coatings - See 8D10
vinyl siding (for buildings)
viscose (viscose rayon) - See rayon and 10
vitreous enamel coatings - See 8F1
vodka
vulcanized fiber - See 9C6
W
wafer board lumber - See 6F3
wlboard (plasterboard, gypsum board, drywl, sheetrock)
wl paper
washers (as used with bolts, etc)
watches
water repellant fabrics - See IOF5e
water, potable
wax
whiskey
white glue - See adhesives
window panes
window panes, antique - See 5a
windows
windshields, automotive - See automotive windshields
wine
wire, electric
wire forms
wire glass - See 5g
wire, mechanic
wooden I-joists - See 6F7 and Fig6F7-1,
wood veneer - See 6F1,
wool
woolen fabric - is woven or knit See wool above,
woven fabrics - See IOA, IOB and IOC
wrenches
wrench sockets
writing paper
chapter 10 and Fig W2
X
xylene (xylol)
Y
Z
zinc
zippers

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes   الأربعاء 02 مايو 2012, 11:40 pm

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Handbook of Manufacturing Processes

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Preface xxxii
Section I-Manufacturing Processes
Editori Board
About the Author
Dedication
Preface
Acknowledgments
How to use this Handbook
Chapter 1-Casting Processes
A Melting Met for Casting
cupola melting
electric arc melting
crucible melting
A4 air furnace (reverbatory) melting
AS induction melting (high frequency
and low frequency)
A6 open-hearth melting
A7 pouring
B Sand-mold Casting
B1 green sand casting
BZ dry sand casting
B3 other sand-mold casting processes
B2a skin-dried casting
B3a shell mold casting
B3b lost foam casting
B3c magnetic molding
B3d V-process casting (vacuum molding)
B3e cement-sand molding
B3f loam molding
B3g flaskless mold casting
B3h Antioch process
B4a green sand cores
B4b core blowing
B4c core baking
B4d oil-oxygen process
B4e furan no-bake core process
B4 core making

B4f carbon-dioxide process
B4g shell process for cores
B5a ramming
B5b bench molding
B5c floor molding
B5d pit molding
B5e machine methods
B5 sand mold methods
B5el jolt-squeeze methods
B5eZ sand slinging
B5e3 rap-jolt machines
B5e4 match-plate molding
B6 sand processing
B6a sand mulling
B6b reclamation of sand
B6bl mechanic reclamation
B6bZ therm reclamation
B6b3 wet reclamation
B6c met separation from sand
B6d cooling of sand
B7 pattern making
B8 post-molding operations
B8a shakeout
B8b core knockout
B8c blast cleaning
B8d tumble cleaning
B8e wire brush cleaning
B8f
B8g snagging
C Other Expendable Mold Processes
C1 ceramic mold casting
CZ ceramic-shell process
C3 Shaw process
C4 Unicast process
C5 plaster mold casting
D Permanent Mold Processes
D1 permanent mold casting
DZ low pressure permanent
mold casting
D3 slush casting
D4 pressed casting
D5 vacuum casting
E Centrifug Casting
El true centrifug casting
E2 semicentrifug casting
E3 centrifuged casting
gate, riser and tin remov
C5a foamed plaster mold casting

vi Table of Contents
Die Casting
hot-chamber die casting
cold-chamber die casting
trimming
impregnation of die castings
Investment Casting (lost wax process)
flask method
shell method
Continuous Casting
Chapter %Met Forming Processes
A
hot rolling
hot drawing or cupping
extrusion
Hot and Warm Forming Methods
a indirect extrusion
b Sejournet process
A4a open-die drop-hammer forging
(hammer, flat-die or smith forging)
A4b impression die forging (closed die forging)
(die forging)
A4bl drop forging
A4b2 precision forging
A4b3 flashless forging
A4 forging
A4c press forging
A4d upset forging
A4e roll forging
A4f isotherm forging
A4g swaging
A4h ring rolling (mandrel forging)

piercing
pipe welding
hot spinning
warm heading
Primary Cold-working Operations
rolling
cold drawing
Sheet Met Cutting Operations
shearing
Cla squaring shears
Clb ligator shears
Clc rotary shears
nibbling
slitting
blanking
C4a steel rule die blanking
C4b dinking
c4c cutoff
C4d parting
C4e photochemic blanking
punching
C5a turret punching
CSb notching
trimming
shaving
lancing
fineblanking
C9a semi-piercing
Dl bending
Press Bending and Forming Operations
of Sheet Met
Dla press brake bending
Dlb V-die bending
Dlc air bending
Dld punch press (bending die) bending
D2 forming
D3 forming with rubber tooling
(rubber pad forming)
D3a rubber tool forming
D3b Guerin process
D3c Marform process
D3d rubber diaphragm forming
D3e Verson-Wheelon process
(hydroform process) (fluid forming)
D4 drop hammer forming
D5 drawing (sheet met parts)
DSa shlow drawing
D5b deep drawing
D5c redrawing, direct and reverse
D6a drop hammer coining
D6 coining
D7 embossing
D8 flanging
D9 beading
D10 hemming and seaming
D11 edge curling
D12 swaging
D13 sizing
D14 ironing
E Multiple Die Stamping
Press Operations
El progressive die operations
E2 transfer die (transfer press) operations
E3 compound die operations
F Sheet Met Operations Performed
on Equipment Other Than Presses
F1 rotary swaging
Fla stationary die swaging
F2 three-roll forming
F3 stretch forming
F3a stretch draw forming
F3b stretch wrapping
F3c compression forming
F3d radi-draw forming
(stretch wrap forming)
F4 roll coining
F5 rotary embossing
F6 met spinning
F6a manu spinning
F6b power spinning, “flow turning”
or “shear spinning”
roll forming (contour roll forming)
Ma roll forming of tubing and pipe
M
G Wire Forming operations
G1 wire forming
Gla manu forming of wire parts
Glb wire forming in power presses
and speci machines
G2 forming in four-slide machines
Table of Contents
Die Casting
hot-chamber die casting
cold-chamber die casting
trimming
impregnation of die castings
Investment Casting (lost wax process)
flask method
shell method
Continuous Casting
Chapter 2-Met Forming Processes
Hot and Warm Forming Methods
hot rolling
hot drawing or cupping
extrusion
a indirect extrusion
b Sejournet process
forging
open-die drop-hammer forging
(hammer, flat-die or smith forging)
impression die forging (closed die forging)
(die forging)
A4bl drop forging
A4b2 precision forging
A4b3 flashless forging
press forging
upset forging
roll forging
isotherm forging
swaging
ring rolling (mandrel forging)
piercing
pipe welding
hot spinning
warm heading
Primary Cold-working Operations
rolling
cold drawing
Sheet Met Cutting Operations
shearing
Cla squaring shears
Clb ligator shears
Clc rotary shears
nibbling
slitting
blanking
C4a steel rule die blanking
C4b dinking
c4c cutoff
C4d parting
C4e photochemic blanking
punching
C5a turret punching
C5b notching
trimming
shaving
lancing
fineblanking
C9a semi-piercing
Press Bending and Forming Operations
of Sheet Met
bending
Dla press brake bending
Dlb V-die bending
Dlc air bending
Dld punch press (bending die) bending
forming
forming with rubber tooling
D3a rubber tool forming
(rubber pad forming)
D3b Guerin process
D3c Marform process
D3d rubber diaphragm forming
D3e Verson-Wheelon process
drop hammer forming
drawing (sheet met parts)
D5a shlow drawing
D5b deep drawing
D5c redrawing, direct and reverse
coining
D6a drop hammer coining
embossing
flanging
beading
hemming and seaming
edge curling
swaging
sizing
ironing
Multiple Die Stamping
Press Operations
progressive die operations
transfer die (transfer press) operations
compound die operations
Sheet Met Operations Performed
on Equipment Other Than Presses
rotary swaging
Fla stationary die swaging
three-roll forming
stretch forming
F3a stretch draw forming
F3b stretch wrapping
F3c compression forming
F3d radi-draw forming
roll coining
rotary embossing
met spinning
F6a manu spinning
F6b power spinning, “flow turning”
or “shear spinning”
roll forming (contour roll forming)
F7a roll forming of tubing and pipe
Wire Forming Operations
wire forming
Gla manu forming of wire parts
Glb wire forming in power presses
and speci machines
forming in four-slide machines
(hydroform process) (fluid forming)
(stretch wrap forming)
Table of Contents vii
G3 spring forming
G4 Turk's-head rolling of wire
H "bbing and Section Operations
H1 tube spinning
Hla forward tube spinning
Hlb backward tube spinning
H2 tube and section bending
H2a draw bending
H2b compression bending
H a ram-and-press bending
H2d stretch bending
H2e wrinkle bending
H2f roll bending
H2g roll extrusion bending
H2h bulging, mechanic
H2i bulging, hydraulic
H2j
I Non-sheet Forming Operations
11 shearing of bars and other non-flat shapes
12 cold heading
13 thread rolling
14 impactkold extrusion
other methods of bulging tubing
I4a backwards extrusion
I4b forward extrusion
I& combined extrusion
J High-energy-rate Forming Methods
J1 explosive forming
52 combustible gas forming
53 electromagnetic forming (EMF)
54 spark-discharge forming
55 electrohydraulic forming
56 pneumatic-mechanic forming
57 peen forming
K Straightening
K1 manu straightening
K2 press straightening
K3 parlel roll straightening
K4 rotary straightening
K5 epicyclic straightening
K6 stretch straightening
L Other Forming Processes
L1 powder metlurgy (Phl) processes
Lla met powder manufacture
Llb powder blending and mixing
Llc pressing (compacting)
Lld sintering
Lle repressing
Llf secondary operations
Llg powder met forging
(so known as magnetic pulse forming)
(electrospark forming)
L2 electroforming
L3 met injection molding (MIM)
Chapter &Machining Processes
lathe operations (gener description)
Lathe and Other Turning Operations
a turning
b form turning
c tracer turning
d facing
e grooving
f knurling
g cutting off (parting)
lathes and other turning machines
a engine lathes
b turret lathes
c screw machines
Akl single spindle screw machines
c2 Swiss-type screw machines
AM multiple spindle screw machines
d chucking machines
e turning centers
Round-hole-making Methods
dri I I ing
counterboring
countersinking
reaming
boring
B5a jig boring
B5b horizont boring mills
B5c vertic boring mills
gun drilling
trepanning
multiple-spindle drilling
Grinding and Abrasive Machining
cylindric grinding
Cla center-type cylindric grinding
Clb centerless grinding
Clbl through-feed centerless grinding
Clb2 infeed centerless grinding
Clb3 end-feed centerless grinding
intern grinding
C2a intern centerless grinding
surface grinding
C3a horizont spindle
C3b vertic spindle surface grinding
C3c creep-feed grinding
jig grinding
C4a tool post grinding
low-stress grinding
plunge grinding
disc grinding
abrasive belt grinding
abrasive jet machining
surface grinding
C10 abrasive flow machining (AFM)
C11 ultrasonic machining
D Milling
D1 face milling
D2 peripher milling
D3 end milling
D4 slab milling
D5 form milling
D6 gang milling
D7 straddle milling
D8 fly cutter milling
D9 pin routing
D10 spotfacing
Clla rotary ultrasonic machining
Table of Contents
Screw Threads
hand-die extern threading
intern thread tapping
single-point screw-thread cutting
thread cutting die heads
thread milling
thread grinding
thread rolling
cold-form tapping of intern threads
Broaching
intern broaching
extern broaching
pot broaching
Sawing
circular sawing
band sawing
contour sawing
hacksawing
abrasive sawing
diamond-edge sawing
friction sawing
Flame Cutting (Therm Cutting)
oxy-fuel gas cutting (OFC)
met powder cutting (POC)
chemic flux cutting (FOC)
arc cutting
H4a plasma-arc cutting (PAC)
H4b air-carbn arc cutting and grooving
H4c oxygen lance cutting (LOC)
H4d gas met arc cutting
H4e gas tungsten arc cutting
H4f shielded met arc cutting
H4g carbon arc cutting
laser cutting
Electric Machining Processes
electric discharge machining or EDM
Ila ramEDM
Ilb wire EDM
Ilc electric discharge grinding (EDG)
electrochemic machining (ECM)
I2a electrochemic grinding (ECG)
I2b electrochemic turning (ECT)
electrochemic discharge grinding (ECDG)
electrochemic honing (ECH)
electro etching
Finish Machining Operations
honing
lapping
superfinishing
burnishing
roller burnishing
Deburring
abrasive flow debumng
abrasive jet debumng
barrel tumbling
chemic debumng
electropolish deburring
electrochemic debumng
liquid hone debumng
manu debumng
K9 therm energy debuning
K10 ultrasonic debumng
K11 vibratory debumng
K12 water-jet debumng
K13 centrifug barrel tumbling
K14 spindle finishing
K15 powered brush deburring
K16 abrasive belt sanding
K17 laser debumng
Kl8 plasma glow deburring
K19 skiving
K20 edge rolling
K21 burnish debuning
K22 edge coining
K23 robotic debumng
K24 CNC machining center deburring
K25 cryogenic deflashing
Filing
bumng (rotary filing)
Water Jet Machining (Hydrodynamic Machining)
abrasive water jet machining (AWJ)
Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
Laser Beam Machining
laser-assisted hot machining (LAM)
Shaping
Planing
Slotting
Chemic Machining
chemic milling
chemic engraving
chemic blanking
photochemic blanking
Machining Centers
turning centers
multiple operation machines
Numeric and Computer Control
NC, numeric control
computer numeric control (CNC)
U2a DNC (direct numeric control)
programmable controllers
digit readouts in machining
automatic tracing
robots and robotic operations
Trimming
High-speed Machining
Speci Purpose Machines
Transfer Lines
CAD-CAM
Chapter &Processes for Plastics
How Plastics Are Made
definition - Plastics
polymerization reactions
a addition polymerization
b condensation polymerization
polymerization methods
a bulk polymerization
b solution polymerization
c suspension polymerization
d emulsion polymerization
e gas-phase polymerization
compounding plastics
A4a mixing by tumbling
A4b intensive dry mixing
A4c intern intensive batch mixing
A4d continuous mixing
A& single screw extruders
A4f compounder-extruder mixing
A4g twin screw extruder mixing
pelletizing and dicing of plastics
ASa mixing and dicing with two-roll mills
A5b strand pelletizers
A5c underwater pelletizing
Compression and Transfer Molding
compression molding
Bla automatic compression molding
transfer molding
B2a plunger molding
B2b screw transfer molding
cold molding
Injection Molding
convention injection molding
Cla hot runner molding
(heated runnerless molding)
injection molding of thermosetting plastics
structur foam molding processes
C3a low-pressure injection molding
of structur foam plastics
C3b reaction injection molding
C3c high-pressure injection molding
of structur foam plastics
C3d gas counterpressure molding
C3e co-injection or sandwich molding
C3f gas-assisted injection molding
C3g casting of structur foam plastics
C3h extrusion of structur foam plastics
C3i slabstock foam process
expanded polystyrene foam processes
C4a pre-expansion of EPS beads
C4b shape molding of EPS beads
C4c block molding of EPS
C4d expanded polyolefin foam process
two-color injection molding
insert molding
Thermoforming (Vacuum Forming)
straight vacuum forming
pressure forming
drape vacuum forming
plug-assist forming
vacuum snap-back forming
slip-ring forming (slip forming)
matched mold forming
pressure-bubble plug-assist forming (so cled
reverse-draw plug-assist forming, pressure-bubble
plug-assist forming, billow-up plug-assist forming
or reverse-draw with plug assist)
pressure-bubble vacuum-snapback forming
or billow-up vacuum snap-back forming
D10 trapped sheet, contact heat, pressure forming
D11 air-slip forming
D12 free forming (free blowing)
D13 du sheet forming (twin sheet forming)
D14 solid phase pressure forming
E Rotation Molding
F Blow Molding
F1 extrusion blow molding
F2 injection blow molding
F3 In stretch blow molding
F4 multilayer blow molding
F5 dip blow molding
F6 other blow molding processes
G Processes for Reinforced
Thermosetting Plastics
G1 hand lay-up
G2 spray-up
G3 vacuum-bag molding
G4 pressure-bag molding
G5 autoclave molding
G6 centrifug casting
G7 Filament winding
G8 continuous laminating
G8a continuous laminating with
a thermosetting plastic
G8b continuous laminating with a thermoplastic
G9 matched met mold forming (cold stamping)
(310 matched met mold forming of reinforced
thermosetting materi
G11 pultrusion
G12 pulforming
G13 resin transfer molding (RTM)
(liquid resin molding)
G14 other processes for reinforced
thermosetting plastics
H Casting of Plastics
H1 casting of sheet
Hla cell casting of sheet
Hlb continuous casting of sheet
H2 casting structur foam parts
H3 casting nylon parts
H4 casting acrylic parts
H5 encapsulation and potting
I Plastics Extrusion
11 profile extrusion
12 coextrusion (du extrusion)
13 foam extrusion
14 extrusion coating and laminating
I4a wire coating
15 extrusion of film and sheet
I5a blown film extrusion
I5b cast film extrusion
16 operations after extruding
J Cendering
K Vinyl Dispersion Processes
K1 spread coating
Kla knife coating (knife-over-roll coating)
Klb roll coating
K2 dip coating (hot dipping) and dip molding
K2a cold dipping
slush molding
cavity, in-place and low-pressure molding
strand coating, using plastisols and organisols
spray coating
extrusion of plastisol
Welding and Adhesive Bonding of Plastics
friction or spin welding
hot plate welding
vibration welding
ultrasonic welding and seing
ultrasonic spot welding
ultrasonic film and fabric welding
adhesive bonding of plastics
L7a solvent cementing of plastics
L7b pretreatment of plastic surfaces for bonding
L7c electromagnetic adhesive bonding
induction welding
radio frequency seing (dielectric seing)
therm seing (heat seing) of sheet
hot gas welding
Surface Finishing and Decorating
Processes for Plastics
surface treatments for plastic parts
Mla washing and cleaning
Mlb chemic etching
Mlc corona discharge
Mld flame treatment
Mle plasma treatment
hot stamping
M2a transfer coating (hot transfer coating)
painting
M3a spray and wipe
M3b powder painting of plastics
Mk manufacture of powder coatings
M k l dry blending
Mk2 melt mixing
M3c3 solution method
decorating plastic parts with processes
that are so common to non-plastics
M4a electroplating of plastics
in-mold decorating
sheet and film embossing
Other Plastics Processes
insert assembly
Nla molding-in inserts
Nlb ultrasonic insertion
Nlc expansion instlation
Nld threaded hole instlation
Nle press insertion
Nlf self tapping
Nlg cemented instlation
Nlh hot insertion
other mechanic assembly of plastic parts
granulating plastics
coloring and blending of plastics
drying of plastics
machining of plastics
trimming and die cutting of plastics
radiation processing
NSa non-ionizing radiation processing

N9 vacuum handling and loading of plastic materis
N10 robotic handling
N11 deflashing
N12 reel-to-reel molding (continuous strip molding)
0 Rubber and Elastomers
01 natur rubber
02 rubber, synthetic
03 rubber compounding
04 rubber fabrication methods
Chapter 5-Glass and Ceramics
Processes
A GlassProcesses
basic glassmaking
a raw materis
b batching
c melting
a pressing
b blowing
coloring materis
primary forming processes
bl manu blowing
b2 lampworking (lamp blowing,
and scientific glass blowing)
b3 machine blowing
b3a gob feeding machine
b3b Owens bottle machine
b3c the blow-blow process
b3d the press-blow process
b3e the rotary-mold (paste mc
b3f ribbon machine blowing
(the suck-blow process)
process
process
A& glass tubing manufacture
AM centrifug casting
a manu methods
b drawing sheet glass (the
Fourcault process)
Ak drawing sheet glass (the Colburn
or Libby-Owens process)
d drawing sheet glass
(the Pittsburgh process)
e plate glass manufacture
f float glass process
g rolling (casting) flat glass
A4 heat and chemic treating operations
A4a anneing
A4b tempering
A4c chemic toughening
AS secondary, finishing and decorating operations
A5a bending and sagging
A5b grinding
A5c polishing
A5d fusion seing
A5e grit blasting
flat glass processes

acid etching
shrinking
staining
decorating with vitrifiable colors
(vitreous enamels)
metlic coating
organic decorating
silk screening (screen printing)
glass fiber manufacturing ~
A6a mechanic drawing of continuous fibers
A6b steam blowing
A& flame blowing (superfine process)
A6d rotary wool forming process
A& methods for production of tradition
optic glass fibers
A6f methods for production of optic
communications fibers
manufacture of other types of glass
A7a glass ceramics manufacture
A7b photosensitive glass manufacture
A7c cellular glass (foam glass) manufacture
A7d glass microsphere manufacture
powdered glass processes
A8a dry pressing and sintering
ASb slip casting of glass
A& fritted filter manufacture
Ceramics Processes
the nature of ceramics
ceramic materis
ceramics operation sequence
ceramic materi preparation
B4a materi preparation for advanced ceramics
pressing
BSa isostatic pressing
injection molding
extruding
slip casting of ceramics
BSa pressure casting
jiggering
B10 roll compaction
B11 tape casting
B12 throwing
B13 drying
B13a parti in-process drying
B13b fin drying
B13c microwave drying (so cled dielectric
or radio frequency drying)
B14 machining and grinding
BIS glazing
B16 sintering (firing)
B17 hot pressing
B17a hot isostatic pressing (HIP)
Chapter &Woodworking Processes
A Lumber Making Including
Saw Mill Operations
debarking
headsaw operation (breakdown sawing)

plain sawing of boards
quarter sawing
rift sawing
edging
trimming (cutting to length)
inspecting and grading boards
drying (seasoning)
A9a airdrying
A9b kiln drying
A9c radio frequency drying
Making Wooden Components
cutting boards to size
Bla ripping
Blb cutting to length (crosscutting)
surfacing with planers and jointers
B2a planing (surfacing)
B2b jointing
contour (curved line) sawing
turning
drilling and boring
shaping and routing
other form, and speci cutting and
joint-making operations
B7a computer-controlled routering
B7b laser machining of wooden parts
B7c dedicated speci machines and
multi-operation machines
filing and sanding
Making Wood Joints
butt joints
rabbet joints
dado and groove joints
tongue-and-groove joints
mortise and tenon joints
dovetail joints
dowelled and biscuit (joining plate)
joints
lap (hved and bridle), scarf
and bevelled joints
Making Bent Wooden Components
wet bending
making curved laminations
kerf bending
Assembly and Fastening Wood Products
clamps and fixtures
mechanic fastening
adhesive bonding
Assembling veneer and inlaid surfaces
Manufacture of Plywood and Other
Panel Materis
making veneer
making plywood
making wafer board (chipboard)
making oriented strand board
making particle board
making fiberboard
making engineered lumber, prefabricated
wooden beams and joists
making rigid plastic laminates
(high pressure laminates)
making synthetic lumber (composite lumber)
and components from plastics
Wood Finishing
preparing the surface for finishing
staining
varnishing, lacquering and painting
polishing
Upholstery
instling webbing
instling springs
instling padding and cushioning
instling covering
cushions, channeling and tufting
Chapter 7-Assembly and Fusion
(or

Joining) Processes
Soldering and Brazing
solder application methods
a wire or rod soldering
b preform soldering
c solder paste soldering
d Dip soldering (DS)
e wave soldering
f drag soldering
g ultrasonic soldering
workpiece heating methods:
a with soldering iron (INS)
b with gas torch
c oven or furnace heating
AM selective infrared heating
A% vapor-phase heating
f Resistance heating (RS)
g laser heating
h induction heating
i hot gas
fluxes
Brazing
application of tiller met
torch brazing
furnace brazing
induction brazing (IB)
dip brazing
st bath brazing
Resistance brazing (RB)
diffusion brazing
Welding
Arc welding
bl how solder preforms are made
Cla
Clb
Clc
Cld
Cle
Clf
Clg
Shielded-Met Arc (SMAW)
or Stick Welding
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW)
Gas-met arc welding (GMAW)
Gas-tungsten arc welding GTAW)
Plasma arc welding (PAW)
Electroslag welding (ESW)

induction welding (electromagnetic
Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW)
Electron beam welding (EBW)
Laser-beam welding (LBW)
Resistance welding
C6a Spot welding (RSW)
C6b Seam welding (RSEW)
C6c projection welding (RPW)
stitch welding
stud welding
Friction welding (FRW)
Flash welding (FW)
welding) 305

C11 percussive welding or percussion
C12 Thermit welding (TW)
C13 Solid-state welding, (SSW)
welding
C13a forge welding
C13b forge-seam welding
C13c cold welding
C13d met cladding
C13e Roll welding (roll bonding) (ROW)
C13f Explosive welding (EXW)
C13g diffusion welding
(diffusion bonding)
C13h ultrasonic welding (of mets)
C13i Friction stir welding (FSW)
Adhesive Bonding
surface preparation methods for
adhesive bonding
Dla cleaning
Dlb surface roughening
Dlc surface ionization pretreatment
adhesive application methods
D2a brush, spray, dipping, roller
or spatula application
D2b dry film application
D2c hot melt adhesives application
DM pressure sensitive and contact
adhesive application
D2e pump/pressure application
of solid adhesives
joint assembly methods
curing methods
Welding of Plastics
Mechanic Assembly Processes
bench assembly
assembly lines
automatic assembly
F3a parts feeding equipment
F3b high speed assembly with dedicated
equipment
F3c robotic assembly
mechanic fastening methods
F4a assembly with threaded fasteners
F4b riveting
F4c stitchinghtapling
F4d snap fit fastening
F4e
F4f staking, seaming and crimping
press and shrink fit fastening
D10 vinyl plastisol coatings
E Chemic Surface Treatments Chapter &Finishing Processes
(including Heat Treating) 329 El anodizing
Cleaning Processes
mechanic cleaning processes
a brushing
b abrasive blasting
bl wet blast cleaning
b2 dry blast cleaning
c steam jet cleaning
d tumbling
chemic cleaning processes
a solvent cleaning
immersion cleaning
spray degreasing
vapor degreasing
b ultrasonic cleaning
A& emulsion cleaning
AM kine cleaning
A& acid cleaning
f pickling
g st bath cleaning
electrochemic cleaning processes
a electrolytic cleaning
b electrolytic pickling
Polishing Processes
convention polishing
Bla buffing
barrel polishing (tumbling)
electropolishing
burnishing
Plating Processes
convention electroplating
electroless plating
barrel plating
mechanic plating
brush plating
electroplating of plastics
Painting (Organic Finishing)
brushing
roller coating
curtain coating
dip painting
flow coating
spray painting
Ma air atomized spray
D6b airless spray
electrostatic painting
D7a with centrifug spraying head
powdered paint coating
D8a electrostatic spray powder coating
D8b fluidized bed powder coating
D8c electrostatic fluidized bed powder coating
D8d friction static spraying
D8e flame spraying of powdered paint
electrocoating (so referred to as electropainting,
electrophoresis, electrophoretic coating
or electrodeposition of paint)
Ela hardcoat anodizing
phosphating
chromate conversion coatings
black oxide coating
Other Coatings
porcelain enameling
hot dip coating (gvanizing)
vacuum metizing
F3a sputtering
F3b chemic vapor deposition (CVD)
F3bl plasma-enhanced (or plasma-assiste
chemic vapor deposition
F3c physic vapor deposition (PVD)
F3d ion implantation
therm spray coating
F4a wire metizing
F4b powder spraying
F4c detonation gun spraying
F4d plasma arc spraying
F4e
clad mets
Heat Treating of Mets
anneing
anneing processes for steel
G2a full anneing
G2b isotherm anneing
Gk spherodizing
G2d stress relieving
G2e normizing
G2f tempering
G2g process anneing
hardening processes for steel
G3a surface hardening
F4 electric arc wire metizing
F4dl transferred plasma-arc spraying
high velocity oxy-flame coating (HVOF)
G3 flame hardening
G3 induction hardening
G3 laser-beam hardening
G3a4 electron-beam hardening
G3aS other surface heating methods
for hardening
G3b case hardening
G3bl carbunzing
G3bla pack carburization
G3blb liquid carburization
G3blc gas carburization
G3b2 carbonitriding
G3b3 cyanidizing
G3b4 nitriding
G3bS liquid nitriding
G3c through hardening
G3d martempering
G3e austempering
solution treatinglprecipitation hardening
(aging or age hardening)

heat treating processes for non-ferrous mets
G5a uminum loys
G5b copper and copper loys
G5c magnesium loys
G5d nickel and nickel loys
G5e titanium and titanium loys
Shot Peening
Product Marking Methods
manu marking
stamp indented marking
etching (chemic etching)
engraving
I4a pantograph engraving
laser marking and engraving
stenciling
printing
17a pad printing
I7b screen printing (silk screening)
branding
Manufacture of Various Paper Grades
bond paper
newsprint
paperboard
sanitary papers
haft paper
vulcanized fiber
Printing
relief or letterpress printing
Dla typesetting for letterpress printing
Dlb flexographic printing
planographic printing
D2a lithography and offset lithography
D2b collotype (collography)
intaglio printing
D3a gravure printing
D3b making gravure plates
stencil and screen printing (porous printing)
Ma stencil printing
dec marking 357 D4b screen printing (serigraphy)
110 casting and molding
I l l embossing and coining
112 nameplates, labels and tags
113 hot stamping
114 dyeing
115 flocking
Chapter 9-Paper, Fiber
and Printing Processes
A Definition, Paper
B Paper-making Processes
B1 raw materis
B2 paper making from wood (by machine)
B2a debarking of wood logs
B2b pulping of wood
B2bl mechanic pulping of wood
B2b2 chemic pulping of wood
B2b3 semi-chemic pulping of wood
B2c refining
B2d removing foreign materi
B2e bleaching and washing
B2f beating
B2g making paper from pulp
B2gl Fourdrinier and cylindric
paper-making machines
B2h finishing (converting)
B2hl extrusion coating and
B2h2 water dispersion coating
B2h3 sizing
B2h4 filling
laminating of paper
B3 paper making from rags and other textile fibers
B4 paper making from synthetic fibers
B5 paper making from waste paper (paper recycling)
B5a waste paper processed with de-inking
B5b waste paper processed without
de-inking
(silk screening)
D5 electronic printing methods
D5a laser printing
D5b copy machine printing
D5c ink-jet printing
D5d magnetographic printing
D5e ion or electron deposition printing
(ionography )
D5f microcapsule printing
D5g therm sublimation, dye sublimation,
therm wax and wax transfer printing
D5h dot-matrix printing
D5bl electrophotographic printing systems
D6 sheet and web printing
D7 color printing
D8 hftone screens
D9 pad printing
Chapter 10-Textile Processes
A


B
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
Textile Fibers
natur fibers
manufactured and synthetic fibers
Yarn Making (Spinning)
picking (including opening and blending)
carding
combing
drawing (drafting), (re-blending)
spinning (twisting)
B6 spinning synthetic fibers
C Weaving
C1 Jacquard loom weaving
C2 automatic bobbin changing
C3 shuttle-less looms
C4 pile weaving
D Knitting
D1 weft or filling knitting
D2 warp knitting
Non-woven Fabrics
Finishing
preparation
bleaching
finishing to improve appearance
F3a napping
F3b shearing
F3c brushing
F3d beetling
F3e decating
F3f cendering
F3g creping
F3h embossing
F3i optic brightening
F3j tentering
F3k crabbing
F3I flocking
finishing to improve feel (tactile properties)
F4a sizing (stiffening)
F4b weighting
F4c fulling, (felting or milling)
F4d softening
finishing to improve performance
F5a anti-shrinkage treatment
F5b durable press (permanent press)
(wash and wear)
F5c antistatic treatment
F5d treatment for soil and stain
release properties
F5e water repelling and water proofing
treatments
F5f other treatments
Coloring
dyeing
Gla stock dyeing
Glb top dyeing
Glc yam dyeing
Gld piece dyeing
Gle cross dyeing
Glf solution pigmenting (dope dyeing)
printing
G2a block printing
G2b engraved printing (intaglio printing)
G2c discharge printing
G2d heat-transfer printing
G2e stencil and screen printing
G2f resist printing
G2g warp printing
G2h pigment printing
Manufacture of Clothing and Other
Sewn Products (“Needle Trades”)
spreadingktacking
marking
cutting (chopping or knifing)
sewing
H4a stitch-less joining (seam bonding)
Of the fabric
G2bl duplex printing
(heat seing)

pressing
folding, labeling, wrapping/packing
Rug and Carpet Making
weaving rugs and carpets
tufting rugs
making knitted rugs
making needlepunch carpets
making hooked rugs
16 making braided rugs
17 making orient rugs
18 making needlepoint rugs
Chapter 11-Chemic Processes
A Batch Processes in Gener
B Continuous Processes in Genkr
C Separation Processes
C1 distillation
Cla fraction distillation (rectification,
fractionation or enrichment)
Clb vacuum distillation
Clc flash distillation (equilibrium
distillation)
Cld multiple-effect distillation
(multistage flash evaporation)
Cle steam distillation
Clf sublimation
Clg destructive distillation
C2 absorption-stripping
C3 extraction and leaching
C4 expression
C5 crystlization
C6 precipitation
C7 fluid-particle separation
C7a filtration
C7b types of filters
C7c membrane separation (including
ultra filtration)
C7d sedimentation
C7e centrifugation
C7f bag filtering
C7g evaporation
C7h scrubbers - or wet collectors
C8 separation of solids
C8a screening (sieving)
C8b flotation
C8c dense-media separation
C8d magnetic separation
C8e electrostatic separation
C9 adsorption and ion exchange
C10 electrolytic processes (electrolysis)
C11 electro therm processes
C12 drying
C7el cyclone separation, cycloning
C12a spray drying liquid materis
Cl2b freeze drying
D Size Reduction
D1 crushing
D2 secondary crushing
D3 pulverizing
E Size Enlargement
Fermentation
Mixing Methods
mixing gases with gases
mixing gases with liquids
mixing liquids with liquids
liquids-solids mixing
solids mixing
Petroleum Refining and Petrochemics
separation
Hla fraction distillation of crude petroleum
Hlb vacuum distillation of petroleum fractions
Hlc absorptiodstripping of petroleum factions
Hld solvent extraction
Hle crystlization of petroleum fraction
contaminants
H2 conversion
H2a cracking
H2 therm cracking
H2 catytic cracking
H2b polymerization
H2c kylation
H2d reforming
H3 chemic and other treatments
H3a sulfur remov (hydrogen treatment)
H3b additive addition
H3c blending
I Chemic Reactions
11 gas-phase reactions
12 gashquid reactions
13 liquidlliquid reactions
14 gaslliquid/solid reactions
15 solids/solids and solids/gas reactions
16 reactions with catysts
J Heat-transfer Methods
J1
J2 cooling with air
K
K1 recovery/refining processes
heat exchange for solid materis
Extracting and Recovering Mets from Ores
Kla hydro metlurgy
Kl precipitation in hydro metlurgy
Klb pyrometlurgy processes
Klbl roasting
Klb2 smelting
Klc electrometlurgy
Klcl electrowinning (electrolytic deposition)
Klc2 electrorefinning
K2 other chemic processes
K3 loying processes
L Esterification
Chapter 12-Food Processes
A Cleaning Raw Food Materis
B Sorting and Grading of Foods
C Size Reduction
C1 roll crushing

hammer milling
bl milling (tumble milling)
disc attrition milling
milling grain
C5a post-milling treatments
C5 tering protein content
C5 bleaching flour
C5 enriching flour
Mixing
Separation Processes
filtration
expression
centrifugation
crystlization
extraction
Concentration
evaporation
freeze concentration
reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration
Therm Processing of Foods
blanching
pasteurization
heat sterilization
canning
aseptic processing
cooking
baking
Dehydration and Drying
vacuum drying
spray drying
drum drying
fluidized-bed drying
freeze drying (freeze dehydration)
Cooling for Preservation
freezing food
Ila freezing with refrigerated air
Ilb
Ilc indirect-contact freezing
dehydrofreezing
Other Operations
irradiation
homogenization
hydrogenation
fermentation
extrusion of foods
food additives
pickling
sting
sugar curing/sugar addition
candying and glazing
high-intensity pulsed electric field
processing (PEF)
high pressure processing (or ultra-high
pressure processing)
Meat Packing
stunning
slaughtering
butchering
Bottling
freezing with a liquid medium
M Other Packaging
01 equipment rinsing
02 equipment cleaning
03 equipment sanitizing
04 other factors
Food Equipment Cleaning and Sanitizing
Chapter 13-Processes
for Electronic Products
A Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)
making bare printed circuit boards
a resists and photoresists
b subtractive process for making
wiring patterns on the board
c additive method
d making photo masters and masks
e screen printing the masks
f stripping resists from printed
circuit boards
a hole making in boards
b contact finger plating
A% solder fusing
AM solder masks
A& separating boards (depanelling)
f silkscreen identification
multilayer boards
A4 making flexible printed circuit boards
B Wiring and Populating Boards
B1 populating boards with through-hole
B2 assembling surface mounted components
' other board operations
connections
B2a dispensing adhesives
B2b using solder paste
B2bl syringe dispensing of solder paste
(pressure dispensing)
B2b2 pin transfer dispensing
of solder paste
B2b3 screen printing of solder paste
B2b4 stencil dispensing of solder paste
B2b5 submerged disk dispensing
of solder paste
B2b6 dip coating of solder paste
B2b7 roller coating of solder paste
B3 cleaning prior to soldering
B4 prebaking before soldering
C Soldering Processes
C1 flux application
B2c using solder preforms
Cla dip fluxing
Clb brush application of flux
Clc foam flux application
Cld spray application of flux
Cle wave fluxing
Clf roller fluxing
Clg cored solder fluxing
Clgl making flux cored wire solder
preheating
dip soldering
drag soldering
wave soldering
reflow methods
C6a oven heating for reflow
C6b vapor-phase soldering
C6c laser soldering
hot gas soldering
soldering iron soldering
using lead-free solders
Cleaning After Soldering
solvent cleaning
water washing
semi-aqueous cleaning
Making Solder Paste
making solder powder by gas atomiz
spinning disk powder making
ultrasonic method of powder making
screen classification of powder
tion
air classification of powder
inspection of powder
mixing solder paste
inspection of paste
Bl Grid Arrays
Fluxes for Electronics
Tinning
Quity Control and Inspection Operations
visu inspection of joints
incoming inspection
solderability testing
Repair and Touch-up
Integrated Circuits (10)
(Microcircuits or Chips)
materi preparation - making
ultra-pure silicon
making a single cryst of silicon
K2a slicing into wafers
K2b polishing the wafers
K2c other wafer preparation operations
wafer fab
K3a layering
K3 oxidation of silicon
K3 nitridation
K3 chemic vapor deposition (CVD)
K3a4 vacuum deposition
K3a5 sputtering
K3a6 adding thick films
K3a7 adding protective layers
K3bl lithography
K3a epitaxy
K3b patterning
K3bla making masks
K3blb applying resist
K3blc
K3b2 etching
K3b2a wet etching with liquid
etchants (wet chemic
etching)
(photoresist film)
expose and develop the I

xviii Table of Contents
K3b2b dry etching 564
K3b2bl plasma etching 564
K3b2b2 ion beam etching
(sputter etching or
ion milling) 564
K3b2b3 reactive ion
etching (RIE) 565
K3b3 stripping photoresist from wafers 565
K3c doping (dopant defusion) 566
K3d heat treating 568
K3dl anneing 568
K3d2 loying 568
K4 wafer testing and sorting 568
K5 packaging (assembly) of chips 569
K5a backside preparation 570
K5b dicing (die separation) 570
K5c chip insertion and fastening
to the package 570
K5d wire bonding 570
K5e closing and seing the package 57 1
KSf lead plating and trimming 57 I
K5g marking and fin testing 57 1
K6 other methods of connecting the integrated
circuit to the board 573
K6a chip on board (COB) technology 573
K6b conductive adhesive connections 573
K6c tape automated bonding (TAB) 573
K6d flip-chips 574
L1 making resistors 575
L Making Discrete &vices 575
L2 making capacitors 576
L3 making inductors (chokes, choke coils) 578
L4 making transformers 578
L5 making discrete transistors and diodes 582
M Conform Coatings 582
N Other Chip Configurations 582
N1 multiple integrated circuit packages (multichip
devices, assemblies, modules [MCM], system
in a package (SIP) or packages) 582
Chapter 14-Advanced
Manufacturing Methods
A Rapid Prototyping (RP) Methods
initi step: computer aided design
(CAD)
the STL file
the SLI file
A4 liquid-based rapid prototyping systems
A4a the stereolithography (SLA) system
A4b QuickCast
A4c solid ground curing (SGC)
A4d solid creation system (SCS)
A4e solid object ultraviolet-laser
printer (SOUP)
A4f soliform System
A4g MEIKO system
A4h E-Darts system
solid-based systems
A5a laminated object manufacturing (LOM)
A5b fused deposition modeling (FDM)
A5c paper lamination technology (PLT)
A5d multi-jet modeling (MJM)
A5e ModelMaker and PattemMaster
A5f slicing solid manufacturing (SSM),
melted extrusion modeling (MEM)
and multi-function RPM systems
(M-RPM)
powder-based systems
A6a selective laser sintering (SLS)
A6b EOSINT
A6c three dimension printing (3DP)
Rapid Tooling
direct shell production casting (DSPC)
Promet 3D printing process
RapidTool
laminated met tooling
direct AIM
SL composite tooling
3D Keltool
direct met laser sintering (DMLS)
Manufacturing Cells (Group Technology)
(Family of Parts Concept)
Advanced Inspection Devices
coordinate measuring machines (CMMs)
machine vision
laser scanning
Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) Systems
Automated Storage/Retriev (ASIR)
Systems
Use of Robots in Manufacturing
Operations
areas of robot applicability
robots in foundries
G2a in die casting
G2b in sand-mold casting
G2c in investment casting
robots in forging
robots in met stamping
robots in injection molding and other
plastics molding
robots in welding
robots in painting, seing, coating
robots in materi handling
robots in mechanic assembly
G10 robots in electronics
G11 robots in quity control
G12 robots in machining
G13 robots in heat treatment
G14 robots in some specific industries
G14a in automobile assembly
G14b in appliances
G14c in the food industry
G14d in glass making
G14e in chemic industries
6141 in woodworking
G14g in other industries
Section 11-How Products, Components
and Materis Are Made
(listed in phabetic order)
A
abrasives
ABS plastics
acet plastics
acetate fibers and fabrics - See chapter 10,
acetone
acrylic plastics
adhesives
advanced ceramic materis, (high technology ceramics),
air bags (for automotive passenger protection)
air conditioners
aircraft, (airplanes)
cohol, denatured
cohol, ethyl (ethanol)
coholic beverages
cohol, isopropyl, (isopropanol or rubbing cohol)
cohol, methyl
e
loys
uminum
uminum foil
uminum oxide - See abrasives
ammonia
antifreeze
antimony
anti-shrink fabrics (cloth) - See 10F5a
apple sauce
argon
asbestos / asbestos board
aspht
aspirin
athletic shoes - See shoes, athletic
automobile engines
automobile bodies
automobile chassis
automobiles
automobile windshields
particularly section 10
(modern ceramics), (fine ceramics) - See 5B4a
bacon
bags, paper
bags, plastic
baking powder
bl bearings
bl grid arrays - See 13F
blpoint pens
bls, athletic
banknotes - See paper money
bar codes
basebls
bathtubs, cast iron
bathtubs, plastic
bathtubs, steel
bats, basebl
batteries, flashlight (dry cells)
bauxite - See uminum '
beams, plastic, reinforced
beer
bells
bent wood components - See 6D
bicycles
bills, dollar, and other paper money -
bleach
blue jeans
boats, sml, plastic
boats, fiberglass
bolts (machine screws, cap screws, set screws)
books
bond paper
bottled drinks - See 12L and sofi drinks
bottles, glass
bottles, plastic
bowling bls
bowls, glass
boxes, cormgated - See cartons, corrugated
brake linings
brandy
brass
bread
breakfast cere - See ceres, breakfast
bricks
bronze
brushes
bulbs, light - See light bulbs
bulletproof glass
bullet-proof vests
bullets (sml arms ammunition or cartridges)
bungee cords
burlap
butter
buttons
See paper money
C
cabinets, wood - See chapt 6
cams
candied fruit - See 123 10
candy
canned food - See 12G4
cans, met
capacitors, electronic - See 13L2
carbon, activated
carbon black
carbon fibers
carpets
canying cases, power tools and instruments
cars - See automobiles
cast iron
CDs - See compact discs
cellophane
cellular glass - See 5A7c
cellulose acetate plastics
cement, portland
ceramic materis, advanced, (high technology ceramics),
ceramics - See 5B
ceres, breakfast
chairs, upholstered - See 6H
chairs, wooden - See chapt 6
charco
cheese
cheese, Swiss
chewing gum
chinaware
chipboard (wafer board) - See 6F3
chips, electronic - See 13K
chlorine
chocolate
chokes, choke coils, inductors (electronic)
chromium
cider
clad mets - See 7C 13d
cloth, anti-shrink - See 10F5a
cloth, knitted - See IOA, 10B and IOD
cloth, non-woven - See IOA, 10B and IOE
cloth, woven - See IOA, IOB and IOC
clothing - See IOH
co gas - See gas, manufactured
coffee
coffee, decaffeinated
coffee, instant
coils, electric - See 13L3
coins
combs
compact discs
composite structur lumber - See 6F7
concrete blocks
condensers, electronic - See I3L2 and 13K3a6
confectioner’s glaze - See candy
contact lenses - See lenses, contact
containers, plastic
cooking utensils
copper
corn flakes - See ceres, breakfast
corn, frozen - See 121 I
corn oil
corrugated cartons
cotton fabric
cottonseed oil - See margarine
crayons (wax)
crepe fabric - See 10F3g
cryst, lead glass - See 5
cups, plastic, disposable
cups, paper - See drinking cups, paper
cut glass - See 5A5b
(modern ceramics), (fine ceramics) - See 5B4a
denim
detergents
diamonds, synthetic
diesel fuel - Seefuel diesel
digit video discs (DVDs)
dinner plates - See chinaware
diodes and transistors - See 13L5 and Fig 13L5
dishes, china - See chinaware
dishes, glass
dishes, plastic
distilled spirits (distilled liquors)
downspouts, roof
drill bits
drinking cups, foam plastic
drinking glasses
drive screws - See screws
drums, 55 glon
dry cells - See batteries flashlight
dry ice
ductwork, steel
ductwork, plastic
DVD’s - See digit video discs
dyed fabrics - See IOG 1
dyes
dynamite
edible oils - See oils, edible
elastomers
electric wire - See wire, electric
electricity
electric light bulbs - See light bulbs and lights,
electric motors - See motors, electric
electric transformers - See 13L4
electric wire - See wire electric
enamel, vitreous (porcelain enamel)
enclosures, shower
engineered lumber - See 6F7
engine blocks
envelopes
epoxy
essenti oils - See oils, essenti
etched glass - See 5A5f
ethanol - See cohol
ethylene (ethene)
explosives - See dynamite
eyeglasses
fluorescent
F
fabrics, anti-shnnk - See 10F5a
fabrics, dyed - See IOGI
fabrics, knitted - See IOA, IOB and 10D
fabrics, flocked - See 10F31
fabrics, non-woven - See IOA, 10B and IOE
fabrics, permanent press (wash and wear) - See 10F5b
fabrics, printed - See 1CG2
fabrics, stain release - See 10F5d
fabrics, woven - See IOA, 10B and 1oC
felt
felt-tip marking pens - See marking pens, felt tipped
fertilizer
fiberboard, low density (insulation board) - See 6F6
fiberboard, medium density - See 6F6
fiberglass insulation
fibers glass
fibers, textile - See IOA
fibers, optic - See 5A6, 5A6e and 5A6f
fibers, synthetic - See IO and 10B6
fiber, vulcanized - See 9C6
film, photographic
film plastic - (See section 415)
filters
finger-jointed lumber - See 6F7
fireworks
fishing rods (poles)
flashlights
flatware (tableware)(silverware)
flexible printed circuit boards - See 13A4
flocked fabrics - See 10F31
floor covering, vinyl - See vinyl flooring
flour
flour, bleached - See entry 12C5
flour, enriched - See entry 12C5
fluorescent lights
flux-cored wire solder - See 13C lg 1,
foam plastics - See 4C3
food wrap, (“saran wrap”) - See saran
footbls
footwear - See shoes
Formica(r), Micarta(r) (rigid plastic laminates) - See 6F8
fragrances (perfumes)
freeze dried food - See 12H5
frozen food - See 1211, 12Ila, 12Ilb, 12Ilc and 1212
fuel, diesel
fuel, jet
furniture, upholstered - See 6H
furniture, wooden - See chapt 6
and fig 6F8
glass - See 5A
glass bottles - are made by glass blowing (5b)
glass, bulletproof (bullet resistant)
glass, cellular (foam glass) - See 5A7c
glass ceramics - See 5A7a
glass containers - See 5bl and 5b3
glass, cut - See 5A5b
glasses, drinking - See drinking glasses
glasses, eye - See eyeglasses
glass, etched - See 5A5f
glass, pyrex - See cooking utensils
glass fibers
glass filters - See 5A8c
glass, foam (cellular glass) - See 5A7c
glass jars
glass lenses - See lenses
glass microspheres - See 5A7d
glass, photosensitive - See 5A7b
glass pitchers - See 5bl
glass, plate - See 5e
glass, safety - See safety glass
glass thermometers - See thermometers, glass
glass tubing - See 5
glassware, laboratory (scientific) - See 5bI,
glass vases - See 5bl
glass, window - See flat glass processes, 5
glass wool - See glassjibers
glazing compound - See putty
glove compartments, automotive
gloves
glue - See adhesives
glued-laminate lumber (“glulam”) - See 6F7
gold
golf bls
golf clubs
graphite
gravure printing plates - See 9D3b
grease, lubricating
grinding wheels
guitars, acoustic
gum, chewing - See chewing gum
guns (firearms)
gutters, roof
gypsum plaster
gypsum board - See plasterboard
5b2, 5A5h and 5A5i
ham
hammers
handles, cooking utensils
handles, tool
hand tools - See hammers, pliers, wrenches,
screwdrivers and handles, tool
hardboard (including tempered hardboard) - See 6Fc
helium
herbicides
high-density polyethylene - See polyethylene,
high-density
mii Table of Contents
hosiery (stockings and socks)
houses, prefabricated (modular houses)
housings, appliance
housings, business machine
hydraulic fluid
hydrochloric acid (HCI)
hydrogen
I
I-joists, wooden - See 6F7 and Fig 6F7-I
ice, dry - See dry ice
ice cream
ice skates
inductors (chokes, choke coils) - See 13L3
ink
in-line skates
insecticides (pesticides)
instant coffee - See coffee, instant
insulation board (low-density fiberboard) - See 6F6
integrated circuits - See 13K
iron
isopropyl cohol (isopropanol or rubbing cohol) -
See cohol, isopmpyl
J
jars, glass - See 5b3
jelly
jelly beans
jet engines (gas turbines)
jet fuel
jewelry
kerosene
Kevlar
keyboards, computer
keys
keys for computer keyboards
kidskin
knit fabrics
haft paper - See 9C5,9B and 9B2b
L
lace
lacquer
ladders
lasers
latex
lawn mowers
lead
lead glass (lead cryst)
leather
leather goods
lenses
lenses, contact
licorice
light bulbs, incandescent
lights, fluorescent - See fluorescent lights
linen
liquid cryst displays (LCDs)
locks, combination
low-density fiberboard - See 6F6
lubricating grease - See grease, lubricating
lumber
lumber, pressure treated
magnesium
magnets
manganese
maple syrup
marbles
margarine
marking pens, felt tipped
matches
meat - See 12K
meat tenderizer
melamine plastic - See urea and melamine plastic
mercury
medium density fiberboard - See 6F6
met cans - See cans, met
met powders - See powders, met
methane
microcircuits - See 13K
microspheres, glass - See 5A7d
milk, condensed
milk, powdered
milk, skim
miner wool (rock wool) - See 5A6d
mirrors
molybdenum
monuments
motors, electric
multiple chip packages (electronic) - See 13N1
music instruments
music instruments, brass
nail polish
nails
nameplates - See 8112, 812, 814, 8I4a, 815, 817 and other
naphtha - See 1 lHla and 1 lH2
napkins, paper - See 9C4 and 9B5
napped fabrics - See 1 OF3a
natur gas
natur rubber - See 40 1
needlepoint carpets - See 1018
needlepunch carpets - See 1014
neon signs
neoprene - See 402
newspapers
items under 81 (Product Marking),
newsprint - See 9C2
nickel
nitrile rubber - See 402
nitrogen
no-clean solder flux - See 13G
non-woven fabric - See 10E
nuclear power - See electricity and Fig El
numeric controls - See 3U and 3U1
nutmeg - See spices
nuts, screw
nylon
oils, edible
oils, essenti
oil, fuel (furnace oil)
oil, lubricating
oils, vegetable - See oils, edible: olive oil: oils, essenti
olive oil
olives, green
optic glass fibers - See 5A6, 5A6e and 5a6f
optic lenses - See lenses
orange juice
oriented strand board (OSB) - See 6F5
O-rings
Orlon
oxygen
P
packages, blister
paint
paint brushes - See brushes
paint removers (paint strippers)
plets, plastic
plets, wood
pans, cooking - See cooking utensils
paper - See 9A and 9B
paperboard
paper, bond - See 9B and 9C 1
paper clips
paper hankerchiefs - See 9C4
paper, haft - See 9B, 9B2b2 and 9C5
paper money
paper, rag (rag bond) - See 9B and 9B3
paper, sanitary - See 9B and 9C4
paper towels - See 9C4
particle board - See 6F5
partition glass - See 5g
pasta
patterns for casting - See 1B7
peanut butter
pencils, lead
pens, bl point - See blpoint pens
pepper - See spices
perfume
permanent press fabrics - See 1 OF5b
pesticides - See insecticides
petrochemics - See 1 1 H
Table of Contents
petroleum
petroleum jelly (petrolatum, Vaseline)
pewter
phenolic plastics
photographic film - See film photographic
pickles - See 12J
pig iron
pile rugs (tufted rugs) - See 1012
pipe, plastic - See tubing, plastic
pipe and tubing,met
pipe, cast - See 1El
pipe, welded - See pipe and tubing, met above
plaster - See gypsum plaster
plasterboard, gypsum board, wlboard and drywl
plastics
plastic film - See 415
plastic laminates, rigid (“Formica” or “Micarta”) - See 6F8
plastic wood, wood filler
plate glass - See 5e
platinum
playground equipment
Plexiglas
pliers
plywood - See 6F2
polycarbonate plastic, PC
polyester plastic
polyethylene plastic, PE
polyethylene plastic, high-density, HDPE
polyethylene plastic, linear, low density, LLDPE
polyethylene plastic, low-density, LDPE
polyethylene plastic, ultra-high-molecular-weight, UHMWPE
polypropylene plastic, PP
polystyrene plastic, PS
polyurethane plastic
polyvinyl chloride plastic, PVC, vinyl
polymers
porcelain
portland cement - See cement, portland
“popcorn” loose-fill packaging
potato chips
pottery - See chinaware and 5B2
powders, met
powdered milk - See milk, powdered
powder met parts - See 2L1
pretzels
printed circuit boards - See 13A through 13D
printed fabrics - See 1OG2
printing plates, gravure - See 9D3b
propane - See gas, liquijed petroleum
prototypes, rapid - See 14A
Putty
Pyrex glass - See cooking utensils
quarter-sawed lumber boards - See 6,6A4
quartz glass
quicklime
and Fig 6-I,
rag paper (rag bond) - See 9B3
rapid prototypes - See 14A
rapid tooling - See 14B
rattan furniture
rayon
refractories
resistors, electronic - See 13L1
rice wine
rings (jewelry) - Seejewelry
rock wool (miner wool) - See 5A6d
roller blades and skates - See skates, roller blade
rope
rubber bands
rubber, natur - See 401
rubber, synthetic - See 402
rubber, silicone - See silicones
rubber, urethane - See polyurethane and 402
(synthetic rubber)
rubies and sapphires
rugs (carpets)
rum
safety glass for automobiles
sailplanes (gliders)
st
sandpaper
sanitary paper - See 9B and 9C4
sanitary ware
sapphire, synthetic
saran
satellites and spacecraft
satin
sausages
sauerkraut
screwdrivers
screws, machine and cap - See bolts
screws, wood, drive, and sheet met
screw threads - See 3E
semiconductors
sewing machines
shampoo
shellac
shirts
shoes
shoes, athletic and sneakers
shortening
shrinkproof (shrink resistant) fabrics - See IOE5a
signs, neon - See neon signs
silicon - See 13K1 for silicon refining
silicon carbide - See abrasives
silicones (silicone plastic resins, silicone oils,
silicone rubber
silicon single crysts - See 13K2
silicon rubber)
silicon wafers (for integrated circuits) - See 13K2c
silk
silver
silverware - See flatware
single crysts of silicon - See 13K
skim milk - See milk, skim
soap
sodium carbonate (soda ash)
soft drinks
solar cells (photovoltaic cells)
solder
solder paste - See 13E
solder preforms - See 7b
solder powder - See 13E1 through 13E6
spandex
spark plugs
spices
spirits, distilled - See distilled spirits
sporting goods
springs
stained glass windows
stainless steels - See steels, stainless
stain-release fabrics - See 10F5d
stamps, postage
starch
steel
steels, stainless
structur composite lumber - See 6F7
structur foam plastics - See 4C3
styrofoam
sugar
suits - See manufacture of clothing (10H)
sulfuric acid
superconductors
swiss cheese - See cheese, Swiss
switches, electric - See electric switches
synthetic fibers and fabric - See IOAZ, 10B6, 1OC
synthetic lumber (composite lumber) - See 6F9
synthetic rubber - See 402
through 13K4
and IOD
T
T-shirts
tableware, plastic
tableware, met (silverware) - See flatware
tacks
tcum powder, baby powder
tanks, fuel for automobiles
tanks, plastic, storage for chemics
tea
tea, instant
teflon
tennis bls
textile fabrics - See chapt 10
thermometers
thermoplastics
thread
tiles, ceramic
tiles, floor - See vinyljooring
tiles, plastic - See vinyljooring
tin
tires, rubber
titanium
toilets and other sanitary ware - See sanitary ware
toilet paper - See 1K4
tooling, rapid - See 14B
tools, hand - See hammers, pliers, wrenches
and handles, tool
toothpaste
toothbrushes - See brushes
towels, paper - See IK4
trailers
trampolines
transformers - See 13L4
transistors - See 13L5
trays, plastic
trumpets and other brass music instruments -
tubing, glass - See 5c
tubing, met, seamless and welded - See pipe
tubing, plastic
tungsten
turbine blades - See jet engines
turpentine
See music instruments, brass
and tubing, met
U
ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene -
ultra-high-strength steels
umbrellas
undergarments (underwear)
unwoven fabric - See 10E
upholstered furniture - See 6H
uranium fuel
urea and melamine plastics
urethane rubber
utensils, cooking - See cooking utensils
See polyethylene, ultra-high-molecular-weight,
V
vacuum bottles (Thermos(r) bottles,
vanilla
varnish
vases - (made by manu blowing) See 5b
veneer, wood - See 6F1,6B7b,6 E4,6D2
vermouth
vis, glass - (made from tubing) See 5c
vinegar
Dewer flasks)
vinyl flooring
vinyl plastic - See polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
vinyl plastisol coatings - See 8D10
vinyl siding (for buildings)
viscose (viscose rayon) - See rayon and 10
vitreous enamel coatings - See 8F1
vodka
vulcanized fiber - See 9C6
W
wafer board lumber - See 6F3
wlboard (plasterboard, gypsum board, drywl, sheetrock)
wl paper
washers (as used with bolts, etc)
watches
water repellant fabrics - See IOF5e
water, potable
wax
whiskey
white glue - See adhesives
window panes
window panes, antique - See 5a
windows
windshields, automotive - See automotive windshields
wine
wire, electric
wire forms
wire glass - See 5g
wire, mechanic
wooden I-joists - See 6F7 and Fig6F7-1,
wood veneer - See 6F1,
wool
woolen fabric - is woven or knit See wool above,
woven fabrics - See IOA, IOB and IOC
wrenches
wrench sockets
writing paper
chapter 10 and Fig W2
X
xylene (xylol)
Y
Z
zinc
zippers

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes   الثلاثاء 06 نوفمبر 2012, 10:11 pm

@احمد الصعيدى كتب:
ماشاء الله كتاب شامل
بارك الله فيك


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes   الإثنين 28 يناير 2013, 11:27 pm

شكراَ علي الموضوع جاري التحميل

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes   الإثنين 28 يناير 2013, 11:50 pm

@كت كوت كتب:
شكراَ علي الموضوع جاري التحميل


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes   الثلاثاء 29 يناير 2013, 8:13 am

رائع جدا مشكور ربي يحفظك من كل شر جعله الله في ميزان حسناتكم

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عدد المساهمات : 14261
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes   الثلاثاء 29 يناير 2013, 9:17 am

@ودبيلا كتب:
رائع جدا مشكور ربي يحفظك من كل شر جعله الله في ميزان حسناتكم


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كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes

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