كتاب High Integrity Die Casting Processes
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 كتاب High Integrity Die Casting Processes

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
High Integrity Die Casting Processes
Edward J. Vinarcik

كتاب High Integrity Die Casting Processes  H_i_d_10
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Contents
Preface xv
Figures and Tables xvii
INTRODUCTION 1
1 Introduction to High Integrity Die Casting Processes 3
1.1 Origins of High Pressure Die Casting 3
1.2 Conventional High Pressure Die Casting 5
1.3 Problems with Conventional Die Casting 7
1.4 Strategies to Improve Die Casting Capabilities 10
1.5 High Integrity Die Casting Processes 10
References 11
2 Molten Metal Flow in High Integrity Die Casting
Processes 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Flow within a Fluid 13
2.3 Flow at the Metal Fill Front 15
2.4 Metal Flow in Vacuum Die Casting 19
2.5 Metal Flow in Squeeze Casting 21
2.6 Metal Flow in Semi-Solid Metalworking 22viii CONTENTS
2.7 Predicting Metal Flow in High Integrity Die Casting
Processes 24
References 24
HIGH INTEGRITY DIE CASTING PROCESSES 27
3 Vacuum Die Casting 29
3.1 Vacuum Die Casting Defined 29
3.2 Managing Gases in the Die 29
3.3 Managing Shrinkage in the Die 34
3.4 Elements of Vacuum Die Casting Manufacturing
Equipment 35
3.5 Applying Vacuum Die Casting 40
References 42
Case Studies: Vacuum Die Casting 42
Introduction 42
B Post 43
Transmission Cover 44
Engine Component Mounting Bracket 45
Marine Engine Lower Mounting Bracket 46
Reference 49
4 Squeeze Casting 51
4.1 Squeeze Casting Defined 51
4.2 Managing Gases in the Die 53
4.3 Managing Shrinkage in the Die 54
4.4 Elements of Squeeze Casting Manufacturing
Equipment 56
4.5 Applying Squeeze Casting 57
References 58
Case Studies: Squeeze Casting 58CONTENTS ix
Introduction 58
Steering Knuckle 60
Valve Housing 61
Steering Column Housing 62
High Performance Engine Block 63
References 65
5 Semi-Solid Metalworking 67
5.1 Semi-Solid Metalworking Defined 67
5.2 Managing Gases in the Die 70
5.3 Managing Shrinkage in the Die 70
5.4 Microstructures in Semi-Solid Metalworking 71
5.5 Semi-Solid Metalworking Equipment 72
5.5.1 Billet-Type Indirect Semi-Solid
Metalworking 73
5.5.2 Thixomolding Direct Semi-Solid
Metalworking 79
5.6 Applying Semi-Solid Metalworking 82
References 83
Case Studies: Aluminum Semi-Solid Metalworking 84
Introduction 84
Fuel Rails 84
Control Arm 88
Swivel Bracket 89
Idler Housing 90
References 91
Case Studies: Magnesium Semi-Solid Metalworking 91
Introduction 91
Automotive Seat Frame 93
Wireless Telephone Face Plates 95x CONTENTS
Video Projector Case 96
Camera Housing 97
Laptop Computer Case 97
Power Hand Tool Housing 98
References 100
6 Thermal Balancing and Powder Die Lubricant
Processes 101
6.1 Thermal Cycling Inherent to High Integrity Die
Casting Processes 101
6.2 Heat Checking and Soldering 102
6.3 Containing the Effects of Heat Checking and
Soldering 103
6.4 Repercussion of Heat Checking and
Soldering Containment Actions 105
6.5 Thermal Management of High Integrity Die Casting
Process Tooling 105
6.6 Minimization of Thermal Cycling Effects with
Powder Lubricants 106
6.7 Applying Thermal Management Methods in Real
World Applications 108
References 109
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR HIGH INTEGRITY
DIE CASTINGS 111
7 Design for Manufacturability of High Integrity Die
Castings 113
7.1 Introduction to Design for Manufacturability 113
7.2 High Integrity Die Casting Design for
Manufacturability Guidelines 113
7.3 Automotive Fuel Rail Case Study Review 114CONTENTS xi
7.3.1 Fuel Rail Functional Requirements 115
7.3.2 Case Study Analysis Method 115
7.3.3 Review of the Z-1 Fuel Rail Design 116
7.3.4 Review of the Z-2 Fuel Rail Design 118
7.3.5 Further Design for Manufacturability
Improvements 121
7.4 Conclusions of the Case Study 122
References 123
8 Component Integration Using High Integrity Die
Casting Processes 125
8.1 Introduction to Component Integration 125
8.2 Hidden Costs in Every Component 125
8.3 Analyzing Integration Potential 127
8.4 Component Integration Using High Integrity Die
Casting Processes 127
8.5 Component Integration Case Study 129
References 130
9 Value Added Simulations of High Integrity Die Casting
Processes 131
9.1 Introduction to Applied Computer Simulations 131
9.2 Computer Simulations of High Integrity Die Casting
Processes 134
9.3 Applying Simulations Effectively 136
9.3.1 Resources 138
9.3.2 Planning 139
9.3.3 Coupling Product and Process Simulations 140
9.4 Commitment 140
9.5 A Case for Sharing Simulation Data across
Organizations 140
References 141xii CONTENTS
CONTROLLING QUALITY IN HIGH INTEGRITY DIE
CASTING PROCESSES 143
10 Applying Statistical Process Control to High Integrity
Die Casting Processes 145
10.1 Introduction to Statistical Process Control 145
10.2 SPC Characteristic Types 148
10.3 SPC Applied to Dynamic Process Characteristics 149
10.4 Die Surface Temperature Case Study 151
10.5 Applying SPC to High Integrity Die Casting
Processes 154
References 155
11 Defects in High Pressure Casting Processes 157
11.1 Introduction 157
11.2 Conventional Die Casting Defects 157
11.2.1 Surface Defects 158
11.2.2 Internal Defects 159
11.2.3 Dimensional Defects 161
11.3 Defects Occurring during Secondary Processing 161
11.4 Defects Unique to Squeeze Casting and Semi-Solid
Metalworking 162
11.4.1 Contaminant Veins 163
11.4.2 Phase Separation 165
11.5 Predicting Defects 167
References 168
VISIONS OF THE FUTURE 169
12 Future Developments in High Integrity Die Casting 171
12.1 Continual Development 171
12.2 New High Integrity Die Casting Process Variants 171
12.3 Refinements of Magnesium Alloys 172CONTENTS xiii
12.4 Emerging Alloys for Use with High Integrity Die
Casting Processes 173
12.5 Metal Matrix Composites for Use with High
Integrity Die Casting Processes 173
12.6 Reducing Tooling Lead Times 175
12.7 Lost-Core Technologies 176
12.8 Controlled Porosity 177
12.9 Innovations Continue 178
References 178
STUDY QUESTIONS 181
Appendix A Common Nomenclature Related to High
Integrity Die Casting Processes 201
Appendix B Recommended Reading 207
B.1 Books 207
B.2 Papers 208
B.3 Periodicals 209
Appendix C Material Properties of Aluminum 211
References 211
Appendix D Die Cast Magnesium Material Properties 215
Reference 218
Index 219
INDEX
Actuated shut-off valves, see
Vacuum shut-off valves
Aluminum alloy freezing ranges,
67–68
Aluminum alloys, 5, 22–23, 30,
45–46, 52, 60–63, 67, 71, 82,
84, 86–91, 102, 115–116,
159, 171–175
Atomized flow, see Liquid metal
flow
Bell laboratories, 147
Blistering, 10, 32, 34, 42–43, 47,
57, 61, 82, 162
Brass alloys, 5
Casting dies
gating, 11, 19, 21, 51, 53–56,
70, 75–76, 117, 119, 141,
164–167
runner systems, 6, 11, 29–30,
36–37, 56, 58, 74, 76–77,
80, 104, 107, 141, 159,
162, 165, 167
Centerline porosity, 160
Chill-block shut-off valve, see
Vacuum shut-off valves
Chilled vents, see Vacuum shut-off
valves
Clausing, Don, 132
Cold shuts, 158
Common-cause variation, 146–
149, 153
Component integration, see
Integration
Composites, see Metal matrix
composites
Computer modeling, see
Simulations
Contaminant veins, 24, 32, 105,
163–165
Contamination, 160
Control factor flexibility curve,
132
Controlled porosity, 177–178
Corrugated chill block, see
Vacuum shut-off valves
Cracks, 8, 102, 158, 162
Defects
dimensional, 161
internal, 159–161
prediction of, 167–168
from secondary processing,
161–162
surface, 158–159
unique to semi-solid
metalworking, 162–167
unique to squeeze casting, 162–
165
Design for assembly, 127220 INDEX
Design for manufacturability
case study, 114–122
defined, 113
rules for high integrity die
casting processes, 114
Die casting
casting cycle, 6, 8
cold chamber, 5, 7
conventional high pressure, 3–5
cycle times, 5, 30, 34, 54, 57,
70, 82, 105, 107
hot chamber, 5–6
limitations of, 7–10
origins, 3–5
problems with, 7–10
strategies for improvement, 10
Die filling, see Metal flow
Die lubricant, 6, 9, 29–30, 53, 70,
101, 104–106, 152, 158–161,
163, 165
Die surface temperature, 102,
151–155
Die thermal management, 101,
105–108
Dies, see Casting dies
Discoloration, 158
Doehler, H.H, 3–5
Drags, 158
Electric shut-off valves, see
Vacuum shut-off valves,
dynamic
Emerging alloys, 173
Erosion, 161
Fins, see Heat checking
Flash, 158
Flux contamination, 160
Gas porosity, 29, 34, 53–54, 70,
160
Gutenberg, Johannes, 3
Hard spots, 161
Hawthorne works, 145
Heat checking, 102–106, 159
Heat treating, 10–11, 32, 34, 42–
43, 47, 51, 57–62, 82, 88–89,
91, 162
aluminum T5, 91
aluminum T6, 43, 47, 60, 61,
89
Hydraulic shut-off valves, see
Vacuum shut-off valves,
dynamic
Inclusions, 160
Individuals chart, 150
Inherent variation, see Commoncause variation
Integration, 86, 125–130
analysis flow chart, 128
case study, 129–130
costs, 125–127
Interdendritic porosity, 160
Intermittent variation, see Specialcause variation
Laminar flow, see Liquid metal
flow, laminar
Laminations, 159
Lead alloys, 5
Life cycle cost lever, 133
Linotype machine, 3
Liquid metal flow
atomized, 15, 19–20, 32, 53
in conventional die casting, 19–
20
at the fill front, 15–19
within a fluid, 13–15
laminar, 13–15
nonplanar, 16–19
planar, 16, 17
predicting, 24
in semi-solid metalworking, 22–
23
in squeeze casting, 21–22
turbulent, 13–15
in vacuum die casting, 19–21
Lost-core technology, 176–177
Magnesium alloy development,
172–173INDEX 221
Magnesium alloy microstructures,
80, 82
Mechanical shut-off valves, see
Vacuum shut-off valves,
dynamic
Mergenthaler, Ottmar, 3
Metal Flow, see Liquid metal flow
Metal matrix composites, 173–175
Microstructure of die welds, 103,
104
Nonplanar flow, see Liquid metal
flow, nonplanar
Phase separation, 165–167
Planar filling, see Liquid metal
flow, planar
Plunger lubricant, 6
Porosity, 160
gas, 29, 34, 53–54, 70, 160
quantified, 8–9
shrinkage, 7–9, 11, 35, 42, 61,
70, 117–121, 135
sources of gas porosity, 9
Powder die lubricants, 106–108
Powder lubricant application, 107–
108
Process data curves, 150–152
Process simulations, see
Simulations
Product integration, see Integration
Reducing tool lead times, 175–
176
Reynolds number, 14–15
Reynolds, Osborne, 14
Rheocasting, see Semi-solid
metalworking
Rotary vane vacuum pumps, 35–
36
Semi-liquid casting, see Semisolid metalworking
Semi-liquid metalworking, see
Semi-solid metalworking
Semi-solid billet
anatomy, 77–78
behavior during heating, 77–78
dendritic case, 77
extruded, 77–79
magneto-hydrodynamic stirring,
76
Semi-solid casting, see Semi-solid
metalworking
Semi-solid metalworking
aluminum, 67–68, 71–74
case studies, 84–100
comparison to conventional die
casting, 82–83
compatible metal systems, 67
die design, 75, 80–81
direct process, 79
direct process manufacturing
cell layout, 79–80
equipment, 72–82
heat treatability, 82–83
indirect process, 73–79
indirect process manufacturing
cell layout, 73–75
magnesium, 70–82
microstructure (typical), 72–74
origins, 67
proper application of, 82–83
spheroidal microstructure, 71–
74
Shewhart, Walter, 145–147
Shrinkage porosity, see Porosity
Short shot, 159
Simulations
case studies, 134–138, 140, 141
commitment, 140
common types, 134
effectiveness, 138–139
of high integrity die casting
processes, 134–140
planning, 138–139
resources required, 139–140
Sinks, 159
Sludge, 160–161
Soldering, 102–105, 159
Solidification, 3222 INDEX
Solidification shrinkage porosity,
see Porosity
Special-cause variation, 146–153
Squeeze casting
case studies, 58–64
comparison to conventional die
casting, 57–58
equipment, 56–57
heat treatability, 57–58
microstructure (typical), 53–54
proper application of, 57–58
Squeeze forming, 51–52
Statistical process control
applied to high integrity die
casting processes, 154–155
case study, 151–154
dartboard comparison of
variation, 146–147
of dynamic process
characteristics, 149–151
identifying special-cause
variation, 149–150
origins, 145–148
out-of-control signals, 149–150
process, 148
product, 148
Strategies for containing porosity,
10–11
Surface staining, 158
Surface veins, see Heat checking
Thermal balancing of dies, 105–
106, 108
Thermal cycling of dies, 101–102
Thixocasting, see Semi-solid
metalworking
Thixomolding
case studies, 91–100
machine, 79
magnesium microstructures, 80,
82
manufacturing cell layout, 79–
80
process, 79
runner design, 80–81
Titanium alloys, 173
Turbulent flow, see Liquid metal
flow
Vacuum die casting
case studies, 42–49
equipment, 35–40
proper application of, 40–42
Vacuum pump operating curve, 35
Vacuum pumps, 35–37
Vacuum shut-off valves
casting cycle, 32–34
dynamic, 38–40
effectiveness, 38–39, 41
maintenance, 38
placement, 32–33
static, 37–38
timing, 32–34
Vacuum valves, see Vacuum shutoff valves
Valves, see Vacuum shut-off
valves
Venting
effectiveness, 29–32
strategies, 32
Viscosity
of semi-solid aluminum, 23
of liquid aluminum, 20, 22
Warpage, 161
Welding of dies, 103–104
Western Electric Company, 145,
147
X chart, 150
x-bar chart, 149
Zinc alloys, 3, 57, 62, 67


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